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PRODUCT

CATALOG
& DESIGN
GUIDE

Metal-Oxide Varistor (MOV)


Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to Overvoltage Suppression


Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors
Varistor Connection Examples
Varistor Selection Worksheet
Agency Standards
Legal Disclaimers

Halogen Free
Operating Operating Operating Agency Approvals
Technology Peak Current Peak Energy Lines Mount/Form

Lead Free
Series Name1 Image AC Voltage DC Voltage Temperature Disc Size
Type Range2 (A) Range (J) Protected Factor

RoHS
CECC
Range Range Range

CSA
VDE

QPL
UL
Surface Mount MLVs and MOVs:
MHS 9 - 42 •
MLE 18 •
0201 MLA Multi- 5.5 •
Layer 1
MLA Zinc 2.5 - 107 3.5 - 120 4 - 500 0.02 - 2.5 •
Oxide -55 to +125°C
MLA Automotive (MLV) 2.5 - 40 3.5 - 48 500 0.1 - 2.5 •
Surface Mount Not Applicable
AUML 18 - 48 1.5 - 25 •
MLN 4 - 14 5.5 - 18 30 0.05 - 0.10 4 •
CH 14 - 275 18 - 369 100 - 400 1.0 - 8.0 • •
Zinc
SM7 Oxide 50 - 510 68 - 675 1200 10 - 40 1 • • •
(MOV) -55 to +85°C
SM20 20 - 320 26 - 420 6500 165 • • • •
Radial Leaded MOVs:
LV UltraMOV® Varistor 11 - 95 14 - 127 500 - 10000 0.8 - 150 5, 7, 10, 14, 20mm • • •
UltraMOV® Varistor 130 - 625 170 - 825 1750 -10000 12.5 - 400 7, 10, 14, 20mm • • • • • • •
UltraMOV® 25S Varistor 115 - 750 150 - 970 22000 230 - 890 25mm • • • •
-55 to +85°C
C-III Zinc 130 - 1000 3500 - 10000 40 - 530 10, 14, 20mm • • • • • • •
1 Radial Leaded
LA Oxide 130 - 1000 175 - 1200 1200 - 6500 11 - 360 7, 10, 14, 20mm • • • • • • •
ZA 4 - 460 5.5 - 615 50 - 6500 0.1 - 52 5, 7, 10, 14, 20mm • • • • • •
AUMOV Varistor
®
14 - 42 16 - 50 400 - 5000 1.0 to 140 5, 7, 10, 14, 20mm •
-40 to +125°C
HMOV 11 - 625 14 - 825 4.2 - 490 10, 14, 20mm • • • •
Industrial High Energy Terminal MOVs:
BA/BB 130 - 2800 175 - 3500 50000 - 70000 450 - 10000 Screw / 60mm • •
DA/DB 130 - 750 175 - 970 40000 270 - 1050 Clip Terminals 40mm • •
HA Zinc 110 - 750 148 - 970 25000 - 40000 160 - 1050 32, 40mm • • • • •
-55 to +85°C 1 Industrial
HB34, HF34, HG34 Oxide 110 - 750 148 - 970 40000 220 - 1050 Packaged Radial 34mm • • • • •
Leads
DHB34 110 - 750 148 - 970 40000 220 - 1050 34mm • • • • •
CA 250 - 2800 330 - 3500 20000 - 70000 880 - 10000 Bare Disc 60mm
Specialty Application MOVs:
MA 9 - 264 13 - 365 40 - 100 0.06 - 1.7 -55 to +85°C Axial Leaded Not Applicable • • •
Zinc Inline Radial
RA 4 - 275 5.5 - 369 100 - 6500 0.4 - 160 -55 to +125°C 1 Not Applicable • • • •
Oxide Leads
High Reliability 130 - 320 175 - 420 6000 50 - 120 -55 to +85°C (Varies) 7, 10, 14, 20mm •
Thermally Protected MOVs:
TMOV® Varistor/
115 - 750 150 - 970 6000 - 10000 35 - 480 14, 20mm • • • • •
iTMOV® Varistor
Radial Leaded
TMOV®25S Varistor 115 - 750 150 - 970 20000 170 - 670 -55 to +85°C 25mm • • • • •

TMOV®34S Varistor Zinc 115 - 750 150 - 970 40000 280 - 1200 34mm • • • • •
1 Industrial
Oxide
SMOV 25S Varistor
®
115 - 750 150 - 970 20000 170 - 670 Packaged Radial 25mm • •
-45 to +75°C Leads
SMOV 34S Varistor
®
115 - 750 150 - 970 40000 280 - 1200 34mm • •
Bolt
FBMOV 115 - 750 150 - 970 40000 340 - 1340 -55 to +85°C •
Terminal

(1) Detailed information about most product series listed here can be found on our web.
(2) Not an applicable parameter for Crowbar devices
© 2017
© 2017 Littelfuse,
Littelfuse,Inc.
Inc.
Specifications (3) AUMOV® Varistor: Energy rating (auto lad dump) for impulse duration of 40ms minimum to one half of of peak current, 60 second interval (ISO7637-2 5a).
Specifications,are subject toand
descriptions change withoutmaterial
illustrative notice. in this literature are
as accurate
Revised: as known at the time of publication, but are subject to change
09/14/17
without notice. Visit www.littelfuse.com for more information.
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Introduction to Overvoltage Suppression

To assure reliable operation, transient voltage suppression where, although lower in energy, transients from ESD,
should be considered at early stages of the design process. inductive load switching, and even lightning surge
This can be a complex task as electronic components are remnants would otherwise reach sensitive integrated
increasingly sensitive to stray electrical transients. The circuits. Each of these events can relate to a product’s
designer must define the types of transient threats and ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC), or its immunity to
determine what applications are needed while meeting the transients that could cause damage or malfunction.
product agency norms and standards.
Littelfuse offers five distinct versions of MLVs including
Varistors are increasingly used as the front-line solution for the MHS Series ESD Suppressor for high data rates, the
transient surge protection. Littelfuse provides expertise ML Series which supports the broadest application range,
to the designer and offers the broadest range of circuit the MLE Series intended for ESD while providing filter
protection technologies to choose from. functions, the MLN Series Quad Array in a 1206 & 0805
chip and the AUML Series characterized for the specific
Littelfuse varistors are available in a variety of forms to transients found in automotive electronic systems.
serve a wide range of applications. Options include ultra
small surface mount multi-layer suppressor (MLV) devices This catalog and design guide includes selection tables,
for small electronics applications, and traditional mid- technology tutorials, and detailed product technical
range metal-oxide (MOV) radial and axial leaded devices information, to aid you in choosing the correct Littelfuse
for protection of small machinery, power sources and Varistor to serve your application.
components. Littelfuse also offers larger terminal mount
MOVs for industrial applications. Please visit www.littelfuse.com regularly to find the most
current Littelfuse varistor product information.
A more recent innovation to the the Littelfuse product
line, MLVs address a specific part of the transient Additional design support information can be found at
voltage spectrum – the circuit board level environment www.littelfuse.com/design-support.html

Varistor Application Guides


MARKET SURFACE MOUNT
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS AND CIRCUIT EXAMPLES DEVICE FAMILY OR SERIES TECHNOLOGY
SEGMENT PRODUCTs

Low Voltage, Board Level Products • Hand-Held/Portable Devices • Controllers CH MOV √


• EDP • Instrumentation
• Computer • Remote Sensors MA, ZA, RA MOV
• I/O Port and Interfaces • Medical Electronics, Etc.
ML, MLE, MLN, MHS MLV √
AC Line, TVSS Products • UPS • Power Meters
TMOV®, UltraMOV™, C-111,
• AC Panels • Power Supplies LA, HA, HB, HG, HF, DHB, MOV
• AC Power Taps • Circuit Breakers TMOV34S®, RA
• TVSS Devices • Consumer Electronics
• AC Appliance/Controls
CH MOV √
Automotive Electronics • ABS • Body Controllers CH MOV √
• EEC • Multiplex Bus
• Instrument Center • EFI ZA MOV
• Air Bag
• Window Control/ Wiper
Modules
AUML, ML, MLE, MLN, MHS MLV √
Telecommunictions Products • Cellular/Cordless Phone • Repeaters CH MOV √
• Modems • Line Cards
• Secondary Phone Line • COE ZA MOV
Protectors • T1/E1/ISDN
• Data Line Connectors ML, MLE, MLN, MHS MLV √
Industrial High Energy AC Products • High Current Relays • Robotics
• Solenoids • Large Motors/Pumps/ DA/DB, BA/BB, CA, HA, HB,
MOV
• Motor Drives Compressors HC, HG, HF, DHB, TMOV34S®
• AC Distrbution Panels
Available in both surfacemount and through-hole packages.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Introduction to Overvoltage Suppression (continued)

Transient Threats – What Are Transients?


100
Voltage transients are defined as short duration surges of 90
%
electrical energy and are the result of the sudden release
of energy that was previously stored, or induced by other

Current (I) %
I30
means, such as heavy inductive loads or lightning strikes.
In electrical or electronic circuits, this energy can be I60

released in a predictable manner via controlled switching


actions, or randomly induced into a circuit from external
30n
sources. 60n

tr = 0.7 to 1.0ns
Repeatable transients are frequently caused by the
operation of motors, generators, or the switching of
reactive circuit components. Random transients, on the Figure 2. ESD Test Waveform
other hand, are often caused by Lightning (Figure 1) and
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) (Figure 2). Lightning and ESD
Why are Transients of Increasing Concern?
generally occur unpredictably, and may require elaborate
monitoring to be accurately measured, especially if induced Component miniaturization has resulted in increased
at the circuit board level. Numerous electronics standards sensitivity to electrical stresses. Microprocessors for
groups have analyzed transient voltage occurrences example, have structures and conductive paths which
using accepted monitoring or testing methods. The key are unable to handle high currents from ESD transients.
characteristics of several transients are shown below in Such components operate at very low voltages, so
Table 1. voltage disturbances must be controlled to prevent device
interruption and latent or catastrophic failures. Sensitive
Vp devices such as microprocessors are being adopted at
an exponential rate. Microprocessors are beginning to
Vp/2 perform transparent operations never before imagined.
Everything from home appliances, such as dishwashers, to
industrial controls and even toys, have increased the use of
microprocessors to improve functionality and efficiency.

t1 t Vehicles now employ many electronics systems to


t2 control the engine, climate, braking and, in some cases,
steering systems. Some of the innovations are designed
to improve efficiency, but many are safety related, such as
Figure 1. Lightning Transient Waveform ABS and traction control systems. Many of the features in
appliances and automobiles use modules which present
VOLTAGE CURRENT RISE-TIME DURATION transient threats (such as electric motors). Not only is
Lighting 25kV 20kA 10µs 1ms the general environment hostile, but the equipment or
appliance can also be sources of threats. For this reason,
Switching 600V 500A 50µs 500ms
careful circuit design and the correct use of overvoltage
EMP 1kV 10A 20ns 1ms protection technology will greatly improve the reliability
ESD 15kV 30A <1ns 100ns and safety of the end application. Table 2 shows the
vulnerability of various component technologies.
Table 1. Examples of transient sources and magnitude
Device Type Vulnerability (volts)
VMOS 30-1800
Characteristics of Transient Voltage Spikes
MOSFET 100-200
Transient voltage spikes generally exhibit a "double GaAsFET 100-300
exponential" wave form, shown in Figure 1 for lightning and EPROM 100
figure 2 for ESD. The exponential rise time of lightning is in JFET 140-7000
the range 1.2µs to 10µs (essentially 10% to 90%) and the CMOS 250-3000
duration is in the range of 50µs to 1000µs (50% of peak
Schottky Diodes 300-2500
values). ESD on the other hand, is a much shorter duration
event. The rise time has been characterized at less than 1 Bipolar Transistors 380-7000
ns. The overall duration is approximately 100ns. SCR 680-1000

Table 2: Range of device vulnerability.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Introduction to Overvoltage Suppression (continued)

Transient Voltage Scenarios V T


T1
ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)
90%
Electrostatic discharge is characterized by very fast rise
times and very high peak voltages and currents. This VS
energy is the result of an imbalance of positive and
negative charges between objects.
10%
Below are some examples of the voltages which can be
VB t
generated, depending on the relative humidity (RH): VB = 25V to 125V T1 = 5ms to 10ms
VB = 14V R = 0.5Ω to 4Ω
• Walking across a carpet: T = 40ms to 400ms
35kV @ RH = 20%; 1.5kV @ RH = 65%
Figure 3. Automotive Load Dump
• Walking across a vinyl floor:
12kV @ RH = 20%; 250V @ RH = 65% Figure 3, shows a transient which is the result of stored
energy within the alternator of an automobile charging
• Worker at a bench:
system. A similar transient can also be caused by other
6kV @ RH = 20%; 100V @ RH = 65%
DC motors in a vehicle. For example, DC motors power
• Vinyl envelopes: amenities such as power locks, seats and windows.
7kV @ RH = 20%; 600V @ RH = 65% These various applications of a DC motor can produce
• Poly bag picked up from desk: transients that are just as harmful to the sensitive
20kV @ RH = 20%; 1.2kV @ RH = 65% electronic components as transients created in the external
environment.
Referring to Table 2 on the previous page, it can be
seen that ESD that is generated by everyday activities
Lightning Induced Transients
can far surpass the vulnerability threshold of standard
semiconductor technologies. Figure 2 shows the Even though a direct strike is clearly destructive, transients
ESD waveform as defined in the IEC 61000-4-2 test induced by lightning are not the result of a direct strike.
specification. When a lightning strike occurs, the event creates a
magnetic field which can induce transients of large
Inductive Load Switching magnitude in nearby electrical cables.
The switching of inductive loads generates high energy Figure 4, shows how a cloud-to-cloud strike will effect
transients which increase in magnitude with increasingly not only ove RHead cables, but also buried cables. Even a
heavy loads. When the inductive load is switched off, the strike 1 mile distant (1.6km) can generate 70V in electrical
collapsing magnetic field is converted into electrical energy cables.
which takes the form of a double exponential transient.
Depending on the source, these transients can be as large
as hundreds of volts and hundreds of Amps, with duration
times of 400ms.

Typical sources of inductive transients are:

• Generator
• Motor
• Relay
• Transformer Buried Line

Transient Generated:
These examples are extremely common in electrical and • 70 V at 1.6km (1 mile)
• 10 kV at 150m (160 yards)
electronic systems. Because the sizes of the loads vary
according to the application, the wave shape, duration, Figure 4. Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning Strike
peak current and peak voltage are all variables which
exist in real world transients. Once these variables can be
approximated, a suitable suppressor technology can be
selected.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Introduction to Overvoltage Suppression (continued)

Figure 5 shows the effect of a cloud-to-ground strike: the


Technological Solutions for Transient Threats
transient–generating effect is far greater.
Because of the various types of transients and applications,
it is important to correctly match the suppression solution
to the different applications. Littelfuse offers the broadest
range of circuit protection technologies to ensure that you
get the proper solution for your application. Please consult
our online library of Application Notes and Design Notes for
100m 11kV
1km 1100 V further information on common design issues encountered
10km 110 V at www.littelfuse.com.

Metal Oxide Varistors and Multi-Layered Varistors

Varistors are voltage dependent, nonlinear devices which


have electrical characteristics similar to back-to- back Zener
diodes. They are composed primarily of ZNO with small
Figure 5. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Strike additions of other metal oxides such as Bismuth, Cobalt,
Magnese and others. The Metal Oxide Varistor or "MOV" is
Figure 6, shows a typical current waveform for induced l sintered during the manufacturing operation into a ceramic
ightning disturbances. semiconductor and results in a crystalline microstructure
that allows MOVs to dissipate very high levels of transient
energy across the entire bulk of the device. Therefore,
PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE

100
MOVs are typically used for the suppression of lightning
90 and other high energy transients found in industrial or
O1 =AC line Origin
Virtual applications.
of WaveAdditionally, MOVs are used in DC
T =circuits
Time Fromsuch10%
as low voltage
to 90% power supplies and automobile
of Peak
50 T1 =applications.
Virtual Front Their
time = manufacturing
1.25 • t process permits many
T2 =different
Virtual Time to Half
form Valuewith
factors (Impulse
the Duration)
radial leaded disc being the
Example:
most Forcommon.
an 8/20µs Current Waveform:
8µs = T1 = Virtual Front Time
10 T2 = Virtual
20µs =Multilayer Time to Half
Varistors Value are constructed of Z O
or MLVs N
O1 T material similar to standard MOVs, however, they are
TIME
fabricated with interweaved layers of metal electrodes and
T1
supplied in leadless ceramic packages. As with standard
T2
Figure 6. Peak Pulse Current Test Waveform MOVs, Multilayers transition from a high impedance to a
conduction state when subjected to voltages that exceed
FIGURE 2. PEAK PULSE CURRENT TEST
their WAVEFORM
nominal voltage rating. MLVs are constructed in
various chip form sizes and are capable of significant surge
energy for their physical size. Thus, data line and power
supply suppression are achieved with one technology.

The following parameters apply to Varistors and/or


Multilayer Varistors and should be understood by the
circuit designer to properly select a device for a given
application.

The three Littelfuse technologies described offer a


comprehensive choice for the designer. Reviewing the
attributes of each can result in a suitable ESD suppression
solution for most applications. See the individual data
sheets for specific electrical and mechanical information.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors

The varistor body structure consists of a matrix of con- Physical Properties


ductive ZNO grains separated by grain boundaries provid-
ing P–N junction semiconductor characteristics. These MOVs are designed to protect sensitive circuits against
boundaries are responsible for blocking conduction at low external transients (lightning) and internal transients
voltages and are the source of the nonlinear electrical (inductive load switching, relay switching and capaci-
conduction at higher voltages. tor discharges). And other
Varistor Voltage, VN(DC)high= level
(3V)ntransients found in
industrial, AC line application or lower level transients found
Where, n = average number of grain boundaries
PER VERT in automotive DC line applications with peak current rating
between electrodes
DIV 1mA ranging from 20A to 500A and peak energy rating from
and, varistor thickness, D = (n + 1)d 100
0.05J – 2.5J. Varistor
VN × d
≈ ----------------
- Where,50
PER HORIZ An attractive property of the MOV is3 that the PERelectrical
VERT char-
DIV 50V where, d = average grain size
acteristics are related to the bulk of the device. DIVEach
1mA ZnO
20
and, var

VOLTAGE (V)
I
grain of the ceramic acts as if it has a semiconductor junc-
PER STEP tion at the grain boundary. A cross-section of the material 10
is shown in Figure 2,R whichV illustrates the ceramic micro-
PER HORIZ
X = ---
I
-
DIV 50V where, 5
structure. Varistors are fabricated by forming and sintering
gm PER DIV I
Zinc Oxide-based powders into ceramic parts. These parts
dv
are then electroded with
Z X = either
------ = Vthick
⁄ α I =film ⁄ α PERorSTEP
R X Silver arc/flame 2
di
sprayed metal.
1

V The ZnO (10 grain


14) boundaries can be clearly observed. Since
gm PER DIV
FIGURE 1. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CHARACTERISTIC the nonlinear electrical behavior occurs at the boundary
of each semiconducting ZnO grain, the varistor can be FIG
The symmetrical, sharp breakdown characteristics shown considered a "multi-junction" device composed of many
4
in Figure 1, enable the varistor to provide excellent tran- series 1 and parallel connections
V of grain boundaries. Device
------------- (1014)
sient suppression performance. When exposed to high behavior
2 2 1.may be analyzed
4 TYPICAL with respect to the details of
FIGURE
c n /cm VARISTOR V-I CHARACTERISTIC
voltage transients the varistor impedance changes many the ceramic microstructure. Mean grain size and grain size
orders of magnitude from a near open circuit to a highly distribution play 3 a major role in electrical behavior.
4
conductive level, thus clamping the transient voltage to a 1
safe level. The potentially destructive energy of the incom- -------------
2 2 4
c n /cm
ing transient pulse is absorbed by the varistor, thereby
protecting vulnerable circuit components. 2 3

Since electrical conduction occurs, in effect, between


0 0.4 0.8 1.2
ZNO grains distributed throughout the bulk of the device, FIG
VA PER BOUNDARY
the Littelfuse Varistor is inherently more rugged than its 2
single P–N junction counterparts, such as Zener diodes. FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF
In the varistor, energy is absorbed uniformly throughout VARISTOR RESEMBLES A SEMICONDUCTOR
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE
the body of the device with the resultant heating spread
Nd ~ 2 x 1017/cm3
evenly through its volume. Electrical properties are con-
trolled mainly by the physical dimensions of the varistor FIGURE 4. C
body which is sintered in various form factors such as
discs, chips and tubes. The energy
100µ rating is determined by
0 B
volume, voltage rating by thickness or current flow path V
L L FIGU
FIGURE E
length, and2.current
OPTICAL PHOTOMICROGRAPH
capability OF A POLISHED
by area measured normal to C R
AND
the direction of ETCHED
current SECTION OF A VARISTOR
flow. VR
E
f 10
100µ
X X 8
L R
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

CURRENT FIGURE 2. OPTICAL PHOTOMICROGRAPH OF A POLISHED 6


VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

ELECTRODES AND ETCHED SECTION OF A VARISTOR


5
E F
I
4
INTERGRANULAR
BOUNDARY CURRENT 3
ELECTRODES
d
2
INTERGRANULAR
EV BOUNDARY

δ d 0 © 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
1
FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC DEPICTION OF THE
FIGURE 5. ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM OF A Revised: 09/14/17
MICROSTRUCTURE OF A METAL-OXIDE
ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO JUNCTION
VARISTOR, GRAINS OF CONDUCTING
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs) 0 0.4
d
0.8 1.2
VA PER BOUNDARY

FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF


VARISTOR RESEMBLES A SEMICONDUCTOR
FIGURE 3.ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE
Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors (continued) Nd
SCHEMATIC DEPICTION
~ 2 x 1017/cm3
MICROSTRUCTURE
OF THE
OF A METAL-OXIDE
VARISTOR, GRAINS OF CONDUCTING
ZnO (AVERAGE SIZE d) ARE SEPARATED
The varistor voltage, (VN), is defined
BY INTERGRANULAR as the voltage across a
BOUNDARIES.
Varistor Microstructure 100µ varistor at the point on its V-I characteristic where the
0 B
V
The bulk of transition (v) is complete L Lfrom the low-level linear region
FIGURE 2. the varistor
OPTICAL between contacts
PHOTOMICROGRAPH OFisAcomprised
POLISHED of E
C R
ZnO grains of an ETCHED
averageSECTION
size "d" as to the highly nonlinear region.
2 ( Vb + For V ) standard measurement
AND OFshown in the schemat-
A VARISTOR 1
------- =defined - the voltage atVaR current
-------------------------
ic model of Figure 3. Resistivity of the ZnO is <0.3 Ω–cm. purposes, it is arbitrarily
E
f C 2 qεsN as
of 1mA. Some typical valuesXof dimensions X
for Littelfuse
Varistors are given in Table 1. L R
CURRENT
ELECTRODES TABLE 1.
E F
I
INTERGRANULAR VARISTOR AVERAGE DEVICE
BOUNDARY VOLTAGE GRAIN SIZE GRADIENT THICKNESS

V/mm AT
d VOLTS MICRONS n 1mA mm

150VRMS EV 20 75 150 1.5

25VRMS 80 (Note) 12 39 1.0


δ 0
FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC DEPICTION OF THE NOTE: Low voltage formulation.
FIGURE 5. ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM OF A
MICROSTRUCTURE OF A METAL-OXIDE
ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO JUNCTION
VARISTOR, GRAINS OF CONDUCTING
ZnO (AVERAGE SIZE d) ARE SEPARATED Theory of Operation
BY INTERGRANULAR BOUNDARIES.
Because of the polycrystalline nature of metal-oxide semi-
φL ⁄ φo
Designing a varistor for a given nominal varistor voltage, 1.0
conductor varistors, the physical operation of the device is
(VN ), is basically a matter of selecting the device thickness
2 ( Vb + V ) more complex than that of conventional semiconductors.
1
such that the appropriate number - of grains, (n), are in se-
------- = -------------------------
NORMALIZED THERMAL BARRIER

2 qεsN Intensive
0.8 measurement has determined many of the de-
C
ries between electrodes. In practice, the varistor material is vice’s electrical characteristics, and much effort continues
characterized by a voltage gradient measured across its to better
0.6define the varistor’s operation. However from the
o = 0.59

thickness by a specific volts/mm value. By controlling user’s viewpoint, this is not nearly as important as under-
composition and manufacturing TABLE 1. conditions the gradient standing the basic electrical properties as they relate to
0.4
remains fixed. Because there are practical limits to the
φ

VARISTOR AVERAGE DEVICE device construction.


