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Enclave Tourism in Safari Sector in


Katherine wairimu Gikonyo

Certificate in International Hotel and Tourism Management

HTMI Switzerland
The meaning of enclave tourism is an exploration of its socio-economic impacts

upon a host region. While researching about this kind of tourism some other types

of tourism will come up such as rural tourism. All this types are related with this

kind of tourism. Kenya in particular relies mostly to the income that comes from the

tourism sector, which mainly is wild life tourism. Since it’s the most important

industry and so many of the locals are relying so much to gain from this also the

government. For example the Maasai Mara is among the most visited game reserves

in Kenya, its most definitely going to receive a lot of revenue from the tourists that

visit the place. Around the famous reserves there are people or locals who live

around the game reserves. The locals tend to benefit from what the game reserves

gain from the tourists. Since most of them are not educated or not that much

educated it makes it hard for them to know what else they can do except from

relying on being employed in the game reserves and game parks. Also many can end

up not being employed and just relying on the good wishes of the government or the

tourists. Most of them either work in the game parks or reserves as cooks,

housekeepers, drivers, security guides and tour guides. This makes the locals

experience rural development in that the revenue being earned from the tourists the

government uses part of the revenue to develop the place by setting up schools and

hospitals. The reason is because the locals benefit through the foreign money.
The rural developments are going to improve the locals lifestyle around but also the

government takes much of the revenue being made hence the locals are benefiting

less. The infrastructure that is being done in places is either not that improved or if

they are it’s mostly for the visitors who are the foreigners. The locals will be

dependent on that small wage they get. The development in the rural areas has

greatly influenced tourism to be done there since it is agricultural oriented. In that

to the tourism that will occur there it will improve the rural areas which

development will grow rapidly. This will make the lands that are going to waste, to

be used for example for Safari tourism. (OECD, 1999, Fleischer and Felsenstein,

2000 and Yagüe Perales, 2002). It makes it an attractive site for the tourist because

of the rich natural habitat. This makes it different from the urban regions this are

thoughts according to the tourists. Which makes it more convenient to put game

parks and game reserves in rural areas than in urban places because there is not

much space. (Lane, 2009). This means that many of the reserves and game parks

are not put up in the urban places. Land has to be searched and many can be found

in the rural areas, which makes it convenient and best place to set them up. Hence

making rural areas an attractive site to do so. This makes it easy for the tourist to

spend less many as compared to them spending while in the urban Centre. There are

several market segmentation studies in developed countries done by the following;

(Davidson, 1995, Sharpley, 1996, Scottish Tourist Board, 1997, Ryan et al., 2000 and

Park and Yoon, 2009).

As much as the rural development is being done which is a good thing it is also going

to affect the people around whom are the locals in a way that the government will

need more land and the locals have to relocate to other places in which they have to

leave their homes and also their lands. The government will either promise them

new places, which they may end up keeping their promise or end leaving the locals

homeless. Another issue is that the wild animals such the lions can attack the locals,

which makes the locals, live in fear. The government either put up electric fences,

which separate the locals and the wild animals. Most of the electric fences stops

working and making the wild animals get out of their zone or maybe the wild

animals may end up being immune to the electric fences hence making it easy to get

out and attack the locals. This will make the locals take matters to their hands and

end up killing the animals. Which will make some of the wild animals become

distinct. Zukin (1991:5) explained how places which host a leisure economy

promotes the movement of money and people and use consumer pleasures to “hide

the reins of concentrated economic control” resulting in polarized landscapes

capturing “the simultaneous advance and decline of economic forms” (Zukin, 1991 p

5). This means that whatever that’s generating revenue to the person around them

is probably going to benefit them or it will not help them that much. The places such

as the game parks or reserves being developed are or that already exists are the

places that are expected to be so much improvements such infrastructural

development to be done around them but they are the places where even though

there is rural development the locals are still living in poverty.

The former President of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Tadao Chino, has

declared that: ‘poverty is the deprivation of essential assets and opportunities to

which every human being is entitled’. Meaning that every human being has a right to

acquire whatever he or she wants. Poverty has disadvantaged so many including

opportunities that come along. This is what is happening to the locals who are

lacking the full boost from the revenue that is being acquired from the foreign

money being left behind by the tourists. The government is not giving as much

attention to the local people around. That’s why most of them are still living in

poverty hence the money for example being generated in Maasai Mara is enough to

keep the locals in a developing pase. While the tourists are visiting some of this

game reserves and game parks some tend to help the locals living around some can

put up schools or hospitals or buy food since there is not much being provide by the

government whom are the big owners of most of the game reserves. So they benefit

more than the locals. Some of the tourists that tend to help them stay for a little

while like for some months or years hence practicing Pro-poor tourism. Since Kenya

is a developing country and poverty is a big a percentage it makes it harder for the

government and also the pro-poor tourism organizations to help each and every

poor person. The locals can’t do much only find how they can survive in the state

they are. It is not of benefit since there are many locals still living in poverty hence

they live around a multi earning game park or reserves and game parks and they get

disadvantaged from it. To appoint it’s not the government helping them it’s the Pro-

Poor Tourism Organizations that’s helping most of the locals around there.
Some of the tourists help the locals individually in form of tips that helps them feed

or educate their children, with the little they get. There comes also another type of

tourism, which is voluntary tourism. As its still being a problem now, and nothing

much being done by the government. A lot is to be done for the locals; since they are

the people who are doing the most jobs around the game parks and reserves. The

locals should be educated on not relying on jobs in the game reserves and game

parks. They should see beyond that. Lastly the government’s major role is to make

sure that the local’s life’s improves because the revenue being earned should play a

role in developing the areas.

Conclusion and Recommendation

During this analysis it is clear that enclave tourism is really going to grow since

Kenya is a developing country and the poverty rate is high, There is much to be done

around the areas surrounding the game parks and game reserves. One thing is for

sure that the government is trying to help the locals they can but they don’t have

resources to do so. The money that they rely on has to go be shared to other sectors.

Hence making it hard for the locals to benefit. The safari tourism is among the

largest section of tourism that people travel to see. Since in Kenya it’s considered the

most important part of tourism its something they work on to improve. For it to be

seen that there is still a growing part there has to be also development around the

game parks and game reserves. This makes it easier for the locals to enrich the place

by helping out in the game reserves. Education has to be a key factor since they

should be able to understand the tourists and their needs.

References list

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