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INTERNATIONAL ISO

STANDARD 1328-1

Second edition
2013-09-01

Cylindrical gears ISO system of

Part 1:

teeth

de la denture

Reference number
ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

© ISO 2013
ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT


ISO 2013

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Contents Page

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
............................................................................................................................................................ 2
............................................................................................................................................ 2
............................................................................................................................................................................ 6
3.3 Pitch deviations ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
............................................................................................................................................................................... 10
................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

............................................................................... 17
........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
........................................................................................................................... 17
....................................................................................................................... 19
4.4 Considerations for elemental measurements ........................................................................................................... 19
............................................................................................. 24
4.6 Acceptance and evaluation criteria .................................................................................................................................... 25
4.7 Presentation of data ........................................................................................................................................................................ 25
................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25
........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25
5.2 Use of formulae.................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.3 Tolerance formulae .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Annex (normative) ................................................................................................................ 28

Annex (normative)
analysis method .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 32
Annex (informative) .................................................................................................................... 35

Annex (informative) ......................................................................................................................................... 37


Annex (normative) ................................................................................................................................ 40

Annex (informative) .................................................................................................................... 43

Annex (informative) Adjacent pitch difference, f .......................................................................................................................... 48


............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 50

ISO 2013 All rights reserved iii


ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

casting vote.

Gears.

ISO 1328.

:


1)

1)
of the title of Part 1.

iv ISO 2013 All rights reserved


ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

advice on appropriate inspection methods was given in ISO/TR 10064-1 (listed in Clause 2).

ISO 2013 All rights reserved v


INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Part 1:

ISO 1328
ISO/TR
of ISO/TR ISO 1328

1 Scope

of increasing tolerance. Formulae for tolerances are provided in 5.3 These tolerances are applicable to
the following ranges:
z

mn

where
d

mn

is the helix angle.

See Clause 4 for required and optional measuring methods.

ISO 2013 All rights reserved 1


ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

see ISO/TR 10064-4.

ISO/TS

in other documents and International Standards.

in Table 1 Table 2 The text of terms used in Table 1


form groups of logical terms. Subscript “T” is used for tolerance values.

Term Unit
Active tip diameter dNa mm
Active tip diameter point on line of action Na –
u
uT
ui
Amount of root relief C
Amount of tip relief C
Base diameter db mm
Contact pattern evaluation cp –
Contact point tangent at base circle T –

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Term Unit
pi
p
pT
Facewidth (axial) mm
A –
deg

mm

mm

Individual radial measurement ri


Length of path of contact g mm
Maximum length of tip relief mm
Maximum length of root relief mm
Measurement diameter dM mm

Minimum length of tip relief mm
Minimum length of root relief mm
Normal module mn mm
Number of teeth z –
Number of pitches in sector –
tM mm
Pitch point C –
Pitch span deviation
dCf mm

mm

mm

a i”
a i”

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Term Unit
Reference diameter d mm
Root form diameter dFf mm

Runout r
Sector pitch deviation
Sector pitch tolerance
is
isT
is
isT
Single pitch deviation p
Single pitch deviation (individual) pi
Single pitch tolerance pT
dNf mm
Nf –
Tip corner chamfer mm
Tip diameter da mm
Tip form diameter dFa mm

s mm
dw mm
wt deg
a

Term Unit
A –
Facewidth (axial) mm
C Pitch point –
C Amount of tip relief
C Amount of root relief
cp Contact pattern evaluation –
d Reference diameter mm
da Tip diameter mm
db Base diameter mm
dCf mm
dFa Tip form diameter mm
dFf Root form diameter mm
dM Measurement diameter mm

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Term Unit
dNa Active tip diameter mm
dNf mm
dw mm
i” a

is
isT
p
pi
Sector pitch deviation
Sector pitch tolerance
pT
Pitch span deviation
r Runout

i” a

is
isT
p Single pitch deviation
pi Single pitch deviation (individual)
pT Single pitch tolerance
u
ui
uT
g Length of path of contact mm
Tip corner chamfer mm
Number of pitches in sector –

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Term Unit

Maximum length of tip relief mm
Minimum length of tip relief mm
Maximum length of root relief mm
Minimum length of root relief mm
mm
mm
mn Normal module mm
Na Active tip diameter point on line of action –
Nf –
tM mm
ri Individual radial measurement
s mm
T Contact point at tangent at base circle –
z Number of teeth –
wt deg
deg
mm
mm
a

3.2 General dimensions


3.2.1
reference diameter
d
diameter of reference circle

3.2.2

dM
diameter of the circle concentric with the datum axis (3.2.7 where the probe is in contact with the tooth

3.2.3

4.4.6 and Annex C.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

3.2.4

4.4.6 and Annex C.