range
VOLTAGE
of thicknesses
GRAIN SIZE
achievable,GRADIENT more thanTHICKNESS
one voltage
gradient value is desired. By altering the composition of The key0.2to explaining metal-oxide varistor operation lies in
the metal oxide additives it is possible V/mm AT to change the grain understanding the electronic phenomena occurring near
VOLTS
size MICRONS
"d" and achieve the desired n 1mA
result. mm
the grain0 boundaries, or junctions between the ZNO grains.
While some 4
0 of the early 8
theory supposed 12 electronic
that 16
150VRMS 20 75 150 1.5
A fundamental property of the ZnO varistor is that the tunneling occurred through anVOLTAGE (V) second phase
insulating
voltage
25VRMSdrop across a single12interface
80 (Note) 39 "junction" 1.0
between layer FIGURE
at the grain boundaries,
6. THERMAL varistor
BARRIER operation
vs APPLIED is prob-
VOLTAGE
grains is nearly constant. Observations over a range of ably better described by a series-parallel arrangement of
NOTE: Low voltage formulation.
compositional variations and processing conditions show a semiconducting diodes. In this model, the grain boundaries
fixed voltage drop of about 2V-3V per grain boundary contain defect states which trap free electrons from the
junction. Also, the voltage drop does not vary for grains of n-type semiconducting ZNO grains, thus forming a space
different sizes. It follows, then, that the varistor voltage charge depletion layer in the ZnO grains in the region adja-
will be determined by the thickness of the material and the cent to the grain boundaries. (See reference notes on the
size of the
Varistor ZnO Vgrains.
Voltage, N(DC)
The relationship can be stated very
= (3V)n last page of this section).
simply
Where, as follows: n = average number of grain boundaries LEAKAGE NORMAL VARISTOR UPTURN
ERT between electrodes Evidence for depletion layers in OPERATION
REGION the varistor is shown in Fig-
REGION
mA
and, varistor thickness, D = (n + 1)d ure 4, where the inverse of the capacitance per boundary
1000
V ×d squared is plotted against the applied voltage per boundary.
N
≈ ----------------
3
- This is
500the same type of behavior
1 observed carrier concen-
ORIZ SLOPE = ---
V where, d = average grain size tration, N, was determined toαbe about 2 x 1017 per cm3. In
addition,
200 the width of the depletion layer was calculated to
VOLTAGE (V)


- 10

be about 1000 Angstrom units. Single junction I = kV αstudies also


R = 10 9

TEP
100
support the diode model.
R=1

V
R X = ---- 50
I
It is these depletion layers that block the free flow of
R DIV carriers and are responsible for the(TYPICAL V130LA20A)
low voltage insulating
dv
Z X = ------ = V ⁄ α I = R X ⁄ α 20
di behavior in the leakage region as depicted in Figure 5. The
leakage 10 current is due to the free flow of carriers across
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc. 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 100 102 104
(1014)are subject to change without notice.
Specifications CURRENT (A)
Revised: 09/14/17
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON
LOG-LOG SCALE
2 2 4
BOUNDARY c n /cm2

VARISTOR VOLTAGE
3

VNOM VALUE
d
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
3
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 2
VA PER BOUNDARY
FIGURE 1
EV
FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF (0.0
2
VARISTOR RESEMBLES A δSEMICONDUCTOR
0
Varistor Characteristics,
FIGURE 3. Terms
SCHEMATIC DEPICTION OF THE and Consideration Factors (continued)
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE
17 3
1
NdFIGURE /cm
~ 2 x 105. ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM OF A
MICROSTRUCTURE OF A METAL-OXIDE 0 0.4 0.8 1.2
ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO JUNCTION
VARISTOR, GRAINS OF CONDUCTING VA PER BOUNDARY
FIGUR
ZnO (AVERAGE SIZE d) ARE SEPARATED FIGURE
the field lowered barrier, and is thermally
BY INTERGRANULAR activated, at least
BOUNDARIES. FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE0 B BEHAVIOR OF
above about 25ºC. For semiconductor
100µ abrupt P-N junction VARISTOR RESEMBLES A SEMICONDUCTOR

φL ⁄ φo
diodes. The relationship is: V
1.0 ABRUPT-JUNCTION FIGURE 12
L L REVERSED BIASED DIODE
FIGURE 2. OPTICAL PHOTOMICROGRAPH OF A POLISHED E
Nd ~ 2 x 1017/cm3
C R
ANDVoltage,
ETCHEDV1SECTION 2 ( Vb + V )A VARISTOR
Varistor N-(DC)
------ = OF (3V)n
= -------------------------
- VR

NORMALIZED THERMAL BARRIER


E
2 qεsN 0.8 f 100
Where, C n = average number of grain boundaries LEAKAGE NORMAL VARISTOR UPTURN
X X 80
between electrodes L R

VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF


REGION
REGION 0 B OPERATION

o = 0.59
CURRENT 100µ 0.6
Where:and, varistor thickness, D = (n + 1)d 1000 60
V

VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)


(V ) = barrier voltage, ELECTRODES L L FIGURE
FIGURE
b TABLE 1.V × d OF A POLISHED
2. OPTICAL PHOTOMICROGRAPH E
E 50
N C F R
(V) = applied voltage, ≈ ----------------
- 0.4
500 I

φ
AND ETCHED SECTION OF
3 A VARISTORDEVICE SLOPE = ---
1 VR 40
VARISTOR
(q) =where, AVERAGE
electron charge, INTERGRANULAR E
d = average grain size f α 100
VOLTAGE GRAIN SIZE BOUNDARY GRADIENT THICKNESS
(es) = semiconductor permittivity and 200
0.2 X X 30

VOLTAGE (V)

10Ω
L R 80

OF

(N) = carrier concentration. V/mm AT I = kV α

R = 10 9
CURRENT

-
d

VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT


100 60
From this relationship
VOLTS MICRONSthe ZnO
n carrier
1mAconcentration,
mm N,

R=1

VNOM VALUE AT 25 C (%)


0 20
V ELECTRODES
was determined toR X be=about
----
I 2 x 1017 per cm3. 50 0 E
EV 4 8 F12 16
50
150VRMS 20 75 150 1.5 I

o
VOLTAGE (V) 40
INTERGRANULAR
In addition,
25VRMS the width ofdv
80 (Note) the depletion39layer was calculated
12
BOUNDARY 1.0 (TYPICAL V130LA20A)
Z X = ------ = V ⁄ α I = R X ⁄ α FIGURE
20 6. THERMALδBARRIER
0 vs APPLIED VOLTAGE 30
to be about 1000 Angstrom di units. Single junction studies 10
FIGURE
FIGURE SCHEMATIC
NOTE:3.Low DEPICTION OF THE
voltage formulation. 10-9
also support the diode model.
MICROSTRUCTURE d
OF A METAL-OXIDE
FIGURE 5. ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM OF A
10
-8ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO
-6 -4 -2 JUNCTION
0 20 N
VARISTOR, GRAINS OF CONDUCTING 10 10 10 10 10 102 104
14)(AVERAGE SIZE d) ARE SEPARATED
ZnO
(10
FIGURE 13. TS
EV CURRENT (A)
BY INTERGRANULAR BOUNDARIES. I
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON
Transport mechanisms in theSCALE
δnonlinear region are very
φL ⁄ φo

LOG-LOG 0 10
1.0
complicated and 10-
5. are still the subject of active
OF A research.
FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC
4 DEPICTION OF THE
FIGURE ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM
1 MICROSTRUCTURE
1 2 ( V b + V ) OF A METAL-OXIDE Most theories draw their inspiration from semiconductor
------------- ------- = -------------------------
- OF CONDUCTING ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO JUNCTION
NORMALIZED THERMAL BARRIER

2 2 4 VARISTOR, GRAINS
c n /cm 2 qεsN 0.8
transport theory and is not covered L (LEAD
in detail in this docu- FIGURE 1
ZnOC(AVERAGE SIZE d) ARE SEPARATED INDUCTANCE)
BY INTERGRANULAR BOUNDARIES. ment.
⁄ φo0.59

3 0.6 (TYPICAL V130LA20A)

STATIC RESISTANCE
1.0
φoL =

TABLE 1. C V R OFF
0.4 Rx
φ

1 2 ( Vb + V ) (0.002µF) (0 TO ∞) (1000MΩ)
VARISTOR AVERAGE
------- = -------------------------- DEVICE
NORMALIZED THERMAL BARRIER

2 2 qεsN 0.8
VOLTAGE GRAIN SIZE
C GRADIENT THICKNESS R ON
0.2
(1Ω)
o = 0.59

V/mm AT 0.6
0 0.4 0.8 1.2
VOLTS MICRONS n 1mA mm 0 FIGURE 11. VARISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL
VA
TABLE 1.PER BOUNDARY
0 4 8 12 16
150VRMS 20 75 150 1.5 0.4
φ

FIGURE
VARISTOR 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE
AVERAGE BEHAVIOR DEVICE
OF VOLTAGE (V)
25V
VOLTAGE
RMS 80VARISTOR
GRAIN RESEMBLES
(Note) SIZE12 39 A SEMICONDUCTOR
GRADIENT 1.0
THICKNESS
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE FIGURE
0.2
6. THERMAL BARRIER vs APPLIED
L VOLTAGE
FIGURE 15. E
NOTE: Low voltage Nd ~ 2 x 1017/cm3
formulation. V/mm AT
F
VOLTS MICRONS n 1mA mm 0 C R OFF
Figure 5, shows an energy band diagram for a ZnO-grain 0 4 8 12 16
150VRMS 20 75 150 1.5
boundary-ZnO junction . The left-hand
0 B
grain is forward VOLTAGE (V)
biased,
25VRMS VL, and80 the right side
(Note) 12 is reverse
39 biased1.0
to VR. The
V FIGURE 6. THERMAL
FIGURE BARRIER
12. EQUIVALENT vs APPLIED
CIRCUIT VOLTAGE
AT LOW CURRENTS
depletion layer EwidthsL are
L X and X , and the respective
L R
FIGURE 1
C
NOTE: Lowheights
barrier are fL and fR. The zero biased Rbarrier height
voltage formulation.
DYNAMIC RESISTANCE
VR
is fO. As the voltage
E
f bias is increased, fL is decreased and 100
fR is increased, leading to a lowering
X ofX the barrier and an 80
L R
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

increase in conduction.
60
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

The barrier height


E L
f of a low voltage varistor was 50
I F
measured as a function of applied voltage, and is 40
presented in Figure 6. The rapid decrease in the barrier at
high voltage represents the onset of nonlinear conduction. 30

20
SPECIMEN V130LA10A
EV
25 50 75 100 125oC
δ 0 10
10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10©-42017 Littelfuse,
10-3 Inc. 10 -2
FIGURE 5. ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM OF A FIG
VARISTOR CURRENT
Specifications (A DC
are subject )
to change without notice.
ZnO-GRAINBOUNDARY-ZnO JUNCTION Revised: 09/14/17 TO
FIGURE 13. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CHARACTER-
ISTIC CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors (continued)

60mm diameter discs) the contact material is arc sprayed


Varistor Construction
Aluminum, with an overspray of Copper if necessary to
The process of fabricating a Littelfuse Varistor is illustrated give a solderable surface.
in the flow chart of Figure 7. The starting material may
differ in the composition of the additive oxides, in order to Many encapsulation techniques are used in the assembly
cover the voltage range of product. of the various Littelfuse Varistor packages. Most radials
and some industrial devices (HA Series) are epoxy coated
MAL
ZnO in a fluidized bed, whereas epoxy is “spun” onto the axial
ADDITIVE OXIDES
ON (MAINLY BL203) device.

MIXING Radials are also available with phenolic coatings applied


POWDER PREPARATION using a wet process. The PA Series package consists of
POWDER plastic molded around a 20mm disc subassembly. The RA,
DA and DB Series devices are all similar in that they all are
PRESS composed of discs or chips, with tabs or leads, encased
in a molded plastic shell filled with epoxy. Different pack-
SINTER FORM CERAMIC BODY age styles allow variation in energy ratings, as well as in
mechanical mounting.
ELECTRODE

TABLE 2. BY–TYPE CERAMIC DIMENSIONS


102 103 MECHANICAL PACKAGE AS/IF REQUIRED
ASSEMBLY PACKAGE
SERIES CERAMIC DIMENSIONS
TYPE
s Current, 14mm CH, AUML†, ML†, 5mm x 8mm Chip, 0603,
ENCAPSULATE Leadless Surface MLE†, MLN† 0805, 1206, 1210, 1812,
Mount Series 2220
ICIENT FINAL PRODUCT TO
ELECTRICAL TEST Axial Leaded MA Series 3mm Diameter Disc
ZA, LA, C–III,
FIGURE 7. SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF LITTELFUSE 5mm, 7mm, 10mm,
TMOV®, i TMOV®
VARISTOR FABRICATION Radial Leaded 14mm, 20mm Diameter
,UltraMOV™,
Discs
TMOV25S® Series
-VB/kT
DeviceI =characteristics are determined at the pressing Boxed, Low 5mm x 8mm, 10mm x
IO ε RA Series
operation. The powder is pressed into a form of predeter- Profile 16mm, 14 x 22 Chips
where: I = constant
mined thickness Oin order to obtain a desired value of nomi- BA, BB Series
k = Boltzmann’s Constant 32mm, 40mm Diameter
nal voltage. To obtain the desired ratings of peak current DA, DB Series
Disc, 34mm Square
VB = 0.9eV
and energy capability, the electrode area and mass of the Industrial DHB Series
Disc, 40mm Diameter
Packages HA, HB Series
device are varied. The range of diameters obtainable in disc Disc, 60mm Diameter
HC, HF Series
product offerings is listed here: Disc
HG Series
L
Industrial Discs CA Series 60mm Diameter Discs
Nominal Disc Diameter–mm
3 5 7 8 10 14 16 20
R ON22 25 32 34 40 60 62
100 Figure 9A, 9B and 9C (next page) show construction details
Of course, other shapes, such as rectangles, are also of some Littelfuse varistor packages. Dimensions of the
FIGURE
possible17.
FIGURE byEQUIVALENT
simply changing theAT
CIRCUIT press dies. Other
VARISTOR UPTURNceramic ceramic, by package type, are above in Table 2.
fabrication techniques can be used to make different
FIGURE 9B. CROSS-SECTION
shapes. For example, rods or tubes are made TRACEby1 extruding OF RADIAL LEAD PACKAGE
and cutting to length. After forming, the green
LOAD (i.e., unfired)
VOLTAGE
parts are placed in a kiln and sintered at peak temperatures
WITHOUT
in excess of 1200ºC. The B ismuth oxide is VARISTOR
molten above FIGURE 9A. CROSS-SECTION
825ºC, assisting in the initial densification of the polycrys- OF MA SERIES
100V/DIV.

talline ceramic. At higher temperatures, grain growth oc-


curs, forming a structure with controlled grain size.

Electroding is accomplished, for radial and chip devices, by


means of thick film silver firedTRACE
onto 2the ceramic surface.
Wire leads or strap terminals areLOAD
then soldered in place. A
VOLTAGE
conductive epoxy is used CLAMPED
for connecting
BY leads to the axial
100
3mm discs. For the larger industrial
VARISTORdevices (40mm and

500ps/DIV.
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
NCE FIGURE are
Specifications 18.subject
RESPONSE OF Anotice.
to change without ZnO VARISTOR TO A FAST
Revised: 09/14/17 RISE TIME (500ps) PULSE
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors (continued)

FIGURE 9C. PICTORIAL VIEW OF HIGH ENERGY Electrical Characterization Varistor V-I Characteristics
DA, DB AND BA/BB SERIES
Turning now to the high current upturn region in Figure 10,
we see that the V-I behavior approaches an ohmic char-
DA SERIES
acteristic. The limiting resistance value depends upon the
electrical conductivity of the body of the semiconducting
ZnO grains, which have carrier concentrations in the range
of 1017 to 1018 per cm3. This would put the ZnO resistivity
below 0.3Ωcm.
Varistor Voltage, VN(DC) = (3V)n
Where, n = average number of grain boundaries LEAKAGE NORMAL VARISTOR UPTURN 0.1

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (%/ oC)


between electrodes REGION OPERATION REGION
and, varistor thickness, D = (n + 1)d 1000 0

VN × d
≈ ----------------
- 500 -0.1
3 SLOPE = ---
1
where, DB SERIES d = average grain size α
-0.2
200

VOLTAGE (V)

10Ω

I = kV α

R = 10 9
-0.3

-
100

R=1
V
R X = ---- 50
I -0.4

(TYPICAL V130LA20A) -0.5


dv
Z X = ------ = V ⁄ α I = R X ⁄ α 20
di
10 NOTE:
Varistor Voltage, VN(DC) = (3V)n 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 100 102 104 Size, 5
(1014)
Where, n = average number of grain boundaries LEAKAGE CURRENT
NORMAL (A)
VARISTOR UPTURN 0

COEFFICIENT (%/ oC)


between electrodes REGION OPERATION REGION FIGU
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON
and, varistor thickness, D = (n + 1)d 1000 LOG-LOG SCALE
4 V ×d
N -05
1 ≈ ----------------
- 500 1 are conveniently displayed
-------------
2 2 4
3 Varistor electrical characteristics
SLOPE = ---
c n /cm where, d = average grain size α (LEAD
using log-log format in orderLtoINDUCTANCE)
show the wide range of

RMS INPUT VOLT)


BA/BB SERIES -01
200
VOLTAGE (V)

10Ω
the V-I curve. The log format also is clearer thanα a linear

(Ω PER RATEDTEMPERATURE
3 (TYPICAL=V130LA20A)
which tends to exaggerateI the kV
R = 10 9

representation nonlinearity -0

STATIC RESISTANCE
-
100

R=1
V
R X = ---- in proportion C to the current scale
V chosen. A
R OFF
typical V-I
I 50 Rx -0
characteristic
(0.002µF) curve is shown in Figure (1000MΩ)
(0 TO ∞)
10. This plot shows
2 a wider range of current than is (TYPICAL
normallyV130LA20A)
provided on varis- -0
dv tor data sheets in order to illustrate three distinct regions
Z X = ------ = V ⁄ α I = R X ⁄ α 20 R ON
di (1Ω)
of electrical operation.
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 10
FIGURE 11. VARISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL NOTE
VA PER BOUNDARY 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 100 102 104 Size,0
(1014) Equivalent Circuit Model CURRENT (A)
FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF FIG
0
VARISTOR RESEMBLES A SEMICONDUCTOR An FIGURE 10.model
electrical TYPICAL
forVARISTOR V-I CURVE
the varistor can bePLOTTED ON by
represented
L
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE LOG-LOG SCALE
4 ~ 2 x 1017/cm3
the simplified equivalent circuit of Figure 11.
Nd
1 FIGUR
------------- C R OFF
2 2 4
c n /cm L (LEAD (Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)
INDUCTANCE)
0 B
3 (TYPICAL V130LA20A)
STATIC RESISTANCE

V FIGURE 12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT LOW CURRENTS


(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

E L L
C C V
R Rx
R OFF
DYNAMIC RESISTANCE

VR (1000MΩ) 0
E (0.002µF) (0 TO ∞)
2 f 100
X X 80 R ON 0.
L R
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

(1Ω) 0.
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 60
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

VA PER BOUNDARY
FIGURE
50 11. VARISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL
E F
I 0.
40
FIGURE 4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF 0.0
VARISTOR RESEMBLES A SEMICONDUCTOR
30 L
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE
Nd ~ 2 x 1017/cm3 0.0
20 © 2017 Littelfuse, Inc. FIGU
C R OFF
Specifications
SPECIMEN areV130LA10A
subject to change without notice.
EV Revised: 09/14/17
25 50 75 100 125oC FIGU
0 B
-0.4 ELECTRODE
-0.5
(TYPICAL V130LA20A)

TEM
20 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 NORMAL
101 102 103
-0.5 LEAKAGE REGION
ain boundaries Metal-Oxide
LEAKAGE
Varistors (MOVs)
NORMAL VARISTOR 10-5 10-4
UPTURN 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 MECHANICAL
0.1
CURRENT (A) OPERATION
PACKAGE AS/IF REQUIRED

COEFFICIENT (%/ oC)


10 ASSEMBLY NOTE: Typical Temperature Coefficient of Voltage vs Current, 14mm
CURRENT (A) 0 REGION SAMPLE TYPE
10-8 REGION
10-6 10-4 10OPERATION
-2 10 102 104 Size, 55 o to 125oC.
NOTE:
1000Typical Temperature Coefficient of Voltage vs Current, 14mm 0 C V130LA10A
104 CURRENT (A) ENCAPSULATE
Size, 55oC to 125oC. FIGURE 14. RELATION OF TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
FIGURE
500 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON -0.1 DV/DT TO VARISTOR CURRENT
1
N Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors
FIGURE 14. RELATION
(continued)
OF
SLOPE
LOG-LOG TEMPERATURE
= ---
SCALE V22ZA3
α CURRENT
ELECTRICAL
DV/DT TO VARISTOR TEST
COEFFICIENT FINAL PRODUCT TO

-0.2
200 500
VOLTAGE (V)


- 10

TEMPERATURE
I = kV α FIGURE 7. SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF LITTELFUSE
R = 10 9
500
100 L (LEAD The relation-0.3
between the leakage current (I) and tempera-

VOLT)
VARISTOR FABRICATION

R=1
Leakage Region of OperationINDUCTANCE) 100
ture (T) is 50
(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

50
100 (TYPICAL V130LA20A) -0.4

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT


STATIC RESISTANCE
At low50current levels, the V-I Curve approaches a linear -VB/kT
)
(ohmic) relationship
C and showsV (TYPICAL
a significant
R OFF temperature
V130LA20A) ε 10
I = IO-0.5
STATIC RESISTANCE

20
Rx 105-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103
10
dependence.
(0.002µF) The varistor is in(0 a
TOhigh
∞) resistance
(1000MΩ) mode where: IO = constant
5 CURRENT (A)
(approaching
10
10 9
Ω) and appears as an open circuit. The 1 k = Boltzmann’s Constant
R ON-2 NOTE:0.5Typical Temperature Coefficient of Voltage vs Current, 14mm
nonlinear -8 resistance
-6 component
-4 (R ) can
0 be ignored
102 be-
104 B =1250.9eV
10
1 10 10 10
(1Ω) X 10 Size, 55oCVto oC.
cause0.5
(ROFF) in parallel will predominate.
CURRENT (A) Also, (R ON
) will be
0.1 14. RELATION OF TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
FIGURE
insignificant
FIGURE 11.compared
VARISTORto (ROFF).
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON The temperature0.05 variation, in effect,
DV/DT TO corresponds
VARISTOR CURRENT to a
0.1
LOG-LOG SCALE change in (R0.01 ). However,L(ROFF) remains at a high resis-
0.05 OFF
OR tance value even 0.01at elevated
500 0.1 temperatures.
1 For example,
10 it 100
0.01 L
ODE is still in the range of 10MΩRto 100MΩ
PEAK at 125ºC.
CURRENT (A)
0.01 0.1 L (LEAD
1 10 100 ON

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)


INDUCTANCE) 100
FIGURE 16A. R X STATIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE FIGURE
PEAK CURRENT (A)
C R OFF
(TYPICAL V130LA20A) Although (ROFF50
) is a high resistance it varies with frequency.
FIGURE 16A. R X STATIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE FIGURE

STATIC RESISTANCE
The relationship
FIGURE is approximately
17. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT ATlinear with inverse
VARISTOR UPTURNfre-
V 10
5
Rx
C
R OFF quency. 5
(0.002µF) (0 TO ∞
5 12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT (1000MΩ)
) LOW
FIGURE AT CURRENTS TRACE 1

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)


If however, the11parallel combination of (ROFF ) and (ºC) is pre-
LOAD
VOLTAGE

DYNAMIC RESISTANCE
RMS INPUT VOLT)

R
R For a given
1
ON
varistor device, capacitance remains approxi- dominantly capacitive
0.5
0.5 at any frequency of WITHOUT
interest. This is
(1Ω) VARISTOR
100 because the capacitive reactance also varies approximately
DYNAMIC RESISTANCE

mately 0.5constant over a wide range of voltage and frequen-


0.1
cy in 80
FIGURE 11. VARISTOR
the leakage region. EQUIVALENT
The value of CIRCUIT MODEL
capacitance drops linearly with0.01
1/f.
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

0.05
100V/DIV.

only 0.01
slightly as voltage is applied to the varistor. As the 0.05
60
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

voltage At higher currents, at and above the mA range, tempera-


50 approaches the nominal varistor voltage, the ca-
0.05 0.01
OR ture variation becomes
0.01 minimal.
0.1 The plot
1 of the tempera-
10 100
pacitance decreases. Capacitance remains nearly constant
(Ω PER RATED

L 0.01
ODE 40
with0frequency change up to 100 kHz. Similarly, the change ture coefficient
0.005 (dV/dT) is given in Figure 14. It should be
PEAK CURRENT (A)
.01
with0.005
temperature is Csmall, the 25ºC value of capacitance
30 noted that the temperature
FIGURE 16A. R X STATICcoefficient
2 is RESISTANCE
VARISTOR
TRACE negative (-) and
FIGURE
R OFF
being well with +/-10% from -40ºC to +125ºC. decreases 0.001
as current rises. In the clamping voltage range
LOAD
VOLTAGE
20
of the varistor0.01
(I > 1A), the0.1
temperature
CLAMPED BY 1.0 dependency
10 ap- 100
0.001 5
The temperature
0.01 effect
0.1 of the 1.0
V-I characteristic
SPECIMEN V130LA10A
10 curve100
in the proaches zero. VARISTOR
PEAK CURRENT (A)
FIGURE
leakage 12. EQUIVALENT
region inCIRCUIT
is shownPEAK Figure AT(A)
13.LOW
A CURRENTS
distinct tempera-
(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

CURRENT FIGURE
1 16B. Z500ps/DIV.
25 50 75 100 125oC X DYNAMIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE
NORMAL
ture dependence is noted. LEAKAGE REGION
CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V) DYNAMIC RESISTANCE

0.5 OPERATION
daries
R FIGURE
10
LEAKAGE 16B. Z X DYNAMIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE
NORMAL VARISTOR UPTURN FIGURE
0.1 18. RESPONSE OF A ZnO VARISTOR TO A FAST
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (%/ oC)

