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PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL ANXIETY AS CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS

TO DEPRESSION: IMPLICATION TO STUDENTS


ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

A Thesis

Presented to the
Faculty of the College of Education
JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
Siocon Campus

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
BACHELOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Jennifer E. Moso
Judy Ann C. Tumanda
Renson B. Torres

October, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL SHEET ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

CHAPTER 1 PROBLEMS AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction 1

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 3

Statement of the Problems 4

Research Hypothesis 4

Significance of the Study 5

Scope and Delimitation of the Study 8

Definition of Terms 8

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature 10
Related Studies 11

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design 13

Research Respondents 13

Research Environment 14

Research Instrument 14

Research Validation 15

Data Gathering Procedures 15

Statistical Data 16
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to the people behind all the
accomplishment and realization of the research papers entitled “THE PEER PRESSURE AND
SOCIAL ANXIETY AS A CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO DEPRESSION:
IMPLICATION TO STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE” which contributed much
effort and time in the accomplishment of the research study. To name a few;

DR. CHONA F. TORREFRANCA, the Campus Administrator of Jose Rizal Memorial

State University – Siocon Campus, for the incomparable zeal and for the motivating us in the field of

supervision;

DR. SERGIO A. TABILIRAN, JR, Dean, College of Education, for his boundless effort in

administrating us in this struggle;

DR. ULYSSES SILLERO, Research Director, for being perseverance in our delays and

giving us insights in undertaking the research work;

MRS. MARILYN S. ESPEJO, Research Adviser, for her untiring effort in encouraging us

to do our research study;

To our parents and siblings, for their boundless love and financial support to this research

study;

And most of all, to the Almighty Creator, for the gift of understanding we have received

from his grace and blessings and guiding us to the path where we are right now.

Thank you very much and God bless you all.

The Researchers
Dedication

The researchers would like to give tribute to the Almighty God for showering us with

blessings to be able for us do the work with persistence, for giving us knowledge and fortitude,

without His guide this study would not be possible. This research study is also untiringly dedicated

to our cherished families and siblings for their vigorous support and love for being our motivation in

fulfilling our goals, and to those persons who have reinforced us in one way or the other in the

success of this research work. Thank you very much. We owe this entire endeavor to you.

God bless you all.

The Researchers
Chapter 1

PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

Peer pressure and social anxiety are two factors that affects the individual behavior and even

causes some misunderstanding and negative outcome in individual’s life. Sometimes it causes harm

that can trigger an individual fear of which may lead to some serious depression that may affect their

academic performance. But how these unwanted acts could be eliminated in individuals’ lives in

order to perform well in school and able to achieve the main objective in learning? As a student, it is

not easy in finding ways just to overcome the unnecessary acts but with the full determination and

perseverance in coping up with their fear, with the comfort and support of the parents, the negative

fear would be out of their way.

Social anxiety is the fear of negative evaluations by others in social situations. Social anxiety

causes one to perceive that others will think that they are inadequate and will reject him/her and this

leads to the feelings of apprehension, self – consciousness, and emotional distress (Leitenberg,

1990). On the other hand, interpersonal influences, such as peer pressure plays an important role in

the development of materialism among adolescents. One of the most important factors that affect

adolescence is the social environment of the adolescents. Peer pressure means being influenced or

pushed over by friends to do something you do or do not wish to do (Mangleburg, Doney and

Bristol, 2004).

The influence of other people throughout a person’s life is an unbroken process that forms

part of individual’s socialization in all stages of life. Adolescence is one of the most important
periods of person’s life in which he or she is most susceptible to change. The concept of peer

influence in this period is associated with the process of interaction between peers, in which children

and young people accept characteristics of those peers for whom they feel sympathy (Dishon and

Dodge, 2005).

Peer pressure is a multidimensional constructs, because adolescents perceive it in a different

areas of their life: participation in family activities, school activities, in activities with peers,

conforming to peer norms (conforming in dressing, listening to music) and risk behaviors (Brown,

1982; Brown, Clasen, 1985).

According to Teachman and Allen (2007) evaluated psychosocial, prospective predictors of

social anxiety symptoms and fears of negative evaluation. Results suggested that lack of perceived

social acceptance predicts subsequent explicit social anxiety.