3.2.5
roll path length
length of roll
linear distance along base tangent line from its contact with the base circle to the given point on the

Figure 1

3.2.6
length of path of contact
g
(3.2.5 dNf dFa

3.2.7

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
evaluation length Diameters
da tip
Points on line of action db base
a tip dCf
Cf dFa
Fa tip form dFf
Ff root form dNf
Nf
T
line of action

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

3.3.1

pi
algebraic difference between the actual pitch and the corresponding theoretical pitch in the transverse
plane on the measurement circle of the gear

pi as there are teeth.

Figure 2.

Key
theoretical
actual

NOTE tM = M

3.3.2

p
maximum absolute value of all the (3.3.1 observed

p = max | pi|.

3.3.3

individual index deviation


pi
n
of the relevant arc
n varies from to z pi
as there are teeth.

3.3.1 of the
same n

Figure 2 and Annex D.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

3.3.4

total index deviation


p
largest algebraic difference between the (3.3.3

p = max. pi min. pi.

3.4.1.1

dCf
design
(3.4.2.1)
dNf
the last paragraph of 4.5.

Figures 1 and 3.

3.4.1.2
tip form diameter
dFa

Figures 1 and 3.

3.4.1.3

shall include the (3.4.1.1)and the (3.4.1.2)


Figure 3.

a) External gear

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
1

3.4.1.4

section of the (3.4.1.3 3.4.1.1 dCf


3.4.1.2 dFa
Figures 4 to 8 4.4.8 and ISO 21771.

3.4.1.5

(3.2.5 of the (3.4.1.4 in transverse plane


Figure 1.

3.4.1.6

(3.4.1.3 deviates from the (3.4.2.1)


Figures 4 to 8.

Key
Points on line of action
Cf
Nf
a
a tip

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Figure 4.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Figure 4.

3.4.2.1

the other axis has the roll length along the tangent to the base circle

line. In Figures 4 to 8

Figures 4 to 8.

3.4.2.2

line (or curve) that represents the shape of the (3.4.2.1


trace over the (3.4.1.4)
4.4.8.2 for the method to be used.

3.4.2.3

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.4.2.1 which enclose the (3.4.1.3
over the (3.4.1.4)

Figures 4 to 8 and 4.4.8.2.

3.4.2.4

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.4.2.2 which enclose the


(3.4.1.3 over the (3.4.1.4)

Figures 4 to 8 and 4.4.8.2.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

3.4.2.5

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.4.2.1 which intersect the extrapolated mean
(3.4.2.2 at the (3.4.1.1 dCf da

Figures 4 to 8.

3.5.1.1

during the helix measurement


3.5.1.2

for the application.

4.4.8.4.

3.5.1.3

axial length of the (3.5.1.2)


3.5.1.4

(3.5.1.1 deviates from the (3.5.2.1)


Figures 9 to 13.

3.5.2.1
design helix

other axis has the facewidth

Figures 9 to 13.

3.5.2.2
mean helix line
line (or curve) that represents the shape of the (3.5.2.1
4.4.8.4 for the method to be used.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
measured helix
mean helix line
facsimile of design helix
facsimile of mean helix line

Figure 9.

Figure 9.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Figure 9.

Figure 9.

3.5.2.3

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.5.2.1 which enclose the (3.5.1.1
over the (3.5.1.2)

Figures 9 to 13 and 4.4.8.4.

3.5.2.4

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.5.2.2


(3.5.1.1 over the (3.5.1.2)

Figures 9 to 13 and 4.4.8.4.

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3.5.2.5

distance between two facsimiles of the (3.5.2.1 which intersect the extrapolated
line (3.5.2.2

Figures 9 to 13.

4.4.8.4 for the method to be used.

4.1 General

for unassembled gears.

agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser. When applications require measurements

prior to manufacturing the gear.


4.6.1

Table 3

and measurement costs. Measuring methods and practices for spur and helical gears are discussed in
ISO/TR 10064-1.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Parameter Location of
tolerance
Elemental:
p 5.3.2 3.3.4
p Single pitch 5.3.1 3.3.2
5.3.3.3 3.4.2.3
5.3.3.2 3.4.2.4
5.3.3.1 3.4.2.5
5.3.4.3 3.5.2.3
5.3.4.2 3.5.2.4
5.3.4.1 3.5.2.5
r Runout E.4 E.3
Sector pitch D.5 D.2
u
Composite:
is F.1.6 Annex F
is F.1.5 F.1.5
cp Contact pattern (see ISO/TR 10064-4) –
Size:
s –

Tables 4 and 5.
Table 4

used when evaluating gears.