100
10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10 -2
REGION OPERATION REGION RISE
SAMPLE TIME (500ps) PULSE
TYPE
VARISTOR CURRENT (A DC ) FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS
10 -2
TION 1000
80 0TOV130LA10A
0.01
R = 10 9 IN PERCENT OF

CURRENT WAVEFORM
FIGURE
FIGURE19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS 0.05
6013. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CHARACTER-
TO CURRENT WAVEFORM
AT 25oC (%)

ISTIC CURVE -0.1


CTER-
500
50 1 IN THE LEAKAGE REGION
SLOPE = --- V22ZA3
α 140 1000 0.01
40 -0.2 DEVICE: WAVESHAPE
2 V130LA20A
200 8000.005 AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE)
1000A/cm 0.5/1.5 µs
VOLTAGE (V)

(LEAD
% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE AT 8 µs

1000
VNOM VALUE Ω

- 10

WAVESHAPE (2.5kA)
I = kV α 0.5/1.5 µs
VARISTOR VOLTAGE

30 DEVICE: V130LA20A 130


-0.3 DEVICE: V130LA20A 1/3 µs
100 800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE) 600
CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)

8/ 20 µs
R=1

log( I 2 ⁄ I 1 ) 0.001 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2 ) (NOTE)


α = ------------------------------- 1/3 µs
50 600 log ( V2 ⁄ V1 ) 8/ 20 µs -0.4 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 E
20 400 100A/cm
2
120
SPECIMEN V130LA10A (250A) PEAK CURRENT (A)
1 -0.5
400 = ------------------------------
(TYPICAL- for I2V130LA20A)
⁄ I1 = 1
log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 ) 10-5 FIGURE
10-4 -3 Z10-2
16B. 10-1 VARISTOR
100 101RESISTANCE
102 103 M
20 25 50 75 100 125oC 10
2 X DYNAMIC
110 10A/cm A
CURRENT (A)
10 200 (25A)
10
10-7 -2 10-6 0 10-5 2 10-4 10-9
10-3 10 -2 10-8 -4 NOTE: Typical Temperature Coefficient of Voltage vs Current, 14mm
EN
10-8200 10 10 10 10410-6 10 Size, FIGURE
o 19.
o RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS
VARISTOR CURRENT (A DC ) 100 55 C to 125 C.
TION CURRENT (A) TO CURRENT WAVEFORM 100%
L
FIGURE 13. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CHARACTER- 10 RELATION OF TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
FIGURE 14. AT
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR
ISTIC V-ITHE
CURVE IN CURVE PLOTTED
LEAKAGE ON
REGION 20DV/DT40 60 100 CURRENT
TO VARISTOR 200 400 6008µs 1000 2000
10 90
LOG-LOG SCALE 0.4 0.6 0.8PEAK CURRENT (A) 4
16
20 40 60 100 R
200
X 400 600 1000 2000 10000.2 1 2 6 8 10
WAVESHAPE
DEVICE: V130LA20A FIG
PEAK CURRENT (A) FIGURE
500 19A. AREA
800 (LEAD PULSE 2
V-I CHARACTERISTICS
RISE TIME
<1cm ) (NOTE) ( µs) 0.5/1.5 µs
FOR VARIOUS CURRENT
CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)

(LEAD RISE TIMES 1/3 µs


GE FIGURE 19A. V-I CHARACTERISTICS
L FOR VARIOUS CURRENT FIGURE 19B. OVERSHOOT DEFINED WITH REFERENCE TO
100 600
(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

log( I 2INDUCTANCE)
FIGURE 15. EQUIVALENT ⁄ I1 )
CIRCUIT AT VARISTOR CONDUCTION 8/ 20 µs
RISE
α =TIMES
------------------------------- 50 THE BASIC 8/20µs CURRENT PULSE
ON log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 ) (TYPICAL V130LA20A)
400 Refer to the Maximum Clamping Voltage section of DB450, Tran
STATIC RESISTANCE

NOTE:
C = V1
------------------------------
- for I ⁄ I = 1
10
NOTE: Refer to the Maximum
log( VR2x ⁄ V 1Clamping ) 2R OFF 1Voltage section of DB450, Transient Voltage
5 Suppression Devices.
(0.002µF) (0 TO ∞) (1000MΩ)
1 200
R ON 0.5
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc. (1Ω)
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17 L 0.1 10
FIGURE 11. VARISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL
0.05 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000
0.05
60
100 R ON

DYNAMIC RESISTA
0.5

DYNAMIC

PER RATED RMS INP


(Ω PER RAT
STATI
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCEN
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

(Ω PER RATED

1
100V/DIV.
(1Ω)
5080
Metal-Oxide Varistors0.1(MOVs)
0.01

VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF


0.01
FIGURE 40
11. VARISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL 0.05
60 0.05 0.005

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (%/ C) VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)


3050
0.01 0.01
40 0.00.001
10.005 0.1 1 10 100
L 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100
Varistor Characteristics, Terms and ConsiderationFIGURE
Factors (continued)
20 PEAK CURRENT (A)
30

(Ω
SPECIMEN V130LA10A PEAK CURRENT (A)
16A. R STATIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE FIGURE 0.001X
C R OFF FIGURE 17.
25 50 75 100 125oC FIGURE 16B. Z X DYNAMIC
0.01 0.1 VARISTOR
1.0 RESISTANCE
10 100 FIGUR
20
SPECIMEN V130LA10A ZnOPEAK CURRENT (A)
10 NORMAL ADDITIVE OXIDES
Nominal Varistor Region of Operation
LEAKAGE REGION 5
10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 -4 10-3
OPERATION
10 10 -2 (MAINLY BL203)
25 50VARISTOR
75 100AT125 C CURRENTS 0.1 o FIGUREFIGURE 16B. Z X DYNAMIC
19. RESPONSE VARISTOR RESISTANCE
OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS FIGU
FIGURE 12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT CURRENT
LOW (A DC )

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)


The varistor characteristic
SAMPLE TYPE follows the equation: TO CURRENT WAVEFORM
o

1
FIGURE 10 V130LA10A MIXING
I = kVa,13. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE -5 OF THE-4CHARACTER-
10(a

DYNAMIC RESISTANCE
0where (k) is a constant
10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 and10the exponent
10 -3) 10 -2 0.5
POWDER PREPARATION 140
ISTIC CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS
defines the degree ofVARISTOR
100 nonlinearity. Alpha
CURRENT is) a figure of merit
(A DC

100V/DIV.
-0.1 TO CURRENT WAVEFORM
POWDER

% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE AT 8 µs
and
80 can
FIGURE be TEMPERATURE
13. determined
V22ZA3
from the slope of
DEPENDENCE OFthe
THEV-I curve or
CHARACTER- 0.01
1000
DEVICE: V130LA20A WAVESHAPE
130
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE) 0.5/1.5 µs


calculated from
ISTICthe formula:
CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION 0.05 140

CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)


60 -0.2 PRESS
1/3 µs
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

600

% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE AT 8 µs
50 log( I 2 ⁄ I 1 ) 1000 8/ 20 µs
WAVESHAPE
DEVICE: V130LA20A 120
130
-0.3 α = ------------------------------- 0.01
SINTER
800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE)
FORM CERAMIC BODY0.5/1.5 µs
40 log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 )

CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)


400
0.005 1/3 µs
-0.4 600
30 log1( I 2 ⁄ I 1-) for I ⁄ I = 1
= ------------------------------
ELECTRODE 8/ 20 µs
120
110
α =log ------------------------------
( V2 ⁄ V1 ) - 2 1
-0.5 log( V 2 ⁄ V1 ) 0.001
400
20 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 MECHANICAL
0.01
200 0.1 PACKAGE AS/IF
1.0 10 REQUIRED100
In this region the 1 is conducting and R will pre-
= varistor
------------------------------
- for I2 V130LA10A
⁄ I 1 =(A)
1 ASSEMBLY
PEAK CURRENT (A)
100
110
log( V 2 ⁄SPECIMEN V 1 ) CURRENT X
dominate over C, R
NOTE: Typical Temperature
ON
and . RX becomes
RCoefficient
OFF of
many
Voltage
orders
vs Current, 14mm
of Size,
magnitude
25
o 50 less
75 othan
100 125 R oC
but remains larger than RON. FIGURE 16B. Z X DYNAMIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE
ENCAPSULATE FIGURE 18.
55 C to 125 C. OFF L 200
10 100
90
10 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000 20
FINAL PRODUCT TO
10-9 FIGURE
10-8 14.10RELATION
-7 10-6 OF TEMPERATURE
10-5 10-4 COEFFICIENT
10-3 10 -2
DV/DT TO R X (A CURRENT
VARISTOR ELECTRICAL TEST PEAK CURRENTVARISTORS
FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED (A)
VARISTOR CURRENT
L DC ) Upturn ZnO
Region
TO CURRENT 10 of Operation 90
LEAKAGE REGION
NORMAL FIGUREWAVEFORM
19A. V-I40CHARACTERISTICS
ADDITIVE
20 OXIDES
60 100 200FOR VARIOUS
400 600 CURRENT
1000 2000 FIGURE
FIGURE 13. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CHARACTER-
OPERATION FIGURE 7. SCHEMATIC
(MAINLY FLOW DIAGRAM OF LITTELFUSE
500 At high currents, RISEBLTIMES
203)
approaching the maximum rating, the 140
ISTIC CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE
0.1 R X REGION VARISTOR FABRICATION
PEAK CURRENT (A)
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (%/ oC)

FIGURE 15.SAMPLE
EQUIVALENT
TYPE CIRCUIT AT VARISTOR CONDUCTION varistor approximates a short-circuit. The curve departs

% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE AT 8 µs
FIGURE 19A. V-I CHARACTERISTICSWAVESHAPE
1000 MIXING FOR VARIOUS CURRENT FIGUR
(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

Varistor Voltage,V130LA10A
Voltage, (DC)
VN(DC)
Varistor 0 100 V == (3V)n
(3V)n from the nonlinear relation
DEVICE: V130LA20A and approaches0.5/1.5
the value of the 130
50
N
800NOTE: the2-V
to RISE
Refer <1cm
(LEAD AREA B/kT
TIMES
)Maximum
(NOTE) Clamping
POWDER Voltageµssection of DB450, Transient Volta
PREPARATION
material Ibulk
= IO resistance, about 1Ω-10Ω.
VARISTORThe upturn takes
CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)

Where,
Where,
FIGURE 15. EQUIVALENT nn == average
average number
number
CIRCUIT of grain
of grainCONDUCTION
AT VARISTOR boundaries
boundaries LEAKAGE ε NORMAL UPTURN 0.1

C)
LEAKAGE NORMAL VARISTOR 1/3UPTURN 0.1
STATIC RESISTANCE

µs

(%/ oC)
-0.1 POWDER
between electrodes
between electrodes place
600 as R
REGION approaches the value of
OPERATIONR . Resistor
8/ 20 R
REGION
µs
REGION S

o
10 log( I 2V22ZA3 ⁄ I1 ) where:
REGION
X IO = constant OPERATION ON ON
120

COEFFICIENT(%/
and,During
varistorα thickness,
=5 ------------------------------
D - (n + 1)d represents
NOTE: the bulk
Refer toresistance
the Maximum of the Z O
Clamping grains.
Voltage This resis-
section of DB450, Transient 0VolV
and, varistor conduction
thickness,
log( V ⁄ VD the ) ==varistor
(n + 1)dvoltage remains relatively
-0.2 2 1
1000
1000
PRESS k = Boltzmann’s Constant N 0
tance
400 is linear (which appears as a steeper slope on the log

TEMPERATURECOEFFICIENT
constant for a change inVVcurrent N ×× d d of several orders of mag-
1
≈-≈device
N
----------------
-- = 1 500 and occurs atVcurrents
plot) B = 0.9eV -0.1
1--1- 50A to 50,000A, depending on
1 ------------------------------ for---------------- -0.1
-0.3 In=effect,
nitude. the I23⁄ Iresistance,
3 1 RX, is changing in 500
SINTER SLOPE == -- 110
0.5 log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 ) SLOPE - FORM CERAMIC BODY
where,
response to current.
where, dd This == average
average
can begrain grain size
observed
size by examining the varistor size. αα -0.2
-0.2
-0.4 200
the static 0.1or dynamic resistance as a function of current.
200
ELECTRODE
(V)


200
VOLTAGE(V)

1- -1100Ω
100
10 ΩΩ

kVαα

TEMPERATURE
II == kV
RR==10 99

The static
-0.50.05resistance is defined by: L -0.3
VOLTAGE

100 -0.3
100

RR==1
-4 V 10-3
10-5 R 10= 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 MECHANICAL PACKAGE AS/IF REQUIRED
V-----
0.01R X = ---
X I L 5010
50 ASSEMBLY 90 -0.4
I CURRENT (A) R ON -0.4
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000
and the dynamic
NOTE: resistance
Typical Temperature by:
Coefficient
PEAK CURRENTof Voltage vs Current, 14mm
(A) -0.5
-0.5
ENCAPSULATE (TYPICAL(A)
(TYPICAL V130LA20A)
V130LA20A)
Size, 55oCZZtoX 125dv
oC. RX PEAK CURRENT -
= dv
------ == VV ⁄⁄ αα R X ⁄⁄ αα RESISTANCE FIGURE
IIVARISTOR
== R 10-5
10
X =R------
FIGURE 16A. 20
diSTATIC
X
di X 20
FIGURE 17.V-IEQUIVALENT CIRCUITFOR AT VARISTOR UPTURN
FIGURE 19A. CHARACTERISTICS VARIOUS CURRENT FIGURE 19B.
FIGURE 14. RELATION OF TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT FINAL PRODUCT TO
Plots of typicalDV/DT
resistance values vs current (I) are given in 10 RISE TIMES TEST
ELECTRICAL
TO VARISTOR CURRENT 10
-8 -6 -4 -2
NOTE: Ty
NOTE: Ty
FIGUREFigure
15. EQUIVALENT
16A
5 and 16B. CIRCUIT AT VARISTOR CONDUCTION 10
10-8 10
10-6 10-4
10 10-2
10 1000
10 1022
10 1044 Size, 5555ooC
14) TRACE 10
1 Size,
(1014
(10 ) CURRENT (A) LOAD
FIGURE 7. SCHEMATIC FLOW CURRENT DIAGRAM
(A) OF LITTELFUSE
NOTE: Refer toVARISTORthe Maximum VOLTAGE
Clamping Voltage section FIGURE
of DB450, Transient Voltage Su
VOLT)VOLT)

500 FABRICATION FIGURE


1 FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE WITHOUT
PLOTTED ON
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL VARISTOR V-I CURVE PLOTTED ON
VARISTOR
RESISTANCE

0.5
100
LOG-LOG SCALE
LOG-LOG SCALE
RMS INPUT

44 50 -VB/kT
11 -
100V/DIV.

500
------------ I = IO ε 500
RMS INPUT
RESISTANCE

------------
- 0.01
c 22 n22 /cm44 (LEAD
c n /cm 10 where: IO = LL (LEAD
constant
0.05
5
INDUCTANCE)
INDUCTANCE) VOLT)
INPUTVOLT) 100
100
DYNAMIC

k = Boltzmann’s Constant
PER RATED

50
50
33 (TYPICALV130LA20A)
(TYPICAL V130LA20A)
RESISTANCE

VB = 0.9eV
RMSINPUT
STATICRESISTANCE

0.01
1
(ΩRATED

10
STATIC

0.5 V TRACE 2 10
0.005 V CCRROFF
OFF
RRxx LOAD 55
RATEDRMS

(0 TO ∞
(0.002µF)
) (1000MΩ)
(1000MΩ)
(0 TO ∞) VOLTAGE
(0.002µF)
PER

0.1 CLAMPED BY
22 0.001 11
PERRATED

0.05 R L VARISTOR
STATIC

ON 0.5
(Ω

0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 R ON 0.5


(1Ω)
(1Ω)
0.01 PEAK CURRENT (A) 500ps/DIV.
00 0.4
0.8 1.2
(Ω PER

0.4
0.8 1.2 R ON CIRCUIT MODEL 0.1
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 FIGURE 11.
11. VARISTOR
VARISTOR EQUIVALENT
EQUIVALENT 0.1
FIGURE 16B. ZVVA PER
DYNAMICBOUNDARY
VARISTOR RESISTANCE FIGURE CIRCUIT MODEL 0.05
XA PER BOUNDARY
PEAK CURRENT (A) FIGURE 18. RESPONSE OF A ZnO VARISTOR TO A FAST 0.05
(Ω

FIGURE 4.
4. CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR OF RISE TIME (500ps) PULSE
FIGURE CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE
FIGURE BEHAVIOR
16A. R X STATIC VARISTOR OF
RESISTANCE FIGURE 0.01
0.01
VARISTOR RESEMBLES
RESEMBLES AA SEMICONDUCTOR
SEMICONDUCTOR FIGURE 17. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT VARISTOR UPTURN
VARISTOR
FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS 00
ABRUPT-JUNCTION REVERSED BIASED DIODE
DIODE LL
ABRUPT-JUNCTION
TO CURRENT REVERSED BIASED
Nd 10WAVEFORM
Nd ~~522 xx 10 17/cm33
17 /cm TRACE 1
LOAD
FIGURE 11
FIGURE
140
CC RROFF
OFF VOLTAGE
MS INPUT VOLT)

2
1 1000A/cm WITHOUT
LTAGE AT 8 µs

1000 WAVESHAPE VARISTOR


© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
0.5 DEVICE: V130LA20A (2.5kA)
ESISTANCE

0 BB 0.5/1.5 µs 130 DEVICE: V130LA20A 55


800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) 0(NOTE) Specifications are subject to change without notice.
TAGE (V)

V (LEAD AREA <1cm 2 ) (NOTE) Revised: 09/14/17


V 1/3 µs FIGURE 12.
12. EQUIVALENT
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT AT
AT LOW
LOW CURRENTS
CURRENTS
V/DIV.

VOLT)

LL LL FIGURE
VOLT)

600 E
EC
0.01 R
8/ 20 µs
120 100A/cm
2 11
C R
EE
e vs Current, 14mm
ENCAPSULATE 5 7. SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF LITTELFUSE
FIGURE
Metal-Oxide
500 Varistors (MOVs) VARISTOR FABRICATION
FIGURE 12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
TOAT LOW CURRENTS

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)


EFFICIENT FINAL PRODUCT
ELECTRICAL TEST 1

(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)


100

DYNAMIC RESISTANCE
50 0.5 -VB/kT
20A) 100 FIGURE 7. SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF LITTELFUSE I = IO ε

STATIC RESISTANCE

100V/DIV.
10 VARISTOR FABRICATION where: IO = constant
Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors
80 0.01
(continued)
VARISTOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

5 0.05
60 k = Boltzmann’s Constant
VNOM VALUE AT 25oC (%)

-VB/kT
50 1 VB = 0.9eV
= IO ε
I0.5 0.01
40 The V-I characteristic of Figure 19A, shows how the re-
Speed ofwhere:
ResponseIO and Rate Effects
= constant 0.005
sponse of the varistor is affected by the current waveform.
EL 30 0.1 k = Boltzmann’s Constant From such data, an "overshoot" effect can be defined as
The varistor
0.05 action depends on a conduction mechanism L
VB = 0.9eV being the
0.001relative increase in the maximum voltage appear-
similar to that of other semiconductor devices. For this 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100
20
reason, 0.01
conduction occursSPECIMEN
very rapidly, with no apparent ing across the varistor during a fast current rise, using the
0.01 0.1 1V130LA10A 10 100 PEAK RCURRENT (A)
time lag – even into the nanosecond (ns) range. Figure 18, conventional 8/20µs current wave as the reference. Figure
ON
PEAK CURRENT (A) 19B, shows
shows a composite
25 50 75 photograph
100 125oCL of two voltage traces with FIGUREtypical
16B. Z Xclamping
DYNAMICvoltage variation
VARISTOR with rise
RESISTANCE F
and FIGURE 16A. R X STATIC VARISTOR RESISTANCE FIGURE
without a varistor inserted in a very low inductance time for various
FIGURE current levels.
17. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT VARISTOR UPTURN
10
impulse
10-9 generator.
10 -8 10-7 The10 second
-6 10trace
-5
R ON
(which
10 -4 is-3not10synchro-
10 -2
0 100 FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS
nized with5the first, but merely superimposed on the oscil-
VARISTOR CURRENT (A DC )
TO CURRENT WAVEFORM TRACE 1
loscope
FIGURE screen) shows
13. TEMPERATURE that the voltage
DEPENDENCE OF THEclamping
CHARACTER- effect of LOAD
CE
TS FIGURE VOLTAGE
(Ω PER RATED RMS INPUT VOLT)

theFIGURE
varistor
ISTIC1 occurs
17.
CURVE in
EQUIVALENT
IN less
THE than
LEAKAGE1.0
CIRCUIT ns.
AT VARISTOR
REGION UPTURN WITHOUT
VARISTOR
DYNAMIC RESISTANCE

0.5 1000
DEVICE: V130LA20A WAVESHAPE
TRACE 1 800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE) 0.5/1.5 µs

100V/DIV.
(V)
LOAD
0.01 VOLTAGE 1/3 µs

CLAMPING VOLTAGE
600 8/ 20 µs
0.05 log( I 2 ⁄ I 1 ) WITHOUT
α = ------------------------------- VARISTOR
log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 )
400
0.01 1
100V/DIV.

= ------------------------------- for I2 ⁄ I 1 = 1
0.005 log( V 2 ⁄ V 1 ) TRACE 2
LOAD
VOLTAGE
200
CLAMPED BY
0.001 VARISTOR
0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100
TRACE 2 (A)
PEAK CURRENT 500ps/DIV.
LOAD L 10
VOLTAGE RESISTANCE
FIGURE 16B. Z X DYNAMIC VARISTOR 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000
CLAMPED BY FIGURE 18. RESPONSE OF A ZnO VARISTOR TO A FAST
RX VARISTOR RISE TIME PEAK CURRENT
(500ps) PULSE(A)
6
0 100
3 10 -2 FIGURE 19A. V-I CHARACTERISTICS FOR VARIOUS CURRENT FI
FIGURE 19. RESPONSE OF500ps/DIV.
LEAD-MOUNTED VARISTORS RISE TIMES
TO CURRENT WAVEFORM
TANCE FIGURE FIGURE
15. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
18. RESPONSE OFAT
A VARISTOR CONDUCTION
ZnO VARISTOR TO A FAST
RACTER-
RISE TIME (500ps) PULSE 140
NOTE: Refer to the Maximum
2 Clamping Voltage section of DB450, Transien
1000A/cm
% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE AT 8 µs

1000
ISTORS In the conventional lead–mounted devices,
DEVICE: V130LA20A WAVESHAPE
the inductance 130 (2.5kA)
800 (LEAD AREA <1cm 2) (NOTE) 0.5/1.5 µs DEVICE: V130LA20A
(V)

of the leads would completely mask the fast action 1/3 µs


of the (LEAD AREA <1cm 2 ) (NOTE)
AT VOLTAGE

varistor;
600 therefore, the test circuit for Figure 18,
140 required
8/ 20 µs
100A/cm
2
120
insertion of a small piece
1000A/cm
2
of varistor material in a coaxial (250A)
8 µs

SHAPE 400 (2.5kA)


/1.5 µs line 130
to demonstrate the intrinsic varistor response.
DEVICE: V130LA20A
CLAMPING

2
(LEAD AREA <1cm 2 ) (NOTE) 110 10A/cm
1/3 µs
% OF CLAMPING VOLTAGE

Tests made on lead– mounted devices, even with careful (25A)


/ 20 µs 2
120 100A/cm
attention
200 to minimizing(250A)lead length, show that the voltages 100
induced in the loop formed by the leads contribute a sub- 100%
stantial AT
110 part of the voltage appearing across the terminals
2
10A/cm
(25A) 8µs
of a varistor at high current and fast current rise. Fortu-
10 90
20 currents
40 60which 100 can be 200 400 by 600a transient
1000 2000 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 2 4 6 8 10
nately, the delivered
100
source are invariably slower PEAKin rise time
CURRENT (A) than the observed
100% PULSE RISE TIME ( µs)

voltage AT
FIGUREtransients. The applications FOR
19A. V-I CHARACTERISTICS most frequently
VARIOUS CURRENT FIGURE 19B. OVERSHOOT DEFINED WITH REFERENCE TO
8µs
encountered
90 for varistors
RISE TIMES involve current rise times longer THE BASIC 8/20µs CURRENT PULSE
1000
UCTION 2000 than 0.5µs. 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 2 4 6 8 10
Transient suppressors can be exposed to high currents for PULSE RISE TIME ( µs)
NOTE: Refer to the Maximum Clamping Voltage shortVoltage
durations in the nanoseconds to millisecond time
US CURRENT Voltage
FIGURErate-of-rise is not the
19B. OVERSHOOT best term
DEFINED WITH to usesection
when
REFERENCE
of DB450, Transient
TOdis-
Suppression Devices.
frame.
cussing the response
THE BASICof 8/20µs
a varistor to a fast
CURRENT impulse (unlike
PULSE
spark gaps where a finite time is involved in switching from
Littelfuse Varistors are connected in parallel to the load, and
nonconducting to conducting state). The response time of
ection of DB450, Transient Voltage Suppression Devices. any voltage drop in the leads to the varistor will reduce its
the varistor to the transient current that a circuit can deliver
effectiveness. Best results are obtained by using short
is the appropriate characteristic to consider.
leads that are close together to reduce induced voltages
and a low ohmic resistance to reduce I • R drops.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors (continued)

