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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The 2.0-hectare permanent monitoring plot is required for Protected Areas per BMB Technical
Bulletin No. 2017-09 and established based on the BMB Technical Bulletin No. 2016-05. This
activity is under Part V which pertains to Biodiversity Monitoring specifically in item 5.2.2
with sub-title establishment of Flora monitoring plot. This prompted the establishment of same
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park in the forest area of Brgy. Fertig Hills (formerly known as
Hoyohoy), Tangub City which is located in the southern part of the Protected Area adjacent to
the forest area where the Biodiversity Assessment was conducted in the previous year. The
procedure of Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN) was considered in this
endeavor as required in the manual. Activities undertaken covered the establishment of the grid
and marking of monuments and thereafter the collection of data needed to generate the database.
For Flora, a total of 5,009 individual trees were recorded covering 150 species. The trees
with a diameter greater or equal to 10 cm dbh constitute 39% or 1,941 trees, and for less than 10
cm dbh covers 61 % or 3,068 trees. The different attributes of trees were recorded in the flora
field data such as total height and diameter at breast height (dbh) . The merchantable height of
trees were included for trees with 10 cm dbh and above.
The classification scheme developed by Fernando et al. (1998) was used in the
interpretation of the Shannon diversity index. The result of biodiversity index computation
revealed that five quadrats (107,169,9,167,146 ) display a diversity index with relative values of
High, 86 quadrats with moderate relative value, 85 quadrats for low and 24 quadrats for very low
respectively. Nevertheless, the biodiversity index for the 2.0 hectare monitoring plot is 3.7 with
very high relative value.
The most dominant species include Shorea contorta, Lithocaprus philippinensis, Helicia
sp, Cinnamomon mercadoi, and Syzygium sp. Also, these species are also considered vital for it
registered the highest importance values among species in the permanent monitoring plot.
There are eight (8) species listed under International Union of Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) with the following categories: Critically Endangered (6 species), Endangered (1
species) and Vulnerable ( 1 species) .Under DAO 2017-11, five (5) species were listed under
the category of Vulnerable. The species categorized as critically endangered under the IUCN
are Shorea contorta, Shorea squamata, Shorea negrosensis and Shorea polysperma of Family
Dipterocarpaceae.
Moreover, there are eight species considered by the locals as medicinal plants that can
cure/ heal common ailments/diseases. These include Helicia Sp., Denrdocnide densiflora,
Evodia bintoco, Lithocrapus sp. ,Ficus septica, Luecosyke capitellata, Melastroma
malabrathricum, Nuaclea orientalis and Villebrunea sp. An initial inventory was conducted to
present the importance of these species to the community. It is highly recommended that study
on propagation and harvesting be done for its sustainable use.
Regarding fauna, a total of 125 vertebrate species was recorded in the two-hectare
permanent plot. These include 16 amphibians, 20 reptiles, 74 birds and 15 mammals. Of the
species recorded, 66 or 52.80% are endemics of which 27 (40.91%) are Mindanao endemics.
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Furthermore, the study recorded six Malindang endemics including one amphibian (Philautus
surrufus) and five birds (Aethopyga boltoni malindangensis, Dicaeum anthonyi masawan,
Dicaeum hypoleucum mindanense, Malindangia mcgregori and Turdus poliocephalus
malindangensis). Of the vertebrates recorded, nine species composed of one endangered
(Penelopides panini affinis) and eight vulnerable (Philautus acutirostris, Hydrosaurus
pustulatus, Ophiophagus hannah, Otus gurneyi, Bubo philippensis, Actenoides hombroni,
Buceros hydrocorax and Sus philippensis) species considered by the IUCN (2018). The DAO
2004-15 listed a total of 30 vertebrates (one critically endangered, 11 endangered (II), one
endangered, eleven vulnerable and six other threatened species). On the other hand, CITES
(2014) also considered 19 species of vertebrates of which 18 are assessed as under Appendix II
while one as Appendix I.

