Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering

Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society


14-16 April, 2011, Auckland, New Zealand

NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil classification of Wellington City

S. Semmens1, N.D. Perrin2, G. Dellow2 & R. Van Dissen2


1
AECOM, Auckland, New Zealand. 2GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT: Wellington has an appreciable seismic risk due to the proximity of its
concentrated population and infrastructure to several major earthquake sources.
Geotechnical data mainly from 1025 drill holes, along with shear-wave velocity (Vs)
determinations specific to this project were used to construct a 3D engineering geological
model for Wellington City centre. From this model, the following maps were derived, and
are presented in this paper: surficial geology, depth to bedrock, low amplitude site period,
and NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil classes. The results show that a significant ground
shaking amplification hazard is posed to the city, with the waterfront, Te Aro and
Thorndon areas having a poorer site subsoil class in terms of NZS 1170.5:2004 than
previous studies had estimated.

1 INTRODUCTION
Wellington City lies within a geologically active landscape, and has a relatively high seismic hazard
(e.g. Stirling et al. 2002), and a variety of ground conditions are present (e.g. Begg & Mazengarb
1996). The objective of the study presented in this paper was to better define ground response models
for the Wellington central business district (CBD) using compiled geological, geotechnical and
geophysical data in conjunction with 3-dimensional (3D) modelling and limited 1:5,000 scale mapping
(Semmens 2010; Semmens et al. 2010a, 2010b). A major output of this research was derivation of
maps of surficial geology, depth to bedrock, low amplitude natural period (referred to hereafter as site
period) and NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil class. These maps are described and presented below.

1.1 Study Area


The study area encompasses the Wellington CBD, extending from the Thorndon overbridge in the
north, through to Wellington Hospital in the south and from Kelburn in the west, through to Oriental
Bay in the east (Fig. 1). The study area was chosen for two reasons: many of the major building and
infrastructural elements vital to Wellington and the surrounding region are located within the CBD;
and the area also contains the widest range of ground conditions likely to be found in the city.
Basement rocks (greywacke bedrock) within the study area comprise Permian to early Jurassic
quartzo-feldspathic sandstone and mudstone sequences of the Rakaia terrane (e.g. Begg & Mazengarb
1996). Younger Pleistocene deposits lie unconformably on top of greywacke bedrock with the deepest
recorded sequence of 137 m occurring at Te Papa Tongarewa (Museum of New Zealand). These
deposits are frequently targeted as bearing stratum for pile foundations.
The Pleistocene deposits generally encompass weathered alluvium, colluvium and shallow marine
deposits, typically consisting of dense silty sandy gravels with interbedded stiff silts and organic clays.
Holocene sediments overlie Pleistocene deposits and generally consist of weathered alluvium and
colluvium with minor beach, estuarine and swamp deposits. Waterfront reclamation in Wellington has
added more than 155 hectares to the city (Kelly 2005), including large areas of the CBD. Two main
types of fill were used, hydraulic fill (pumped sand and mud from the seabed) and locally sourced,
end-tipped fill (boulders, domestic building and construction waste, spoil etc). However, compaction
was coincidental rather than to a standard (engineered fill). Engineered fill was used in the
construction of the Thorndon container terminal and in recent developments.

Paper Number 007


Figure 1 (left). Study area map showing
locations of 1025 drill holes and ~30
microtremor sites used in this study.

