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Running Head: ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO

LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE


RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS
1

ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND

GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP

SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS

BS Psychology 4B

Bejer, Trisha Mae T.

Martin, Claudine Bernadette C.

Sia, Michelle Angela C.

Sulit, Jeorge Chezka E.

Psychology Department

College of Social Sciences and Philosophy

Bulacan State University

City of Malolos, Bulacan


ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 2
INTRODUCTION

Pride month was recently celebrated in Manila, Philippines. A huge step for a

Catholic conservatives dominated country. It is said that pride month’s been celebrated

since 1994 but only this year’s festivities created uproar, due to Supreme Court

concluding oral arguments on same sex marriage. The LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,

Transgender, Queer) community is slowly being recognized by the Philippine society.

Numerous Western studies regarding romantic relationships focused on heterosexual

couples with few studies investigating lesbian and gay couples (Buzzella, Whitton and

Thomposon,2012; Mohr, Selterman, & Fassinger,2013). The researchers were interested

in contributing to more studies that would create room for understanding about LGBTQ

specifically Filipino Lesbian couples. In this particular study Attachment style and love

style among gay-men and lesbian Filipino couples is compared and tested as predictor of

Relationship Satisfaction.

Proponents of Attachment Theory Bowlby (1969) and Ainsworth et al. (1978)

defined attachment as bonds or relationship with primary caregivers. A theory that has

been used in understanding relationships such as romantic, parent-child, sibling and

attachment to university Zamora (2015). Hazan and Shaver (1987) applied Bolwby’s

theory in conducting research on romantic relationship of adult and adolescence as an

attachment process. The results identified Attachment styles categorized to three: Secure,

Anxious-Ambivalent and Avoidant that correlated with love experiences and relationship

characteristics.
ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 3
According to Kelley (1985), love is defined as the constellation of behaviors, cognitions,

and emotions that are connected in retaining close relationship with a specific person;

love is characterized in romantic relationships. Lee (1973) proponent of Colors of Love

theory categorized that there are six different love styles: Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma,

Mania, and Agape. Similar to attachment theory love style is utilized in a lot of studies

aiming to understand romantic relationship.

Looking in the romantic aspect of relationships; Relationship satisfaction in its simplest

meaning distinguishes the level of happiness of a couple (Zamora, 2015). That can be

characterized in accordance of one’s self disclosure; it is an individual’s feelings and

emotion towards their partner (Miller & Todder,2011).

In the Philippines terms “bakla and tomboy” describe gay men and lesbians

synonymously to label members of LGBTQ (Nadal,2014) in line with insufficient

awareness and understanding about the community recent survey by SWS (Social

Weather Survey) showed that 61 percent of Filipinos are not in favor of legalizing same-

sex marriage in the Philippines. Concluding arguments on Same-sex marriage; shed light

to the researchers intent to gain more understanding regarding Lesbian couples that may

help in Counseling Psychology similar to the aim of a study by Zamora(2015) discussed

below.

A study by Zamora (2015) measured love styles, attachment, respect, and gay

stress as predictor of relationship satisfaction. The results indicated that Anxiety would

correlate positively in love styles Mania and Ludus and correlate negatively with love

style Eros. Result shown that for gay men, the more they permitted anxiety in the negative
ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 4
view of themselves, the more they endorsed having multiple partners and being less

committed (ludus) ,and possessive and jealous in (mania) in the romantic relationships.

Statement of the Problem

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following:

1.1 Age

1.2 Age Gap

1.3 Length of relationship as a couple

1.4 Number of previous partners

2. How may attachment style of same-sex couples be classified into:

1.1 Secure

1.2 Anxious-Ambivalent

1.3 Avoidant

3. How may love style of same-sex couples be classified into:

1.4 Eros

1.5 Ludus

1.6 Storge

1.7 Mania

1.8 Agape

1.9 Pragma

4. What is the difference of attachment style of Filipino lesbian couples in

comparison to gay couples?

5. What is the role of attachment style and love style to relationship satisfaction of
Filipino lesbian couples?
ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 5

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to contribute to the society by means of investigating

members of LGBTQ specifically Lesbians. To aid the Filipino citizens gain more

understanding and awareness to an issue time-relevant by discussing studies regarding

members of the LGBTQ community and the field of counseling psychology.

Theoretical Framework

The present study will be anchored on the following theories which are closely

relevant to the researchers’ study:

Attachment theory of Bowlby (1969) tackled the relationship which individuals

experience in their early stage of development; in terms of attachment to primary

caregivers commonly their parents. The theme of Bowlby’s theory is based on the idea

that sense of security in infants is rooted from responsive and present mothers. He noted

that physical and emotional responsiveness and presence of attachment figure are

necessary in the child’s attachment. Ainsworth et. al categorized types to 3 Secure

Anxious-Ambivalent and Avoidant.

Review of Related Literature


ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 6

Attachment and Attachment Style


Love and Love Style
Relationship Satisfaction
Attachment Style and Relationship Satisfaction
Love Style and Relationship Satisfaction

Methodology

Research Design

The researchers will use quantitative

Sampling

Instrumentation

Love Attitude Scale


Romantic Attachment Scale

Data Collection and Analysis Procedure


ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LOVE STYLE AMONG FILIPINO LESBIAN AND
GAY COUPLES: A COMPARISON PREDICTING THE RELATIONSHIP
SATISFACTION OF LESBIANS 7
Protection of Human Rights

References