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# Regents Physics

Unit 7: Motion II
PRACTICE PROBLEMS

## Essential Understanding for the Unit:

 The laws of motion, analyzed through equations regarding motion, affect
the trajectory of a projectile.

YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THIS IN DETAIL BY THE END OF THE UNIT

Name____________________________________________________________
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Assignment #1: A Look Horizontally & Vertically
A 5 kg cannonball is shot horizontally at 20 m/s off the edge of a cliff and takes 5 seconds to land.

1. Based on the given scenario, fill out the following charts. FIRST write in the velocity and
acceleration values at t = 0 seconds. THEN have your teacher check it before you fill in the rest!

## X: (Horizontal) vx (m/s) Δdx (m) ax (m/s2) t (s)

0
1
2
3
4
5
2. Are there any forces acting in the horizontal direction? If so, identify them.

## Y: (Vertical) vy (m/s) Δ dy(m) ay (m/s2) t (s)

0
1
2
3
4
5

4. Are there any forces acting in the vertical direction? If so, identify them.

## __________ (teacher initials)

2
6. Use the y axis, x axis, and time slots given to sketch the cannonball as it falls off of the cliff.
1 sec 2 sec 3 sec 4 sec 5 sec

dy

dx

7. Now that you’ve sketched the motion, add velocity vectors in both the x and y directions for each
time slot on your sketch. When you’re done, have it checked!

## __________ (teacher initials)

3
8. Based on your data, create two graphs using the axes provided. Both graphs will be distance
versus time – one with horizontal data, one with vertical data.

∆dx ∆dy
(m) (m)

## time (s) time (s)

9. a.) What is the meaning of the slope for … ∆dx vs. t? … ∆dy vs. t?

## b.) Which graph exhibits non-zero acceleration? How do you know?

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Assignment #2: Two – Dimensions
The horizontal and vertical components of motion are completely independent of each other. So...
we can consider the horizontal motion and vertical motion separately.

## 1. Answer true (T) or false (F) to the following:

a) A ball rolling on a flat table has a horizontal but no vertical component of
motion.
b) A rock falling straight downward with no wind blowing has no horizontal
component of motion.
c) A baseball hit into the air toward right field has vertical but no horizontal
component of motion.
d) A basketball bounced straight up and down has vertical but no horizontal
component of motion.
2. If there was no friction, a ball rolling on a perfectly horizontal floor would never stop unless it
struck something. It would keep on going and going and going even though gravity is still acting
on it. Why won’t gravity stop the rolling ball? [Hint: consider the direction of the ball and the
direction of gravity’s action.]

3. A cannonball is shot horizontally at the exact same time that a bowling ball is dropped. The
bowling ball is dropped from the same height as the cannonball. Consider the horizontal and
vertical parts of the motion separately to answer the following questions.

## a) Why doesn’t the bowling ball move at all horizontally?

b) Both balls move vertically. The cannonball and the bowling ball both will hit the ground
sometime. What influences the vertical motion of each ball?
Bowling ball:

Cannonball:
c) The horizontal distance is not the same for each ball, but is the vertical distance? Explain.

d) Both the cannonball and the bowling ball will hit the ground at the same time! Explain why

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Assignment #3: Horizontal Projectiles
When a cannonball is shot it travels both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal motion is along the x
axis and vertical motion is along the y axis. We will use x and y labels to distinguish between
horizontal and vertical motion. To describe the distance an object travels horizontally (x) and the
distance an object travels vertically (y) we can use the following two equations.

## Horizontal Distance Vertical Distance

dx = vxt dy = viyt + ½ayt2 (Reminder: ay = g)

1.2 m

## a) The initial velocity in the y direction (vy) is equal to zero. Why?

b) Recalling that g equals 9.8 m/s2, find the time (t) that it takes for the cannonball to hit the
ground.

c) Using your answer to part b, calculate the distance that the ball travels in the x direction.

2. A bowling ball is dropped from a height of 1.2m off the ground. How long will it take for the ball
to hit the ground? (Note: the initial velocity in the y direction (vy) is equal to zero because it was
at rest just before it was dropped.)

NOTICE: Your answers to 1b and 2 should be the same and that’s proof that the two different
objects will hit the ground at the same time, regardless of their masses!

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3. A rock is thrown horizontally at a speed of 4.2 m/s from the top of a cliff 65 m high.

a) What are the initial horizontal and vertical components of the rock’s total velocity?

b) How long does it take the stone to reach the bottom of the cliff?

c) The stone strikes the ground how far from the base of the cliff?

4. Consider the previous question again. Instead of throwing the stone at a speed of 4.2 m/s, let’s
assume that the stone was thrown at twice that speed (still horizontally).

a) How long does it take the stone to reach the bottom of the cliff?

b) The stone strikes the ground how far from the base of the cliff?

c) Use dx = vxt to calculate the horizontal component of the velocity (vx) when it hits the ground.

d) Calculate the vertical component of the velocity upon impact. (Recall the equation v f = vi + at.
Again, vi was zero. Part a gives you t and a = g = 9.8 m/s2.)