Diameter
mm
10 to 11 p p s s c pb i ´´a i ´´a
to 9 p p s s c pb is is
d
p p s
to 6 s c pb is is

d 000 to 11 p p s p p s or c pb)
a

b
agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Method designator
Elemental:
p Two probe All teeth
Single probe All teeth
p: Single pitch Two probe All teeth
Single probe All teeth
Three teeth

Three teeth

Composite:
is – All teeth
is All teeth
tooth-to-tooth –
cp: Contact pattern – Three places
Sizes:
s Chordal measurement Three teeth
Measurement over or between Two places
pins
Span measurement Two places
Composite action test All teeth

— the measurement method to be used from among the applicable methods described in ISO/TR 10064-
Table 5

Table 5.

of the measuring process should be determined.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

— required measuring practices.

compensated for.

ISO/TR 10064-3.

for measurements and associated tolerances. The location and orientation of the measurement diameter

and b) inclined relative to the transverse plane at the base helix angle.

4.4.4 Direction of tolerance

measurement values shall be compensated for if the actual measurement direction and the tolerance
4.4.8.2 4.4.8.4 and 4.4.8.6 for sign
conventions and the reporting of values.

dM

tangent to the base circle.

dM 3.2.2 as the location for the


measurement of helix and pitch parameters (also see 4.4.3 and 4.4.4). The measurement diameter shall
be recorded on the inspection record. Since the tolerance values are calculated based on the reference

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

for external gears:


(1)

for internal gears:


(2)

where
dM

da

mn

3.2.3 and 3.2.4

(3)

(4)

where

ISO/TS 16610-1 and ISO 16610-21.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

See Annex C for additional information.

rate limits the wavelength of surface irregularities which can be observed. The number of data points

dCf

Figure 14).

Key
Points on line of action
Cf
Nf
a

[see
Figures 4 b [see Figures 4 c

deviation the result is extrapolated to the tip diameter.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

4.4.8.4 Helix analysis

Minus material outside the helix


Figure 15).

to the ordinates of the design helix. The mean helix line is used to determine [see Figures 9 b
[see Figures 9 c

spur gears are deemed (positive) if right hand and (negative) if left hand.

case the pitch measurement diameter should be the appropriate contacting diameter for the selected

d Clause 5
irrespective of the measurement diameter.

than the theoretical position is considered plus (+) deviation.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

inspection records.

Distinction is not made as to the direction or algebraic sign of this reading. Such distinction would

— measurement diameter if different from the recommendation in 4.4.5

in Table 5

dNf

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

ISO 1328 shall


be as follows:

4.6.3 Tolerances

given in Clause 5.

4.6.4 Acceptance criteria

4.6.6 Additional characteristics


In certain applications there can be additional characteristics that might require tolerances in order

Annexes D to .

4.7 Presentation of data

from theoretical pure involute with the design pressure angle or how the design or measured helix

is not important.

5.1 General
5.3.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

5.2.1 Range of application

Clause 1 5.3 shall not

the manufacturer and purchaser.

5.2.2 Step factor

The step factor between two consecutive classes is 2 Values of the next higher (or lower) class are
2
A
where A is the

Values calculated from Formulae (5) to (12) (in 5.3) shall be rounded as follows:

in 5.3 shall be converted to ten thousandths of an inch and then rounded according to the rules for
micrometres (i.e. substitute “ten thousandths of an inch” for “micrometre” in the rules above). Parameters
in Formulae (5) to (12) are intended to be entered in millimetres.

5.3.1 Single pitch tolerance, pT

pT

(5)

pT

pT

(6)

shall be calculated using Formula (7). This tolerance shall be applied as


plus/minus (±) value.

(7)

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

shall be calculated using Formula (8):

(8)

(9)

5.3.4 Helix tolerances

5.3.4.1 Helix slope tolerance,

plus/minus (±) value.

(10)

5.3.4.2 Helix form tolerance,

(11)

5.3.4.3 Helix tolerance, total,

for helix slope and helix form:

(12)

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex A
(normative)

A.1 General

Figure A.1). For the calculation


and
considered for the plus material condition for form and total deviation. The length of these areas shall

Key
C amount of tip relief Points on line of action
C amount of root relief a tip
maximum length of tip relief Cf
minimum length of tip relief a tip form
maximum length of root relief f root form
minimum length of root relief

Figure A.2 c

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Figure A.2 b

Key
Points on line of action
Cf
a tip form
a tip

Figure A.2 a

(see Figure A.3).


are used. The areas between

regression is calculated on the deviations from the design helix according to the sum of the least squares

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
I datum face maximum length of end relief
II non-datum face minimum length of end relief
C amount of end relief
C amount of end relief
maximum length of end relief
minimum length of end relief

[see Figure A.4 c

Figure A.4 b

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

the actual helix [see Figure A.4 a

Key
measured helix
facsimile of design helix
mean helix line
facsimile of mean helix line

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex B
(normative)

analysis method

Clause 5

NOTE Clauses 3 and 4


line even though

Figure B.1). The calculation of the


parabola is executed within and C

Key
involute

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

NOTE This curve is the basis of the determination of and C .