1.2 NZS1170.5:2004 site subsoil


classification
The influence of local geologic (site)
conditions on the intensity of ground
shaking and earthquake damage is well
documented. Structural design in New
Zealand takes into consideration site
conditions largely through the
incorporation of the New Zealand loadings
standard (NZS 1170.5:2004). The loading
standard prescribes structural design
actions on the basis of site subsoil class to
accommodate likely increased earthquake
loadings due to shaking modification. The
standard sets out five site subsoil class
categories, based on geological and
geotechnical properties, which must be
used in the calculation of horizontal and
vertical loading. The five site class
categories are outlined in Tables 1 & 2.
Site subsoil classes D and E (soft or deep
soil, and very soft soil respectively) require
increased loadings to be considered,
resulting in increased design and
construction costs.
The preferred method for site classification
in New Zealand uses the “site period”
parameter. Site period (when not measured
directly) is defined as (approximately) four
times the shear wave travel time from the
surface to bedrock. This approach
addresses the effects of deeper softer soils
which exhibit longer period site response
characteristics. However, the ability to
classify sites using shear-wave velocities is
limited by a lack of data. The NZS
1170.5:2004 site subsoil class map derived
as part of this study uses the preferred
method (site period) to assign site subsoil
class.
Sites underlain by multiple layers are
evaluated by estimating and summing the
contribution to natural period for each layer whereby all material above bedrock is included in the
evaluation. An unconfined compressive strength of 1 MPa delineates the rock-soil boundary. In
general, the classification of a site will be dependent on the surficial sediments present even when
piles extend below to stiffer stratum (Standards New Zealand 2004).

2
Table 1: NZS1170.5:2004 Site Subsoil Classes.

Class Description Definition


A Strong Rock UCS > 50 MPa & Vs30 > 1500 m/s &
not underlain by < 18 MPa or Vs 600 m/s materials.
B Rock 1 < UCS < 50 MPa & Vs30 > 360 m/s &
not underlain by < 0.8 MPa or Vs 300 m/s materials,
a surface layer no more than 3 m depth (HW-CW rock/soil).
C Shallow Soil not class A, B or E, low amplitude natural period ≤ 0.6s, or
depths of soils not exceeding those in Table 2.
D Deep or Soft Soil not class A, B or E, low amplitude natural period > 0.6s, or
depths of soils exceeding those in Table 2, or
underlain by < 10 m soils with undrained shear strength < 12.5 KPa, or
< 10 m soils SPT N < 6.
E Very Soft Soil > 10m soils with undrained shear strength < 12.5 KPa, or
> 10m soils with SPT N < 6, or > 10m soils with Vs ≤ 150m/s, or
> 10m combined depth of previous properties.

Table 2: Maximum depth limits for site subsoil class C.

Soil type and description Maximum depth of soil (m)


Cohesive Soil Representative undrained shear strengths (KPa)
Very soft < 12.5 0
Soft 12.5-25 20
Firm 25-50 25
Stiff 50-100 40
Very stiff or hard 100-200 60
Cohesionless Soil Representative SPT N values
Very loose <6 0
Loose dry 6-10 40
Medium dense 10-30 45
Dense 30-50 55
Very dense > 50 60
Gravels >30 100

2 DATABASE
A database containing lithological and geotechnical information from 1025 bore logs, test pits and site
observations was compiled (Semmens 2010). Data used to characterise the geological and
geotechnical conditions in Wellington CBD came from files held by Tonkin & Taylor and GNS
Science. In addition to the 1025 boreholes compiled for this study, the non-invasive Spatial
Autocorrelation (SPAC) microtremor technique (Beetham et al. 2010; Fry et al. 2010) was used
successfully at 12 sites to obtain site response information including site period, shear-wave velocity
(Vs) and unit thickness (Perrin et al. 2010). The database information has been entered into GNS
Science’s web-accessible PETLAB database (http://pet.gns.cri.nz).

3 3D ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL MODEL


A simplified 3D engineering geological model was created for Wellington CBD using Earth Research
software (ARANZ). Each individual lithological unit from each borelog was assigned one of
seventeen lithotechnical unit codes based upon their lithological description, grain size, SPT N count,
weathering condition and depositional setting as recorded in the geotechnical borehole database. The
interbedded relationship between many of the seventeen units was complex and required
simplification for modelling. The simplification process involved grouping “like” units together,
resulting in four different engineering geological units which could then be modelled. The four

3
engineering geological units are: Hydraulic Fill, Soft/Loose Deposits, Stiff/Dense Deposits and
Greywacke Bedrock (Table 3).

Table 3: Model lithologies.