Social anxiety and peer pressure can predict materialism in both male and female

adolescents. Personal relative deprivation refers to the dissatisfaction and resentment resulting from

belief that one is deprived of desired and deserved outcomes compared with what others have (Smith

and Pettigrew, 2014; Smith, Pettigrew, Pippin and Bialosiewicz, 2012).

Peer groups provide support, security, membership, autonomy, self – expression and

common experiences to adolescents, and peer pressure is “the influences and pressures adolescents

feel from their peers”. Adolescents inevitably look to their peers for approval and support

(Adriaansz, 2002).
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

According to the Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954), people have the drive to

evaluate themselves by comparison with others when objective means are not available. When

adolescents feel inferior in terms of social comparison, it leads to social anxiety in them, indirectly

increasing for more materialistic possessions.

According to Chadda and Sengupta (2002), social anxiety and peer pressure were found

positively related to each other. They investigated various factors that influence and encourage

young teenagers to start smoking or use other tobacco products.

According to Self – Presentation Theory (Leary, 1995), proposes that individuals experience

social anxiety when they are encouraged to make a desirable impression on other persons, such as

their peers. This is because the impressions that people make on other persons have significant

implications for how they are evaluated in everyday life; people are understandably stimulated to

convey certain impressions of them and to avoid making certain impressions.

According to Evaluation Apprehension Theory (Cottrell, 1968), the concern to be positively

evaluated from significant others leads to anxiety and individual strives for more materialistic

possessions to keep away from providing reasons for a negative evaluation.

The conceptual paradigm is divided into three parts which represents the entire components

of the study conducted by the researchers in relation to the social anxiety and peer pressure as the

contributory factor to depression. The first frame represents the dependent variable which is the

implication to students’ academic performance; second frame is the moderator variable which is the

students of Jose Rizal Memorial State University – Siocon Campus, and the last frame is about
independent variable which is the peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory factors to

depression.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to assess the factors that affect the students’ academic performance in

relation to Peer Pressure and Social Anxiety as Contributory Factors to Depression: Implication to

Students Academic Performance. Specifically, it sought to answers the following questions.

1. What is the profile of the respondents as to:

1.1 sex;

1.2 age; and

1.3 year level?

2. What are the factors that affect the academic performance of the students?

3. What are the implications of peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory factors to

depression in students’ academic performance?

4. Is there a significant difference between the peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory

factors to depression: implication to students’ academic performance?

Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the peer pressure and social anxiety as

contributory factors to depression: implication to students’ academic performance.


Significance of the Study

The primary goal of the study is to identify the factor that affects the students’ academic

performance in school. The researchers would like also to assess the peer pressure and social anxiety

as contributory factors to depression: implication to students’ academic performance in relation to

learning ability in the school. The researchers also attempt to differentiate the factors that would

inflict to the adolescents lifestyle. Specifically, this study will be beneficial to the following:

Students/Pupils

This study will provide the students with full understanding the different factors that affect

their lifestyle especially in learning. This will also serve as their guide in eliminating the negative

sides of their habits and know the intervention to overcome their fear and faced their anxiety.

Teachers

Through this research study, the teachers were able to find intervention and prevention to the

unwanted and unnecessary behaviors of the students towards their learning ability. This study also

provides the teachers with enough knowledge on how to handle situation when these things would

strike in the middle of the discussion.

School Official

With this study, the school officials could assess the performance and identify the students’

effects of peer pressure and social anxiety in their journey in learning. The school officials can

suggest some intervention in order to prevent this disturbance in the life of the students.
Future Researchers

This study will heighten the future researchers who would wish to trail in conducting a

research study. This will serve as the future reference of the study for the students and other

researchers who wanted to go beyond of what the study all about. This study will give the

researchers the insight of what would be the next step and things to do after completion of the work.
Dependent Variable

Implication to Students Academic


Performance

Moderator Variable

JRMSU Students

Independent Variable

Peer Pressure and Social Anxiety as


Contributory Factors to Depression

Figure 1. The Conceptual Paradigm of the Study


Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was focused on the Peer Pressure and Social Anxiety as Contributory Factors to

Depression: Implication to Students’ Academic Performance. The study will be conducted to the

students of Jose Rizal Memorial State University – Siocon Campus and who were enrolled in the

academic year 2018 - 2019. The setting of the study is on JRMSU – Siocon Campus, Manaol,

Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte.