NOTICE: For 4c you should have gotten the same value as the initial velocity given in the problem.
This shouldn’t be surprising since the velocity is constant in the x direction and there is no force
acting in that direction to either slow or speed up that component.
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Assignment #4 A: Horizontally Launched Projectiles
1-D Motion
Answer the following questions. Make a shopping list, select the proper equation, and solve. Make
sure to show all your work with units.
1) How far will a 10 kg block free fall in 2) A boat travels at an average rate of 45 m/s.
4.0 seconds? How far will the boat travel in 3.4 s?
vi vi
vf vf
v̄ v̄
d d
a a
t t

2-D Motion
Sample Problem: Sam Duffer hits a golf ball horizontally off a 24 meter high cliff with a speed of
40 m/s. How long is the ball in the air? How far from the base of the cliff will the ball
strike the ground?

## Solution Process: Make your “shopping list” as shown below:

 Identify given variables in both horizontal and vertical directions, separately!
 Identify the unknowns: In this case: Horizontal distance (d x), and time (t)
Horizontal (x) Vertical (y)
vi 0 m/s *the time for both vertical and horizontal are the same*
vf
v̄ 40 m/s
d ? 24 m
a 0 m/s2 9.8 m/s2
t ?

 Most problems will require you to solve for time first – it is our “link” between horizontal and vertical!
 Determine which direction you know more about.
o Horizontal – You will be solving a constant velocity problem first – using: v̄ x = dx / t
o Vertical – You will be solving a free-fall problem first – using: dy = viyt + ½ ayt2
 Substitute and solve for the unknown (time) in one direction (vertical or horizontal) and then solve
for the unknown in the other direction

Vertical: Horizontal:
dy = viyt + ½ ayt2 v̄ x = dx / t
24m = 0m/s(t)+ ½ (9.8m/s2)(t2) 40 m/s = dx / 2.2 s
t = 2.2 s dx = 88.4 m

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Answer the following questions. Make a shopping list for both horizontal and vertical directions, select
the proper equation, and solve. Make sure to show all your work with units.

1) A ball rolls with constant velocity off of a horizontal tabletop 4.8 m high. It hits the ground 2.2 m
from the edge of the table. How fast was the ball rolling?
Horizontal (x) Vertical (y)  First, solve for the time of flight of the ball using the
vertical components.
vi
vf Vertical:

d
a
t

Second, use the time you found to solve for the horizontal velocity.

Horizontal:

2) Mean Melvin throws a rank meatball out the window of his ninth floor apartment. The meatball exits
the window, at a horizontal speed of 5.0 m/s. If the meatball lands 30 meters away, what is the
height of the window?
Horizontal (x) Vertical (y)  First, solve for the time of flight of the meatball using the
horizontal components.
vi
vf Horizontal:

d
a
t

Second, use the time you found to solve for the vertical height.

Vertical:

9
Assignment #4 B: Horizontally Launched Projectiles
Remember: Projectiles MUST be broken down into 2 separate problems!
Vertical (Free Fall) and Horizontal (Constant Velocity).
SHOW ALL WORK!

1. A ball rolls with constant velocity off of a tabletop 0.92 m high. It hits the ground 0.51 m from the
edge of the table. How fast was the ball initially rolling?

0.92 m
m

0.51 m
m

2. A ball rolls with constant speed of 1.5 m/s off a ledge. It hits the ground 2.25 m from the base of the
ledge. How high is the ledge?

3. A 0.2-kilogram red ball is thrown horizontally at a speed of 4 meters per second from a height of 3
meters. A 0.4-kilogram green ball is thrown horizontally from the same height at a speed of 8
meters per second.
a.) How does the vertical height compare for the two different balls?

b.) How does the time in the air compare for the two different balls?

c.) How does the horizontal range compare for the two different balls?

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4. A man horizontally launches a baseball from the roof a building 18 m above the ground, with a total
initial velocity of 15 m/s.

a.) How far away from the building will the ball land (horizontal distance)?

b.) How far away from the building would the ball land if its total initial velocity was 20 m/s?

5. A cannonball is launched at an angle parallel to the ground from a cliff 98 m above the ground with
a velocity of 35 m/s.

a.) How far away from the cliff will the cannonball land?

b.) How far away from the cliff would the cannonball land if the cliff was 296 m high?

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Assignment #4 C: Horizontally Launched Projectiles
1. A cannon fires a cannonball horizontally at 10 m/s from the top of a cliff. After 1.25 s it just misses a
flying seagull, and then hits the ground after 3 s. How high above the ground was the bird flying?

h=?

## 2. An 85 kg stuntman is running at 5 m/s towards a 65 kg stuntwoman who is standing by the edge of a

cliff. The two collide and stick together just before going over the edge of the 200 m cliff. How far
away from the base of the cliff do they land?

d=?

