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Figure 9.

4-6a Spherical shell or dished end with isolated opening and reinforcing ring, with
external blind flange B

The calculation pressure: P 2,5 [Mpa]


The test pressure: Ptest 3,8 [Mpa]
The minimum yield strength or 0,2% proof strength at
calculation temperature: Rp0,2T 355 [Mpa]

The minimum tensile strength at 20°C: Rm/20 450 [Mpa]


The minimum yield strength or 0,2% proof strength at
calculation temperature reinforcing ring: Rp0,2Tr 250 [Mpa]

The minimum tensile strength at 20°C reinforcing ring: Rm/20r 450 [Mpa]
Joint coefficient: z 0,7 []
The inside diameter of reinforcing ring: dir 400 [mm]
Inside radius of curvature of the shell at the opening
centre: ris 1000 [mm]

Analysis thickness of shell wall or mean analysis


thickness within the length l's and excluding the
thickness of the reinforcing pad if fitted: ea,s 30 [mm]
Assumed shell thickness of shell wall for checking of
reinforcement of an opening. The thickness may be
assumed by designer between the minimum required
shell thickness e and the shell analysis thickness ea,s.
This assumed thickness shall then be used consistently
in all requirements: ec,s 35 [mm]
Length of shell, from the edge of an opening or from
the external diameter of a nozzle, to a shell
discontinuity: ls 1500 [mm]
Analysis thickness of reinforcing ring: ea,r 60 [mm]
Width of reinforcing ring: lr 100 [mm]
Cross-sectional area of fillet weld between nozzle (or
plate) and shell: Afw 3,20E+01 [mm2]
Nominal design stress of shell material for normal
operating cases:
𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ;
1,5 2,4
𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ 0,9; ∗ 0,9 : 𝑧 ≤ 0,7
1,5 2,4
fs 168,8 [Mpa]

Nominal design stress of shell material for test cases:


𝑅 ,
𝑓 =
1,05
fstest 338,1 [Mpa]

Nominal design stress of reinforcing ring material for


normal operating cases:
𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ;
1,5 2,4
𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ 0,9; ∗ 0,9 : 𝑧 ≤ 0,7
1,5 2,4
fr 150,0 [Mpa]
Nominal design stress of reinforcing ring material for
test cases:
𝑅 ,
𝑓 =
1,05
frtest 238,1 [Mpa]
Minimal nominal design stress of reinforcing ring
material for normal operating cases:
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓 ; 𝑓
for 150,0 [Mpa]
Minimal nominal design stress of reinforcing ring
material for test cases:
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓 ;𝑓
fortest 238,1 [Mpa]
Effective thickness of reinforcing ring for
reinforcement calculation:
𝑒 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑒 , ; 𝑚𝑎𝑥 3𝑒 , ; 3𝑙
er 60 [mm]
Average thickness along the length lo for reinforcing
rings:
𝑙
𝑒 , =𝑒 , + 𝑒 −𝑒 ,
𝑙
ea,m 43,4 [mm]

Maximum length of ring and shell wall in reinforcing


rings for reinforcement:
𝑙 = 2𝑟 + 𝑒 , ∗𝑒 ,

lo 297,8 [mm]

Effective length of shell for opening reinforcement:


𝑙 ´ = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙 ; 𝑙 − 𝑙
l´s 197,8 [mm]
Medium radius of curvature of the shell at the opening
centre:
𝑟 = 𝑟 + 0,5 ∗ 𝑒 ,
rms 1015,0 [mm]
The outside diameter of reinforcing ring:
𝑑 = 𝑑 + 2𝑙
der 600,0 [mm]
Coefficient:
𝑑
𝛿 =
2𝑟
δr 0,3 []
Distance taken along the mid-thickness of the shell
between the centre of an opening and the external
edge of a ring:
𝑎 =𝑟 ∗ 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿
ar 304,5 [mm]
Coefficient:
𝑑
𝛿=
2𝑟
δ 0,2 []

Distance taken along the mid-thickness of the shell


between the centre of an opening and the external
edge of a nozzle or a ring; or, if no nozzle or ring is
present, a is the distance between the centre of the
hole and its bore:
𝑎=𝑟 ∗ 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿
a 201,3 [mm]
Pressure loaded area the shell:
𝑙´ + 𝑎
𝐴𝑝 = 0,5 ∗ 𝑟 ∗ +𝑒 , ∗𝑎
0,5 ∗ 𝑒 , + 𝑟
Aps 2,60E+05 [mm2]

Stress loaded cross-sectional area effective as


reinforcement the shell:
𝐴𝑓 = 𝑙 ´ ∗ 𝑒 ,
Afs 6,92E+03 [mm2]

Stress loaded cross-sectional area reinforcing ring


effective as reinforcement:
𝐴𝑓 = 𝑙 ∗ 𝑒
Afr 6,00E+03 [mm2]
𝐴𝑓 + 𝐴𝑓 𝑓 − 0,5𝑃 + 𝐴𝑓 𝑓 − 0,5𝑃
≥1
𝑃 ∗ 𝐴𝑝
3,2 yes
𝐴𝑓 + 𝐴𝑓 𝑓 − 0,5𝑃 + 𝐴𝑓 𝑓 − 0,5𝑃
≥1
𝑃 ∗ 𝐴𝑝
3,8 yes