INTRODUCTION

The Mt Malindang Range Natural Park is the habitat of unquantifiable numbers of


species both flora and fauna making it so challenging to researchers. Its importance was
recognized in ASEAN Regions which prompted the ASEAN Center for Biodiversity that
declared the Protected Area (PA) as ASEAN Heritage Park. (AHP) in 2011.
Brgy. Fertig Hills or popularly known as Brgy. Hoyohoy in Tangub City is one of the 65
buffer zone barangays of Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park. The barangay is situated in the
southernmost portion of the PA and covers a considerable area of the forest. The place was
designated by Mt. Malindang PAMB as “Gateway to Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park” for
endeavours pertaining to eco-tourism development of Tangub City and District II of Misamis
Occidental were concentrated therein.
In 2018, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) of Misamis
Occidental through the Mt. Malindang protected Area office embarks on the establishment of
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2.0-hectare permanent monitoring plot under Part V of Terrestrial Ecosystems Biodiversity
Assessment and Monitoring Manual which is Biodiversity Monitoring . Since similar activity
was done previously in the northern part of the protected area, the latter opted to establish said
permanent monitoring plot in the southern region after it meets the criteria. This time, the
DENR tapped the expertise of Misamis University through Misamis University Community
Extension Program (MUCEP).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

FLORA

Survey and Data Collection


The 2.0-hectare permanent plot monitoring was established in the forest area of Brgy.
Fertig, Tangub City. It started with the reconnaissance survey to determine the area and if the
same can better represent the protected area concerning ecological and economic benefits .
Thereafter, the laying-out of 10m X 10m grid/quadrat. This was conducted using a GPS
instrument.
The location and distribution of quadrats ( 10m x 10m) were reflected in the map
including the location of individual species. The corner and center coordinates including the
elevation are likewise recorded using GPS .
The data collection was done inside the quadrats. All trees with diameters of less than
10 cm were identified and measured as to diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height.
Also, merchantable height for trees whose diameters are equal to or greater than 10 cm,
merchantable heights were also measured. Herbs, shrubs and other lower plants were not
included.

Flora Data Analysis


All recorded data were stored in a Microsoft Excel database and analyzed quantitatively
using Microsoft Excel Statistics. The analysis was done using the formula of relative density,
density, basal area, dominance, relative dominance, relative frequency ,frequency, and
importance value index . The importance value of species was calculated by adding up its
relative frequency, relative density, and relative dominance. The analysis of data provides a better
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appreciation regarding the importance or function of a species . The formula used are as
follows:

Density = Number of individuals


Area sampled

Relative Density = Density for a species x 100


Total density for all species

Frequency = Number of plots where species occur


Total number of plots sampled

Relative Frequency = Species frequency value x 100


Total frequency for all species

Dominance = Basal area or volume for a species


Area sampled

Relative Dominance = Species dominance x 100


Total dominance for all species

Importance Value = Relative Density + Relative Frequency + Relative Dominance

Description of Forest Formation


The forest type of 2.0-hectare permanent plot was described using the characterization
of forest formation developed by Fernando et al. as described in BAMS Manual .

Diversity of Plant Species


The species diversity was computed and interpreted using the Shannon Diversity index
(H). Diversity index (Shannon) for each quadrat and by species was calculated with the
information on the number of species. The classification scheme developed by Fernando et al.
(1998) was used in the interpretation of Shannon diversity index as presented below.

Relative Values Shannon (H’) Index


Very High 3.5 and above
High 3.0 – 3.49
Moderate 2.5 – 2.99
Low 2.0 – 2.49
Very Low 1.9 and below

Conservation status of Plant Species

The conservation status of the species was assessed to determine the ecological
importance of the vegetation in the area. The references that provided ease in identifying the
category or conservation status such as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable and

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other threatened species include The online database, Co’s Digital Flora of the Philippines
(www.philippineplants.org), International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and DAO
2017-11 of DENR.