Engineering Geological Description Approx. Vs Range


Model Unit
Hydraulic Fill Dredged mud, sand and silt from the seabed. 100-150m/s
Soft/Loose Deposits Artificial fill, landfill, reclamation (excluding hydraulic 105-385m/s
fill), unconsolidated, granular sediments (typically
Holocene age) including alluvium and marginal marine
(e.g. beach) Harbour
deposits and swamp deposits.
Stiff/Dense Deposits Pleistocene dense to very dense sand/gravel alluvial 220-730m/s
and colluvial deposits, commonly weathered in-situ to
form complex mixtures and discontinuous lenses of
silt/sand/gravel with minor clay, and thin (< 1 m), stiff
paleosol layers
Greywacke Sandstone/ Grey (becoming yellow brown with increased 365-1760m/s
Mudstone weathering) interbedded quartzo-feldspathic sandstone
and mudstone sequences

4 Vs CHARACTERISATION OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL UNITS

Vs characterisation of the four engineering geological units (Table 3) was required to derive site
period and site subsoil class maps. Vs data from Boon et al. (2010), Fry et al. (2010), Louie
(unpublished), Ingham (1971) and various commercial studies have been used to characterise each
engineering geological unit, the first time this has been attempted for Wellington City.
Vs is dependent on the stiffness and density of a soil. Generally, as soil depth increases so too does
stiffness, thus Vs also increases. This relationship has been highlighted by the comparison of borehole
data with measured Vs (e.g. from Seismic Cone Penetrometer testing) in Wellington CBD. Based on
this principle the engineering geological units from the engineering geological model were assigned
Vs consistent with real measured values for each unit. This was done by assigning each layer velocity
from all existing Vs profiles in Wellington CBD to one of the four engineering geological units. This
assignment of Vs to the four engineering geological units allows site period and Vs30 to be estimated
anywhere within the study area. The loosest and softest soils in Wellington CBD have Vs as low as 50
m/s while very dense/hard soil velocities are ≥ 700 m/s (Semmens et al. 2010a, 2010b).

5 SURFICIAL DEPOSITS MAP


The Wellington CBD surficial deposit map (Fig. 2A) was constructed to show different Quaternary
sediment zones and greywacke bedrock at a scale (1:5000) useful for initial site investigation. The
surficial deposit map was constructed from drill hole investigations, test pits, site observations, aerial
photographs, limited field mapping, and utilises information from existing maps in conjunction with
specialist opinion (see Semmens 2010; Semmens et al. 2010a, 2010b for more detail). The map can be
used to assist in site investigations by illustrating the most likely sediments found at or just below the
surface of a site.

6 DEPTH TO BEDROCK
The depth to bedrock contour map (Fig. 2B) was constructed by extrapolation between the few holes
that reached bedrock in the deepest parts of the Te Aro and Thorndon basins, mapped bedrock at the
surface, and drill holes near the basin edges. In the absence of any deep holes to bedrock in the
Thorndon area, the contours have been guided by estimates from microtremor methods. While this
map can be used to estimate the likely depth to greywacke basement at a location, there are large

4
uncertainties, particularly where the borehole density is low.

(A) (B)

Figure 2: A) Wellington CBD surficial deposits. Map shows the nature of sediments at or just below the ground
surface (< 5 m) in Wellington CBD. B) Depth to bedrock. Map shows “best fit” contours at 20 m intervals on the
modelled greywacke bedrock surface with the projection of surface topography used where data is insufficient.

7 LOW AMPLITUDE NATURAL PERIOD (SITE PERIOD) MAP


Measured and pseudo site periods were used to construct the site period map (Fig. 3A). Due to the
limited number of measured site periods in Wellington City, additional pseudo points were added by
constructing Vs profiles to Greywacke basement. A site period was then calculated using the methods
prescribed by NZS 1170.5:2004. These pseudo points were then used to refine and constrain the site
period contour lines.

5
Site period contours in Te Aro range from 0.2s (generally bedrock is < 20 m from the surface) to
> 1.4s (along the waterfront at the Museum of New Zealand). In the Queens Wharf area site period
contours reach a maximum value of 0.6s, but generally ≤ 0.4s. In Thorndon the site period contours
range from 0.4s to > 1.8s, but are generally > 0.6s. The 0.6s site period contour is significant because
it is used to differentiate between NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil class C and D sites.