Definitions (IEEE Standard C62.33, 1982) Test Waveform

A characteristic is an inherent and measurable property of a At high current and energy levels, varistor characteristics
device. Such a property may be electrical, mechanical, or ther- are measured, of necessity, with an impulse waveform.
mal, and can be expressed as a value for stated conditions. Shown in Figure 21, is the ANSI Standard C62.1 wave-
shape, an exponentially decaying waveform representative
A rating is a value which establishes either a limiting capa- of lightning surges and the discharge of stored energy in
bility or a limiting condition (either maximum or minimum) reactive circuits.
for operation of a device. It is determined for specified
values of environment and operation. The ratings indicate a The 8/20µs current wave (8µs rise and 20µs to 50% decay of
level of stress which may be applied to the device without peak value) is used as a standard, based on industry practic-
causing degradation or failure. Varistor symbols are defined es, for the characteristics and ratings described. One excep-
on the linear V-I graph illustrated in Figure 20. tion is the energy rating (WTM), where a longer waveform of
10/1000µs is used. This condition is more representative of
IP
the high energy surges usually experienced from inductive
discharge of motors and transformers. Varistors are rated for
a maximum pulse energy surge that results in a varistor volt-
IX age (VN) shift of less than +/-10% from initial value.
CURRENT (A)

100
90

IN(DC)

IPM
50
ID
VM(DC) VPM VN(DC) VX VC
VOLTAGE (V)

VIRTUAL START OF WAVE


VARISTOR 10
1000 SYMBOL
IMPULSE DURATION
VIRTUAL FRONT DURATION
VN(DC) = 1.25 x RISETIME FROM 10% TO 90%
PEAK CURRENT (A)
FIGURE 21. DEFINITION OF PULSE CURRENT WAVEFORM
10

Power Dissipation Ratings

When transients occur in rapid succession the average


10-6 IN(DC) 10º power dissipation is the energy WTM(watt-seconds) per
pulse times the number of pulses per second. The power
CURRENT (A)
so developed must be within the specifications shown
FIGURE 20 – I-V GRAPH ILLUSTRATING in the Device Ratings and Characteristics Table for the
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
specific device. Certain parameters must be derated at
high temperatures.
Voltage Clamping Device
100
A clamping device, such as an MOV, refers to a characteristic
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

90
in which the effective resistance changes from a high to low 80
state as a function of applied voltage. In its conductive state, 70
a voltage divider action is established between the clamping 60
device and the source impedance of the circuit. Clamping ML, MLE, MHS, MLN
50 CH,RA SERIES
devices are generally “dissipative” devices, converting much 40
of the transient electrical energy to heat. 30 BA/BB, CA, DA/DB,
LA, "C"III, HA, MA,
20
Choosing the most appropriate suppressor depends upon 10
UltraMOV, ZA SERIES
a balance between the application, its operation, voltage
0
transient threats expected and sensitivity levels of the -55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
components requiring protection. Form factor/package AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (ºC)
style also must be considered. FIGURE 22. DEVICE RATINGS AND CHARACTERISTICS

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Characteristics, Terms and Consideration Factors (continued)

TABLE 3. VARISTOR CHARACTERISTICS (IEEE STANDARD C62.33-1982 SUBSECTION 2.3 AND 2.4)

Terms and Descriptions Symbol


Clamping Voltage. Peak voltage across the varistor measured under conditions of a specified peak VC pulse current
and specified waveform. NOTE: Peak voltage and peak currents are not necessarily coincidental in time.
VC

Rated Peak Single Pulse Transient Currents (Varistor). Maximum peak current which may be applied for a single
8/20µs impulse, with rated line voltage also applied, without causing device failure.
ITM

Lifetime Rated Pulse Currents (Varistor). Derated values of ITM for impulse durations exceeding that of an 8/20µs
waveshape, and for multiple pulses which may be applied over device rated lifetime.
-

Rated RMS Voltage (Varistor). Maximum continuous sinusoidal RMS voltage which may be applied. VM(AC)
Rated DC Voltage (Varistor). Maximum continuous DC voltage which may be applied. VM(DC)
DC Standby Current (Varistor). Varistor current measured at rated voltage, VM(DC). ID
For certain applications, some of the following terms may be useful.
Nominal Varistor Voltage. Voltage across the varistor measured at a specified pulsed DC current, IN(DC), of
specific duration. IN(DC) of specific duration. IN(DC) is specified by the varistor manufacturer.
VN(DC)

Peak Nominal Varistor Voltage. Voltage across the varistor measured at a specified peak AC current, IN(AC), of
specific duration. IN(AC) is specified by the varistor manufacturer.
VN(AC)

Rated Recurrent Peak Voltage (Varistor). Maximum recurrent peak voltage which may be applied for a
specified duty cycle and waveform.
VPM

Rated Single Pulse Transient Energy (Varistor). Energy which may be dissipated for a single impulse of maximum
rated current at a specified waveshape, with rated RMS voltage or rated DC voltage also applied, without causing WTM
device failure.
Rated Transient Average Power Dissipation (Varistor). Maximum average power which may be dissipated due to a
group of pulses occurring within a specified isolated time period, without causing device failure.
Varistor Voltage. Voltage across the varistor measured at a given current, IX. VX
Voltage Clamping Ratio (Varistor). A figure of merit measure of the varistor clamping effectiveness as defined by
the symbols (VC) ÷ (VM(AC)), (VC) ÷ (VM(DC)).
VC /VPM

Nonlinear Exponent. A measure of varistor nonlinearity between two given operating currents, I1 and I2, as
described by I = kVa where k is a device constant, I1 ≤ I ≤ I2, and a12 = ( logI2 / I1 ) ÷ ( logV2 / V1 ) a
Dynamic Impedance (Varistor). A measure of small signal impedance at a given operating point as defined by:
ZX = ( dVX ) ÷ ( dIX )
ZX

Resistance (Varistor). Static resistance of the varistor at a given operating point as defined by:
RX = ( VX) ÷ ( IX )
RX

Capacitance (Varistor). Capacitance between the two terminals of the varistor measured at C specified
frequency and bias.
C

AC Standby Power (Varistor). Varistor AC power dissipation measured at rated RMS voltage VM(AC). PD
Voltage Overshoot (Varistor). The excess voltage above the clamping voltage of the device for a given current that
occurs when current waves of less than 8µs virtual front duration are applied. This value may be expressed as a % of VOS
the clamping voltage (VC) for an 8/20 current wave.
Response Time (Varistor). The time between the point at which the wave exceeds the clamping voltage level (VC)
and the peak of the voltage overshoot. For the purpose of this definition, clamping voltage as defined with an 8/20µs -
current waveform of the same peak current amplitude as the waveform used for this response time.
Overshoot Duration (Varistor). The time between the point voltage level (VC) and the point at which the voltage
overshoot has decayed to 50% of its peak. For the purpose of this definition, clamping voltage is defined with an -
8/20µs current waveform of the same peak current amplitude as the waveform used for this overshoot duration.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Connection Examples


Single Phase 3 Phase
DC A
Single Phase Single Phase Three Phase 3 Phase
Single Phase 3 Phase
1
LINE
380V SUPPRESSOR
1
LINE 220V 1 CONNECTION
LINE 380V SUPPRESSOR
1 - 4 SUPPRESSOR
1 COMMON
380V 220V220V CONNECTION
2 - 4 CONNECTION
NEUTRAL 220V 220V MODE
1 4 3-4 1-4 TRANSIENT
1 1 - 42 - 4 COMMON
NEUTRAL 220V COMMON
MODE
220V 220V 2 - 43 - 4
NEUTRAL3 2 3 220V2 4 MODE
4 3-4 TRANSIENT
GND TRANSIENT
3 2 FIGURE 25A. 3 PHASE 220V/380V,
3 2
3 2 3
UNGROUNDED 2
GND
GND FIGURE 25A. 3 PHASE 220V/380V,
FIGURE 23. FIGURE 25A. 3 PHASE 220V/380V,
UNGROUNDED
UNGROUNDED
SUPPRESSOR
FIGURE 23. (380V) 1 CONNECTION
FIGURE
This is the most complete protection one23.
can select, but in 220V 220V SUPPRESSOR
(380V) 1 1 - 2 SUPPRESSOR
many cases only Varistor
LINE 1 or Varistor 1 and 2 are selected. (380V) 1 CONNECTION
2 - 3 CONNECTION FIGURE 26A. INCORREC
3 2220V 220V
3-1 1-2
220V 220V 220V
1 - 22 - 3 FIGURE 26. COM
FIGURE 26
LINE 3 2 FIGURE 26A.
SINGLE PHASE LINE 110V
2 - 33 - 1 AND
2 WIRE 110V FIGURE 25B. 3 PHASE 3220V OR 220V 2
380V, 3-1 FIGU
SINGLE PHASEGND UNGROUNDED 220V FIGURE
SINGLE PHASE 110V FIGURE 25B. 3 PHASE 220V OR 380V,
2 WIRE 110V 110V FIGURE 25B. 3 PHASE 220V OR 380V,
2 WIRE 110V GND UNGROUNDED
GND UNGROUNDED
1 SUPPRESSOR
LINE CONNECTION
220V 220V
1 SUPPRESSOR
1 - 2 SUPPRESSOR DIFFERENTIAL
SINGLE PHASE LINE 1 CONNECTION
LINE 240V 3 2220V 2220V
- 3 CONNECTION MODE
2 WIRE 240V 220V220V 220V
1-3 1-2 TRANSIENTDIFFERENTIAL
DIFFERENTIAL
SINGLE PHASE GND 3 2 1 - 22 - 3 MODE
SINGLE2 PHASE 240V 2 - 3 MODE
WIRE 240V
2 WIRE 240V GND
240V FIGURE 25C. 3 PHASE 3220V, 220V2PHASE
ONE
220V 1-3
1-3 TRANSIENT
TRANSIENT
LINE GND GROUNDED
FIGURE 25C. 3 PHASE 220V, ONE PHASE
FIGURE 25C. 3 PHASE 220V, ONE PHASE
GROUNDED
SINGLE PHASE LINE
LINE 120V
GROUNDED
3 WIRE 120V/240V GND OR LOWER VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR
SINGLE PHASE
NEUTRAL CONNECTION
SINGLE PHASE
3 WIRE 120V/240V 240V 120V 1
3 WIRE 120V/240V GND OR 120V LOWER VOLTAGE
1-3 SUPPRESSOR
GND OR
NEUTRAL 220V 220V LOWER VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR
CONNECTION
4 1 1 - 2 CONNECTION FIGURE 27A. INCORRE
NEUTRAL 120V 240V
240V 1 2-4 1-3
3 2220V 220V 1 - 31 - 2
LINE
120V 220V
110V 110V 4 220V3 - 4 1 - 2
FIGUREFIGURE
27. DIFFE
2
120V 4 2-4 FIGUREAND
27A.
LINE 3 2 2 - 43 - 4
3 2 FIGU
LINE 110V 110V 3-4 FIGURE
FIGURE 24. FIGURE 25D. 3 PHASE 110V220V
110V

FIGURE 24. FIGURE 25D. 3 PHASE 220V


FIGURE 24. FIGURE 25D. 3 PHASE 220V
1 208V 2
SUPPRESSOR
CONNECTION
1 208V 2
1 208V 21 - 2 SUPPRESSOR
0V
11

SUPPRESSOR
CONNECTION
1 - 3 CONNECTION
0V

11

208V 208V 3-2 1-2


0V
11

110V 1 - GND 1 - 21 - 3
11V
11

0V

208V 1 - 33 - 2
0V

11

208V 2 - GND
208V 110V 208V 3 - 21 - GND
3 - GND
3 110V 1 - GND
2 - GND
2 - GND
3 - GND
If only 3 suppressor use 1-GND, 2-GND,
3 3-GND
3 - GND
3
FIGURE 25E. 3 PHASE
If only 120V/208V,
3 suppressor 4-WIRE
use 1-GND, 2-GND, 3-GND
If only 3 suppressor use 1-GND, 2-GND, 3-GND
FIGURE 25E. 3 PHASE 120V/208V, 4-WIRE
FIGURE 25E. 3 PHASE 120V/208V, 4-WIRE
1 415V 2
SUPPRESSOR
CONNECTION
1 415V 12- 2 SUPPRESSOR
240V 1 415V
240V 2 SUPPRESSOR
CONNECTION
1 - 3 CONNECTION
415V 3-2 1-2
415V 240V 240V 1 - 21 - 3
240V 240V1 - GND
2 -415V
GND 1 - 33-2
240V

415V 415V
3 - GND 3 - 21 - GND
415V 1 - GND
3 2 - GND
240V

2 - GND
3 - GND
240V

If only 3 suppressor use 1-GND,3 2-GND, 3-GND3 - GND


3
FIGUREIf 25F.
only33PHASE 240V/415V
suppressor use 1-GND, 2-GND, 3-GND
If only 3 suppressor use 1-GND, 2-GND, 3-GND
For higher voltagesFIGURE
use same25F. 3 PHASE 240V/415V
connections, but
FIGURE 25F. 3 PHASE 240V/415V
select varistors for the appropriate voltage rating.
For higher voltages use same connections, but
For higher voltages use same connections, but
select varistors for the appropriate voltage rating.
select varistors for the appropriate voltage rating.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Connection Examples (continued)

DC Application

DC applications require connection between plus and mi-


nus or plus and ground and minus and ground.

For example, if a transient towards ground exists on all


3 phases (common mode transients) only transient
suppressors connected phase to ground would absorb
DC Applications
energy. Transient suppressors connected phase to phase
would not be effective.

RESSOR
NECTION DC Applications
-4 COMMON
-4 MODE
-4 TRANSIENT
RESSOR
NECTION
-4 COMMON
-4 MODE
-4 TRANSIENT

RESSOR
NECTION
-2
-3 FIGURE 26A. INCORRECT FIGURE 26B. CORRECT
-1
FIGURE 26. COMMON MODE TRANSIENT
RESSOR AND CORRECT SOLUTION
V,
NECTION
-2
-3 FIGURE 26A. INCORRECT FIGURE 26B. CORRECT
-1 On the other hand26.
if aCOMMON
differential mode of transient (phase
FIGURE MODE TRANSIENT
ESSOR
ECTION to phase) exists then transient suppressors
AND CORRECT SOLUTION connected
V,
-2 phase to phase would be the correct solution.
DIFFERENTIAL
-3 MODE
-3 TRANSIENT
ESSOR
ASE
ECTION
-2 DIFFERENTIAL
-3 MODE
-3 TRANSIENT
RESSOR
NECTION
ASE
1-3
1-2 FIGURE 27A. INCORRECT FIGURE 27B. CORRECT
2-4
3-4 FIGURE 27. DIFFERENTIAL MODE TRANSIENT
RESSOR
NECTION AND CORRECT SOLUTION
1-3
1-2 FIGURE 27A. INCORRECT FIGURE 27B. CORRECT
2-4
3-4 FIGURE 27. DIFFERENTIAL MODE TRANSIENT
ESSOR AND CORRECT SOLUTION
CTION
2
3 This is just a selection of some of the more important varia-
2
GND tions in connecting transient suppressors.
ESSOR
GND
CTION
GND
2 The logical approach is to connect the transient suppressor
33-GND between the points of the potential difference created by
2
E
GND the transient.The suppressor will then equalize or reduce
GND these potentials to lower and harmless levels.
GND
SOR
3-GND
TION
E

GND
SOR
GND
TION
GND

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


3-GND Specifications are subject to change without notice.
GND Revised: 09/14/17
GND
GND
s, but
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Varistor Selection Worksheet

Step 1. Determine the circuit’s operating parameters. Step 3. Guidelines for Selecting a Varistor
(complete as much of the following information as possible). If a response to one of the requirements below is "False," refer
to appropriate corrective action notes (A-F) at bottom of list:
1-a. Source and path of the transient
3-a. Varistor voltage value - Tolerance of varistor ≥ Required
________ Source ________ Path
varistor voltage value (2-a) ______True ______False (A)
1-b. Normal operating voltage of protected device
3-b. Varistor Maximum clamping voltage value < Maximum
________ (VAC) , or ________ (V)RMS DC allowable voltage of protected equipment or device (1-d)
(Max. current should be less than or equal to the current at which
1-c. Tolerance of normal operating voltage (1-b) maximum clamping voltage is measured).
________ (V) or ________ Unknown ______True______False (B)

1-d. Max. allowable voltage of protected device 3-c. Varistor maximum peak current value > Maximum
expected surge current (1-e) ______True ______False (C)
________ (VAC) or ________ (V)RMS DC
Note: If surge current waveform is not 8 x 20µs, use Pulse
1-e. Maximum expected surge current and number of hits Lifetime Ratings curves.
(Specify 8x20µs waveform equivalent of surge current)
3-d. Varistor maximum energy rating > Maximum energy
________ (A) ________ (# of hits)
applied to system (1-f) ______True ______False (D)
1-f. Maximum energy applied to device in surge event
3-e. Varistor maximum rated power > Maximum power applied
________ (Joules) (E=1.4xVxIxT) to system (1-g) ______True ______False (E)

1-g. Maximum power applied to device in surge event 3-f. Varistor capacitance < Maximum allowable system
capacitance (1-h) ______True ______False (F)
________ (W) (P=VxI)
Corrective action notes:
1-h. Maximum allowable varistor capacitance (@1kHz; 0VDC A. Select next varistor on the list (i.e. next varistor with
bias) (This is the maximum capacitance of the varistor device that increasing varistor voltage value) and then re-verify 3-a.
will not impair the functionality of the circuit) B. Select previous varistor on the list (i.e. previous varistor with
________ (pF)
decreasing varistor voltage value) and then re-verify 3-b.
C. Select next varistor diameter level and then re-verify 3-c.*
1-i. Required safety standards
(Name of standards required, such as UL, CSA, VDE, etc.) D. Select next varistor diameter level and then re-verify 3-d.*
E. Select next varistor diameter level and then re-verify 3-e.*
F. Select lower varistor diameter level and then re-verify 3-c,
Step 2. Calculate voltage value. 3-d, 3-e and 3-f.*
2-a. The required varistor voltage value should be equal to: * If varistor voltage is below 82V, selecting an 82V ROV may
be preferable over a higher diameter part.
the operating voltage of the protected equipment or device*
+
the tolerance of the operating voltage. Step 4. Verify the following system conditions.

If the tolerance is not known, multiply the operating voltage of 4-a. Leakage current of the selected varistor is appropriate for
protected equipment or device by 1.10 to 1.25 (i.e. 10–25% above the circuit ______True ______False
operating voltage value).
4-b. Verify the performance of the varistor under fault
If the operating voltage is in AC (VRMS) convert to VDC. conditions ______Verified
____ Operating voltage AC (V) x 1.414 = ______________________ Users should Independently evaluate the suitability of, and test
Operating voltage (V)RMS DC
each MOV device in their application for safety and suitability
________Operating voltage of equipment or device (VDC) with the end application.
+
_________Tolerance (V) = _____________________
Required varistor voltage (V)
- or -
____Operating voltage of equipment or device (VDC )
x
(1.10 to 1.25) = _____________ Required varistor voltage (V)

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Agency Standards

Littelfuse Varistors have been investigated and evaluated


are used to qualify and quantify ESD events. Since many
and are certified, recognized or otherwise approved with
circuits or systems must demonstrate immunity to ESD,
pertinent safety or standards organizations. Following are
these standards are often incorporated in the testing of
descriptions of some of the applicable standards.
ESD capability. Of particular concern is the immunity level
for semiconductors. The "standards" include Human Body
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Model (HBM) to MIL-STD-883, Machine Model (MM) such
as EIAJ IC121, and Charged Device Model (CDM) such
UL writes "Standards" to which products are investigated. as US ESD DS 5.3. The Human Body Model, Machine
Upon completion of the tests, a "Listing" or "Recognition" to Model and Charged Device Model primarily relate to
the standard with conditions of acceptability is given under manufacturing and testing process of an IC.
a unique file number. All of Littelfuse applicable Varistors
are in the "Recognized Components" category to one or One of the most severe is IEC 61000-4-2 from the
more of the following standards: International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and
referenced in the EMC directive. Level 4 of this test
• UL1449 Transient Voltage Suppressors. method is the highest level, subjecting the device under

UL497B Protectors for Data and test to 8kV contact discharge method (preferred) and/or
Communication and Fire Alarm Circuits. 15kV air discharge. Each Littelfuse technology is designed
(Note that the terms "Approved" or "Certified" are not for this level. Recommended Littelfuse devices for these
correct in referring to devices listed or recognized by UL.) applications include Silicon Protection Arrays, PulseGuard®
ESD Suppressors, and ML, MLE, MHS or MLN series
Multilayer Varistors.
VDE (Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker)
The designer should be aware of the ESD ratings of
Based in Germany, this is the Association of German the semiconductors used in the circuit. For example,
Engineers who develop specific safety standards and test semiconductor manufacturers that rate their devices to
requirements. VDE tests and certifies devices or products, MIL-STD-883 to 2kV may not pass 2kV when subjected to
assigning a license number. Littelfuse Radial Varistors are the more difficult IEC test method (150pF / 330Ω instead
currently certified under license number 104846–E having of 100pF / 1500Ω). Additionally, even if semiconductors
successfully met CECC standard 42 201-006 (issue 1/1996). do meet some level of ESD immunity to IEC standards,
that does not imply that additional ESD suppression is not
required. Real world ESD transients can exceed the peak
CECC (CENELEC Electronic Components Committee) currents and voltages as defined by the standards and can
have much faster rise times.
Based in Brussels, CENELEC is the “European Committee
for Electrotechnical Standardization” which provides IEC 61000-4-2 consists of four test severity levels of
harmonized standards for the European Community based ESD immunity using both a Contact Discharge and Air
upon IEC and ISO publications. All Littelfuse Radial Varistor Discharge test method. The EUT or DUT may be subjected
Series are approved to Specification 42201-006. to increasing levels of severity until failure. Or, a particular
level of immunity may be prescribed for EM compatibility
of an end product.
CSA (Canadian Standards Association)
For more information about the IEC 61000-4-2 test method,
Based in Canada, this regulatory agency writes standards
see Application Note AN9734, “IEC Electromagnetic
to which it conducts product safety tests. Upon successful
Compatibility Standards for Industrial Process
completion, a file number is established, the product is
Measurement and Control Equipment.”
“Certified” and may display the CSA logo as indication.
Specific Littelfuse Varistors have been tested to CSA
Standard number 22.2, No.1-94. Littelfuse file number is
91788.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Standards

Several industry standards and specifications exist that

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Agency Standards (continued)

AGENCY AND SPECIFICATION NUMBER


UL UL CSA VDE IEC DSSC
IEC 61051-1
SERIES UL1449 UL497B 22.2-1 Annex Q MIL, QPL
and 61051-2
Surface Mount MOVs:
CH X

SM7 Note 1

SM20 Note 1

Radial Lead MOVs:


TMOV® 14mm
X Note 1
and 20mm
TMOV® 25mm X

UltraMOV™ X X X Note 1

25S UltraMOV™ X

C–III X X X Note 1

LA X X X X Note 1

ZA Note 1 X Note 1 Note 1

Industrial / High Energy MOVs:


BA X

BB

DA/DB X

HA, HC X X

TMOV 34mm®
X

HB, HF, HG, DHB X X

CA60 Disk

Special / Application Speciric MOVs:


MA

RA Note 1 X Note 1

HI REL, QPL Parts X

NOTES:
1) Applies to certain models only, see specific product Data Sheet for details.
• Not all types within each series are applicable for recognition.
• Not all Littelfuse Varistors products require safety listing due to their low operating voltage and
intended applications. These includes ML, MLN, MLE, MHS surface mount (leadless) devices.
• The information provided is accurate at the time of printing. Changes can occur based upon new
products offered by Littelfuse, revision of an existing standard, or introduction of a new standard
or agency requirement. Contact Littelfuse Sales for latest information.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)

Legal Disclaimers

Liability Disclaimer

Littelfuse, Inc. its affiliates, agents, and employees, Specifications, descriptions and data contained in this
and all persons acting on its or their behalf (collectively, document are believed to be accurate. However, users
“Littelfuse”), disclaim any and all liability for any errors, should independently evaluate each product for the
inaccuracies or incompleteness contained here or in any particular application. Littelfuse reserves the right to
other disclosure relating to any product. Littelfuse disclaims change any information contained herein without notice
any and all liability arising out of the use or application and may, at its sole discretion, change the design,
of any product described herein or of any information manufacture or construction of any product. Visit
provided herein to the maximum extent permitted by law. www.littelfuse.com for the most up-to-date information.
The product specifications do not expand or otherwise Littelfuse’s only obligations for any of its products are
modify Littelfuse terms and conditions of purchase, specified in its Standard Terms and Conditions and
including but not limited to the warranty expressed therein, Littelfuse shall not be liable for any indirect, consequential
which apply to these products. or incidental damages from any sale or use of any of its
products.
Right to Make Changes

Littelfuse reserves the right to make any and all changes to


the products described herein without notice.

Not Intended for Use in Life Support or Life Saving


Applications

The products shown herein are not designed for use


in life sustaining or life saving applications unless
otherwise expressly indicated. Customers using or selling
Littelfuse products not expressly indicated for use in such
applications do so entirely at their own risk and agree
to fully indemnify Littelfuse for any damages arising or
resulting from such use or sale. Please contact authorized
Littelfuse personnel to obtain terms and conditions
regarding products designed for such applications.