Definition of Terms

The following terms would significantly help the readers to understand more as those are

presented and operationally defined:

Academic – refers to a member of an institution of learning; courses of study taken at school

or college.

Anxiety – refers to fear or nervousness about what might happen; a fearful concern or

interest.

Contributory - refer to a helping to cause something.

Depression – refers to a serious medical condition in which a person feels very sad,

hopeless, and unimportant and often is unable to live in a normal way.

Factors – it is something that helps produce or influence a result; one of the things that cause

something to happen.

Implication – a possible future effect or result; something that is suggested without being

said directly; something that is implied.


Learning – it refers to the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying,

practicing, being taught, or experiencing something; the activity of someone who learns.

Peer – a person who belongs to the same age group or social group as someone else; one that

is of equal standing with another.

Performance – an activity that a person or group does to entertain an audience; the act of

doing a job, an activity, etc.

Pressure – it refers to the weight or force that is produced when something presses or pushes

against something else.

Social – it is relating to or involving activities in which people spend time talking to each

other or doing enjoyable things with each other; relating to people or society in genral.

Students – refer to the respondents of the research study in the College of Education who are

presently enrolled from first year to fourth year college.


Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature and studies that have relevance and significance to

present the study. It gives more specific and accurate information about the study. These materials

are sourced from books, articles, journal and online browsing.

Related Literature`

For socially anxious youths, high levels of perceived peer use in conjunction with high levels

of affiliation was associated with greater alcohol use on average and more frequent episodic drinking

(Anderson, Tomlinson, Robinson, and Brown, 2011).

Social comparison leads to feeling of resentment and dissatisfaction. They place importance

on acquiring money and possessions to compensate for the sense of that they are getting less than

they deserve relative to others. Research shows that believing one to be worse off than others is

aversive (Callan, Kim, and Matthews, 2015).

Peer pressure may be defined as the insistence and encouragement of the same age group

individuals to make individual to do something (Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar, 2000).

Social support protects from the effect of stressful event through supporting individual to

change stressful situation, the meaning of stressors and emotional reactions. The most important

support source of students consists of parents, peers and teachers (Yildirim, 2004).
Related Studies

In the study conducted by Wallace and Alden (1995) entitled “Social Anxiety and Standard

Setting following Social Success or Failure” states that, persons with more pronounced social

anxiety often doubt in their own capability of creating desired impression on other people and

believe they cannot meet the expectations other people have from them.

According to Rudolph et al., (2000) in his study “Toward an Interpersonal Life – Stress

Model of Depression” states that, the depression could be a consequence of experience of pressure

and social anxiety, i.e. a result of accumulated stress triggered by interaction of social and

inadequate relationships. However, through the introduction of the block variables for assessment of

parental behavior as predictor, the importance of depression is lost and social anxiety becomes an

important predictor of susceptibility to peer pressure.

According to the study conducted by Leary and Kowalski (1995) entitled “Social Anxiety”

states that the adolescent’s desire to be liked and accepted by his peers (friends) while doubting in

own capability of realizing these aspirations is correlated with the concept of social anxiety. At the

same time, we can also assume that these circumstances from good grounds for susceptibility to peer

pressure.

On other hand, according to the study conducted by Cohen and Pristein (2006) entitled “Peer

Contagion of Aggression and Health – Risk Behavior among Adolescent Males” showed in their

study that adolescents with more social anxiety are more inclined to conforming to peers regardless

of the social status of peers who exert pressure.


The present study and the past study greatly discussed on the important factors that

contributed to the individual’s life and the effects of peer pressure and social anxiety that leads to

some sort of depression in the academic arena of learning. The study discusses certain factors that

would be very interesting to know on how does our social lifestyle affects our leraning capability as

a student and how our peers influences us either in the right manner or the other side with a negative

outcomes.

The differences of the present study from the past study was the number of respondents

involved in the research study and the setting of the study where it was conducted, the duration of

the research conducted and how the main objective of the study being achieved.
Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research methodology to be used by the researchers in conducting

the research study. This section consists of the following topics: research design, research

respondents, research environment, research instrument, research validation, data gathering

procedures and statistical tools.

