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- Maha Advaitha of Science and Spirituality
- Contents
- Probability and the Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum theory (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)
- ISINGmatthias_reggentin
- KPZ
- Probability Density in the Complex Plane
- Basic Postulates
- Quantum Mechanics
- Lecture 12
- Spin
- ws2
- A short essay on Variational Calculus
- Patent DE102004060871A1 - Force Field e.g. Nuclear Energy, Strengthening, Weakening and Canceling ..
- Quantum models
- Entanglement of Formation is NonMonotonic With Concurrence a Simple Proof
- Particle in a 1-dimensional box - ChemWiki.pdf
- Atomic Term Symbols
- orbital ordering
- 4
- Andy Itsara Thesis

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Quantum

Mechanics

One-Dimensional Potentials

5.1 Shallow Square Well I (Columbia)

is a shallow square well near the origin:

where is a positive constant. Derive the eigenvalue equation for the state

of lowest energy, which is a bound state (see Figure P.5.1).

51

TLFeBOOK

52 PROBLEMS

(see Figure P.5.2):

b) From the results of part (a), derive an expression for the minimum

value of which will have a bound state.

c) Give the expression for the eigenfunction of a state with positive en-

ergy

d) Show that the results of (c) define a phase shift for the potential, and

derive an expression for the phase shift.

Brook)

attractive delta function potential at the origin. The Schrödinger equation

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 53

is

b) If the system is in the bound state and the strength of the potential is

changed suddenly what is the probability that the particle

remains bound?

Brook)

by an infinite potential at the origin. There is also an attractive delta

function potential where (see Figure P.5.4).

a) Find the expression for the energy of the bound state.

b) What is the minimum value of required for a bound state?

TLFeBOOK

54 PROBLEMS

Discuss the bound states of this potential as a function of P.

(Michigan State, MIT, Princeton)

is at the origin with A free particle of wave vector

approaches the origin from the left. Derive an expression for the amplitude

T of the transmitted wave as a function of C, and

and the box has walls of infinite potential. An attractive delta

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 55

a) What are the eigenvalues of odd-parity states?

b) Find the value of C for which the lowest eigenvalue is zero.

c) Find the ground state wave function for the case that the lowest

eigenvalue is less than zero energy.

Stony Brook)

extending from The particle is in its ground state.

a) Find the eigenfunctions of the ground state and the first excited state.

b) The walls of the box are moved outward instantaneously to form a

box extending from Calculate the probability that the

particle will stay in the ground state during this sudden expansion.

c) Calculate the probability that the particle jumps from the initial

ground state to the first excited final state.

where it has a potential energy

electron outside a perfect conductor.

a) Find the ground state energy.

b) Find the expectation value in the ground state

Two electrons are confined in one dimension to a box of length A clever

experimentalist has arranged that both electrons have the same spin state.

Ignore the Coulomb interaction between electrons.

a) Write the ground state wave function for the two-electron

system.

b) What is the probability that both electrons are found in the same

half of the box?

TLFeBOOK

56 PROBLEMS

infinitely high walls at At the particle is initially in the left

half of the well with constant probability

b) What is the probability that the particle is in the nth eigenstate?

c) Write an expression for the average value of the particle energy.

eigenfunction for the ground state is

the potential vanishes at infinity, derive the ground state eigenvalue

and

where and are constants. Assuming there is a bound state, derive the

exact ground state energy.

Harmonic Oscillator

5.14 Given a Gaussian (MIT)

mension. The oscillator has frequency and distance constant

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 57

bility that a measurement of energy at finds the value of

Define

a) Show that

b) Show that

c) Show that

d) Show that if is an eigenstate of with eigenvalue

and respectively.

e) Define such that What is the energy eigenvalue of

f) How can one construct other eigenstates of H starting from

g) What is the energy spectrum of H? Are negative eigenvalues possible?

with frequency

TLFeBOOK

58 PROBLEMS

its energy.

Hint: You may assume

c) Using the above operators, evaluate the expectation value

in terms of and

Two identical harmonic oscillators in one dimension each have mass and

frequency Let the two oscillators be coupled by an interaction term

where C is a constant and and are the coordinates of the two

oscillators. Find the exact spectrum of eigenvalues for this coupled system.

(Wisconsin-Madison)

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 59

value

a) Give

b) What is the parity of this state? Does it change with time?

c) What is the average value of the energy for this state? Does it change

with time?

(Michigan State)

raising and lowering operators, and respectively. The Hamiltonian H

and wave function at are

a) What is wave function at positive times?

b) What is the expectation value for the energy?

c) The position can be represented in operators by

where is a constant. Derive an expression for the

expectation of the time-dependent position

Hamiltonian

TLFeBOOK

60 PROBLEMS

c) At time an electric field is switched on, adding a perturba-

tion of the form What is the new ground state energy?

d) Assuming that the field is switched on in a time much faster than

what is the probability that the particle stays in the ground state?

two identical harmonic springs, each with spring constant K. The springs

are symmetrically fixed to the points so that when the particle is at

the classical force on it is zero.

a) What are the eigenvalues of the particle while it is connected to both

springs?

b) What is the wave function in the ground state?

c) One spring is suddenly cut, leaving the particle bound to only the

other one. If the particle is in the ground state before the spring is

cut, what is the probability it is still in the ground state after the

spring is cut?

5.22 Given Another Eigenfunction (Stony Brook)

potential which vanishes at We are given that an exact

eigenstate is

a) What is the angular momentum of this state?

b) What is the energy?

c) What is

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 61

b) Derive the spectrum of from the commutation relations.

spins aligned in the same direction (say, up). They interact only through

the attractive square well in relative coordinates

What is the lowest energy of the two-electron state? Assume the total

momentum is zero.

through the magnetic dipole energy

consists of eigenstates of the total spin and total

a) Write the Hamiltonian in terms of spin operators.

b) Write the Hamiltonian in terms of and

c) Give the eigenvalues for all states.

Consider two identical particles of mass and spin 1/2. They interact only

through the potential

where and are Pauli spin matrices which operate on the spin of

particle

a) Construct the spin eigenfunctions for the two particle states. What

is the expectation value of V for each of these states?

b) Give the eigenvalues of all of the bound states.

TLFeBOOK

62 PROBLEMS

Consider three particles of spin 1/2 which have no motion. The raising

and lowering operators of the individual

spins have the property

where the arrows indicate the spin orientation with regard to the

direction.

a) Write explicit wave functions for the four states:

which represent the and operators.

c) Construct the 4 × 4 matrices which represent and

d) Construct from the value of the matrix

a) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this Hamiltonian.

b) Consider the two states

TLFeBOOK

QUANTUM MECHANICS 63

later time it is in state

Pauli interaction where is the magnetic moment and

are the Pauli spin matrices. At a measurement determines

that the spin is pointing along the positive What is the probability

that it will be pointing along the negative at a later time

Brook)

An oscillating field of radio frequency is applied in the

so the total magnetic field is

notation

a) If the nucleus is initially pointing in the at what

is the probability that it points in the at later times?

b) Discuss why most NMR experiments adjust so that

Variational Calculations

5.31 Anharmonic Oscillator (Tennessee)

energy of a particle of mass in a potential

where F is a constant. Use variational methods to estimate the energy

of the ground state.

TLFeBOOK

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