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Dorothy Tseng 35B

CH 22.2 G February 19, 2019


Experiment 1: Purification of Benzoic Acid
Data and Results

Table 1 Appearance of Benzoic Acid


Before the Experiment After the Experiment
Granulated, black and white Needle like, thin, crystal like

Table 2 Data Measurements


Crude Benzoic Acid Crystallized Benzoic Percent Recovery
Acid
Mass of Erlenmeyer 57.13g - -
Flask
Mass of Erlenmeyer 59.11 g - -
Flask w/ substance
Mass of Suction - 436.09 g -
Filter
Mass of Suction - 438.83 g -
Filter w/ substance
Mass of substance 1.98 g 2.74 g 138%
Melting Point - 𝟏𝟐𝟐. 𝟔℃ -

Discussion
The purpose of this experiment is to purify benzoic acid via crystallization and to
recover as much benzoic acid as possible. Another purpose is to determine its melting point
in order to test its purity. There are a number of errors that one can commit in this
experiment.
Crystallization is the product of slow cooling a solution while precipitation is the
product of quick cooling a solution. In the experiment, the researcher made sure that the
solution was slowly cooled through warming the filter flask and funnel to be used thereby
producing crystals. (ATQ1) During the experiment, there was an instance wherein the
researcher had to reheat the solution twice due to one instance of frothing which might have
affected the percent recovery.
Charcoal helps the carbon particles absorb visible impurities before filtering. The
researcher may have only put a small amount of charcoal thereby causing the percent
recovery to be over 100% meaning it had too much impurities. (ATQ2)
The temperature of water when collecting crystals in suction filtration needs to be
cold in order for the crystals to remain clean and solid and for it to not dissolve. Cold water
helps in increasing the percent recovery of crystals. In this case specifically, the water might
have been too cold or the ice might have affected it thus making the percent recovery more
than 100%. (ATQ3)
The theoretical melting point of benzoic acid is 122.4℃. The melting point of the
crystals is at 122.6℃ which means that the substance is pure. Factors that could have affected
this was heating the substance too fast or the range that the researcher inputted it might have
been the amount of substance put inside the tube as well. (ATQ4)
If the solubility of benzoic acid at 0℃ is 0.17g/100ml, the maximum theoretical yield
of benzoic acid would be 95%

Sample Calculations

Calculating the mass of crude benzoic acid:


Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask with substance – Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask
59.11 g – 57.13g = 1.98 g

Calculating the mass of pure benzoic acid


Mass of Suction filter with substance – Mass of Suction filter
438.83g – 436.09 g = 2.74 g

Calculating for percent recovery


𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑟𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑠
𝑥 100
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑟𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑜𝑖𝑐 𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑑

2.74 𝑔
= 1.98 𝑔 𝑥 100 = 𝟏𝟑𝟖%

Calculating maximum theoretical yield


Solubility of benzoic acid at 0℃: 0.17g/100mL

60 ml x 0.17 g/100 ml = 0.102 g of benzoic acid left behind


2.00 g- 0.102 g = 1.90 g dissolved
Percent recovery:
1.90 𝑔
𝑥 100 = 𝟗𝟓%
2.00 𝑔

References

MELTING POINT TIPS AND GUIDELINES. (n.d.). Retrieved from


https://quondam.csi.edu/ip/physci/faculty/rex/MPTips.htm

Preparation/Recrystallization of Acetanilide. (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.mendelset.com/articles/680/preparation-recrystallization-acetanilide

Yanza ER. Survey of Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Quezon City: Department of
Chemistry, Ateneo de Manila University; 2014.