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3. A plane is flying with a speed of 200 m/s at an altitude of 4 kilometers. The pilot fires his machine
gun horizontally. What horizontal distance will the bullet travel before hitting the ground? Assume
the bullet has a mass of 90 g and is subjected to an average force of 36,000 N for a duration of
0.001 s while it is being fired.

200 m/s

d=?

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Assignment #5: Golfing Physics Internet Activity
Run the gizmo Golf Range

In this activity we will explore the physics of projectile motion with and without air. We will use trial and
error to study the path, horizontal and vertical components of a golf ball in flight.

1.) Before you do anything, set the Atmosphere to None! Select “Show Grid.”

2.) Set the initial velocity to any value under 60 m/sec. Experiment with different angles until you find
the angle that makes the ball go the farthest. Record the angle below. “Show Paths” to get all
results!

3.) Professionals can hit the ball at a velocity of around 70 m/s. About how far can these golfers drive
the ball without air resistance?

4.) For THIS QUESTION ONLY, set Atmosphere to Air! About how far can professional golfers drive
the ball with air resistance?

5.) Once again, set the Atmosphere to None! While keeping initial velocity the same, experiment with
different angles until you find the angle that makes the ball go the highest. What is that angle?

6.) Click and drag the hole and move it to any location. Make a hole in one. There are always 2 angles
that will make a hole in one with the same distance and velocity – one angle above 45° and one
angle below 45°. Keeping the exact same velocity, experiment until you find the second angle that
will make the shot. Record the pair of angles below.

7.) Repeat this step for 3 different hole locations, recording the pairs of angles below.

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8.) Set the simulation to the settings shown in the picture below. Launch the ball at angles of 90, 60,
45, 30, and 10 degrees. Draw and label these paths on the picture.

9.) What angle makes the ball have the biggest “hang time” in the air?

10.) Keeping vinitial at 90 m/sec and Θ at 90 degrees, click on the Show velocity vectors checkbox.
Notice there are two velocity vectors, a blue one to represent velocity in the vertical direction (vy),
and a red vector representing horizontal velocity (vx). Their magnitudes are listed next to the Show
velocity vectors checkbox. What is the horizontal velocity when the ball is hit at 90 degrees?

11.) What happens to the vertical velocity as the ball goes up?

12.) What happens to the vertical velocity as the ball comes down?

13.) Now slide the Angle (deg) tab around. At what angle are the vertical and horizontal components
equal?

14.) Launch the ball at this angle and watch the components carefully. What happens to the horizontal
velocity as the ball goes up? As the ball goes down?

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Assignment #6: Identifying Force, Acceleration, & Velocity Vectors
Scenario: A 2.0 kg soccer ball is kicked with an initial velocity of 25 m/s at a 30⁰ angle from the
horizontal towards the goal.

Identify all horizontal and vertical Forces acting on the object. Draw to scale all the Force vectors in
the x- and y- direction when the ball is kicked, when the ball reaches the top of its path, and when the
ball is at the end of its trip.
Top

Beginning End

Identify any horizontal and vertical Acceleration of the object. Draw to scale all the Acceleration
vectors in the x- and y- direction when the ball is kicked, when the ball reaches the top of its path, and
when the ball is at the end of its trip.
Top

Beginning End

Identify any horizontal and vertical Velocity of the object. Draw to scale all the Velocity vectors in the
x- and y- direction when the ball is kicked, when the ball reaches the top of its path, and when the ball
is at the end of its trip.
Top

Beginning End

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Assignment #7: A Second Look Horizontally & Vertically

## A cannonball is shot at 20 m/s at an angle of 30° above the horizontal.

1.) Based on the given scenario, fill out the following charts.

a. Determine the initial velocity in both the x and y direction based on the angle given.

## c. Determine the total time of flight.

d. Determine the appropriate time increments and place these values in the charts below.

## e. Write in the acceleration values at t = 0 seconds. **Since we are moving in two-

dimensions, down is negative**

X: (Horizontal) Y: (Vertical)

## vx (m/s) ax (m/s2) t (s) vy (m/s) ay (m/s2) t (s)

0 0

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2.) Sketch the cannonball’s path

## Rotated 90⁰ so you have more room for the vectors!!!!

t = ____ sec
t = ____ sec
t = ____ sec

dy dx
t = ____ sec
t = _0_ sec

30°

dy

3.) Now that you’ve sketched the motion, add velocity vectors in both the x and y directions for each
time slot on your sketch. When you’re done, have it checked!

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Assignment #8: Angled Projectiles
A projectile is a word that we will use to describe an object that is in motion. A baseball thrown into the
air, a bowling ball rolling, and a bullet fired from a gun—all of these are projectiles. Many projectiles,
such as the baseball, move in an arc-like shape and therefore there is both a horizontal and vertical
part, or component, to their motion.