FAUNA

The study was conducted in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP) specifically
in Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy), Tangub City. The site was selected for the inventory of the fauna
in accord with the habitat/flora sites. The two-hectare plot was established as the permanent
monitoring plot for Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring System (BAMS) or BAMS site of
the MMRNP-Protected Area Office. The fauna sampling include amphibians, reptiles (lizards
and snakes), birds and mammals (bats and non-volant).

Amphibians and Reptiles


The visual encounter technique and strip transect were used to sample the amphibians
and reptiles. Transect surveys were conducted during periods of greatest animal activity (Fig. 1).
Reptiles were sampled from 0900 hours to 1500 hours while amphibians were sampled from
1900 hours to 2200 hours since most amphibians in the Philippines are nocturnal. Cruising
involved walking over the entire sampling site (Fig. 1) and thoroughly exploring the
microhabitats such as the leaf litters, leaf axils, tree holes, rock crevices in forest floors, and
streams for possible amphibian and reptilian inhabitants.
Captured frogs, lizards, and snakes were measured, photographed and identified. Species that are
readily identifiable were marked and immediately released back into the field. For unknown
samples, voucher specimens placed in 95% ethanol were brought to the laboratory for further
examination.

Figure 1. Cruising in the


sampling site looking for
reptiles.

Birds
Birds were sampled using line transect count and mist-netting. Lin transect method
recorded species and individual birds heard and seen while walking in the established transect
line. The 12-meter long mist nets were set along the possible flyways and feeding trees (Fig. 2).
Nets were checked periodically for possible netted individuals, ideally every hour from 0530 to
2200 h.
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Captured birds were retrieved carefully and placed individually in cloth bags to minimize
stress and injury. Samples were measured, photographed and identified. Species that are readily
identifiable were marked and immediately released back into the field. For unknown samples,
voucher specimens placed in 95% ethanol were brought to the laboratory for further
examination.

Figure. 2. Setting up of mist nets


along the flyways and fruiting
trees.

Bats
Mist netting was conducted to sample bats in the area. These are also the nets used for
birds that were left open for night at least until 2200 h or until the next morning (Fig.3). Fruit
bats are nocturnal species and can only be identified upon close examination. Mist nets are
usually placed on ridge-tops, across paths and near streams or creeks as potentials flyways.

Figure 3. Retrieval of bird


captured in the net.

Non-volant Mammals
Most small non-volant mammals are recorded through live traps (Fig. 4). Fossorial and
arboreal species have been recorded and thus ground and above-ground trapping are done. For
medium to large mammals, ethnobiological interviews were conducted with local residents or
indigenous people, especially among knowledgeable locals with proven credibility due to their
persistent encounters with wildlife in the sampling site.

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Captured mammals were measured, photographed and identified. Species that are readily
identifiable were marked and immediately released back into the field. For unknown samples,
voucher specimens placed in 95% ethanol were brought to the laboratory for further
examination.

Data Processing
Species richness and degree of endemism of fauna in each sampling site was identified.
The conservation status of the species was also determined based on the IUCN (The International
Union for Conservation of Nature) 2018 Red List (threatened-critically endangered, endangered,
vulnerable, and locally threatened), DAO 2004-05 and CITES (2014).

Figure 4. Live trap set for small non-volant mammals.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

FLORA
The 2.0-hectare permanent monitoring plot is classified as advanced second growth
forest for it is previously the concession area of the licensed logging company. Its elevation
ranges from 1000 masl to 1500 masl.The forest development is from young growth (lower
portion) to old growth in the upper part. A total of 200 quadrats with a dimension of 10m x 10m
were established in the 2.0-hectare permanent monitoring plot.
Based on the forest formation developed by Fernando et al., the monitoring plot is a
tropical lowland evergreen rainforest and tropical lower montane rainforest. Species dominate
the area are under family Dipterocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, and Myrtaceae.
The result of the inventory disclosed that a total of 5,009 trees were present in the area
(Fig.5). The table 1 described the distribution of the said trees by diameter class, to wit:

Table 1. Distribution of trees by Diameter Class


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Diameter Class (dbh) in cm No.of Trees
60 – UP 38
50-59 69
40-49 126
30-30 183
20-29 407
10-19 1,118
10 below 3,068
TOTAL 5,009

Figure 1. Distribution
of plant tree species
according to
Diameter Class

The computation of data collected disclosed that the most dominant species are White
Lauan with a total of 614 trees, Dabo-dabo 399 trees, Gusukan Puti 391 trees, Polayo 367
trees and Kalingag 274 trees (Table 2). Thesespecies are considered the most dominant in terms
of diamater, richness and density. The table below presents list of species with highest
number of individuals in the monitoring plot.

Table 1. List of top 10 species with highest number of trees


Species Scientific Name No. of Trees
White Lauan Shorea contorta 614
Dabo-dabo Helicia sp 399
Gusukan Puti Lithocarpus philippinensis 391
Polayo Syzygium sp 367
Kalingag Cinammomon mercadoi 274
Salindata Acer lauricum 242
Hindang Myrica javanica 164
Sagimsim Syzygium brevistylum 164
Tagibokbok/Bintoko Evodia bintoco 151
Tubog Ficus nota 128

The species with highest computed importance value are Shorea contorta,
Lithocaprus philippinensis, Helicia sp., Cinnamomon mercadoi and Syzygium sp.Table 3is the
list of top 10 highest species in terms of Importance value (IV):

Table 2. List of top 10 tree species with highest Importance Value (IVs)

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Species Scientific Name Importance Value (IV)
Gusukan Puti Lithocarpus philippinensis 38.50
White Lauan Shorea contorta 26.26
Dabo-dabo Helicia sp. 17.26
Kalingag Cinammomun mercadoi 14.65
Polayo Syzygium sp. 14.63
Guilon Bischofia javanica 14.62
Hindang Myrica javanica 11.05
Salindata/Anilao Acer laurinum 10.62
Tagibokbok/Bintoko Evodia bintoco 9.23
Manga-manga Mangifera sp. 6.74

Figure
2.

Distribution of tree species according to Frequency.

The monitoring plot portrayed an ideal structure of a forest displaying an advanced


second growth forest considering that the sample area is previously a logging concession area
and once identified as “hot spot” because of timber poaching/ illegal logging activity. This
premise is supported with the result of the inventory revealing that 3,068 trees with diameter ≤
10cm and of the total 1,941 trees with diameter ≥10 cm, 1,125 trees or approximately 58%
having diameters between 10 cm- 19 cm.
As observed there were traces of human activities found in the permanent plot
indicating that there is forest disturbance therein including wildlife hunting. However, the
presence of the military camp near the entrance of the forest and their prohibition to residents
not to enter the forest because of the insurgency problem helped in the safeguarding of the
forest resources.
Since the majority of the trees inventoried ranged from 10-30 cm, these are ideal
materials for house construction and repair. However as observed, residents are using concrete
materials and coco lumber as construction materials. However, there is still a need to continue
the forest protection activities to safeguard the remaining trees from cutting.
The lianas ( woody vines) and epiphytes ( air plants) and lichens are observed
throughout the quadrats. Species under family Palmaceae are likewise present in the area such
as Calamus sp., Anibong, and Pugahan. These classes of plants were not included in the
inventory.

Species Composition
The layers of the forests are described as follows:

Forest Floor

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The forest floor is covered with mosses and thin decaying leaves, twigs and some felled trees.
This is an implication of the degree of organic matter present in the forest cover.

Herb Layer
The herb layer was occupied by soft-stemmed plants such as grasses, ferns, and sedges. The
population of the herbs is not so diverse especially in quadrats with a thick canopy.

The shrub layer


The shrubs are often observed in quadrats with less number of trees growing. It is
characterized by woody vegetation that grows closer to the ground.

Understorey Layer
The understorey of the permanent plots consists of small trees shorter than the main canopy
level of trees having a diameter in breast height above 10cm. As observed the understorey offer
protection as their shelter. A total of 1,118 trees in the monitoring plots belong to this category.