Intellectual Property

No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise,


to any intellectual property rights is granted by this
document or by any conduct of Littelfuse. Product
names and markings noted herein may be registered
trademarks of their respective owners. Littelfuse makes
no representations or warranties of non-infringement or
misappropriation of any third party intellectual property
rights unless specifically provided for herein.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MHS Series

MHS Varistor Series RoHS

Description
The Multilayer High–Speed MHS Series is a very-low
capacitance extension to the Littelfuse ML family of
transient voltage surge suppression devices available in an
0402 and 0603–size surface mount chip.

The MHS Series provides protection from ESD and EFT in


high–speed data line and other high frequency applications.
The low capacitance of the MHS Series permits usage
in analog or digital circuits where it will not attenuate or
distort the desired signal or data.

Their small size is ideal for high–density printed circuit


boards, being typically applied to protect intergrated
Size Table circuits and other sensitive components. They are
particularly well suited to suppress ESD events including
Metric EIA
those specified in IEC 61000-4-2 or other standards used
1005 0402 for Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC) testing.

1608 0603 The MHS Series is manufactured from semiconducting


ceramics and is supplied in a leadless, surface mount
package. The MHS Series is also compatible with modern
Additional Information reflow and wave soldering prcesses.

Littelfuse Inc. manufactures other multilayer varistor series


products, see the ML, MLE, MLN and AUML Series data
sheets.
Datasheet Resources Samples

Applications Features
• Data, Diagnostic • Mobile • Halogen-Free and 61000-4-2 (Level 4)
I/O Ports Communications RoHS compliant • EFT/B rated to IEC
• Universal Serial • Computer/DSP • 3pF, 12pF, and 22pF 61000-4-4 (Level 4)
Bus (USB) Products capacitance versions • Low leakage currents
suitable for high–speed
• Video & Audio Ports • Industrial Instruments • -55ºC to +125ºC
data rate lines
• Portable/Hand- Including Medical operating temp. range
• ESD rated to IEC
Held Products • Inherently bi-directional

Absolute Maximum Ratings


• For ratings of individual members of a series, see device ratings and specifications table.

Continuous MHS Series Units


Steady State Applied Voltage:
DC Voltage Range (VM(DC)) : V0402/0603MHS03 ≤ 42 V
V0402/0603MHS12 ≤ 18 V
V0402/0603MHS22 ≤ 09 V
Operating Ambient Temperature Range (TA) -55 to +125 O
C
Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) -55 to +150 O
C

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MHS Series

Device Ratings and Specifications

Performance Specifications (25 ºC)


Typical
Typical Leakage Typical
Maximum Maximum ESD Clamp Inductance
Current at Specified Capacitance at
Part Clamping Voltage (Note 1) (from Impedance
DC Voltage 1MHz (1V p-p)
Number Voltage At Analysis)
1A (8X20µs) 8kV Contact (Note 2) 15kV AIR (Note 3) 3.5V 5.5V C (Note 4)
L
Clamp Clamp P IL MIN MAX
(Vc) (V) (V) (µA) (µA) (pF) (pF) (nH)
V0402MHS03N (Note 5) 135 <300 <400 0.5 1.00 2 5
<1.0
V0402MHS03F (Note 7) 135 <300 <400 0.5 1.00 2 5 <1.0
V0603MHS03N (Note 5) 135 <300 <400 0.5 1.00 1 6 <1.0
V0603MHS03F (Note 7) 135 <300 <400 0.5 1.00 1 6 <1.0
V0402MHS12N (Note 5)
55 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 8 16 <1.0
V0402MHS12F (Note 7) 55 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 8 16 <1.0
V0603MHS12N (Note 5) 55 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 8 16 <1.0
V0603MHS12F (Note 7) 55 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 8 16 <1.0
V0402MHS22N (Note 5) 30 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 15 29 <1.0
V0402MHS22F (Note 7)
30 <125 <160 0.5 1.00 15 29 <1.0
V0603MHS22N (Note 5) 30 <65 <100 0.5 1.00 15 29 <1.0
V0603MHS22F (Note 7) 30 <65 <100 0.5 1.00 15 29 <1.0
NOTES:
1. Tested to IEC-61000-4-2 Human Body Model (HBM) discharge test circuit.
2. Direct discharge to device terminals (IEC preferred test method).
3. Corona discharge through air (represents actual ESD event).
4. Capacitance may be customized, contact your Littelfuse Sales Representative.
5. V0402MHSxxx (0402 size devices) available as "R" packaging option only. Example: V0402MHS03NR. See Packaging and Tape and Reel sections (last page) for additional information.
6. The typical capacitance rating is discrete component test result.
7. Items are lead free and antimony free, available as "R" packing option only.

Peak Current and Energy Derating Curve Standby Current at Normalized Varistor Voltage and
Temperature
For applications exceeding 125ºC ambient temperature, the peak surge
current and energy ratings must be reduced as shown below. 1.2
NORMALIZED VARISTOR VOLTAGE (V)

1.0
100

0.8
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

80
25O
0.6
60
85O
0.4
40
125O
0.2
20

0.0
0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
-55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
CURRENT (mA)
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( oC) Figure 2
Figure FIGURE
1 1. PEAK CURRENT AND ENERGY DERATING CURVE
FIGURE 2. STANDBY CURRENT AT NORMALIZED VARISTOR
VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE

Disclaimer Notice - Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, users should independently evaluate the suitability of and
test each product selected for their own applications. Littelfuse products are not designed for, and may not be used in, all applications.
Read complete Disclaimer Notice at www.littelfuse.com/disclaimer-electronics.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MHS Series

Nominal Voltage Stability to Multiple ESD Impulses Insertion Loss (S21) Characteristics
(8kV Contact Discharges per IEC 61000-4-2)
60 0

V0402MHS03
NOMINAL VOLTAGE AT 1mADC

50 V0603MHS03

INSERTION LOSS (dB)


-10 V0402MHS12
40 V0603MHS12

V0402MHS03
V0603MHS03
30
V0402MHS12
V0603MHS12
-20
20 V0402MHS22
V0603MHS22
V0402MHS22
V0603MHS22
10

-30
0 10 100 1000 10000
1 10 100 1000 10000
Figure 3 Figure 4 FREQUENCY (MHz)
Number of Pulses
FIGURE 4. INSERTION LOSS (S21) CHARACTERISTICS
FIGURE 3. NOMINAL VOLTAGE STABILITY TO MULTIPLE
ESD IMPULSES (8KV CONTACT DISCHARGES
Device Characteristics PER IEC 61000-4-2) Speed of Response

At low current levels, the V-I curve of the multilayer The Multilayer Suppressor is a leadless device. Its response
transient voltage suppressor approaches a linear (ohmic) time is not limited by the parasitic lead inductances found
relationship and shows a temperature dependent effect. in other surface mount packages. The response time of the
At or below the maximum working voltage, the suppressor ZNO dielectric material is less than 1ns and the MLE can
is in a high resistance model (approaching 106Ω at its clamp very fast dV/dT events such as ESD. Additionally,
maximum rated working voltage). Leakage currents at in “real world” applications, the associated circuit wiring
maximum rated voltage are below 100µA, typically 25µA; is often the greatest factor effecting speed of response.
for 0402 size below 20µA, typically 5µA. Therefore, transient suppressor placement within a circuit
can be considered important in certain instances.
Typical Temperature Dependance of the Characteristic
Curve in the Leakage Region Multilayer Internal Construction
100%
FIRED CERAMIC
SUPPRESSOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

DIELECTRIC
VNOM VALUE AT 25 oC (%)

METAL
ELECTRODES

METAL END
TERMINATION

DEPLETION
REGION
o
25 50o 75o 100o 125 oC
10% DEPLETION
1E -9 1E -8 1E -7 1E -6 1E -5 1E -4 1E -3 1E -2 REGION

Figure 5 SUPPRESSOR CURRENT (ADC) Figure 6 GRAINS


FIGURE 10. TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC
CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION
FIGURE 11. MULTILAYER INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION

Lead (Pb) Soldering Recommendations

The principal techniques used for the soldering of Reflow Solder Profile
components in surface mount technology are IR Re-flow
and Wave soldering. Typical profiles are shown on the right.
230
The recommended solder for the MHS suppressor is
a 62/36/2 (Sn/Pb/Ag), 60/40 (Sn/Pb) or 63/37 (Sn/Pb).
Littelfuse also recommends an RMA solder flux.

Wave soldering is the most strenuous of the processes.


To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process
is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder
process should be rigidly controlled.
Figure 7
5.
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
230
230

Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MHS Series

Lead–free (Pb-free) Soldering Recommendations

When using a reflow process, care should be taken to 5.


Wave Solder Profile5.
ensure that the MHS chip is not subjected to a thermal
gradient steeper than 4 degrees per second; the ideal
gradient being 2 degrees per second. During the soldering
process, preheating to within 100 degrees of the solder's
peak temperature is essential to minimize thermal shock.

Once the soldering process has been completed, it is


still necessary to ensure that any further thermal shocks
are avoided. One possible cause of thermal shock is hot
printed circuit boards being removed from the solder
process and subjected to cleaning solvents at room
temperature. The boards must be allowed to cool gradually
to less than 50ºC before cleaning.
Figure 8
Littelfuse offers the Nickel Barrier Termination finish for the 6.
6.
optimum Lead–free solder performance.
Lead–free Re-flow Profile
The preferred solder is 96.5/3.0/0.5 (SnAgCu) with an RMA
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C
flux, but there is a wide selection of pastes and fluxes 20 - 40 SECONDS
MAXIMUM WITHIN 5˚C
TEMPERATURE 260˚C
available with which the Nickel Barrier parts should be 20 - 40 SECONDS WITHIN 5˚C
RAMP RATE
compatible. <3˚C/s RATE
RAMP 60 - 150 SEC
<3˚C/s 60 ->150
217˚C
SEC
> 217˚C
The reflow profile must be constrained by the maximums
in the Lead–free Reflow Profile. For Lead–free wave
soldering, the Wave Solder Profile still applies. PREHEAT ZONE
PREHEAT ZONE

Note: the Lead–free paste, flux and profile were used for
evaluation purposes by Littelfuse, based upon industry 5.0 6.0 7.0
standards and practices. There are multiple choices of all Figure 10
5.0 6.0 7.0

three available, it is advised that the customer explores the FIGURE 7. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW PROFILE
optimum combination for their process as processes vary FIGURE 7. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW PROFILE

considerably from site to site.

Product Dimensions (mm)


PAD LAYOUT DEMENSIONS CHIP LAYOUT DIMENSIONS
E

D
L

Note: Avoid metal runs in this area, parts are 0402 Size 0603 Size
Note:
notAvoid metal runsforinuse
thisinarea, parts are not
recommended
recommended for use
applications using
in applications using silver
Dimension
Silver (Ag) epoxy
(Ag) expoxy paste.
paste. IN MM IN MM
A 0.067 1.700 0.100 2.540
TABLE 1: PAD LAYOUT DIMENSIONS B 0.020 0.510 0.030 0.760
DIMENSION A B C C 0.024 0.610 0.035 0.890
mm in mm in mm in D (max.) 0.024 0.600 0.040 1.000
0402 1.70 0.067 0.510 0.020 0.610 0.024 E 0.01 +/- 0.006 0.25 +/- 0.15 0.015 +/- 0.008 0.4 +/- 0.2
0603 2.54 0.100 0.760 0.030 0.890 0.035 L 0.039 +/- 0.004 1.00 +/- 0.10 0.063 +/- 0.006 1.6 +/- 0.15
W 0.020 +/- 0.004 0.50 +/- 0.10 0.032 +/- 0.006 0.8 +/- 0.15

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MHS Series

Part Numbering System

V 0402 MHS 03 N R
DEVICE FAMILY PACKING OPTIONS (See quantities in Packaging section)
Littelfuse TVSS Device T = (0603 device only)13in (330mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
H = (0603 device only) 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
DEVICE SIZE R = (available for 0402 and 0603 devices) 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Paper Carrier Tape
0402 = .04 inch x .02 inch
(1.0 mm x 0.5 mm) END TERMINATION OPTION
0603 = .063 inch x .031 inch Nickel Barrier(Ni/Sn)
(1.6 mm x 0.8 mm) N letter: lead free
F letter: lead free and antimony free
SERIES DESIGNATOR
CAPACITANCE DESIGNATION
MHS = Multilayer Hi-Speed
03 = 3pF
12 = 12pF
22 = 22pF

Packaging*

Quantity
13 Inch Reel 7 Inch Reel 7 Inch Reel
Device Size
("T" Option) ("H" Option) ("R" Option)
0603 10,000 2,500 4,000
0402 not available not available 10,000
*(Packaging) It is recommended that parts be kept in the sealed bag provided and that parts be used as soon as possible when removed from bags.

Tape and Reel Specifications


D0 P0
T
P2

F
W
K0 B0

P1 A0
T1 D1

Dimensions in Millimeters
Symbol Description
0402 Size 0603 Size
A0 Width of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
B0 Length of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
K0 Depth of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
W Width of Tape 8 -/+ 0.2 8 -/+ 0.3
F Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Cavity Centers 3.5 -/+.05 3.5 -/+.05
E Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Tape Edge 1.75 -/+ 0.1 1.75 -/+ 0.1
P1 Distance Between Cavity Centers 2 -/+ 0.05 4 -/+ 0.1
P2 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers & Cavity Centers 2 -/+ 0.1 2 -/+ 0.1
P0 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers 4 -/+ 0.1 4 -/+ 0.1
D0 Drive Hole Diameter 1.55 -/+ 0.05 1.55 -/+ 0.05
D1 Diameter of Cavity Piercing N/A 1.05 -/+ 0.05
T1 Top Tape Thickness 0.1 Max 0.1 Max
T Nominal Carrier Tape Thickness 1.1 1.1
Notes:
• Conforms to EIA-481-1, Revision A
• Can be supplied to IEC publication 286-3

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

MLE Varistor Series RoHS

Description

The MLE Series family of transient voltage suppression


devices are based on the Littelfuse multilayer fabrication
technology. These components are designed to suppress
ESD events, including those specified in IEC 61000-4-2
or other standards used for Electromagnetic Compliance
testing. The MLE Series is typically applied to protect
integrated circuits and other components at the circuit
board level operating at 18VDC, or less.

The fabrication method and materials of these devices


result in capacitance characteristics suitable for high
frequency attenuation/low-pass filter circuit functions,
Size Table thereby providing suppression and filtering in a single
device.
Metric EIA
The MLE Series is manufactured from semiconducting
1005 0402 ceramics and is supplied in a leadless, surface mount
package. The MLE Series is compatible with modern reflow
1608 0603
and wave soldering procedures.
2012 0805
Littelfuse Inc. manufactures other Multilayer Series
3216 1206 products. See the ML Series data sheet for higher energy/
peak current transient applications. See the AUML Series
for automotive applications and the MLN Quad Array. For
high–speed applications see the MHS Series.

Applications Features

• Protection of compliance (EMC) • Halogen-Free and operating temp. range


components and RoHS Compliant • Leadless 0402, 0603,
• Used in mobile
circuits sensitive communications, • Rated for ESD 0805, and 1206 sizes
to ESD Transients computer/EDP (IEC-61000-4-2)
occurring on power • Operating voltages
products, medical • Characterized for up to 18VM(DC)
supplies, control products, hand held/
and signal lines impedance and • Multilayer ceramic
portable devices, capacitance
• Suppression of industrial equipment, construction technology
ESD events such as including diagnostic • -55ºC to +125ºC
specified in IEC-61000- port protection and
4-2 or MIL-STD-883 I/O interfaces
Method-3015.7, for
electromagnetic

Additional Information Absolute Maximum Ratings


• For ratings of individual members of a series, see device ratings and specifications table.

Continuous MLE Series Units


Steady State Applied Voltage:
Datasheet Resources Samples DC Voltage Range (VM(DC)) ≤18 V

Operating Ambient Temperature


-55 to +125 ºC
Range (TA)
Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) -55 to +150 C

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

Device Ratings and Specifications

Performance Specifications (25ºC)


Max Continuous
Working Voltage Maximum Clamping
Nominal Maximum ESD Clamp
-55ºC to 125ºC Voltage at Specified Typical
Voltage Voltage (Note 2)
Part Number Current (8/20µs) Capacitance
(Note 1) VNOM at 8kV Contact 15kV Air at 1MHz
VM(DC) VC
1mA DC (Note 3) (Note 4)

(V) MIN (V) MAX (V) (V) (V) Clamp (V) (pF)
V18MLE0402N 18 22 28 50 at 1A <125 <110 <55
V18MLE0402F (Note 8) 18 22 28 50 at 1A <125 <110 <55
V18MLE0603N 18 22 28 50 at 1A <75 <110 <125
V18MLE0603F (Note 8) 18 22 28 50 at 1A <75 <110 <125
V18MLE0603LN 18 22 28 50 at 1A <100 <140 <100
V18MLE0805N 18 22 28 50 at 1A <70 <75 <500
V18MLE0805LN 18 22 28 50 at 1A <75 <135 <290
V18MLE1206N 18 22 28 50 at 1A <65 <65 <1700
NOTES:
1. For applications of 18VDC or less. Higher voltages available, contact your Littelfuse Sales Representative.
2. Tested with IEC-61000-4-2 Human Body Model (HBM) discharge test circuit.
3. Direct discharge to device terminals (IEC preferred test method).
4. Corona discharge through air (represents actual ESD event).
5. Capacitance may be customized, contact your Littelfuse Sales Representative.
6. Leakage current ratings are at 18 VDC and 25µA maximum.
7. The typical capacitance rating is the discrete component test result.
8. Items are lead free, and available as "R" packing option only.

Peak Current and Energy Derating Curve Nominal Voltage Stability to Multiple ESD Impulses
(8kV Contact Discharges per IEC 61000-4-2)
For applications exceeding 125ºC ambient temperature, the peak
surge current and energy ratings must be reduced as shown
below. 30
NOMINAL VOLTAGE AT 1mADC

25
100
20
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

80
15

60
10

40
5

20
0
1 10 100 1000 10000
0 Figure 2 CURRENT (A)
-55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
FIGURE 2. NOMINAL VOLTAGE STABILITY TO MULTIPLE
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( oC) ESD IMPULSES (8KV CONTACT DISCHARGES
Figure 1 PER IEC 61000-4-2)
FIGURE 1. PEAK CURRENT AND ENERGY DERATING CURVE

Standby Current at Normalized Varistor Voltage and


Temperature Impedance (Z) vs Frequency Typical Characteristic

1.2 100
NORMALIZED VARISTOR VOLTAGE (V)

1.0 -0402

10 -0603

0.8
-0805
25O
IMPEDANCE (Z)

0.6 -1206
1
85O

0.4
0.1
125O
0.2

0.0 0.01
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Figure 3 CURRENT (mA) Figure 4 FREQUENCY (MHz)

FIGURE 3. STANDBY CURRENT AT NORMALIZED VARISTOR FIGURE 4. IMPEDANCE (Z) vs FREQUENCY


VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE TYPICAL CHARACTERISTIC
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

Device Characteristics Clamping Voltage Over Temperature (VC at 10A)

At low current levels, the V-I curve of the multilayer


100
transient voltage suppressor approaches a linear (ohmic)
relationship and shows a temperature dependent effect.

CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)


At or below the maximum working voltage, the suppressor V26MLA1206
is in a high resistance model (approaching 106Ω at its
maximum rated working voltage). Leakage currents at
maximum rated voltage are below 100µA, typically 25µA;
for 0402 size below 20µA, typically 5µA.

Typical Temperature Dependance of the Characteristic V5.5MLA1206


Curve in the Leakage Region
100%
10
SUPPRESSOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


TEMPERATURE ( oC)
Figure 6
VNOM VALUE AT 25 oC (%)

FIGURE 12. CLAMPING VOLTAGE OVER TEMPERATURE


(VC AT 10A)

Energy Absorption/Peak Current Capability

Energy dissipated within the MLE is calculated by


10%
25
o
50o 75o 100o 125 oC multiplying the clamping voltage, transient current
1E -9 1E -8 1E -7 1E -6 1E -5 1E -4 1E -3 1E -2 and transient duration. An important advantage of the
Figure 5 SUPPRESSOR CURRENT (ADC)
multilayer is its interdigitated electrode construction within
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC
CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION the mass of dielectric material. This results in excellent
current distribution and the peak temperature per energy
Speed of Response absorbed is very low. The matrix of semiconducting grains
combine to absorb and distribute transient energy (heat)
The Multilayer Suppressor is a leadless device. Its (see Speed of Response). This dramatically reduces peak
response time is not limited by the parasitic lead temperature; thermal stresses and enhances device
inductances found in other surface mount packages. reliability.
The response time of the ZNO dielectric material is less
than 1ns and the MLE can clamp very fast dV/dT events As a measure of the device capability in energy and peak
such as ESD. Additionally, in "real world" applications, current handling, the V26MLA1206A part was tested with
the associated circuit wiring is often the greatest multiple pulses at its peak current rating (3A, 8/20µs). At
factor effecting speed of response. Therefore, transient the end of the test, 10,000 pulses later, the device voltage
suppressor placement within a circuit can be considered characteristics are still well within specification.
important in certain instances.
Repetitive Pulse Capability
Multilayer Internal Construction 100
PEAK CURRENT = 3A
FIRED CERAMIC
8/20 s DURATION, 30s BETWEEN PULSES
DIELECTRIC

V26MLA1206
VOLTAGE

METAL
ELECTRODES

METAL END
TERMINATION

DEPLETION
10
REGION
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
NUMBER OF PULSES
DEPLETION Figure 8
REGION FIGURE 13. REPETITIVE PULSE CAPABILITY

Figure 7 GRAINS

FIGURE 11. MULTILAYER INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

Lead (Pb) Soldering Recommendations

The principal techniques used for the soldering of


components in surface mount technology are IR Re-flow Reflow Solder Profile
and Wave soldering. Typical profiles are shown on the right.

The recommended solder for the MLE suppressor is


230
a 62/36/2 (Sn/Pb/Ag), 60/40 (Sn/Pb) or 63/37 (Sn/Pb).
Littelfuse also recommends an RMA solder flux. 230

Wave soldering is the most strenuous of the processes.


To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process
is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder 230
process should be rigidly controlled.

When using a reflow process, care should be taken to


ensure that the MLE chip is not subjected to a thermal Figure 9
gradient steeper than 4 degrees per second; the ideal 5.

gradient being 2 degrees per second. During the soldering


Wave Solder Profile5.
process, preheating to within 100 degrees of the solder's
peak temperature is essential to minimize thermal shock.

Once the soldering process has been completed, it is


still necessary to ensure that any further thermal shocks
5.
are avoided. One possible cause of thermal shock is hot
printed circuit boards being removed from the solder
process and subjected to cleaning solvents at room
temperature. The boards must be allowed to cool gradually
to less than 50ºC before cleaning.

6.
Figure 10
6.

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C


Lead–free (Pb-free) Soldering Recommendations 20 - 40 SECONDS WITHIN 5˚C

RAMP RATE260˚C
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
<3˚C/s
20 - 40 SECONDS WITHIN 5˚C 60 - 150 SEC
Littelfuse offers the Nickel Barrier Termination finish for the 6.
Lead–free Re-flow Profile > 217˚C
optimum Lead–free solder performance. RAMP RATE
<3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC
> 217˚C
The preferred solder is 96.5/3.0/0.5 (SnAgCu) with an RMA PREHEAT ZONE
flux, but there is a wide selection of pastes and fluxes MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C
20 - 40 SECONDS WITHIN 5˚C
available with which the Nickel Barrier parts should be PREHEAT ZONE
compatible. RAMP RATE
<3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC
5.0 6.0 7.0
> 217˚C
The reflow profile must be constrained by the maximums
in the Lead–free Reflow Profile. For Lead–free Wave FIGURE 7. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW 5.0
PROFILE6.0 7.0

soldering, the Wave Solder Profile still applies. PREHEAT ZONE


FIGURE 7. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW PROFILE

Note: the Lead–free paste, flux and profile were used for
evaluation purposes by Littelfuse, based upon industry
5.0 6.0 7.0
standards and practices. There are multiple choices of all
Figure 11
three available, it is advised that the customer explores the
optimum combination for their process as processes vary FIGURE 7. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW PROFILE

considerably from site to site.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

Product Dimensions (mm)

PAD LAYOUT DEMENSIONS CHIP LAYOUT DIMENSIONS


C

B NOTE

D
L
A
W
NOTE: Avoid metal runs in this area.
Note:
Note: Avoid
Avoid metal
metal runs
runs in in this
this area,parts
area, partsare
arenot
not recommended
recommended for usefor
in use in applications
applications usingusing
silver
Silver
(Ag) (Ag)paste.
expoxy epoxy paste.