Research Design

This research study employed the descriptive design which is used to evaluate the data that

will be collected by the researchers through the constructed questionnaires which will be given to the

respondents to the study entitled, “Peer Pressure and Social Anxiety as Contributory Factors to

Depression: Implication to Students’ Academic Performance”.

Research Respondents

The respondents of the research study are the students of Jose Rizal Memorial State

University – Siocon Campus namely: College of Education, College of Arts and Sciences and the

College of Industrial Technology who were enrolled in the academic year 2018 – 2019 and with a

population of 1,200 students and a total of 923 sample size of respondents which will be dealt using

the slovin formula.


Table 1. Total Number of Respondents

Name of Department Population Sample Size Rank

College of Education 400 308 2

College of Arts and Sciences 420 323 1

College of Industrial Tech. 380 292 3

Total 1200 923

Research Environment

The research study will be conducted in Jose Rizal Memorial State University – Siocon

Campus composed of the three departments namely: College of Education, College of Arts and

Sciences and the College of Industrial Technology respectively. The setting of the study is located in

Manaol, Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte

Research Instrument

The researchers will employ the questionnaire checklist accompanied with the personal

information data sheet to gather the necessary information to be used by the researchers in validating

the responses of the respondents. The researchers will be using self – constructed survey

questionnaire checklist for validation and reliability of the data and information in conducting the

research study. The questionnaire checklist will consist of the following: (1) Profile of the

Respondents; (2) Factors that affect the academic performance of the students; (3) Implications of

peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory factors to depressions; (4) Significant difference
between the peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory factors to depression: implication to

students’ academic performance.

Research Validation

The draft questionnaire constructed by the researchers was first submitted to the research

adviser for checking the format and at the same time to the English critic for improving and revising

the questions and grammar. The questionnaire – checklist will be subjected for pre – testing and

examined by the adviser and statistician to ensure the validity and reliability before it will be

distributed to the selected respondents of JRMSU – Siocon Campus students of the three

departments for the accomplishment of the research study.

Data Gathering Procedure

After validation of the questionnaires, the letter of permission was submitted and checked by

the thesis adviser before it was sent to the Deans of the three colleges and to ask permission to

distribute the questionnaires to the students’ respondents of JRMSU – Siocon Campus of the three

departments. After approval of the letter, the researchers will be distributing the survey

questionnaires to the respondents for their reliable and authentic answers. Retrieval of the

questionnaire checklists were done after they were filled – up by the respondents and used for data

analyzing, tallying and interpreting of the responses.


Statistical Treatment of the Data

The data collected from the respondents will be then tallied, tabulated and interpreted using

the statistical tools. The statistical tools used are the percentage, slovin formula, ranking and

weighted mean.

Simple percentage is computed by dividing the total responses of each item by the total

number of respondents and multiplied by 100 as shown below:

1. Percentage (%) = _F_ x 100


N

Where:

F = Frequency

N = Number of responses

The weighted mean shall be used to calculate the effects of peer pressure and social anxiety

as contributory factors to depression: implication to students’ academic performance.

2. Weighted Mean (wx) = ∑(𝑓𝑤)

Where:

wx = Weighted Mean

∑(𝑓𝑤) = Summation of frequency and weight

N = Number of cases
3. Slovin Formula will be used to determine the sample size of the respondents in the study.

The formula is

n= ___ N_____
1 + Ne2

Where:

n = sample size

N = total number of cases

e = desired error at 0.05 significant level

On the other hand, the rating scale will be utilized to determine the significant of the study

from the data collected in relation to peer pressure and social anxiety:

Range Interpretation

4.21 – 5.0 VMS – Very Much Significant

3.41 – 4.20 VS – Very Significant

2.61 – 3.40 S – Significant

1.81 – 2.60 MS – Moderately Significant

1.0 – 1.80 NS – Not Significant


JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon Campus
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte
Republic of the Philippines
JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon Campus

APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis entitled “THE QUALITY OF TEACHING OF THE TEACHERS IN


CUYAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE ABSENCE OF EDUCATIONAL
TECHNOLOGY: AN ASSESSMENT” prepared and submitted by Ruby Ann B. Obongen, Cyril
Earl Jay A. Remedio and Tuan Mary May A. Roluna, has been reviewed and approved by the Thesis
Committee for Oral Defense.

