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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Agro-waste used as an Additive in Concrete

Natural fibers, due to their abundant production, easy handling, flexibility, and cheap
availability are under consideration from past few decades. The use of natural fibers in concrete
composites can result in the alternative eco-friendly, sustainable, and economical civil engineering
construction materials. Natural fibers are comparable with artificial/steel fibers to be used as
dispersed reinforcement in cement composites for having the improved toughness. (Muhammad
Usman Farooqi, 2018)

Fibers put up variety of advantages in a concrete project. The idea of making use of natural
fibers as a replacement or additive in concrete can enhance its durability and strength. In today’s
generation, using of natural fibers are highly recommended. Since it is efficient and has a wide
availability in our country, it could supply a renewable concrete at a low cost. Fibers in concrete
helped to control cracking due to plastic and drying shrinkage. But applying natural fiber in
concrete carries certain challenges though.

2.2 Rice Straw

Rice straw is one of the major agricultural byproduct and available all parts of the world.
It is the vegetative part of the rice plant that is further natural and maintainable resource that could
be used to create fibers in concrete and it is removed through harvesting. Commonly, rice straw is
used either as a livestock feed, burned at the field, or incorporated into the soil. Each of these rice
straw utilization methods presents challenges. (Ataie, 2018)

Normally, rice straw is burned out in the field by the farmers. Due to the burning of rice
straw in the field, it will radiate a large amount of air pollutants (inorganic and organic gases)
which are venomous in nature. The utilization of rice straw has been improved for heat and power
generation in many places.

2.3 Impact of Rice Straw as Additive Material

With the rapid growth of our country economy,

2.4 Analysis of Rice Straw Ash for Part Replacement of OPC in PQC

Rice has a good proportion of rice straw that can be converted into ash by cheap burning
techniques. Literature shows that the potential for OPC to be replaced with mineral mixture is
strong for Rice Straw Ash (RSA). In order to explore the possibilities of using rice straw ash in
PQC, much less was done and even a smaller number of these studies are concerned with the use
of unprocessed RSA (RSA that is not ground to very fine particle sizes, or is not produced by an
optimized burning process) in PQC. This study examines the chemical, microstructural, thermal
and structural analysis of burnt (open air) rice straw ash as a substitute component of OPC in PQC.
Uncontrolled burnt to ash was locally available rice straw. Because several of those studies have
found that uncontrolled burning of rice straw ash tends to be low reactive and therefore not optimal
in use in PQC. Furthermore, ash grinding was found to increase the strength of RSA-PQC
significantly. Different tests were performed in rice straw ash from Agricultural Farm (IIT) India,
locally available, such as the XRF, SEM, TGA and XRD. The results of the tests were compared
to the researchers work. (Pandey, 2016)
2.5 Effect of Rice Straw Ash as Admixture of OPC Mortar

2.6 Use of Rice Straw Ash as Pozzolanic Material in Cement Mortar

To improve the properties of cement mortar and cement concrete, admixtures are added to
the cement mix, which are either natural or industrial compounds. The scarcity of conventional
concrete materials in many countries is a problem. Recently there have been considerable efforts
to use indigenous materials and waste in concrete worldwide. One of these materials is the rice
straw, which can be used as a concrete replacement material under controlled burning and if
sufficiently ground. (Surajit, 2013)

During growth, rice plants absorb silica from the soil and accumulate it into their structures.
It is this silica, concentrated by burning at high temperatures removing other elements, which
make the ash so valuable. Amongst the agricultural waste, rice straw has a very high potential for
the production of very effective secondary raw material. Their random availability, high content
of silica and relatively low costs are of the essence.

2.7 Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Straw Ash

2.8 Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Straw Ash

2.9 Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Straw Ash

2.10 Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Straw Ash