1206 Size 0805 Size 0603 Size 0402 Size


Dimension
IN MM IN MM IN MM IN MM
A 0.160 4.06 0.120 3.05 0.100 2.54 0.067 1.70
B 0.065 1.65 0.050 1.27 0.030 0.76 0.020 0.51
C 0.040 1.02 0.040 1.02 0.035 0.89 0.024 0.61
D (max.) 0.071 1.80 0.043 1.10 0.040 1.00 0.024 0.60
0.015 -/+ 0.010 -/+
E 0.02 -/+ 0.01 0.50 -/+ 0.25 0.02 -/+ 0.01 0.50 -/+ 0.25 0.4 -/+ 0.2 0.25 -/+ 0.15
0.008 0.006
0.125 -/+ 0.079 -/+ 0.063 -/+ 0.039 -/+
L 3.20 -/+ 0.03 2.01 -/+ 0.2 1.6 -/+ 0.15 1.0 -/+ 0.1
0.012 0.008 0.006 0.004
0.049 -/+ 0.032 -/+ 0.020 -/+
W 0.06 -/+ 0.011 1.60 -/+ 0.28 1.25 -/+ 0.2 0.8 -/+ 0.15 0.5 -/+ 0.1
0.008 0.006 0.004

Part Numbering System

V 18 MLE 1206 X X X
DEVICE FAMILY PACKING OPTIONS (see Packaging section for quantities)
Littelfuse TVSS Device T: 13in (330mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
H: 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
MAXIMUM DC
R: 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Paper Carrier Tape
WORKING VOLTAGE
END TERMINATION OPTION
MULTILAYER SERIES
N: Nickel Barrier(Ni/Sn)
DESIGNATOR
F: Lead free with Nickel Barrier(Ni/Sn)
DEVICE SIZE:
i.e., 120 mil x 60 mil CAPACITANCE OPTION
(3mm x 1.5mm) No Letter: Standard
L: Low Capacitance Version

Packaging*

Quantity
Device Size 13” Inch Reel 7” Inch Reel 7” Inch Reel Bulk Pack
('T' Option) ('H' Option) ('R' Option) ('A' Option)
1206 10,000 2,500 N/A 2500
0805 10,000 2,500 N/A 2500
0603 10,000 2,500 4,000 2500
0402 N/A N/A 10,000 N/A

*(Packaging) It is recommended that parts be kept in the sealed bag provided and that parts be used as soon as possible when removed from bags.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLE Series

Tape and Reel Specifications

PRODUCT
D0 P0 IDENTIFYING
For T and H Pack Options: PLASTIC CARRIER TAPE LABEL
P2 For R Pack Options: EMBOSSED PAPER CARRIER TAPE
E

F
W
K0 B0

EMBOSSMENT
TOP TAPE 8mm 178mm
P1 A0
t1 D1 NOMINAL OR 330mm
DIA. REEL

Dimensions in Millimeters
Symbol Description
0402 Size 0603, 0805 & 1206 Sizes
A0 Width of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
B0 Length of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
K0 Depth of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
W Width of Tape 8 -/+ 0.2 8 -/+ 0.3
F Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Cavity Centers 3.5 -/+ 0.05 3.5 -/+ 0.05
E Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Tape Edge 1.75 -/+ 0.1 1.75 -/+ 0.1
P1 Distance Between Cavity Centers 2 -/+ 0.05 4 -/+ 0.1
P2 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers & Cavity Centers 2 -/+ 0.1 2 -/+ 0.1
P0 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers 4 -/+ 0.1 4 -/+ 0.1
D0 Drive Hole Diameter 1.55 -/+ 0.05 1.55 -/+ 0.05
D1 Diameter of Cavity Piercing N/A 1.05 -/+ 0.05
T1 Top Tape Thickness 0.1 Max 0.1 Max
Notes :
• Conforms to EIA-481-1, Revision A
• Can be supplied to IEC publication 286-3

Disclaimer Notice - Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, users should independently evaluate the suitability of and
test each product selected for their own applications. Littelfuse products are not designed for, and may not be used in, all applications.
Read complete Disclaimer Notice at www.littelfuse.com/disclaimer-electronics.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > 0201 MLA Series

0201 MLA Varistor Series RoHS Pb

Description
New 0201-size MLA Multi-Layer Varistor (MLV) series can
protect small electronic products from electrostatic discharge
(ESD) and electrically fast transients (EFT).
It's ultra-compact 0201 size, the smallest form factor available
for MLV devices, is ideal for compact handheld products.
The MLA Series is manufactured from semiconducting
ceramics, and is supplied in a leadless, surface mount package.
Plating consists of Silver base material (which is fired on to the
Zno dialectric), Nickel barrier plated under-layer and Matte-Tin
outer surface plate.

Features
• Ultra-small 0201 size for • Inherently Bi-directional
Absolute Maximum Ratings
minimal board space • Stable performance
• Low capacitance (33pF) over wide operating and
Steady State Applied Voltage: Unit for high data rates to storage temperature
minimize signal distortion range -40°C to +85°C
Maximum DC Voltage (VM(DC)) 5.5 V
• Meets IEC 61000- • Operating voltage
Maximum AC Voltage (VM(AC)RMS) 4.0 V 4-2 for ESD VM(DC) = 5.5V
Transient: • Low leakage (<25µa) • Rated for surge
• Multilayer ceramic current (8 x 20µs)
Non-Repetitive Surge Current, 8/20µs
4.0 A construction technology • Pb-Free and RoHS Compliant
Waveform, (ITM)
Temperature:
Operating Ambient Temperature Range (TA) -40 to +85 ºC
Applications

Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) -40 to +85 ºC • Portable / handheld • Data, diagnostic I/O ports
electronic devices • Computer / DSP products
• Mobile communications • Industrial instruments
/ cellular phones including non-life sustaing
• USB, video and audio ports medical equipment
• Analog signal / sensor lines

Device Ratings and Specifications


Maximum Ratings @ +85ºC Specifications @ +25ºC
Maximum Non- Maximum
Maximum Continuous Nominal Voltage at 1mA DC Typical Capacitance at f
repetitive Surge Clamping Voltage
Part Number Working Voltage Test Current = 1MHz
Current (8/20µs) at 1A (8/20µs)
VM(DC) VM(AC) ITM VC VN(DC) Min VN(DC) Max C
(V) (V) (A) (V) (V) (V) (pF)
V5.5MLA020133FR 5.5 4.0 1 28.0* 8.0 14.0 33.0
V5.5MLA020133NR 5.5 4.0 1 28.0* 8.0 14.0 33.0
V5.5MLA020147NR 5.5 4.0 1 26.0* 8.0 14.0 47.0
V5.5MLA020164NR 5.5 4.0 1 26.0* 8.0 14.0 64.0
Notes:
- Typical leakage at 25ºC at VM(DC): 0201 size <10µA typical, <25µA maximum
- End surface finish of Tin with Nickel barrier on Silver base material
- Standard packing quantity 10,000 per reel, 7" reel

Additional Information

Datasheet Resources Samples

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > 0201 MLA Series

250
Reliability and Environmental Specifications MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
230°C
200
Judge Criteria Test Condition 40-80
SECONDS

TEMPERATURE °C
Solderability > 95% solder coverage 245 +/- ºC, 3 +/- 1 sec. ABOVE 183°C
150
Leaching Resistance > 95% solder coverage 245 +/- ºC, 3 +/- 1 sec. RAMP RATE
<2°C/s
High Temperature Exposure ∆ Vv / Vv < 10% 1000 hours 100
85ºC, un-powered
Thermal Shock ∆ Vv / Vv < 10% -45 to +85 ºC, 30 min. cycle, 5 PREHEAT
cycles DWELL
Operating Life ∆ Vv / Vv < 10% 85 ºC, DC working
50 voltage 1000 hours
PREHEAT ZONE
Bias Humidity ∆ Vv / Vv < 10% 40 ºC / 85% RH, DC working voltage 1000 hours
0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
TIME (MINUTES)
Peak Pulse Current Test Waveform for Clamping Voltage Lead–free (Pb-free) Soldering Recommendations
FIGURE 14. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to
100
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process
PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE

is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder


300
process should be rigidly controlled.
MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C
50
When250using a reflow process, care should be taken to
ensure200that the ML chip is not subjected to a thermal
TEMPERATURE °C

gradient steeper than 4 degrees per second; the ideal


0
gradient
150 being 2 degrees per second. During the soldering
T
O1 TIME process, preheating to within 100 degrees
SECOND of the solder's
PREHEAT
T1 peak temperature
100 is essential to minimize thermal shock.
T2 FIRST PREHEAT
Once the50 soldering process has been completed, it is

01 = Virtual Origin of Wave still necessary to ensure that any further thermal shocks
T = Time from 10% to 90% of Peak are avoided.
0
0.0
One
0.5
possible
1.0 1.5
cause
2.0
of thermal
2.5 3.0 3.5
shock
4.0
is4.5
hot
T1FIGURE
= Rise 2.Time
PEAK = PULSE
1.25 x TCURRENT TEST WAVEFORM printed circuit boards being removed
TIME (MINUTES) from the solder

T2 = Decay Time
FOR CLAMPING VOLTAGE process and subjected to cleaning solvents at room
FIGURE 15. WAVE SOLDER PROFILE
Example - For an 8/20 µs Current Waveform: temperature. The boards must be allowed to cool gradually
O1 =8µs = T1 ORIGIN
VIRTUAL = RiseOF
Time
WAVE to less than 50º C before cleaning.
t = TIME FROM 10% TO 90% OF PEAK
20µs = T2 = Decay Time
t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT TIME = 1.25 x t
t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO HALF VALUE
300
(IMPULSE DURATION)
Multilayer Internal Construction MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C,
TIME WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK
EXAMPLE:
250 20 SECONDS MAXIMUM
FOR AN 8/20 s CURRENT WAVEFORM
8 s = t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT TIME RAMP RATE
TEMPERATURE °C

200 <3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC


20 s =FIRED
t2 = VIRTUAL
CERAMIC TIME TO > 217˚C
DIELECTRIC
HALF VALUE
150

100
PREHEAT ZONE

METAL 50
ELECTRODES

METAL END
TERMINATION 0
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
DEPLETION
REGION
TIME (MINUTES)

FIGURE 16. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW SOLDER PROFILE


DEPLETION
REGION

GRAINS

FIGURE 11. MULTILAYER INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION

Disclaimer Notice - Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, users should independently evaluate the suitability of and
test each product selected for their own applications. Littelfuse products are not designed for, and may not be used in, all applications.
Read complete Disclaimer Notice at www.littelfuse.com/disclaimer-electronics.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > 0201 MLA Series

Product Dimensions (mm)

PAD LAYOUT DIMENSIONS CHIP LAYOUT DIMENSIONS 0201 Size


C Dimension
IN MM
E
A 0.055 1.40
B 0.020 0.50
B NOTE
C 0.020 0.50
D
L D (max.) 0.014 0.35
E 0.008 -/+0.004 0.20 -/+0.10
A W

NOTE : Avoid metal runs in this area, parts not L 0.024 -/+0.002 0.60 -/+0.05
NOTE: Avoid metal runs in this area.
recommended for use in applications using
Parts not recommended for use in
Silver (Ag) epoxy paste.
W 0.012 -/+0.002 0.30 -/+0.05
applications using silver epoxy paste.

Part Numbering System

V 5.5 MLA 0201 xx N R


PACKING OPTIONS
DEVICE FAMILY R = 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Paper Carrier Tape
Littelfuse TVSS Device 10,000 items per reel
MAXIMUM DC END TERMINATION OPTION
WORKING VOLTAGE F = Nickel Barrier Option and Lead-Free
(Tin outer surface, plated on Nickel underlayer
MULTILAYER SERIES
plated on silver base metal)
DESIGNATOR
DEVICE SIZE: CAPACITANCE OPTION
0201 = .024 inch x .012 inch 33 = 33pF
(0.6 mm x 0.3 mm)

Tape and Reel Specifications


PRODUCT
D0 P0 IDENTIFYING
For T and H Pack Options: PLASTIC CARRIER TAPE LABEL
P2 For R Pack Options: EMBOSSED PAPER CARRIER TAPE
E

F
W
K0 B0

EMBOSSMENT
TOP TAPE 8mm 178mm
P1 A0
t1 D1 NOMINAL OR 330mm
DIA. REEL

Dimensions in
Symbol Description Millimeters
0201
A0 Width of Cavity 0.36 -/+0.02
B0 Length of Cavity 0.70 -/+0.02
W Width of Tape 8.0 -/+0.1
F Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Cavity Centers 3.5 -/+0.05
E Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Tape Edge 1.75 -/+0.05
P1 Distance Between Cavity Centers 2.0 -/+0.05
P2 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers & Cavity Centers 2.0 -/+0.05
P0 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers 4.0 -/+0.1
D0 Drive Hole Diameter 1.55 -/+0.05
T1 Top Tape Thickness 0.42 -/+0.02
NOTE: It is recommended that parts be kept in the sealed bag provided and that parts be used as soon as possible when removed from bags.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

MLA Varistor Series RoHS

Description
The MLA Series family of transient voltage surge
suppression devices is based on the Littelfuse Multilayer
fabrication technology. These components are designed
to suppress a variety of transient events, including those
specified in IEC 61000-4-2 or other standards used for
Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC). The MLA Series is
typically applied to protect integrated circuits and other
components at the circuit board level.
The wide operating voltage and energy range make the
MLA Series suitable for numerous applications on power
supply, control and signal lines.

Size Table The MLA Series is manufactured from semiconducting


ceramics, and is supplied in a leadless, surface mount
Metric EIA package. The MLA Series is compatible with modern
reflow and wave soldering procedures.
1005 0402
1608 0603 It can operate over a wider temperature range than Zener
2012 0805 diodes, and has a much smaller footprint than plastic-
housed components.
3216 1206
3225 1210 Littelfuse Inc. manufactures other multilayer series
products. See the MLE Series data sheet for ESD
applications, MHS Series data sheet for high-speed ESD
Absolute Maximum Ratings applications, the MLN Series for multiline protection and
• For ratings of individual members of a series, see device ratings and specifications table. the AUML Series for automotive applications.
Continuous ML Series Units
Steady State Applied Voltage:
Features
DC Voltage Range (VM(DC)) 3.5 to 120 V
AC Voltage Range (VM(AC)RMS) 2.5 to 107 V • Halogen-Free and • Rated for surge
Transient: RoHS compliant current (8 x 20µs)
• Leadless 0402, • Rated for energy
Non-Repetitive Surge Current, 8/20µs
4 to 500 A 0603, 0805, 1206 (10 x 1000µs)
Waveform, (ITM)
and 1210 chip sizes • Inherent bi-directional
Non-Repetitive Surge Energy, 0.02 to • Multilayer ceramic clamping
J
10/1000µs Waveform, (WTM) 2.5 construction • Standard low
technology capacitance
-55 to
Operating Ambient Temperature Range (TA) ºC • -55°C to +125°C types available
+125
operating temp. range • ESD rated to IEC
-55 to • Operating voltage 61000-4-2, Level 4: Air
Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) ºC
+150 range VM(DC) = Discharge 15KV and
5.5V to 120V Contact Discharge 8KV
Temperature Coefficient (αV) of Clamping
<0.01 %/º C
Voltage (VC) at Specified Test Current
Applications

Additional Information • Suppression of • Provides on-board


inductive switching transient voltage
or other transient protection for ICS
events such as EFT and transistors
and surge voltage at • Used to help achieve
Datasheet Resources Samples the circuit board level electromagnetic
• ESD protection for IEC compliance of
61000-4-2 (Level 4), end products
MIL-STD-883 method • Replace larger surface
3015.7, and other mount TVS Zeners in
industry specifications many applications
(see also the MLE
or MLN Series)
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Device Ratings and Specifications


Maximum Ratings (125º C) Specifications (25ºC)
Maximum Maximum Non- Maximum Non- Maximum Clamping Nominal Voltage Typical
Continuous repetitive Surge repetitive Surge Voltage at 1A (or as at 1mA DC Test Capacitance
Part Number Working Voltage Current (8/20µs) Energy (10/1000µs) Noted) (8/20µs) Current at f = 1MHz
VM(DC) VM(AC) ITM WTM VC VN(DC) Min VN(DC) Max C
(V) (V) (A) (J) (V) (V) (V) (pF)
V3.5MLA0603N5 3.5 2.5 30 0.100 13.0 3.7 7.0 1270
V3.5MLA0805N 3.5 2.5 120 0.300 13.0 3.7 7.0 1760
V3.5MLA0805LN 3.5 2.5 40 0.100 13.0 3.7 7.0 1380
V3.5MLA1206N 3.5 2.5 100 0.300 13.0 3.7 7.0 5800
V5.5MLA0402N 5.5 4.0 20 0.050 21.0 7.1 10.8 220
V5.5MLA0402F8 5.5 4.0 20 0.050 21.0 7.1 10.8 220
V5.5MLA0402LN 5.5 4.0 20 0.050 39.0 15.9 21.5 70
V5.5MLA0402LF8 5.5 4.0 20 0.05 39 15.9 21.5 70
V5.5MLA0603N5 5.5 4.0 30 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 960
V5.5MLA0603LN4 5.5 4.0 30 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 450
V5.5MLA0603LF8 5.5 4.0 30 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 450
V5.5MLA0805N 5.5 4.0 120 0.300 17.5 7.1 9.3 1200
V5.5MLA0805LN 5.5 4.0 40 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 660
V5.5MLA1206N 5.5 4.0 150 0.400 17.5 7.1 9.3 2800
V9MLA0402N 9.0 6.5 20 0.050 30.0 11.0 16.0 120
V9MLA0402F8 9.0 6.5 20 0.050 30.0 11.0 16.0 120
V9MLA0402LN 9.0 6.5 4 0.020 35.0 11.0 16.0 33
V9MLA0402LF8 9.0 6.5 4 0.020 35.0 11.0 16.0 33
V9MLA0603N5 9.0 6.5 30 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 490
V9MLA0603LN4 9.0 6.5 30 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 360
V9MLA0603LF8 9.0 6.5 30 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 360
V9MLA0805LN 9.0 6.5 40 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 320
V12MLA0805LN 12.0 9.0 40 0.100 29.0 14.0 18.5 220
V14MLA0402N 14.0 10.0 20 0.050 39.0 15.9 21.5 70
V14MLA0402F8 14.0 10.0 20 0.050 39.0 15.9 21.5 70
V14MLA0603N 14.0 10.0 30 0.100 34.5 15.9 21.5 80
V14MLA0603F8 14.0 10.0 30 0.100 34.5 15.9 21.5 180
V14MLA0805N 14.0 10.0 120 0.300 32.0 15.9 20.3 360
V14MLA0805LN 14.0 10.0 40 0.100 32.0 15.9 20.3 200
V14MLA1206N 14.0 10.0 150 0.400 32.0 15.9 20.3 800
V18MLA0402N 18.0 14.0 20 0.050 50.0 22.0 28.0 40
V18MLA0402F8 18.0 14.0 20 0.050 50.0 22.0 28.0 40
V18MLA0603N 18.0 14.0 30 0.100 50.0 22.0 28.0 60
V18MLA0603F8 18.0 14.0 30 0.100 50.0 22.0 28.0 120
V18MLA0805N 18.0 14.0 120 0.300 44.0 22.0 28.0 260
V18MLA0805LN 18.0 14.0 40 0.100 44.0 22.0 28.0 170
V18MLA1206N 18.0 14.0 150 0.400 44.0 22.0 28.0 1030
V18MLA1210N 18.0 14.0 500 2.500 44.0 at 2.5 22.0 28.0 2500
V18MLA1812N7 18.0 14.0 1000 2.900 44.0 at 5 22.0 28.0 4050
V26MLA0603N 26.0 20.0 30 0.100 60.0 31.0 38.0 55
V26MLA0603F8 26.0 20.0 30 0.100 60.0 31.0 38.0 110
V26MLA0805N 26.0 20.0 100 0.300 60.0 29.5 38.5 110
V26MLA0805LN 26.0 20.0 40 0.100 60.0 29.5 38.5 90
V26MLA1206N 26.0 20.0 150 0.600 60.0 29.5 38.5 630
V26MLA1210N 26.0 20.0 300 1.200 60.0 at 2.5 29.5 38.5 1250
V30MLA0603N 30.0 25.0 30 0.100 74.0 37.0 46.0 45
V30MLA0603F8 30.0 25.0 30 0.100 74.0 37.0 46.0 90
V30MLA0805LN 30.0 25.0 30 0.100 72.0 37.0 46.0 85
V30MLA1206N 30.0 25.0 180 1.000 67.0 35.0 43.0 400
V30MLA1210N 30.0 25.0 280 1.200 68.0 at 2.5 35.0 43.0 685
V30MLA1210LN 30.0 25.0 220 0.900 68.0 at 2.5 35.0 43.0 500

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Device Ratings and Specifications (Continue...)

Maximum Ratings (125º C) Specifications (25ºC)


Maximum Maximum Non- Maximum Non- Maximum Clamping Nominal Voltage Typical
Continuous repetitive Surge repetitive Surge Voltage at 1A (or as at 1mA DC Test Capacitance
Part Number Working Voltage Current (8/20µs) Energy (10/1000µs) Noted) (8/20µs) Current at f = 1MHz
VM(DC) VM(AC) ITM WTM VC VN(DC) Min VN(DC) Max C
(V) (V) (A) (J) (V) (V) (V) (pF)
V30MLA1812N7 30.0 25.0 800 3.700 65.0 at 5 35.0 43.0 1900
V33MLA1206N 33.0 26.0 180 0.800 75.0 38.0 49.0 390
V38MLA1812N7 38.0 30.0 800 4.500 77.0 at 5 43.0 52.0 1450
V42MLA1206N 42.0 30.0 180 0.800 92.0 46.0 60.0 345
V45MLA1812N7 45.0 35.0 500 4.000 90.0 at 5 50.4 61.6 1200
V48MLA1206N 48.0 40.0 180 0.900 100.0 54.5 66.5 185
V48MLA1210N 48.0 40.0 250 1.200 105.0 at 2.5 54.5 66.5 400
V48MLA1210LN 48.0 40.0 220 0.900 105.0 at 2.5 54.5 66.5 380
V56MLA1206N 56.0 40.0 180 1.000 120.0 61.0 77.0 180
V60MLA1210N 60.0 50.0 250 1.500 130.0 at 2.5 67.0 83.0 230
V68MLA1206N 68.0 50.0 180 1.000 140.0 76.0 90.0 130
V85MLA1210N 85.0 67.0 250 2.500 180.0 at 2.5 95.0 115.0 160
V120MLA1210N 120.0 107.0 125 2.000 260.0 at 2.5 135.0 165.0 70
NOTES: 1 'L' suffix is a low capacitance and energy version; Contact your Littelfuse sales representative for custom capacitance requirements.
2 Typical leakage at 25ºC<25µA, maximum leakage 100µA at VM(DC); for 0402 size, typical leakage <5µA, maximum leakage <20µA at VM(DC).
3 Average power dissipation of transients for 0402, 0603, 0805, 1206 and 1210 sizes not to exceed 0.03W, 0.05W, 0.1W, 0.1W and 0.15W respectively.
4 Item is available as 'R' packing option only. All 0402 size items available as 'R' packaging option only. See Packaging section for additional information.
5 Item is available in 'H','T'and 'A' packing option only. All 0805, 1206 and 1210 parts come as 'H','T'and 'A' packing option only. See Packaging section for additional information.
6. The typical capacitance rating is the discrete component test result.
7. Item is available in "T" packing option only.
8. Item is available in "R" packing option only, and lead free.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Peak Current and Energy Derating Curve Peak Pulse Current Test Waveform for Clamping Voltage

When transients occur in rapid succession, the average


power dissipation is the energy (watt-seconds) per pulse 100

PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE


times the number of pulses per second. The power so
developed must be within the specifications shown
on the Device Ratings and Specifications Table for the
50
specific device. For applications exceeding 125°C ambient
temperature, the peak surge current and energy ratings
must be derated as shown below.
0
T
O1 TIME
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

T1
Figure 2 T2
100

80
01 = Virtual Origin of Wave
60 T = Time from 10% to 90% of Peak
FIGURE
T1 = Rise 2. Time
PEAK =PULSE
1.25 xCURRENT
T TEST WAVEFORM
40 FOR CLAMPING VOLTAGE
T2 = Decay Time
20 Example - For an 8/20 µs Current Waveform:
O1 = VIRTUAL ORIGIN OF WAVE
0 8µsFROM
t = TIME = T1 10%
= Rise Time
TO 90% OF PEAK
-55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 20µs =FRONT
t1 = VIRTUAL T2 = Decay Time
TIME = 1.25 xt
t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO HALF VALUE
Figure 1 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( oC)
(IMPULSE DURATION)

FIGURE 1. PEAK CURRENT AND ENERGY EXAMPLE:


FOR AN 8/20 s CURRENT WAVEFORM
DERATING CURVE
Limit V-I Characteristic for V5.5MLA0402 to V18MLA0402 Limit V-I8 sCharacteristic forTIME
= t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT V9MLA0402L
MLA0402L Limit VI Curves
20 s = t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO
MLA0402 Limit VI Curves HALF VALUE
100
100
Varistor Voltage (V)
Varistor Voltage (V)

10 V18MLA0402 10
V14MLA0402
V9MLA0402L
V9MLA0402
V5.5MLA0402L
V5.5MLA0402

1 1
1µA 10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 1A 10A 100A
1µA 10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 1A 10A 100A
Current (A)
Figure 3 Figure 4 Current (A)

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0603 to V30MLA0603 Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0805L to V30MLA0805L

1000 1000
V30MLA0805L
V30MLA0603 V26MLA0805L
V26MLA0603 V18MLA0805L
V18MLA0603
100 V14MLA0805L
100 V14MLA0603

Varistor Voltage (V)


Varistor Voltage (V)

10
10 V9MLA0603, V9MLA0603L V12MLA0805L

V5.5MLA0603, V5.5MLA0603L V9MLA0805L

V3.5MLA0603 V5.5MLA0805L
V3.5MLA0805L
1
1 10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
Current (A)
Current (A)
Figure 5 Figure 6

FIGURE 5. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA0603 TO V30MLA0603 FIGURE 6. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA0805L TO V30MLA0805L

Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0805 to V26MLA0805 Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA1206 to V68MLA1206

1000 1000
Varistor Voltage (V)

100
100
Varistor Voltage (V)

V68MLA1206
V56MLA1206
V26MLA0805
10 V42MLA1206
V33MLA1206
V18MLA0805 V26MLA1206
10 V18MLA1206
V14MLA0805 V14MLA1206
V5.5MLA1206
V3.5MLA1206
V5.5MLA0805
V3.5MLA0805
1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
Current (A) 1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
Current (A)

Figure 7 FIGURE 7. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA0805 TO V26MLA0805 Figure 8


FIGURE 6. LIMIT V-1 CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA1206 TO V68MLA1206

Limit V-I Characteristic for V18MLA1210 to V120MLA1210

1000
MAXIMUM CLAMPING VOLTAGE
MAXIMUM LEAKAGE

100
Varistor Voltage (V)

V120MLA1210

10
V85MLA1210

V60MLA1210

V48MLA1210, V48MLA1210L

V30MLA1210, V30MLA1210L

V26MLA1210

V18MLA1210
1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
CURRENT (A)
Figure 9

FIGURE 9. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V18MLA1210 TO V120MLA1210

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Device Characteristics Clamping Voltage Over Temperature (VC at 10A)

At low current levels, the V-I curve of the multilayer


100
transient voltage suppressor approaches a linear (ohmic)
relationship and shows a temperature dependent effect.
At or below the maximum working voltage, the suppressor

CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)


V26MLA1206
is in a high resistance modex (approaching 106Ω at its
maximum rated working voltage). Leakage currents at
maximum rated voltage are below 100µA, typically 25µA;
for 0402 size below 20µA, typically 5µA.