Canopy Layer
It is consist of trees having a diameter of 20 cm to 59 cm. A total of 785 trees under this
category are considered residuals. It is a layer where the canopy of trees meet and form a thick
layer.

Emergent Layer
A total of 38 trees inventoried with a diameter of 60 cm and above found in the 2.0 hectares
plot. Only a few of forest trees included in the emergent layer for the site was subject to the
logging operation, and only a few mature trees left after the operation.

Based on the computation of Shannon Index, 5 quadrats have high biodiversity index,
86 quadrats with moderate , 85 with low index and 24 quadrats with very low biodiversity
index. For the entire 2.0- hectare plot, the biodiversity index is 3.7 with corresponding relative
value of Very High.

Table 4. Shannon Diversity Index by quadrat.

Relative Shannon
Quadrat Number
Values (‘H) Index
NONE
VERY HIGH 3.5 ABOVE

HIGH 3.0-3.49 107,169,9,167,146


154,92,170,165,182,191,117,176,121,50,63,151,21,70,173,179,
23,122,123,192,159,80,101,96,112,149,86,193,124,141,1,31, ,
MODERATE 2.5-2.99`
155,114,178,156,81,158,11,190,34,177,180,153,200,157,104,
20,102,53,189,106,147,
LOW 2.0 -2.49 73,51,148,195,74,196,144,32,75,166,44,65,150,162,172,5,119,

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120,115,59,128,64,160,95,7,55,48,152,86,58,84,132,17,83,88,
82,163,85,13

VERY LOW 1.9 BELOW 125,8,38,174,40,184,138,188,43,137,10,129,66, ,


45,18,54,39,110,7,37,118,175,49,194

Figure 3. Distribution of tree species according to its diversity index category

Some of the trees identified has medicinal value and accordingly used to cure common ailments
like cough, skin disorder, stomach ache, headache, among others. Listed in the table 5 are trees
known to residents to cure diseases, as follows:

Table 5. List of Species with Medicinal Value in the area


Species Scientific Name Medicinal Value
Dabo-dabo Helicia sp cough
Alingatong Dendrocnide densiflora Skin diseases
Kalingag Cinnamomun mercadoi Stomach ache
Tagibokbok Evodia bintoco Stomach ache
Gusukan Lithocarpus sp Stomach ache
Lagnob Ficus septica Skin disease
Alagasi Leucosyke capitellata Cough, hepatitis
Hantutungaw Melastoma Lip sores, kidney disorders
malabathricum
Hambabalud Nauclea orientalis Headache
Ananamsi Villebrunea sp. Boils,skin diseases

There are 14 species listed under International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
with the following categories: Critically Endangered (5 species), Vulnerable (1 species) and
registered (8 species). Under DAO 2007-01, five (5) species were listed under the category of
Vulnerable. The species categorized as critically endangered under the IUCN are Shorea
contorta, Shorea squamata, Shorea negrosensisand Shorea polysperma of Family
Dipterocarpaceae.
.
Table 6. List of Species with their Corresponding Conservation Value

Species DAO 2017-11 IUCN RED LIST


Shorea contorta Vulnerable Critically Endangered
Shorea palosapis Critically Endangered
Shorea squamata Critically Endangered
Shorea negrosensis Vulnerable Critically Endangered
Agathis philippinensis Vulnerable
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Vulnerable Endangered
Shorea almon Vulnerable Critically Endangered
Other Threatened Species
Cinnamomum mercadoi
(OTS)
Palaqium luzoniense Vulnerable

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Figure
4. Distribution of tree species
according to frequency.

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There are five species of Dipterocarp species identified in the monitoring plot comprising of4
genus out of 6 genera in the Philippines. The white lauan constitutes the 95% of the population, Red
Lauan 4% and the remaining 1% were represented by Palosapis, bagtikan, kalayaan, and mayapis. As
observed, majority of trees are small practically less than 10 cm dbh. The dipterocarp species are very
prolific in the area even if there are few mature trees . This implies that there are mother trees in the
surrounding as source of seeds for natural regeneration.