So far we have considered projectiles that are initially rolling horizontally. Now we will consider those
that are launched at an angle. We will continue to use the two basic equations from the previous
assignments:
Horizontal Distance Vertical Distance
d x = vx t dy = viyt + ½ayt2 (Reminder: ay = g)

## Consider the following diagram:

D
C E
Figure 1: A cannonball B F
is launched at an angle.
A G
40 This dashed line
o
represents a
height of y = 0

1. At which position on the above figure is the vertical (y) component of velocity equal to zero? _____

2. The cannonball in Figure 1 is fired at an initial velocity of 8.2 m/s at an angle of 40 o above the
horizontal.
a) Calculate the initial vertical (vy) and horizontal (vx) components of the velocity. Use the following
picture to help. It’s like solving the sides of a triangle using trigonometry!
8.2 m/s
vy
40o
vx

b) How long did it take the ball to land? (Hint: keep in mind that vfy is equal in magnitude, but
opposite in direction, to viy.)

## c) Calculate the maximum height the ball reached.

i. The ball reached maximum height at half the flight time, which is half of your answer to part
b. Calculate this.

ii. Use the value from part (i) as t. Use vy from part a. Then use the vertical distance equation
given in the information section to find y (the maximum height).

d) How far did the ball go? (Hint: use the horizontal distance equation. You know v x from part a and
t from part b.)
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3. This question is just like the previous one, except without all the hints. A cannonball was fired with
a velocity of 12.4 m/s at an angle of 60o above the horizontal.
a) Calculate the initial vertical (vy) and horizontal (vx) components of the velocity.

## d) How far did the ball go?

4. A football was kicked at 22.5 m/s at an angle of 35o above the horizontal.
a) What was the ball’s hangtime? (This is the total time in the air.)

## b) How far was the ball kicked?

5. The same kicker kicked the football again at a speed of 22.5 m/s. This time the angle was 45 o
above the horizontal. How far did the ball go?

6. Again, the kicker kicked the football at the same speed, but this time the angle was 55 o. Find the
distance the ball traveled.

7. Given your answers to questions 4-6, if a football kicker wants to kick the ball as far as possible,
what advice could you give him?

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Assignment #9: Angled Projectiles in Action
1. Mr Prouty kicks a soccer ball is kicked with an initial speed of 25 m/s at an angle of 30 degrees to
the horizontal.

a. Determine the horizontal (x) component of the velocity of the soccer ball.

b. Determine the vertical (y) component of the velocity of the soccer ball.

## d. What will be the horizontal distance traveled by the soccer ball?

e. How long will it take for the soccer ball to reach its maximum height?

## f. What will be the maximum height reached by the soccer ball?

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2. An archer shoots an arrow with a total initial velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 30⁰ from the ground.

a. What are the initial horizontal and vertical components of the arrow’s total velocity?

## c. How far away will the arrow land (horizontal distance)?

3. A student shoots a spitball at Mr. Prouty at an angle of 65⁰ from the horizontal with a total initial
velocity of 5 m/s.

a. What was the total resultant velocity of the spitball at the time it was launched?

b. What are the initial horizontal and vertical components of the spitball’s total velocity?

## c. What was the maximum height reached by the spitball?

d. What were the horizontal and vertical components of the total velocity when the spitball reached
its maximum height?

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Assignment #10: Regents Exam Problems
_____ 1.) Velocity is to speed as displacement is to
(1) acceleration (2) time (3) momentum (4) distance

_____ 2.) The speed of an object undergoing constant acceleration increases from
8.0 meters per second to 16.0 meters per second in 10. seconds. How far does the object
travel during the 10. seconds?
(1) 3.6 × 102 m (2) 1.6 × 102 m (3) 1.2 × 102 m (4) 8.0 × 101 m

_____ 3.) If a car accelerates uniformly from rest to 15 meters per second over a distance of
100. meters, the magnitude of the car’s acceleration is
(1) 0.15 m/s2 (2) 1.1 m/s2 (3) 2.3 m/s2 (4) 6.7 m/s2

_____ 4.) An object is dropped from rest and falls freely 20. meters to Earth. When is the speed of the
object 9.8 meters per second?
(1) during the entire first second of its fall (3) during its entire time of fall
(2) at the end of its first second of fall (4) after it has fallen 9.8 meters

_____ 5.) A ball thrown vertically upward reaches a maximum height of 30. meters above the surface
of Earth. At its maximum height, the speed of the ball is
(1) 0.0 m/s (2) 3.1 m/s (3) 9.8 m/s (4) 24 m/s

_____ 6.) Which graph best represents the relationship between the velocity of an object thrown
straight upward from Earth’s surface and the time that elapses while it is in the air? [Neglect
friction.]

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_____ 7.) Which graph best represents the relationship between the acceleration of an object falling
freely near the surface of Earth and the time that it falls?

Base your answers to questions 8 and 9 on the graph below, which represents the motion of a
car during a 6.0-second time interval.

