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Contents page no

1.0 Abstract 02
1.1 Electro deposition of tin 02
1.2 Experimental calculations 03

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1.0 Abstract

The importance of tin and its electro deposition are summarized.


Established applications of electroplated tin include corrosion
protection, electronics fabrication and cooking utensils. The past 20
years have seen developments in the science and technology of tin
plating, including research into nanostructured deposits and and more
ambitious coatings including multi-layers and composites. The
diversity of tin applications has extended to lithium batteries using
newer structures (such as composites, multi-layers and nanostructures),
electrical control (e.g., pulsed current) and relative bath/electrode
movement (including the use of rotating electrodes). A wide range of
deposit morphology, colour and surface finish are possible by the use
of suitable addition agents and control of electrode/electrolyte
movement and operating conditions.

1.1 Electro deposition of tin


Tin is a soft, ductile and silvery white metal, which can be
deposited as a matte or bright finish. Pure tin coatings have been
used to form a protective surface to resist air oxidation, to enhance
corrosion resistance and to improve solderability. Bright tin
coatings also provide decorative finishes that can be aesthetically
pleasing even when exposed to air and moisture. The electro
deposition of tin has a long history and a good summary of its
established science and technology provides a useful treatment of
tinplate as a metallic coating. Tin is one of the very few metals
suitable for contact with foodstuffs during cooking. Pure tin and its
alloys have received increasing attention as anode materials for Li-
ion batteries as alternatives to graphite due to their high specific
capacity and energy density.
Electrolytes for tin deposition can be acidic or alkaline. Tin is
normally deposited from divalent stannous ions, Sn2+ in an acidic

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bath and via tetravalent stannate ions, SnO44- in an alkaline one.
The choice of bath is usually governed by the operating parameters
and the required physical properties of the deposit. Important
factors may include the range of applied current density,
electrolyte throwing power, cathode current efficiency, surface
morphology, texture and appearance, deposit uniformity, speed of
deposition, use of bath additives and electrolyte stability, solubility
of tin compounds, stability of electrolytes, solder ability and
possible reflow of deposits on heating.
Alkaline baths are usually hydroxide based and acidic baths have
sulphate or sulphonate based compositions. Alkaline baths can be
operated without additives since the stannate ion appears as a
soluble complex. In acidic baths, the addition of additives is
required for electrolyte stability. A low maximum current density
is achieved in alkaline baths and they may suffer from losses in
current efficiency. Acidic baths can offer faster deposition rates at
ambient temperature but are more complicated to maintain.
1.2 Experiment calculations
Stannus chloride molecular weights 225.63 g/mol.
Tin molecular weight 118.71 g/mol.
Tin molecular weight Stannus chloride molecular weight
118.71 225.63

30 ? (x)

X = 57.020 of stannus chloride for 1000ml of water.


How many grams of stannus chloride is needed to dissolve in
250ml of water?
14.25 grams of stannus chloride is needed to dissolve in 250ml of
water.
HCL to be added
50 g of Hcl in 1litre

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How many grams of Hcl are needed to be dissolved in 250 ml of
water?
12.5g of Hcl.
Density =mass/volume
Volume=mass/density =12.5/1.16 = 11ml of hcl.
Make up all three (stannus chloride, hcl and water) to 250ml of
solution.
Electrodes used
Graphite: anode
Cathode: stainless steel
Weight of stainless steel cathode is 127.47g
Cathode area = Dipped length * Breadth
Current to be supplied = Current density * Cathode area
Run 1
Stannus chloride concentration 30 g/mol
Current density 0.03 A/cm2
Dipped length 4.4 cm
Breadth 5.0 cm
Current to be supplied 0.675 amp
Time (min) Current (amp) Voltage (volt)
0 0.68 2.0
30 0.68 2.3
60 0.68 2.1

Amount of tin collected 1.32 g

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Notations used
hr –hour
g - grams
2.214 grams has to be deposited per 1amp/ hr
Then how many grams need to be deposited per 0.68 amp/hr.
1.50552g have to deposit theoretically.
Current efficiency = (metal deposited /metal to be deposited )*100
= (1.32/1.50552)*100
= 87.677
energy consumption = current * voltage
= 0.68*2.13 => 1.4484 watt hour
watt hour /metal collected =1.4484/1.32 => 1.097 watt/hour.
Run 2
Stannus chloride concentration 40g/mol
Current density 0.02 A/cm2
Dipped length 3.4 cm
Breadth 5 cm
Current to be supplied 0.66 amp

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Time (min) Current (amp) Voltage(vol)
0 0.33 1.9
30 0.33 1.9
60 0.33 1.9
90 0.33 1.9
120 0.33 1.9

Metal deposited = 1.256 g


Metal to be deposited theoretically =1.46124g
Current efficiency = (metal deposited /metal to be deposited )*100
Current efficiency = 85.95
Energy consumption = current *voltage = 0.66*1.9 =>1.254 watt.h
watt hour /metal collected =1.254/1.256 => 0.99 watt/hour.
Run 3
Stannus chloride concentration 50g/mol
Current density 0.04A/cm2
Dipped length 3.4 cm
Breadth 5 cm
Current to be supplied 0.68 amp

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Time (min) Current (amp) Voltage (volt)
0 0.68 2.4
30 0.68 2.1
60 0.68 2.2
90 0.68 2.2

Metal deposited or collected = 2.20 g


Metal to be deposited theoretically =2.25g
Current efficiency = (metal deposited /metal to be deposited )*100
Current efficiency = 97.77
Energy consumption = current *voltage = 1.02*2.225 =>2.2695
watt.hr
Watt hour /metal collected =2.2695/2.20 => 1.031watt/hour.
Run 4
Stannus chloride concentration 60g/mol
Current density 0.08A/cm2
Dipped length 3.4 cm
Breadth 5 cm
Current to be supplied 1.36 amp

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Time (min) Current (amp) Voltage (volt)
0 1.36 3.0
30 1.36 2.7
60 1.36 2.7
90 1.36 2.7
120 1.36 2.8

Metal deposited or collected = 5.91 g


Metal to be deposited theoretically =6.022g
Current efficiency = (metal deposited /metal to be deposited )*100
Current efficiency = 98.1
Energy consumption = current *voltage = 2.72*2.78 =>7.5616
watt.hr
Watt hour /metal collected =7.5616 / 5.91 => 1.279 watt/hour.

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Power supply type DC

Power supply equipment

Arrangement of electrodes in
250ml of stannus chloride and
Hcl solution and deposition of
tin on stainless less steel
electrode.

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