8 NZS 1170.5:2004 SITE SUBSOIL CLASS MAP


A site subsoil class was assigned (NZS 1170.5:2004) to each of the 1025 boreholes from the
geotechnical drill hole database (Fig. 3B). Four site subsoil classes (B, C, D & E) were then assigned
to areas on the map using the drill hole site class designation (mentioned previously). In the absence of
direct measurements of Vs in a particular area, the methods in Borcherdt (1994) and NZS 1170.5:2004
were used to estimate Vs, guided by the ranges of measured Vs established for the same geological
units nearby.
The NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil class map (Fig. 3B) shows the distribution of the four different site
subsoil classes present in Wellington CBD. Site subsoil class B occurs in areas where greywacke
bedrock is at or just below the ground surface. Site class C areas occur around the basin edge in Te
Aro, Wellington South, the Aro Valley and western Thorndon areas. Site class D occurs in a
significant portion of Thorndon and Te Aro areas. Site class E has been conservatively assigned to
areas underlain by hydraulic fill in the vicinity of Aotea Quay. It is recommended that site specific
investigations are used to prove/disprove the assigned site class especially where a site subsoil class
cannot be assigned with confidence because subsoil conditions may be close to the boundaries of an
NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil class. If a ground class still cannot be applied with confidence, direct
site-specific Vs determinations are required.

9 DISCUSSION & CONCLUSIONS

This study was the first in Wellington City to use 3D modelling and high quality mapping in
conjunction with shear-wave velocity determinations to characterise subsurface conditions in the
central city. The methodology used has application in other locations, provided the distribution,
geotechnical properties and Vs of the subsurface materials can be characterised. A better
understanding of the controls on site effects in the Wellington CBD has resulted from improved access
to the available data. Improvements in the treatment of the data have enabled local site response
parameters to be established more accurately and with greater consistency than in previous work. The
new knowledge and understanding gained from this project will enable more accurate hazard and risk
estimates for Wellington City. This will help increase community resilience and preparedness within
the central city and provided engineering measures are properly implemented would enable faster
recovery after an earthquake event.
Previous research (Grant-Taylor et al. 1974; Perrin & Campbell 1992; Van Dissen et al. 1993) has
concluded that Wellington City is likely to experience varying levels of ground shaking amplification
during a large damaging earthquake, with the reclaimed areas surrounding Wellington’s waterfront,
Thorndon and Te Aro valley the most susceptible to ground shaking amplification and related
phenomena. A limitation of previous seismic zonation studies of the Wellington CBD is that results
were not presented in a form directly usable in engineering prescribed design (i.e. no prescribed design
requirements). A major objective of this project was to present a seismic zonation for Wellington CBD
based on site subsoil class currently used in the New Zealand loading standard (NZS 1170.5:2004).
Thus, the first fit for purpose NZS 1170.5:2004 site subsoil class map for Wellington CBD was
created.
Further work is needed, particularly in the Thorndon area, to better constrain the depth to bedrock, site
period, Vs30 and site subsoil class maps, where the current site subsoil class could be revised if more
detailed data becomes available.

6
(A) (B)

Figure 3: A) Site period map shows contour lines representing site period at 0.2 second intervals. B) NZS
1170.5:2004 site subsoil class. Map shows the distribution of the four different site subsoil classes which are
present in Wellington CBD.

10 REFERENCES
Beetham, R.D., Stephenson, W.R., Barker, P.R. & Perrin, N.D. 2010. Site classification from microtremor
records, HVSR/SPAC: an effective, non-invasive site investigation method. p. 1695-1702 (paper 200) In:
Williams, A.L., Pinches, G.M., Chin, C.Y., McMorran, T.J. & Massey, C.I. (eds.), Geologically active:
delegate papers 11th Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the
Environment, 5-10 September 2010, Auckland, New Zealand: CRC Press.
Begg, J.G. & Mazengarb, C. 1996. Geology of the Wellington area, scale 1:50 000. Institute of Geological &
Nuclear Sciences geological map 22, Lower Hutt, New Zealand: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences

7
Limited. 1 Sheet+128 p.
Boon, D., Perrin, N.D., Dellow, G. & Lukovic, B. 2010. It’s Our Fault – Geological and Geotechnical
Characterisation and Site Class Revision of the Lower Hutt Valley. GNS Science Consultancy Report
2010/163. 68 p.
Borcherdt, R.D. 1994. Estimates of site-dependent response spectra for design (methodology and justification).
Earthquake Spectra Vol 10(4) 617-653.
Fry, B. Stephenson, W.R. & Benites, R. 2010. It’s Our Fault - Seismic instrumentation and inversion for velocity
structure of the Wellington region. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/18.
Grant-Taylor, T.L., Adams, R.D., Harherton, T., Milne, J.D.G., Northby, R.D. & Stephenson, W.R. 1974.
Microzoning for earthquake effects in Wellington, NZ; New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial
Research Bulletin 213. Ruscoe, Q.W. (ed.) Wellington, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial
Research. 7 Sheets+62 p.
Ingham, C.E. 1971. Elastic properties of rock, Wellington urban motorway tunnel. Department of Scientific and
Industrial Research, Wellington, Geophysics Division report 71.
Kelly, M. 2005. Heritage trail: old shoreline, Wellington City, Wellington City Council. 69 p.
Louie, J.N. 2001. Faster, better: Shear-wave velocity to 100 meters depth from refraction microtremor arrays.
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America Vol 91(2): 347-364.
McVerry, G.H. 2011. NZS1170.5:2004 site-effect terms as a continuous functions of site period and Vs30.
Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference. Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, paper number 010,
Auckland, New Zealand.
Perrin, N.D & Campbell, H.J. 1992. Compilation of geological data, Wellington area. DSIR Geology &
Geophysics Contract Report No. 1992/24.
Perrin, N.D. Stephenson, W.R. & Semmens, S. 2010. Site class determinations (NZS 1170.5) in Wellington
using borehole data and microtremor techniques. 8p (paper No. 22) in: Earthquake prone buildings: how
ready are we? proceedings New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Technical Conference,
Wellington, New Zealand, 26-28 March, 2010.
Semmens, S. 2010. An engineering geological investigation of the seismic subsoil classes in the central
Wellington area. Unpublished thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Semmens, S., Perrin, N.D. & Barker, P.R. 2010a. What lies beneath: geological and geotechnical
characterisation of the Wellington central commercial area. p. 659-666 (paper 078) In: Williams, A.L.,
Pinches, G.M., Chin, C.Y., McMorran, T.J. & Massey, C.I. (eds.) Geologically active: delegate papers 11th
Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment, 5-10 September
2010, Auckland, New Zealand: CRC Press.
Semmens, S., Perrin, N.D. & Dellow, G. 2010b. It’s Our Fault – geological and geotechnical characterisation of
Wellington City. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/176. 48p.
Standards New Zealand 2004. NZS 1170.5:2004 Structural Design Actions - Earthquake Actions. Section 3 -
Site Hazard Spectra, Standards New Zealand. Pp. 81.
Stirling, M.W., McVerry, G.H. & Berryman, K.R. 2002. A new seismic hazard model for New Zealand. Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America Vol 92(5): 1878-1903.
Van Dissen, R.J., Taber, J.J., Stephenson, W.R., Sritharan, S., Perrin, N.D., McVerry, G.H., Campbell, H.J., &
Barker, P.R. 1993. Ground shaking hazard zonation for Wellington city and suburbs, New Zealand. p. 134-
141 In: Proceedings, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering technical conference, Taupo, New
Zealand.
Van Dissen, R.J., & 37 others. 2010. It's our fault: better defining earthquake risk in Wellington. p. 737-746
(paper 088) In: Williams, A.L.; Pinches, G.M.; Chin, C.Y.; McMorran, T.J.; Massey, C.I. (eds.) Geologically
active: delegate papers 11th Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the
Environment, 5-10 September 2010, Auckland, New Zealand: CRC Press.
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Mark Rattenbury (GNS Science) for his
expertise in model and map design and preparation. Tonkin & Taylor Ltd are thanked for support and
allowing access to their archived information. The research presented here has been conducted as part
of the “It’s Our Fault” project (e.g. Van Dissen et al. 2010).