## _____ 8.) What is the acceleration of the car at

t = 5.0 seconds?
(1) 0.0 m/s2 (3) 2.5 m/s2
(2) 2.0 m/s2 (4) 10. m/s2

## _____ 9.) What is the total distance traveled by the car

during this 6.0-second interval?
(1) 10. m (3) 40. m
(2) 20. m (4) 60. m

_____ 10.) An airplane flies with a velocity of 750. kilometers per hour, 30.0° south of east. What is
the magnitude of the eastward component of the plane’s velocity?
(1) 866 km/h (2) 650. km/h (3) 433 km/h (4) 375 km/h

_____ 11.) Two spheres, A and B, are simultaneously projected horizontally from the top of a tower.
Sphere A has a horizontal speed of 40. meters per second and sphere B has a horizontal
speed of 20. meters per second. Which statement best describes the time required for the
spheres to reach the ground and the horizontal distance they travel? [Neglect friction and
assume the ground is level.]
(1) Both spheres hit the ground at the same time and at the same distance from the base of
the tower.
(2) Both spheres hit the ground at the same time, but sphere A lands twice as far as sphere
B from the base of the tower.
(3) Both spheres hit the ground at the same time, but sphere B lands twice as far as sphere
A from the base of the tower.
(4) Sphere A hits the ground before sphere B, and sphere A lands twice as far as sphere B
from the base of the tower.

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_____ 12.) A soccer player kicks a ball with an initial velocity of 10. meters per second at an angle of
30.° above the horizontal. The magnitude of the horizontal component of the ball’s initial
velocity is
(1) 5.0 m/s (2) 8.7 m/s (3) 9.8 m/s (4) 10. m/s

_____ 13.) A plane flying horizontally above Earth’s surface at 100. meters per second drops a crate.
The crate strikes the ground 30.0 seconds later. What is the magnitude of the horizontal
component of the crate’s velocity just before it strikes the ground? [Neglect friction.]
(1) 0 m/s (2) 100. m/s (3) 294 m/s (4) 394 m/s

_____ 14.) An object is thrown vertically upward. Which pair of graphs best represents the object’s
kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy as functions of its displacement while it
rises?

_____ 15.) A woman with horizontal velocity v1 jumps off a dock into a stationary boat. After landing in
the boat, the woman and the boat move with velocity v2. Compared to velocity v1, velocity
v2 has
(1) the same magnitude and the same direction
(2) the same magnitude and opposite direction
(3) smaller magnitude and the same direction
(4) larger magnitude and the same direction

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_____ 16.) Four identical projectiles are launched with the same initial speed, v, but at various angles
above the level ground. Which diagram represents the initial velocity of the projectile that
will have the largest total horizontal displacement? [Neglect air resistance.]

_____ 17.) A soccer ball kicked on a level field has an initial vertical velocity component of
15.0 meters per second. Assuming the ball lands at the same height from which it was
kicked, what is the total time the ball is in the air? [Neglect friction.]
(1) 0.654 s (2) 1.53 s (3) 3.06 s (4) 6.12 s

_____ 17.) A projectile launched at an angle of 45° above the horizontal travels through the air.
Compared to the projectile’s theoretical path with no air friction, the actual trajectory of the
projectile with air friction is
(1) lower and shorter (3) higher and shorter
(2) lower and longer (4) higher and longer

Base your answers to questions 18 and 19 on the information and diagram below.

A child kicks a ball with an initial velocity of 8.5 meters per second at an angle of 35º with the
horizontal, as shown. The ball has an initial vertical velocity of 4.9 meters per second and a total time of
flight of 1.0 second. [Neglect air resistance.]

_____ 18.) The horizontal component of the ball’s initial velocity is approximately
(1) 3.6 m/s (2) 4.9 m/s (3) 7.0 m/s (4) 13 m/s

## _____ 19.) The maximum height reached by the ball is approximately

(1) 1.2 m (2) 2.5 m (3) 4.9 m (4) 8.5 m

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_____ 20.) A ball dropped from rest falls freely until it hits the ground with a speed of 20 meters per
second. The time during which the ball is in free fall is approximately
(1) 1 s (2) 2 s (3) 0.5 s (4) 10 s

_____ 21.) A machine launches a tennis ball at an angle of 25° above the horizontal at a speed of
14 meters per second. The ball returns to level ground. Which combination of changes
must produce an increase in time of flight of a second launch?
(1) decrease the launch angle and decrease the ball’s initial speed
(2) decrease the launch angle and increase the ball’s initial speed
(3) increase the launch angle and decrease the ball’s initial speed
(4) increase the launch angle and increase the ball’s initial speed

Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the information and diagram below.

A soccer ball is kicked from point Pi at an angle above a horizontal field. The ball follows an ideal path
before landing on the field at point Pf .

22.) On the diagram above, draw an arrow to represent the direction of the net force on the ball when it
is at position X. Label the arrow Fnet. [Neglect friction.]

23.) On the diagram above, draw an arrow to represent the direction of the acceleration of the ball at
position Y. Label the arrow a. [Neglect friction.]

27
Base your answers to questions 24 through 27 on the information and graph below.

A machine fired several projectiles at the same angle, θ, above the horizontal. Each projectile was fired
with a different initial velocity, vi. The graph below represents the relationship between the magnitude
of the initial vertical velocity, viy, and the magnitude of the corresponding initial velocity, vi, of these
projectiles.