[see 3.3.10 and Figure B.2 a


4.4.8.2 for plus material conditions.

diameter [see Figure B.2 b

, using the second order method is determined in the


same manner as given in 4.4.8.2.
C , is used to determine the

(B.1)

C
C

Figure B.2 c

Key
Points on line of action
Cf
Nf
a tip form
a tip

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

B.3 Second order helix analysis

The calculation of the parabola is executed within


evaluation of and C

NOTE This curve is the basis of the determination of and C .

[see Figure B.3 a 4.4.8.4 for


plus material conditions.

[see Figure B.3 b

, using the second order method are determined in the


same manner as in 4.4.8.4.
C , is used to determine the
helix slope deviation according to Formula (B.2):
(B.2)

C
C
line and parallel line which is tangent to the mean second order helix curve [see Figure B.3 c

Key
measured helix
mean second order helix curve
facsimile of mean second order helix curve

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex C
(informative)

C.2 Filtering

of measurement results.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

of sinusoidal waveform with wavelength equal to the long-wavelength cutoff will be transmitted.

4.4.6).
It is also advantageous to be able to view the measurement data with different (or no) mathematical

4.4.6.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex D
(informative)

application of sector pitch deviation.

case where z .

p4.

NOTE When

(D.1)
8
where

z is the number of teeth in the gear.

The smallest useful value of is 2. Parameter

between the two teeth comprising the sector pitch deviation is shorter than the theoretical distance is
considered minus (-) deviation. condition wherein the distance between the two teeth comprising
the sector pitch deviation is longer than the theoretical distance is considered plus (+) deviation.
The measurement direction for sector pitch deviation is along the arc of the measurement diameter
dM

deviation) value and the most negative individual cumulative pitch deviation (index deviation) value
pitches (
pitches as there are teeth.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

D.4 Comparison to similar parameters


It is important to understand that parameter
such as pitch span deviation Pitch span deviation is equal to the algebraic difference between the
pitches.
spaces is used. For z windows of length are used and (maximum
reading minus minimum reading) is determined for each window for all values inside the window.
For z/
and last values are considered to determine the difference.
NOTE The tolerance for

Figure D.1 That Figure

for

pS4
and pS4

Key
1 pitch sector with largest tooth deviation
n tooth number
p total cumulative pitch deviation

pS4

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

(D.2)

where

pT

recommended range of application for sector pitch tolerance follows the same restrictions as those
pT.

(D.3)

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex E
(normative)

This annex provides the tolerance formula and range of application.

ri
ri

Figure E.2).
r i as there are tooth spaces.

from the pitch measurement.

dM

r
r i Figure E.1

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
1
n tooth space number

rT

rT

(E.1)

where the range of application is restricted as follows:


tolerance classes to 11
z

mn

direction along tangent to the base circle. The intersection of the two involutes for each tooth space

Figure E.2

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex F
(informative)

F.1.1 General
This annex is provided as discussion of gear transmission error (deviation) and to give default
is(design). Transmission error is the

motion or control of noise and vibration. When considering tolerances for no-load total transmission

mating teeth (matching of involute shape) is the prime source.

There are two alternative methods to determine these maximum and minimum tolerances:

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

F.1.4 Method A

F.1.5 Method B

amplitude shall not be greater than isTmax


than isTmin
point of the motion curve within one pitch of the gear set being measured.

isT

(F.1)

The value of isTmin is the larger one of:

(F.2)

(F.3)

The range of application is restricted as follows:

mn

d.

isT (micro radians) 000 isT (micrometres)/d (mm)


(F.4)

is(design)

F.2 for additional information.

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

isT

isT

(F.5)

isT

mn

Figure F.1 1 and 2 are detected

z
(F.6)
z

Key
1
2 reading device
3 calculation of transmission error
4
5 fourier transform

shown in Figure F.2

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
1 tooth pitch
2 one revolution of pinion

Figure F.3 shows the high-

is min and is max Figure F.4 shows the Fourier transformed deviations. Sharp

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Annex G
(informative)

Adjacent pitch difference, f

ui

ui

difference between the individual single pitch deviations of two consecutive pitches (see ).

G.1.2 Adjacent pitch difference, u


u ui.

uT

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Key
pi individual single pitch deviation
ui
j
n pitch number

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

gear measuring instruments

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ISO 1328-1:2013(E)

Price based on 50 pages

ISO 2013 All rights reserved