V5.5MLA1206
Typical Temperature Dependance of the Haracteristic
Curve in the Leakage Region
100%
10
SUPPRESSOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


TEMPERATURE ( oC)
Figure 11
VNOM VALUE AT 25 oC (%)

FIGURE 12. CLAMPING VOLTAGE OVER TEMPERATURE


(VC AT 10A)

Energy Absorption/Peak Current Capability

Energy dissipated within the MLA Series is calculated


by multiplying the clamping voltage, transient current
o
50o 75o 100o 125 oC
10%
25
and transient duration. An important advantage of the
1E -9 1E -8 1E -7 1E -6 1E -5 1E -4 1E -3 1E -2
multilayer is its interdigitated electrode construction within
Figure 10 SUPPRESSOR CURRENT (ADC)
the mass of dielectric material. This results in excellent
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC
CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION current distribution and the peak temperature per energy
absorbed is very low. The matrix of semiconducting grains
Speed of Response
combine to absorb and distribute transient energy (heat)
(see Speed of Response). This dramatically reduces peak
The Multilayer Suppressor is a leadless device. Its
temperature; thermal stresses and enhances device
response time is not limited by the parasitic lead
reliability.
inductances found in other surface mount packages.
The response time of the ZNO dielectric material is less As a measure of the device capability in energy and peak
than 1ns and the MLA can clamp very fast dV/dT events current handling, the V26MLA1206A part was tested with
such as ESD. Additionally, in "real world" applications, multiple pulses at its peak current rating (3A, 8/20µs). At
the associated circuit wiring is often the greatest the end of the test,10,000 pulses later, the device voltage
factor effecting speed of response. Therefore, transient characteristics are still well within specification.
suppressor placement within a circuit can be considered
important in certain instances.
Repetitive Pulse Capability
Multilayer Internal Construction 100
PEAK CURRENT = 3A
8/20 s DURATION, 30s BETWEEN PULSES
FIRED CERAMIC
DIELECTRIC

V26MLA1206
VOLTAGE

METAL
ELECTRODES

METAL END
TERMINATION

DEPLETION
10
REGION
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
NUMBER OF PULSES
Figure 13
DEPLETION FIGURE 13. REPETITIVE PULSE CAPABILITY
REGION

Figure 12 GRAINS

FIGURE 11. MULTILAYER INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Lead (Pb) Soldering Recommendations

The principal techniques used for the soldering of Reflow Solder Profile
components in surface mount technology are IR Re-flow
and Wave soldering. Typical profiles are shown on the right. 250
250
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
MAXIMUM230°C
TEMPERATURE
The recommended solder for the MLA suppressor is 250
200 230°C
200
a 62/36/2 (Sn/Pb/Ag), 60/40 (Sn/Pb) or 63/37 (Sn/Pb). MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
40-80
SECONDS
40-80

°C°C
230°C SECONDS
Littelfuse also recommends an RMA solder flux. ABOVE 183°C

TEMPERATURE
200
150 ABOVE 183°C

TEMPERATURE
150
RAMP RATE40-80
SECONDS
RAMP RATE
Wave soldering is the most strenuous of the processes.

°C
<2°C/s
<2°C/s ABOVE 183°C

TEMPERATURE
To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to 150
100
100 PREHEAT DWELL
RAMP RATE
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process PREHEAT DWELL
<2°C/s
is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder 100
50
50 PREHEAT ZONE
PREHEAT ZONE
PREHEAT DWELL
process should be rigidly controlled.
50
0 PREHEAT ZONE
00
When using a reflow process, care should be taken to 0
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
ensure that the MLA chip is not subjected to a thermal Figure 14
0
TIME (MINUTES)
TIME (MINUTES)
gradient steeper than 4 degrees per second; the ideal 0 0.5
FIGURE1.0 1.5
14. REFLOW 2.0
SOLDER2.5PROFILE
3.0 3.5 4.0
FIGURE 14. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
gradient being 2 degrees per second. During the soldering Wave Solder Profile TIME (MINUTES)

process, preheating to within 100 degrees of the solder's FIGURE 14. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
peak temperature is essential to minimize thermal shock.
300
300
Once the soldering process has been completed, it is MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C
250 MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C
still necessary to ensure that any further thermal shocks 300
250
are avoided. One possible cause of thermal shock is hot
°C°C

200 MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C


printed circuit boards being removed from the solder 250
200
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE

process and subjected to cleaning solvents at room


°C

150
200
150
temperature. The boards must be allowed to cool gradually SECOND PREHEAT
TEMPERATURE

SECOND PREHEAT
to less than 50º C before cleaning. 100
150
100
SECOND PREHEAT
FIRST PREHEAT
50 FIRST PREHEAT
100
50

FIRST PREHEAT
0
50
00.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
Figure 15 TIME (MINUTES)
TIME (MINUTES)
0
0.0 0.5 1.0 15.1.5
FIGURE WAVE2.0SOLDER
2.5 PROFILE
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
FIGURE 15. WAVETIME SOLDER
(MINUTES)PROFILE
Lead–free (Pb-free) Soldering Recommendations
FIGURE 15. WAVE SOLDER PROFILE
Littelfuse offers the Nickel Barrier Termination option (see
Lead–free Re-flow Solder Profile
"N" suffix in Part Numbering System for ordering) for the 300
300 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C,
optimum Lead–free solder performance, consisting of a MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C,
TIME WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK
250 TIME WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK
Matte Tin outer surface plated on Nickel underlayer, plated 300
250
20 SECONDS MAXIMUM
20 SECONDS MAXIMUM
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
RAMP RATE260˚C,
on Silver base metal. RAMP RATE
°C°C

200 TIME WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK


<3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC
250
200 <3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC
TEMPERATURE

20 SECONDS MAXIMUM > 217˚C


TEMPERATURE

> 217˚C
The preferred solder is 96.5/3.0/0.5 (SnAgCu) with an RMA RAMP RATE
150
°C

<3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC


flux, but there is a wide selection of pastes and fluxes 200
150
TEMPERATURE

> 217˚C
available with which the Nickel Barrier parts should be 100
150
100 PREHEAT ZONE
compatible. PREHEAT ZONE
50
100
50
The reflow profile must be constrained by the maximums PREHEAT ZONE
in the Lead–free Reflow Profile. For Lead–free wave 0
50
00 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
soldering, the Wave Solder Profile still applies. 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
TIME (MINUTES)
0 TIME (MINUTES)
Note: the Lead–free paste, flux and profile were used for 0 FIGURE
1.0 16. LEAD-FREE
2.0 3.0 RE-FLOW
4.0 5.0
SOLDER 6.0 7.0
PROFILE
evaluation purposes by Littelfuse, based upon industry Figure 16 FIGURE 16. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW SOLDER PROFILE
TIME (MINUTES)

standards and practices. There are multiple choices of all FIGURE 16. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW SOLDER PROFILE
three available, it is advised that the customer explores the
optimum combination for their process as processes vary
considerably from site to site.
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Product Dimensions (mm)


PAD LAYOUT DIMENSIONS CHIP LAYOUT DIMENSIONS
C
E

B NOTE

D
L

W
A
NOTE : Avoid metal runs in this area, parts not recommended for use in applications using
NOTE:
Silver (Ag) epoxy paste. Avoid metal runs in this area.
Parts not recommended for use in
1210 Size
applications 1206 paste.
using silver epoxy Size 0805 Size 0603 Size 0402 Size
Dimension
IN MM IN MM IN MM IN MM IN MM
A 0.160 4.06 0.160 4.06 0.120 3.05 0.100 2.54 0.067 1.70
B 0.100 2.54 0.065 1.65 0.050 1.27 0.030 0.76 0.020 0.51
C 0.040 1.02 0.040 1.02 0.040 1.02 0.035 0.89 0.024 0.61
D (max.) 0.113 2.87 0.071 1.80 0.043 1.10 0.040 1.00 0.024 0.60
0.020 0.50 0.020 0.50 0.020 -/+ 0.50 -/+ 0.015 0.4 0.010 0.25
E
-/+0.010 -/+0.25 -/+0.010 -/+0.25 0.010 0.25 -/+0.008 -/+0.20 -/+0.006 -/+0.15
0.125 3.20 0.125 3.20 0.079 2.01 0.063 1.6 0.039 1.00
L
-/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.008 -/+0.20 -/+0.006 -/+0.15 -/+0.004 -/+0.10
0.100 2.54 0.060 1.60 0.049 1.25 0.032 0.8 0.020 0.50
W
-/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.011 -/+0.28 -/+0.008 -/+0.20 -/+0.060 -/+0.15 -/+0.004 -/+0.10

Part Numbering System


V 18 MLA 1206 X X X
PACKING OPTIONS (see Packaging table for quantities)
DEVICE FAMILY T: 13in (330mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
Littelfuse TVS Device H: 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
R: 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Paper Carrier Tape
MAXIMUMDC A: Bulk Pack
WORKING VOLTAGE
END TERMINATION OPTION
MULTILAYER SERIES N, F or No letter:
DESIGNATOR Nickel Barrier Option
DEVICE SIZE: (Matte Tin outer surface, plated on Nickel underlayer
0201 = .024 inch x .012 inch (0.6 mm x 0.3 mm) plated on silver base metal)
0402 = .04 inch x .02 inch (1.0 mm x 0.5 mm)
0603 = .063 inch x .031 inch (1.6 mm x 0.8 mm) CAPACITANCE OPTION
0805 = .08 inch x .08 inch (2.0 mm x 1.25 mm) No Letter: Standard
1206 = .126 inch x .063 inch (3.2 mm x 1.6 mm)
L: Low Capacitance Version
1210 = .126 inch x .1 inch (3.2 mm x 2.5 mm)

*NOTES:
1 V120MLA1210 standard shipping quantities are 1000 pieces per reel for the "H" option and 4000 pieces per reel for "T" option.
2 V3.5 MLA0603, V5.5MLA0603 and V9MLA0603 only available in "H," "T" and "A" packing options.

Packaging*

Quantity
Device Size 13” Inch Reel 7” Inch Reel 7” Inch Reel Bulk Pack
("T" Option) ("H" Option) ("R" Option) ("A" Option)
1812 4,000 N/A N/A N/A
1210 8,000 2,000 N/A 2,000
1206 10,000 2,500 N/A 2,500
0805 10,000 2,500 N/A 2,500
0603 10,000 2,500 4,000 2,500
0402 N/A N/A 10,000 N/A
*(Packaging) It is recommended that parts be kept in the sealed bag provided and that parts be used as soon as possible when removed from bags.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Series

Tape and Reel Specifications

PRODUCT
D0 P0 IDENTIFYING
For T and H Pack Options: PLASTIC CARRIER TAPE LABEL
P2 For R Pack Options: EMBOSSED PAPER CARRIER TAPE
E

F
W
K0 B0

EMBOSSMENT
TOP TAPE 8mm 178mm
P1 A0
t1 D1 NOMINAL OR 330mm
DIA. REEL

Dimensions in Millimeters
Symbol Description
0402 Size 0603, 0805, 1206 & 1210 Sizes
A0 Width of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
B0 Length of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
K0 Depth of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
W Width of Tape 8 -/+0.2 8 -/+0.3
F Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Cavity Centers 3.5 -/+0.05 3.5 -/+0.05
E Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Tape Edge 1.75 -/+0.1 1.75 -/+0.1
P1 Distance Between Cavity Centers 2-/+0.05 4 -/+0.1
P2 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers & Cavity Centers 2 -/+0.1 2 -/+0.1
P0 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers 4 -/+0.1 4 -/+0.1
D0 Drive Hole Diameter 1.55 -/+0.05 1.55 -/+0.05
D1 Diameter of Cavity Piercing N/A 1.05 -/+0.05
T1 Top Tape Thickness 0.1 Max 0.1 Max

NOTES:
• Conforms to EIA-481-1, Revision A
• Can be supplied to IEC publication 286-3

Disclaimer Notice - Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, users should independently evaluate the suitability of and
test each product selected for their own applications. Littelfuse products are not designed for, and may not be used in, all applications.
Read complete Disclaimer Notice at www.littelfuse.com/disclaimer-electronics.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

MLA Automotive Varistor Series RoHS

Description

The MLA Automotive Series of transient voltage surge


suppression devices is based on the Littelfuse Multilayer
fabrication technology. These components are designed
to suppress a variety of transient events, including those
specified in IEC 61000-4-2 or other standards used for
Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC). The MLA Automotive
Series is typically applied to protect integrated circuits and
other components at the circuit board level.
The wide operating voltage and energy range make the
MLA Automotive Series suitable for numerous applications
on power supply, control and signal lines.

Size Table The MLA Automotive Series is manufactured from


semiconducting ceramics, and is supplied in a leadless,
Metric EIA surface mount package. The MLA Automtove Series
1608 0603 is compatible with modern reflow and wave soldering
procedures.
2012 0805
3216 1206 It can operate over a wider temperature range than Zener
3225 1210
diodes, and has a much smaller footprint than plastic-
housed components.

Features
Absolute Maximum Ratings
• For ratings of individual members of a series, see device ratings and specifications table. • AEC-Q200 qualified • Rated for energy
MLA Auto • Halogen-Free and (10 x 1000µs)
Continuous Units
Series RoHS compliant • Inherent bi-directional
Steady State Applied Voltage: • Leadless 0603, 0805, clamping
DC Voltage Range (VM(DC)) 3.5 to 120 V 1206 and 1210 chip sizes • No plastic or epoxy
AC Voltage Range (VM(AC)RMS) 2.5 to 107 V • Multilayer ceramic packaging assures
construction technology better than UL94V-0
Transient:
flammability rating
Non-Repetitive Surge Current, 8/20µs • -55°C to +125°C
Waveform, (ITM)
up to 500 A operating temp. range • Standard low
capacitance types
Non-Repetitive Surge Energy,
• Operating voltage range
0.1 to 2.5 J available
10/1000µs Waveform, (WTM) VM(DC) = 3.5V to 120V
• Load Dump energy
• Rated for surge
-55 to rated per SAE
Operating Ambient Temperature Range (TA) ºC current (8 x 20µs)
+125 Specification J1113
-55 to
Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) ºC Applications
+150
Temperature Coefficient (αV) of Clamping • Suppression of • Provides on-board
<0.01 %/º C
Voltage (VC) at Specified Test Current inductive switching transient voltage
or other transient protection for ICS
events such as EFT and transistors
and surge voltage at • Used to help achieve
Additional Information the circuit board level electromagnetic
• ESD protection for IEC compliance of
61000-4-2, MIL-STD- end products
883c method 3015.7, • Replaces larger surface
and other industry mount TVS Zeners in
Datasheet Resources Samples specifications many applications

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Device Ratings and Specifications

Maximum Ratings (125º C) Specifications (25ºC)


Maximum
Maximum Jump Maximum Maximum Clamping Nominal
Load Typical
Continuous Start Non-repetitive Non-repetitive Voltage Voltage at
Dump Capacitance
Working Voltage Surge Current Surge Energy at 1A (or 1mA DC Test
Part Number Energy at f = 1MHz
Voltage (5 min) (8/20µs) (10/1000µs) as Noted) Current
(8/20µs)
VN(DC) VN(DC)
VM(DC) VM(AC) VJUMP WLD ITM WTM VC C
Min Max
(V) (V) (V) (J) (A) (J) (V) (V) (V) (pF)
V3.5MLA0603NHAUTO 3.5 2.5 -- -- 30 0.100 13.0 3.7 7.0 860
V3.5MLA0805NHAUTO 3.5 2.5 -- -- 120 0.300 13.0 3.7 7.0 1500
V3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO 3.5 2.5 -- -- 40 0.100 13.0 3.7 7.0 1080
V3.5MLA1206NHAUTO 3.5 2.5 -- -- 100 0.300 13.0 3.7 7.0 3000
V5.5MLA0603NHAUTO 5.5 4.0 -- -- 30 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 830
V5.5MLA0805NHAUTO 5.5 4.0 -- -- 120 0.300 17.5 7.1 9.3 1200
V5.5MLA0805LNHAUTO 5.5 4.0 -- -- 40 0.100 17.5 7.1 9.3 400
V5.5MLA1206NHAUTO 5.5 4.0 -- -- 150 0.400 17.5 7.1 9.3 2900
V9MLA0603NHAUTO 9.0 6.5 -- -- 30 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 210
V9MLA0805LNHAUTO 9.0 6.5 -- -- 40 0.100 25.5 11.0 16.0 400
V12MLA0805LNHAUTO 12.0 9.0 -- -- 40 0.100 29.0 14.0 18.5 210
V14MLA0603NHAUTO 14.0 10.0 -- -- 30 0.100 34.5 15.9 21.5 90
V14MLA0805NHAUTO 14.0 10.0 -- -- 120 0.300 32.0 15.9 20.3 560
V14MLA0805LNHAUTO 14.0 10.0 -- -- 40 0.100 32.0 15.9 20.3 320
V14MLA1206NHAUTO 14.0 10.0 -- -- 150 0.400 32.0 15.9 20.3 800
V18MLA0603NHAUTO 18.0 14.0 24.5 0.3 30 0.100 50.0 22.0 28.0 120
V18MLA0805NHAUTO 18.0 14.0 24.5 1 120 0.300 44.0 22.0 28.0 245
V18MLA0805LNHAUTO 18.0 14.0 24.5 0.7 40 0.100 44.0 22.0 28.0 180
V18MLA1206NHAUTO 18.0 14.0 24.5 1.5 150 0.400 44.0 22.0 28.0 1050
V18MLA1210NHAUTO 18.0 14.0 24.5 3 500 2.500 44.0 at 2.5 22.0 28.0 2500
V26MLA0603NHAUTO 26.0 20.0 27.5 0.4 30 0.100 60.0 31.0 38.0 50
V26MLA0805NHAUTO 26.0 20.0 27.5 1 100 0.300 60.0 29.5 38.5 110
V26MLA0805LNHAUTO 26.0 20.0 27.5 0.7 40 0.100 60.0 29.5 38.5 90
V26MLA1206NHAUTO 26.0 20.0 27.5 1.5 150 0.600 60.0 29.5 38.5 600
V26MLA1210NHAUTO 26.0 20.0 27.5 3 300 1.200 60.0 at 2.5 29.5 38.5 1260
V30MLA0603NHAUTO 30.0 25.0 29 0.4 30 0.100 74.0 37.0 46.0 45
V30MLA0805LNHAUTO 30.0 25.0 29 0.7 30 0.100 72.0 37.0 46.0 80
V30MLA1210NHAUTO 30.0 25.0 29 3 280 1.200 68.0 at 2.5 35.0 43.0 690
V30MLA1210LNHAUTO 30.0 25.0 29 3 220 0.900 68.0 at 2.5 35.0 43.0 500
V33MLA1206NHAUTO 33.0 26.0 36 1.5 180 0.800 75.0 38.0 49.0 380
V42MLA1206NHAUTO 42.0 30.0 48 1.5 180 0.800 92.0 46.0 60.0 340
V48MLA1210NHAUTO 48.0 40.0 48 3 250 1.200 105.0 at 2.5 54.5 66.5 400
V48MLA1210LNHAUTO 48.0 40.0 - - 220 0.90 105.0 at 2.5 54.5 66.5 320
V48MLA1206NHAUTO 48.0 40.0 48 1.5 180 0.90 100 54.5 66.5 180
V56MLA1206NHAUTO 56.0 40.0 48 1.5 180 1.00 120.0 61.0 77.0 150
V60MLA1210NHAUTO 60.0 50.0 48 3 250 1.50 130.0 at 2.5 67.0 83.0 230
V68MLA1206NHAUTO 68.0 50.0 48 1.5 180 1.00 140.0 76.0 90.0 130
V85MLA1210NHAUTO 85.0 67.0 48 3 150 2.50 180.0 at 2.5 95.0 115.0 160
V120MLA1210NHAUTO 120.0 107.0 48 3 125 2.00 260.0 at 2.5 135.0 165.0 80
NOTES:
1. 'L' suffix is a low capacitance and energy version; Contact your Littelfuse sales representative for custom capacitance requirements
2. Typical leakage at 25ºC<25µA, maximum leakage 100µA at VM(DC)
3. Average power dissipation of transients for 0603, 0805, 1206 and 1210 sizes not to exceed 0.05W, 0.1W, 0.1W and 0.15W respectively
4. Load dump :min. time of energy input 40ms, interval 60sec(the load dump time constant Td differs from the time constant of energy input; load dump rating for ISO 7637-2 pulse 5a and
ISO16750-2 Table 5A. Please contact Littelfuse.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Peak Current and Energy Derating Curve Peak Pulse Current Test Waveform for Clamping Voltage

When transients occur in rapid succession, the average


power dissipation is the energy (watt-seconds) per pulse 100

PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE


times the number of pulses per second. The power so
developed must be within the specifications shown
on the Device Ratings and Specifications Table for the
50
specific device. For applications exceeding 125°C ambient
temperature, the peak surge current and energy ratings
must be derated as shown below.
0
T
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

O1 TIME
T1
100 Figure 2 T2

80
01 = Virtual Origin of Wave
60
T = Time from 10% to 90% of Peak
40 FIGURE
T1 = Rise 2. Time
PEAK =PULSE
1.25 xCURRENT
T TEST WAVEFORM
FOR CLAMPING VOLTAGE
T2 = Decay Time
20
Example - For an 8/20 µs Current Waveform:
0 O1 = VIRTUAL ORIGIN OF WAVE
8µsFROM
t = TIME = T1 10%
= Rise Time
TO 90% OF PEAK
-55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
20µs =FRONT
t1 = VIRTUAL T2 = Decay Time
TIME = 1.25 xt
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( oC) t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO HALF VALUE
Figure 1
(IMPULSE DURATION)
FIGURE 1. PEAK CURRENT AND ENERGY
EXAMPLE:
DERATING CURVE FOR AN 8/20 s CURRENT WAVEFORM
8 s = t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT TIME
20 s = t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO
HALF VALUE

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0603NHAUTO to Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO to
V30MLA0603NHAUTO V30MLA0805LNHAUTO

1000 1000
V30MLA0805LNHAUTO
V30MLA0603NHAUTO V26MLA0805LNHAUTO
V26MLA0603NHAUTO V18MLA0805LNHAUTO
V18MLA0603NHAUTO
100 V14MLA0805LNHAUTO
100 V14MLA0603NHAUTO
Varistor Voltage (V)

Varistor Voltage (V)


V9MLA0603NHAUTO, 10
10 V9MLA0603LNHAUTO V12MLA0805LNHAUTO
V5.5MLA0603NHAUTO,
V9MLA0805LNHAUTO
V5.5MLA0603LNHAUTO
V3.5MLA0603NHAUTO
V5.5MLA0805LNHAUTO

V3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO
1
1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
Current (A) Current (A)
Figure 3 Figure 4

Limit V-I Characteristic for V3.5MLA0805NHAUTO to


FIGURE X. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA0603NHAUTO TO V30MLA0603NHAUTO
Limit V-I
FIGURE Characteristic
X. LIMIT forV3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO
V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA1206NHAUTO to
TO V30MLA0805LNHAUTO

V26MLA0805NHAUTO V42MLA1206NHAUTO

1000 1000

V30MLA0805LNHAUTO
V26MLA0805LNHAUTO
V18MLA0805LNHAUTO

100 V14MLA0805LNHAUTO

100 V48MLA1206NHAUTO
Varistor Voltage (V)

Varistor Voltage (V)

V68MLA1206NHAUTO

V56MLA1206NHAUTO
10
V12MLA0805LNHAUTO V42MLA1206NHAUTO
V42MLA1206
V33MLA1206
V33MLA1206NHAUTO
V9MLA0805LNHAUTO V26MLA1206
V26MLA1206NHAUTO
10 V18MLA1206
V18MLA1206NHAUTO
V5.5MLA0805LNHAUTO V14MLA1206
V14MLA1206NHAUTO
V5.5MLA1206
V5.5MLA1206NHAUTO
V3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO V3.5MLA1206
V3.5MLA1206NHAUTO
1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
Current (A)

Figure 5 1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
Current (A)

FIGURE X. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA0805LNHAUTO TO V30MLA0805LNHAUTO Figure 7


Limit V-I Characteristic for V18MLA1210NHAUTO to FIGURE 6. LIMIT V-1 CHARACTERISTIC FOR V3.5MLA1206 TO V68MLA1206

V48MLA1210NHAUTO

1000

100
Varistor Voltage (V)

V120MLA1210NHAUTO
V85MLA1210NHAUTO
V60MLA1210NHAUTO
V48MLA1210NHAUTO, V48MLA1210LNHAUTO

V30MLA1210NHAUTO, V30MLA1210LNHAUTO

V26MLA1210NHAUTO
10
V18MLA1210NHAUTO

1
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
CURRENT (A)

Figure 6

FIGURE X. LIMIT V-I CHARACTERISTIC FOR V18MLA1210NHAUTO TO V120MLA1210NHAUTO

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Device Characteristics Clamping Voltage Over Temperature (VC at 10A)

At low current levels, the V-I curve of the multilayer


100
transient voltage suppressor approaches a linear (ohmic)
relationship and shows a temperature dependent effect.
At or below the maximum working voltage, the suppressor

CLAMPING VOLTAGE (V)


V26MLA1206
is in a high resistance modex (approaching 106Ω at its
maximum rated working voltage). Leakage currents at
maximum rated voltage are below 100µA, typically 25µA.