24.) Determine the magnitude of the initial vertical velocity of the projectile, viy, when the magnitude of
its initial velocity, vi, was 40. meters per second.

m/s

25.) Determine the angle, θ, above the horizontal at which the projectiles were fired.

26-27.) Calculate the magnitude of the initial horizontal velocity of the projectile, vix, when the
magnitude of its initial velocity, vi, was 40. meters per second. [Show all work, including the
equation and substitution with units.] 

28
Base your answers to questions 28 through 30 on the information below.

A projectile is launched into the air with an initial speed of vi at a launch angle of 30.° above the
horizontal. The projectile lands on the ground 2.0 seconds later.

28.) On the diagram above, sketch the ideal path of the projectile.

29.) How does the maximum altitude of the projectile change as the launch angle is increased from
30.° to 45° above the horizontal? [Assume the same initial speed, vi.]

30.) How does the total horizontal distance traveled by the projectile change as the launch angle is
increased from 30.° to 45° above the horizontal? [Assume the same initial speed, vi.]

29
Base your answers to questions 31 through 34 on the information below.

The path of a stunt car driven horizontally off a cliff is represented in the diagram below. After leaving
the cliff, the car falls freely to point A in 0.50 second and to point B in 1.0 second.

31.) Determine the magnitude of the horizontal component of the velocity of the car at point B. [Neglect
friction.]

m/s

32.) Determine the magnitude of the vertical velocity of the car at point A.

m/s

33-34.) Calculate the magnitude of the vertical displacement, dy, of the car from point A to point B.
[Neglect friction.] [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] 

30
Appendix A: Horizontal Projectiles Concepts Practice

1. A stone is dropped from a height of 196 m. How long does it take the stone to fall?

## 2. What is the speed of the stone as it hits the ground?

3. A cannonball is launched horizontally from a cliff 196 m above the ground. Ignoring air resistance,
how long does it take the cannonball to hit the ground?

4. What is the vertical component of the velocity of the cannonball as it hits the ground?

5. Make a sketch comparing the paths of the stone and the cannonball in the above problem.

31
6. A bus travels at a constant velocity of 20 m/s for 10 seconds. How far does the bus travel after 3
seconds?

7. From a blind in a tree 44 m above the ground, a hunter shoots an arrow at a flying duck. The arrow
is shot horizontally with a uniform speed of 20 m/s and misses the duck. How far away from the
tree does the arrow land?

8. Make a sketch comparing the paths of the bus and the arrow in problems #6 and #7. Include the
horizontal distance traveled by the bus and arrow at each 1-second interval as well as the vertical
distance traveled by the arrow at each 1-second interval.

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Appendix B: Horizontal Projectiles Calculations Practice
1. Sam Duffer hits a golf ball horizontally off a 24 meter high cliff with a speed of 40 m/s. How far from
the base of the cliff will the ball strike the ground?

2. A physics student tests the theory of projectile motion by leaping off a 225 meter tall building. She
calculates that a safety net should be placed 95 meters from the base of the building. If she jumps
from the building with a horizontal speed of 12.5 m/s, will she land safely?

3. Mathew has found an unusual way to measure the height of the school building. He throws a
baseball from the top of the building with a horizontal velocity of 16 m/s. The ball lands 72 meters
from the base of the building. Calculate the height of the school.

4. Mean Melvin throws a rank meatball out the window of his ninth floor apartment at a cat sitting on
the ground 12 meters from the building. The meatball exits the window, 30 meters above the
ground, at a horizontal speed of 5.0 m/s. What is the fate of the cat?

5. Daredevil Dora hopes to ride her motorcycle off the top of Buzzard Bluff and over the Snake River
at the base of the bluff. The bluff is 13 meters high and the river is 24 meters wide at the base of
the bluff. At what horizontal speed will Dora have to drive her bike off the bluff in order to just clear
the river?

## Appendix C: Angled Projectiles Calculations Practice

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1. A-Rod pops a fly ball up into the air with a speed of 40.0 m/s at an angle of 80o to the
ground.
a.) How much time does the catcher have to get into position to catch the ball?

## 2. Dee Kathalan throws a javelin at a 45o angle to the field.

a.) If she releases the spear with an initial speed of 35.0 m/s, how far will her throw go?

b.) On the graph below, plot the vertical distance vs. the horizontal distance of the javelin at one
second intervals (ie. plot the actual trajectory of the spear).

3. Daredevil Dora hopes to ride her motorcycle off the top of Bear Ridge Cliff and over the
Alligator River at the base of the cliff. The cliff is 12.5 m high and the river is 24.3 m wide at
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the base of the cliff. At what minimal horizontal speed will Dora have to drive her bike off the
cliff in order to clear the river?

4. Ricky Henderson of the Oakland A's hits a long fly ball deep to left-center field where the wall
is 3.0 m high and 110 m from home plate. If Ricky gives the ball a velocity of 40. m/s at a
horizontal angle of 26⁰ , will he have a home run?