MRS. MARILYN S. ESPEJO, MSMB


Adviser

APPROVED by the following PANEL OF EXAMINERS ON ORAL DEFENSE on


__________________ with a rating of _____________.

__________________________
Chairman
Date Signed: _________

___________________________ ________________________
Member Member
Date Signed: __________ Date Singed: __________

_______________________
Member
Date Signed: ________

ACCEPTED by the Dean of the College of Education for the degree of BACHELOR OF
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.

SERGIO A. TABILIRAN, JR., Ed. D.


Dean, College of Education
Date Signed: ___________
Republic of the Philippines
JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon Campus

October 10, 2018

DR. SERGIO A. TABILIRAN, JR


Dean, College of Education
Jose Rizal Memorial State University
Siocon Campus
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte

Sir:

Greetings of peace!
The undersigned would like to request permission from your office to gather some data
related to our research entitled “PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL ANXIETY AS
CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO DEPRESSION: IMPLICATION TO STUDENTS
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE”. In this study, we will be distributing questionnaires to the
randomly selected students of JRMSU – Siocon Campus as the respondents.

It is hoped that this request will be given positive approval.


Thank you so much.

Sincerely yours,

Jennifer E. Moso

Judy Ann C. Tumanda

Renson B. Torres

Researchers
Republic of the Philippines
JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon Campus

October 10, 2018

The Respondents
JRMSU – Siocon Campus
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte

Dear respondents:

Greetings of peace!
The undersigned would like to seek help from you to gather some data related to conduct of
our research study entitled “PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL ANXIETY AS
CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO DEPRESSION: IMPLICATION TO STUDENTS
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE” in which you are our chosen respondents for the said study.

In line with this, the researchers are very much thankful and hopeful for your affirmative
response on the said matter. God bless you and thank you for your cooperation.

Sincerely yours,

Jennifer E. Moso

Judy Ann C. Tumanda

Renson B. Torres

Researchers
APPENDICES
Republic of the Philippines
JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte
Siocon Campus

QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKLIST

“PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL ANXIETY AS CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO


DEPRESSION: IMPLICATION TO STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE”

PART I. Profile of the Respondents

Name (optional): ____________________________________

Directions: Please put a check ( ) mark on the space provided


Age: _____ 17-18 years old ______ 19 - 20 years old _______ 21 - 22 years old
_____ 23 - 24 years old ______ 25 - 26 years old _______ 27 - 28 years old

Sex: _____ Male ______ Female

Department:

_____ CED _____ CAS _______ CIT


_____ 1st year _______ 2nd year
_____ 3rd year _______ 4th year

PART II. Factors that affect the academic performance of the students

Directions: Please rank the following given statements. 1 as the highest factor and 5 lowest
factor
______ Spend much time in surfing on the internet
______ Socialization with friends.
______ More time in watching movies
______ Less time in reading
______ Fun of texting
PART III. Implication of peer pressure and social anxiety as contributory factors in students
academic performance .

Directions: Please rate the following statements

Rank Descripting Rating

4 MP – Much Problem
3 P – Problem
2 SP – Sometimes Problem
1 NP – Not Problem

Statements MP P SP NP
(4) (3) (2) (1)
1. Low performance in the school
2. High risk of absenteeism resulting to dropout
3. Failing marks/grades
4. Lack of interest in the class
5. Inattentive in the discussion
6. Unprepared in academic learning
7. Undecided to learn and other aspect of anxiety

PART IV. Significant relationship between the peer pressure and social anxiety as
contributory factors to depression: implication to students’ academic performance

Directions: Please rate the following statements.

Rank Descriptive Rating


4 VS - Very Significant
3 S – Significant
2 SS - Sometimes Significant
1 NS – Not Significant

Statements VS S SS NS
(4) (3) (2) (1)
1. Parents comfort and connections to them
2. Incorporates peer support
3. Relatives and friends support
4. Self – determination to overcome anxiety
5. Promote assets and skills
6. Exposure exercises and encouragement
7. Improve environmental circumstances
8. Facilitates students transitions by providing academic and
social supports