Typical Temperature Dependance of the Haracteristic


Curve in the Leakage Region V5.5MLA1206
100%
SUPPRESSOR VOLTAGE IN PERCENT OF

10
VNOM VALUE AT 25 oC (%)

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


TEMPERATURE ( oC)
Figure 9
FIGURE 12. CLAMPING VOLTAGE OVER TEMPERATURE
(VC AT 10A)

Energy Absorption/Peak Current Capability

25
o
50o 75o 100o 125 oC
Energy dissipated within the MLA Automotive Series is
10%
1E -9 1E -8 1E -7 1E -6 1E -5 1E -4 1E -3 1E -2
calculated by multiplying the clamping voltage, transient
SUPPRESSOR CURRENT (ADC) current and transient duration. An important advantage of
Figure 8
FIGURE 10. TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC the multilayer is its interdigitated electrode construction
CURVE IN THE LEAKAGE REGION
within the mass of dielectric material. This results in
excellent current distribution and the peak temperature per
energy absorbed is very low. The matrix of semiconducting
Speed of Response
grains combine to absorb and distribute transient energy
(heat) (see Speed of Response). This dramatically reduces
The Multilayer Suppressor is a leadless device. Its response
peak temperature; thermal stresses and enhances device
time is not limited by the parasitic lead inductances found
reliability.
in other surface mount packages. The response time of
the ZNO dielectric material is less than 1ns and the MLA As a measure of the device capability in energy and peak
Automotive Series can clamp very fast dV/dT events such as current handling, the V26MLA1206 part was tested with
ESD. Additionally, in "real world" applications, the associated multiple pulses at its peak current rating (150A, 8/20µs). At
circuit wiring is often the greatest factor effecting speed of the end of the test,10,000 pulses later, the device voltage
response. Therefore, transient suppressor placement within characteristics are still well within specification.
a circuit can be considered important in certain instances.

Repetitive Pulse Capability


Multilayer Internal Construction
FIRED CERAMIC 100
DIELECTRIC
PEAK CURRENT = 3A
8/20 s DURATION, 30s BETWEEN PULSES

V26MLA1206
VOLTAGE

METAL
ELECTRODES

METAL END
TERMINATION

DEPLETION
REGION
10
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
DEPLETION
NUMBER OF PULSES
REGION Figure 11
FIGURE 13. REPETITIVE PULSE CAPABILITY
Figure 10 GRAINS

FIGURE 11. MULTILAYER INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Lead (Pb) Soldering Recommendations

The principal techniques used for the soldering of Reflow Solder Profile
components in surface mount technology are IR Re-flow
and Wave soldering. Typical profiles are shown on the right. 250
250 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
MAXIMUM230°C
TEMPERATURE
The recommended solder for the MLA Automotive Series 250
200 230°C
suppressor is a 62/36/2 (Sn/Pb/Ag), 60/40 (Sn/Pb) or 63/37 200 40-80
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
SECONDS

°C °C
40-80
(Sn/Pb). Littelfuse also recommends an RMA solder flux. 230°C ABOVE 183°C
SECONDS

TEMPERATURE
200
150 ABOVE 183°C

TEMPERATURE
150 RAMP RATE40-80
Wave soldering is the most strenuous of the processes. SECONDS

°C
<2°C/s RATE
RAMP ABOVE 183°C

TEMPERATURE
To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to 150
100 <2°C/s
100 PREHEAT DWELL
RAMP RATE
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process PREHEAT DWELL
<2°C/s
is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder 100
50 PREHEAT ZONE
50 PREHEAT
PREHEAT DWELL
ZONE
process should be rigidly controlled.
500 PREHEAT ZONE
When using a reflow process, care should be taken 00 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
to ensure that the MLA Automotive Series chip is not Figure 120
TIME (MINUTES)
TIME (MINUTES)
subjected to a thermal gradient steeper than 4 degrees 0 0.5
FIGURE1.0 1.5
14. REFLOW 2.0
SOLDER2.5PROFILE
3.0 3.5 4.0
per second; the ideal gradient being 2 degrees per second. FIGURE 14. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
TIME (MINUTES)
Wave Solder Profile
During the soldering process, preheating to within 100
FIGURE 14. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
degrees of the solder's peak temperature is essential to
minimize thermal shock. 300
300
MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C
Once the soldering process has been completed, it is 250
300 MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C
250
still necessary to ensure that any further thermal shocks
°C °C

200 MAXIMUM WAVE 260°C


are avoided. One possible cause of thermal shock is hot 250
TEMPERATURE

200
TEMPERATURE

printed circuit boards being removed from the solder


°C

150
200
process and subjected to cleaning solvents at room 150 SECOND PREHEAT
TEMPERATURE

SECOND PREHEAT
temperature. The boards must be allowed to cool gradually 100
150
to less than 50º C before cleaning. 100
SECOND PREHEAT
FIRST PREHEAT
50 FIRST PREHEAT
100
50
FIRST PREHEAT
0
500.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
0
Figure 130.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 TIME
2.0(MINUTES)
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
0 TIME (MINUTES)
0.0 0.5 1.0 15.1.5
FIGURE WAVE2.0SOLDER
2.5 PROFILE
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
FIGURE 15. WAVETIME SOLDER
(MINUTES)PROFILE
Lead–free (Pb-free) Soldering Recommendations
FIGURE 15. WAVE SOLDER PROFILE
Littelfuse offers the Nickel Barrier Termination option (see
Lead–free Re-flow Solder Profile
"N" suffix in Part Numbering System for ordering) for the 300
300 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE 260˚C,
optimum Lead–free solder performance, consisting of a TIME WITHIN
MAXIMUM 5˚C OF PEAK 260˚C,
TEMPERATURE
Matte Tin outer surface plated on Nickel underlayer, plated 250 20 SECONDS
TIME MAXIMUM
WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK
300
250 20 SECONDS MAXIMUM
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
RAMP RATE260˚C,
on Silver base metal.
°C °C

200 TIME WITHIN 5˚C OF PEAK


<3˚C/s
RAMP RATE 60 - 150 SEC
250
TEMPERATURE

200 20 SECONDS MAXIMUM


<3˚C/s 60 > 217˚C
- 150 SEC
The preferred solder is 96.5/3.0/0.5 (SnAgCu) with an RMA
TEMPERATURE

RAMP RATE > 217˚C


150
°C

<3˚C/s 60 - 150 SEC


flux, but there is a wide selection of pastes and fluxes 200
150
TEMPERATURE

> 217˚C
available with which the Nickel Barrier parts should be 100
150 PREHEAT ZONE
compatible. 100
PREHEAT ZONE
50
100
The reflow profile must be constrained by the maximums 50 PREHEAT ZONE
in the Lead–free Reflow Profile. For Lead–free wave 0
50 0
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
soldering, the Wave Solder Profile still applies. 0 1.0 2.0 TIME
3.0(MINUTES)
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
0 TIME (MINUTES)
Note: the Lead–free paste, flux and profile were used for 0 FIGURE
1.0 16. LEAD-FREE
2.0 3.0 RE-FLOW
4.0 5.0
SOLDER 6.0 7.0
PROFILE
evaluation purposes by Littelfuse, based upon industry Figure 14 FIGURE 16. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW SOLDER PROFILE
TIME (MINUTES)

standards and practices. There are multiple choices of all FIGURE 16. LEAD-FREE RE-FLOW SOLDER PROFILE
three available, it is advised that the customer explores the
optimum combination for their process as processes vary
considerably from site to site.
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Product Dimensions (mm)

PAD LAYOUT DIMENSIONS CHIP LAYOUT DIMENSIONS


C
E

B NOTE

D
L

W
A
NOTE : Avoid metal runs in this area, parts not recommended for use in applications using
NOTE:
Silver (Ag) epoxy paste. Avoid metal runs in this area.
Parts not recommended for use in
1210 Size
applications 1206 paste.
using silver epoxy Size 0805 Size 0603 Size
Dimension
IN MM IN MM IN MM IN MM
A 0.160 4.06 0.160 4.06 0.120 3.05 0.100 2.54
B 0.100 2.54 0.065 1.65 0.050 1.27 0.030 0.76
C 0.040 1.02 0.040 1.02 0.040 1.02 0.035 0.89
D (max.) 0.113 2.87 0.071 1.80 0.043 1.10 0.040 1.00
0.020 0.50 0.020 0.50 0.020 -/+ 0.50 -/+ 0.015 0.4
E
-/+0.010 -/+0.25 -/+0.010 -/+0.25 0.010 0.25 -/+0.008 -/+0.20
0.125 3.20 0.125 3.20 0.079 2.01 0.063 1.6
L
-/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.008 -/+0.20 -/+0.006 -/+0.15
0.100 2.54 0.060 1.60 0.049 1.25 0.032 0.8
W
-/+0.012 -/+0.30 -/+0.011 -/+0.28 -/+0.008 -/+0.20 -/+0.060 -/+0.15

Part Numbering System

V 18 MLA 1206 X X X AUTO

DEVICE FAMILY AUTOMOTIVE SERIES


Littelfuse TVSS Device PACKING OPTIONS (see Packaging table for quantities)
MAXIMUM DC H: 7in (178mm) Diameter Reel, Plastic Carrier Tape
WORKING VOLTAGE END TERMINATION INDICATOR
N: Nickel Barrier
MULTILAYER SERIES
(Matte Tin outer surface, plated on Nickel underlayer
DESIGNATOR
plated on silver base metal)
DEVICE SIZE: CAPACITANCE OPTION
0603 = .063 inch x .031 inch (1.6 mm x 0.8 mm) No Letter: Standard
0805 = .08 inch x .08 inch (2.0 mm x 1.25 mm) L: Low Capacitance Version
1206 = .126 inch x .063 inch (3.2 mm x 1.6 mm)
1210 = .126 inch x .1 inch (3.2 mm x 2.5 mm)

Packaging*

Quantity
Device Size 7” Inch Reel
("H" Option)
1210 2,000
1206 2,500
0805 2,500
0603 2,500
*(Packaging) It is recommended that parts be kept in the sealed bag provided and that parts be used as soon as possible when removed from bags.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > MLA Automotive Series

Tape and Reel Specifications

PRODUCT
D0 P0 IDENTIFYING
For T and H Pack Options: PLASTIC CARRIER TAPE LABEL
P2 For R Pack Options: EMBOSSED PAPER CARRIER TAPE
E

F
W
K0 B0

EMBOSSMENT
TOP TAPE 8mm 178mm
P1 A0
t1 D1 NOMINAL OR 330mm
DIA. REEL

Dimensions in Millimeters
Symbol Description
0603, 0805, 1206 & 1210 Sizes
A0 Width of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
B0 Length of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
K0 Depth of Cavity Dependent on Chip Size to Minimize Rotation.
W Width of Tape 8 -/+0.3
F Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Cavity Centers 3.5 -/+0.05
E Distance Between Drive Hole Centers and Tape Edge 1.75 -/+0.1
P1 Distance Between Cavity Centers 4 -/+0.1
P2 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers & Cavity Centers 2 -/+0.1
P0 Axial Drive Distance Between Drive Hole Centers 4 -/+0.1
D0 Drive Hole Diameter 1.55 -/+0.05
D1 Diameter of Cavity Piercing 1.05 -/+0.05
T1 Top Tape Thickness 0.1 Max

NOTES:
• Conforms to EIA-481-1, Revision A
• Can be supplied to IEC publication 286-3

Disclaimer Notice - Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, users should independently evaluate the suitability of and
test each product selected for their own applications. Littelfuse products are not designed for, and may not be used in, all applications.
Read complete Disclaimer Notice at www.littelfuse.com/disclaimer-electronics.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > AUML Series

AUML Varistor Series RoHS

Description
The AUML Series of Multilayer Transient Surge Suppressors
was specifically designed to suppress the destructive
transient voltages found in an automobile. The most common
transient condition results from large inductive energy
discharges. The electronic systems in the automobile, e.g.
antilock brake systems, direct ignition systems, engine
control, airbag control systems, wiper motor controls, etc.,
are susceptible to damage from these voltage transients and
thus require protection. The AUML transient suppressors
have temperature independent suppression characteristics
affording protection from -55ºC to 125ºC.
The AUML suppressor is manufactured from semiconducting
Size Table ceramics which offer rugged protection and excellent
transient energy absorption in a small package. The devices
Metric EIA are available in ceramic leadless chip form, eliminating lead
3216 1206 inductance and assuring fast speed of response to transient
surges. These Suppressors require significantly smaller
3225 1210 space and land pads than Silicon TVS diodes, offering greater
4532 1812 circuit board layout flexibility for the designer.
5650 2220 Also see the Littelfuse ML, MLN and MLE Series of
Multilayer Suppressors.

Applications Features

• Suppression of MLN Series) • AEC - Q200 compliant • High peak surge


inductive switching • RoHS Compliant current capability
• Provides on-board
or other transient transient voltage • Load Dump energy • Low Profile, compact
events such as EFT protection for ICs rated per SAE industry standard chip
and surge voltage at and transistors Specification J1113 size; (1206, 1210, 1812
the circuit board level and 2220 Sizes)
• Used to help achieve • Leadless, surface
• ESD protection for electromagnetic mount chip form • Inherent bidirectional
components sensitive compliance of clamping
• “Zero” Lead Inductance
to IEC 61000-4-2 end products • No Plastic or epoxy
(Level 4), MIL-STD- • Variety of energy
packaging assures
883C, Method 3015.7, • Replace larger surface ratings available
better than 94V-0
and other industry mount TVS Zeners in • No temperature derating flammability rating
specifications (See many applications up to 125ºC ambient
Also the MLE or

Absolute Maximum Ratings


• For ratings of individual members of a series, see Device Ratings and Specifications chart.
Continuous AUML Series Units
Steady State Applied Voltage:
DC Voltage Range (VM(DC)) 18, 24, 48, 68 V
Transient:
Load Dump Energy, (WLD) 1.5 to 25 J
Jump Start Capability (5 minutes), (VJUMP) 48 V
Operating Ambient Temperature Range (TA) -55 to +125 O
C
Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) -55 to +150 O
C
Temperature Coefficient (αV) of Clamping Voltage (VC) at Specified Test Current <0.01 %/OC
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > AUML Series

Device Ratings and Specifications

Maximum Ratings (125ºC) Specifications (25ºC)


Maximum Jump Start Load Dump Nominal Varistor Voltage Maximum Maximum Clamping
Continuous Voltage Energy at 10mA Standby Leakage Voltage (VC) at
Part Number DC Voltage (5 Min) (10 Pulses) DC Test Current (at 13V DC) Test Current (8/20µs)
VM(DC) VJUMP WLD VN(DC) Min VN(DC) Max IL VC IP
(V) (V) (J) (V) (V) (µA) (V) (A)
V18AUMLA1206 18 24.5 1.5 23 32 50 40 1.5
V18AUMLA1210 18 24.5 3.0 23 32 50 40 1.5
V18AUMLA1812 18 24.5 6.0 23 32 100 40 5.0
V18AUMLA2220 18 24.5 25 23 32 200 40 10.0
V24AUMLA2220 24 24.5 25 32 39 200 60 10.0
V48AUMLA2220 48 24.5 25 54.5 66.5 200 105 10.0
V68AUMLA2220 68 24.5 25 77.2 94.4 200 135 10.0
NOTES: 1. Average power dissipation of transients not to exceed 0.1W, 0.15W, 0.3W and 1W for model sizes 1206, 1210, 1812 and 2220 respectively.
2. Load dump :min. time of energy input 40ms, interval 60sec(the load dump time constant Td differs from the time constant of energy input; load dump rating for ISO 7637-2 pulse
5a, please contact littelfuse.
3. Thermal shock capability per Mil-Std-750, Method 1051: -55ºC to 125ºC, 5 minutes at 25ºC, 25 Cycles: 15 minutes at each extreme.
4. For application specific requirements, please contact Littelfuse.

Current, Energy and Power Derating Curve Peak Pulse Current Test Waveform for Clamping Voltage
When transients occur in rapid succession, the average
power dissipation is the energy (watt-seconds) per pulse 100
PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE

times the number of pulses per second. The power so


developed must be within the specifications shown on the
Device Ratings and Characteristics Table for the specific
device. Certain parameter ratings must be derated at high 50
temperatures as shown below.

100 0
T
90 O1 TIME
PERCENT OF RATED VALUE

80 T1
MAXIMUM LEAKAGE MAXIMUM CLAMPING VOLTAGE
70 100
Figure 2 T2 1210/1206
60 1812
2220
50
01 = Virtual Origin of Wave
40
T = Time from 10% to 90% of Peak
1210/1206
30
T1 = Rise Time = 1.25 x T
VOLTAGE

20
10 FIGURE
1812
2. PEAK PULSE CURRENT TEST WAVEFORM
T2220
2
= Decay Time
FOR CLAMPING VOLTAGE
10
Example - For an 8/20 µs Current Waveform:
0
-55 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 8µs = T
O1 = VIRTUAL 1
= Rise
ORIGIN Time
OF WAVE
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (oC) t = TIME FROM
20µs = T10%= TO 90% OF
Decay PEAK
Time
Figure 1 t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT TIME = 1.25 x t
1
2

FIGURE 1. CURRENT, ENERGY AND POWER DERATING


10µA
t2 = 100µA
VIRTUAL 1mA
TIME TO VALUE 100mA
HALF10mA 1A 10A 100A
CURRENT
Maximum Leakage Current/Clamping Voltage Curve
CURVE for Typical V-I(IMPULSE
Characteristics
DURATION)of the V18AUMLA2220 at -40ºC,
AUML Series at 25ºC 25ºC, FIGURE
85ºC and 125ºC
2. MAXIMUM LEAKAGE CURRENT/CLAMPING VOLTAGE CURVE FOR AUML SERIES AT 25 C
EXAMPLE:
o

FOR AN 8/20 s CURRENT WAVEFORM


8 s = t1 = VIRTUAL FRONT TIME
100 20 s = t2 = VIRTUAL TIME TO
MAXIMUM LEAKAGE MAXIMUM CLAMPING VOLTAGE
100 HALF VALUE
1210/1206
1812
2220

1210/1206 -40oC
VOLTAGE

10
VOLTAGE

10 25oC
1812
2220

85oC

125 oC

1
1 1µA 10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A 1000A
10µA 100µA 1mA 10mA 100mA 1A 10A 100A
Figure 3 CURRENT Figure 4 CURRENT

FIGURE 2. MAXIMUM LEAKAGE CURRENT/CLAMPING VOLTAGE CURVE FOR AUML SERIES AT 25 oC FIGURE 3. TYPICAL V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE V18AUMLA2220 at -40 oC, 25oC, 85oC AND 125 oC
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
100
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > AUML Series

Temperature Effects Speed of Response


In the leakage region of the AUML suppressor, the device The clamping action of the AUML suppressor depends
characteristics approaches a linear (ohmic) relationship on a conduction mechanism similar to that of other
and shows a temperature dependent affect. In this region semiconductor devices (i.e. P-N Junctions). The apparent
the suppressor is in a high resistance mode (approaching slow response time often associated with transient
106Ω) and appears as a near open-circuit. Leakage currents voltage suppressors (Zeners, MOVs) is often due to
at maximum rated voltage are in the microamp range. parasitic inductance in the package and leads of the
device and less dependent of the basic material (Silicon,
When clamping transients at higher currents (at and above
ZNO). Thus, the single most critical element affecting the
the 10mA range), the AUML suppressor approaches
response time of any suppressor is its lead induc-tance.
a 1-10 characteristic. In this region the characteristics
The AUML suppressor is a surface mount device, with no
of the AUML are virtually temperature independent.
leads or external packaging, and thus, it has virtually zero
Figure 3 shows the typical effect of temperature on
inductance. The actual response time of a AUML surge
the V-I characteristics of the AUML suppressor.
suppressor is in the 1 to 5 ns range, more than sufficient
for the transients which are likely to be encountered in an
Load Dump Energy Capability automotive environment.
A Load Dump transient occurs when the alternator load
in the automobile is abruptly reduced. The worst case Multilayer Internal Construction
scenario of this transient occurs when the battery is
disconnected while operating at full rated load. There
are a number of different Load Dump specifications in
existence in the automotive industry, with the most
common one being that recommended by the Society of
Automotive Engineers, specification #SAE J1113. Because
of the diversity of these Load Dump specifications
Littelfuse defines the Load Dump energy capability of
the AUML suppressor range as that energy dissipated by
the device itself, independent of the test circuit setup.
The resultant Load Dump energy handling capability
serves as an excellent figure of merit for the AUML Figure 5
suppressor. Standard Load Dump specifications require
a device capability of 10 pulses at rated energy, across
a temperature range of -40ºC to +125ºC. This capability AUML Load Dump Pulsing over a Temperature Range of
requirement is well within the ratings of all of the AUML -55ºC to +125ºC
Series (Figure 6 on next page).
The very high energy absorption capability of the AUML V(10mA)
suppressor is achieved by means of a highly controlled 35
2220 = 25J
manufacturing process. This technology ensures that a 30 1812 = 6J
1210 = 3J
large volume of suppressor material, with an interdigitated 25

layer construction, is available for energy absorption in an


VOLTAGE

20
extremely small package. Unlike equivalent rated Silicon
15
TVS diodes, the entire AUML device volume is available to
dissipate the Load Dump energy. 10

5
Hence, the peak temperatures generated by the Load
Dump transient are significantly lower and evenly 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
dissipated throughout the complete device (Figure 5 # OF LOAD DUMPS
below). This even energy dissipation ensures that there Figure 6
FIGURE 5. AUML LOAD DUMP PULSING OVER A TEMPERATURE RANGE OF -55˚C TO 125˚C
are lower peak temperatures generated at the P-N grain
boundaries of the AUML suppressor.
There are a number of different size devices available in the V(10mA)
35
AUML Series, each one with a load dump energy rating, 2220 = 25J 1812 = 6J
which is size dependent. 30

1210 = 3J
25
VOLTAGE

20

15

10
© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.
Specifications are subject to change without notice. 5
Revised: 09/14/17
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1,000 2,000
# OF LOAD DUMPS
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > AUML Series

Explanation of Terms
Maximum Continuous DC Working Voltage (VM*(DC)++)
This is the maximum continuous DC voltage which may
be applied, up to the maximum operating temperature
(125ºC), to the ML suppressor. This voltage is used as the
reference test point for leakage current and is always less
than the breakdown voltage of the device.

Load Dump Energy Rating WLD+


This is the actual energy the part is rated to dissipate
under Load Dump conditions (not to be confused with the
"source energy" of a Load Dump test specification).

Maximum Clamping Voltage VC+


This is the peak voltage appearing across the suppressor
when measured at conditions of specified pulse current
and specified waveform (8/20µs). It is important to note
that the peak current and peak voltage may not necessarily
be coincidental in time.

Leakage Current IL+


In the nonconducting mode, the device is at a very
high impedance (approaching 106Ω at its rated working
voltage) and appears as an almost open circuit in the
system. The leakage current drawn at this level is very
low (<25µA at ambient temperature) and, unlike the
Zener diode, the multilayer TVS has the added advantage
that, when operated up to its maximum temperature,
its leakage current will not increase above 500µA.

Nominal Voltage VNDC++


This is the voltage at which the AUML enters its
conduction state and begins to suppress transients.
In the automotive environment this voltage is
defined at the 10mA point and has a minimum
(VN(DC) MIN) and maximum (VN(DC) MAX) voltage specified.

Additional Information

Datasheet Resources Samples

© 2017 Littelfuse, Inc.


Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Revised: 09/14/17
Metal-Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
Surface Mount Multilayer Varistors (MLVs) > AUML Series

Lead (Pb) Soldering Recommendations

The principal techniques used for the soldering of


Reflow Solder Profile
components in surface mount technology are IR Re-flow
and Wave soldering. Typical profiles are shown on the right.

The termination option available for each solder technique is:


230

Reflow Wave 230


1. Nickel Barrier (preferred) 1. Nickel Barrier (preferred)
2. Silver/Platinum

The recommended solder for the AUML suppressor is


a 62/36/2 (Sn/Pb/Ag), 60/40 (Sn/Pb) or 63/37 (Sn/Pb).
Littelfuse also recommends an RMA solder flux. 230

Wave soldering is the most strenuous of the processes.


To avoid the possibility of generating stresses due to Figure 9
thermal shock, a preheat stage in the soldering process FIGURE 8. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE
is recommended, and the peak temperature of the solder
FIGURE 8. REFLOW SOLDER PROFILE<