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ENRICHMENT: Furthering Physics
October Sky
The movie October Sky is the true story of Homer Hickam, a coal miner’s son in
1950 West Virginia, who was inspired by the first Sputnik launch to take up rocketry
against his father’s wishes. As Homer and his friends experiment with building
rockets, they experience various mishaps and are accused of setting a fire. The
group of young inventors competes for a National Science Award which will provide
them with college scholarships. Homer Hickam went on to become a NASA
engineer.

1. When explaining why his rocket did not set the fire, Homer used the formula, s = ½ at2. [We
usually use a “d” instead of an “s”, so it is d = ½ at2]

##  What do the letters d, a, and t stand for in this equation?

 This equation can also be written as d = 4.9t2, which is the distance, d, in meters, than an
object falls due to gravity as a function of time, t, in seconds. Explain why, in this case,
4.9 can replace ½ a.

2. Homer states that his rocket fell for 14 seconds and estimates that the rocket’s altitude was
3000 feet.
 Find the actual distance, in meters, that the rocket fell during that time.

 How does his estimated distance compare to the actual distance that the rocket fell? Be
sure to convert to feet first, showing all work!

3. Using Homer’s estimated altitude of 3000 feet, express the height of the falling rocket as a
function of time since it began falling. Sketch the graph of this new function. Label the graph.

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The vertical height of a projectile affected only by gravity near the earth’s surface is modeled by a
quadratic function. While the following equations do not take air resistance into account, they are,
nevertheless, good models.

METERS: After t seconds, the height of a projectile with an initial upward velocity of vo meters per
second and an initial height ho meters is given by y = h(t) = -4.9t2 + vot + ho meters.
FEET: When the initial height is measured in feet and the initial velocity is measured in feet per
second, the height of the object is given by y = h(t) = -16t2 + vot + ho feet.

4. According to the National Association of Rocketry, the current model rocket altitude record in the
“F Altitude” event for the ages 14-18 division is 14030 meters. From this record setting altitude,
the rocket is motionless as it begins its free-fall descent back to the ground. Using the equation,
y = h(t) = -4.9t2 + vot + ho, find how long it will take for the rocket to hit the ground after reaching
its highest point (to the nearest tenth of a second).
 Hint: motionless implies vo = 0 and hitting the ground implies h(t) = 0

5. You arrive at a model rocket competition only to discover that you left your small solid fuel
engines at home. In a fit of anger, you throw the engine-less rocket into the air. The rocket
leaves your hand 6 feet above the ground with an initial throw velocity of 45 feet per second.
Realizing that you will need the rocket for further competitions, you catch the rocket when it falls
back to a height of 5 feet. For how many seconds was the rocket in the air?

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38
8. You arrive at another model rocket competition and you have remembered to bring your small solid
fuel engines. Your rocket is launched from rest and the solid fuel engine delivers a constant
acceleration of 8.2 meters per second per second for 5 seconds after which the fuel is used up.

a. Using Homer’s formula, s = ½ at2, find the altitude of the rocket when the engine shuts down. (Hint:
this will be the initial height for part c)

b. Using the formula v = at, find the velocity, in m/s, when the engine shuts down. (Hint: this will be the
initial velocity for part c)

c. Find the amount of time the rocket will remain in the air after the engine shuts down.

d. Find the TOTAL time the rocket is in the air, including the engine burn.

e. Find the maximum altitude of this flight. Use your knowledge of parabolas (axis of symmetry) or a
graphing calculator.

39
ENRICHMENT: Furthering Physics
Weightless Wonder – Reduced Gravity Flight
(from www.nasa.gov)
Background
Exploration provides the foundation of our knowledge, technology, resources, and inspiration. It seeks answers
to fundamental questions about our existence, responds to recent discoveries and puts in place revolutionary
techniques and capabilities to inspire our nation, the world, and the next generation. Through NASA, we touch
the unknown, we learn and we understand. As we take our first steps toward sustaining a human presence in the
solar system, we can look forward to far-off visions of the past becoming realities of the future.
The vision for space exploration includes returning the space shuttle safely to flight, completing the International
Space Station, developing a new exploration vehicle and all the systems needed for embarking on extended
missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
In our quest to explore, humans will have to adapt to functioning in a variety of gravitational environments. Earth,
Moon, Mars, and space all have different gravitational characteristics. Earth’s gravitational force is referred to as
one Earth gravity, or 1g. Since the Moon has less mass than the Earth, its gravitational force is only one sixth
that of Earth, or 0.17g. The gravitational force on Mars is equivalent to about 38% of Earth’s gravity, or 0.38g.
The gravitational force in space is called microgravity and is very close to zero-g.
When astronauts are in orbit, either in the space shuttle or on the International Space Station (ISS), Earth’s
gravitational force is still working on them. However, astronauts maintain a feeling of weightlessness, since both
the vehicle and crew members are in a constant state of free-fall. Even though they are falling towards the Earth,
they are traveling fast enough around the Earth to stay in orbit. During orbit, the gravitational force on the
astronauts relative to the vehicle is close to zero-g.

Figure 1: C-9 jet going into a parabolic maneuver. Figure 2: Astronaut crew training onboard the C-9 aircraft in
preparation for the Microgravity Science Laboratory missions
flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia in April and July of 1997.
The C-9 jet is one of the tools utilized by NASA to simulate the gravity, or reduced gravity, astronauts feel once
they leave Earth (Figure 1). The C-9 jet flies a special parabolic pattern that creates several brief periods of
reduced gravity. A typical NASA C-9 flight travels over the Gulf of Mexico, lasts about two hours, and completes
between 40 and 60 parabolas. These reduced gravity flights are performed so astronauts, as well as researchers
and their experiments, can experience the gravitational forces of Moon and Mars and the microgravity of space.

By using the C-9 jet as a reduced gravity research laboratory, astronauts can simulate different stages of
spaceflight. This can allow crew members to practice what might occur during a real mission. These reduced
gravity flights provide the capability for the development and verification of space hardware, scientific
experiments, and other types of research (Figure 2). NASA scientists can also use these flights for crew training,
including exercising in reduced gravity, administering medical care, performing experiments, and many other
aspects of spaceflight that will be necessary for an exploration mission. A flight on the C-9 jet is the next best
thing to blasting into orbit!
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For more information on NASA’s Weightless Wonder and reduced gravity research, see the 13 minute video at
http://microgravityuniversity.jsc.nasa.gov/video/RGSFOP_video.mpg.

Problem
To prepare for an upcoming mission, an astronaut participated in a C-9 flight simulating microgravity. The pilot
flew out over the Gulf of Mexico, dove down to increase to a maximum speed then climbed up until the nose was
at a 45° angle with the ground. At this point the velocity of the plane was 444 kilometers per hour (about 275
mph) and the altitude was 9,144 meters (about 30,000 ft). To go into a parabolic maneuver, the pilot then cut the
thrust of the engine letting the nose of the plane continue to rise then come back down at a -45° angle with the
ground. Ending the parabolic maneuver, the pilot throttled the engine back up and began another dive to prepare
for the next parabola. The pilot completed 50 parabolas during the 2 hour flight.

Figure 3 (on the following page) shows the movement of the plane during a typical flight. The parabolic
maneuver, where microgravity is felt, is highlighted.

## Note: Acceleration due to gravity is approximately -9.8 m/s2.

For this problem we will be ignoring other influences such as air resistance. Round all answers to three decimal
places.

## Figure 3: A typical microgravity maneuver. (not to scale)

1. Find the initial and final vertical and horizontal velocities during one parabolic maneuver. www.nasa.gov Weightless
Wonder – Reduced Gravity Flight 4/9

## 2. Find the time elapsed, in seconds, of one parabolic maneuver.

3. Find the maximum altitude, in meters, the plane reached. For students in a calculus based physics class,
verify the maximum point using calculus.

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4. Find the horizontal displacement, in meters, of the plane during one parabolic maneuver.

## 5. What percentage of the total flight was spent in microgravity?

6. How many parabolas would the pilot need to complete in order for the astronaut to have had at least 15% of
his flight in microgravity?

42
ENRICHMENT: Furthering Physics

## NUMB3RS Activity: Where is the Bullet?

David and Colby are trying to find the location of a bullet that was fired from a 9mm pistol. From witness
reports, they estimate that the gun was five feet off the ground when it was shot. The shooter was standing
in a large, level field and fired one shot over the victim’s heads to scare them. David and Colby estimate
that the angle of elevation of the gun when it was fired was 10 degrees. They know that a 9mm pistol can
launch a bullet with an initial velocity of 455 feet per second (after air resistance has been taken into
account). They have drawn the following sketch to model the situation:

Press the Mode button on your calculator and match your mode screen to the first screen shot below.
Press the Y = button, and match your Y = screen to the second shot below. (When you press the X key in
parametric mode, the letter T will appear.)

Since they are dealing with feet and not meters, acceleration due to gravity is 32 ft/s2 and not 9.8 m/s2. All of
the same rules apply though…

1. Describe how each term in the parametric equations relates to the bullet’s trajectory.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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Press the WINDOW key and match to screen shot 3.

Press the GRAPH key and when the graph is finished, press the TRACE button so that your graph looks
like screen shot 4.

2. Explain the meaning of the numbers you see on the screen with the graph.

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Answer the following questions. Show ALL work for credit. Since they are dealing with feet and not meters,
acceleration due to gravity is 32 ft/s2 and not 9.8 m/s2. All of the same rules apply though…

3. If the victims were standing 45 feet away from the shooter when he shot the gun, about how far did the
bullet go over the victims’ heads? (Assume that the victims were on average, 6 feet tall.)
__________________________________

## 4. Approximately what was the maximum altitude reached by the bullet?

_____________________________________________________________

## 5. About how long was the bullet in the air? _____________________________

6. About how many feet did the bullet travel in the horizontal direction? ________

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