Figure 5. Percent
distribution of
Dipterocarp species in
the two-hectare
monitoring plot.

FAUNA
The present study has identified 125 species of vertebrates with 16 amphibians, 20 reptiles (9
lizards and 11 snakes), 74 birds and 15 mammals including six bats and nine small non-volant mammals
(Table 7). Of the total vertebrates, 52.80% are endemics in the archipelago, and six species are endemic
to Mt. Malindang. Endemic species are native species whose distributions are confined only within the
geographic area of reference (Lillo et al. (2018). Malindang endemics include one amphibian
(Philautus surrufus) and five birds (Aethopyga boltoni malindangensis, Dicaeum anthonyi masawan,
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Dicaeum hypoleucum mindanense, Malindangia mcgregori and Turdus poliocephalus malindangensis).
Of all species recorded, one is endangered, eight are vulnerable, and five are near threatened to
extinction on a global scale (IUCN, 2018).

Table 7. Summary of species richness, endemism and threatened species of vertebrates recorded in the
two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.
Vertebrates Species Endemism Threatened Species
Richness
Philippines Mindanao Malindang IUCN, DAO CITES
2018 2004-15 2014
1(33.33%)
9 3
Amphibians 16 (Philautus 1 VU 2VU
(56.25% ) (33.335)
surrufus)
2EN(II), 3II
Reptiles 20
2 1VU and
Lizards 9 7 (77.78%) 2VU
(28.57%) 4OTS
Snakes 11 5 (45.45%)
1 (20%)
5 (23%)
-Aethopyga
boltoni
malindangensis
-Dicaeum 1 CR EN;
anthonyi 8 EN(II); 12 II;
masawan 1 EN; 1 EN; 1I
Birds 74 37 (50%) 22 (59%) -Dicaeum 4 VU; 7 VU
hypoleucum 5 NT
mindanense
-Malindangia
mcgregori
-Turdus
poliocephalus
malindangensis
Mammals 15 1EN(II) 3 II
Bats 6 2 (33.33%) 1VU 1VU and
Non-volant 9 6 (66.67%) 2OTS
Total 125 66 27 6 1EN,8VU 1CR EN,
(52.80%) (40.91%) (22.22%) ,5NT 11EN(II) 18 II,
1EN, 1I
11VU,
6OTS

Legend: CR EN- Critically endangered OTS- Other Threatened Species


EN- Endangered II- Appendix II
VU- Vulnerable I – Appendix I
NT- Near Threatened

Amphibians
Figure 10 shows the percentage distribution of various amphibian families observed in the two-
hectare permanent plot of Mt. Malindang-Hoyohoy BAMS site. With five (5) species, Rhacophoridae
has the highest percentage accounting for 31.25 percent of the total amphibians species in Mt.
Malindang. The remaining is comprised of Dicroglossidae (25%), Ceratobatrachidae (18.75%), Ranidae
(12.50% and Megopgryidae (12.50%).
The list of amphibian species recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot is shown in Table 8. A
total of sixteen (16) species representing the five families are recorded. Of these species, nine or 56.25%
are Philippine endemics these additionally include a Malindang endemic, Philautus surrufus.
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Amphibians are bioindicators, an important component of a healthy ecosystem, and play a vital
role in the food pyramid. They maintain the balance of food web as they consume many insects and
themselves are the source of food for many avian and mammalian species.
The amphibians were caught in the established BAMS site because of the presence of
microhabitats. Diversity and distribution of amphibians are dependent on the climatic conditions,
geographical position and availability of food in an area (Ali et al., 2018). The change in their
microhabitats, the forest as a whole and the removal of these creatures will lead to disturbances in
predator-prey dynamics, invertebrate populations, algae communities, leaf litter decompositions, and
nutrient cycling.

Figure.6 . Percentage distribution of amphibian families recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of
Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.

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Table 8. Amphibians recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.
Distributions Population
Local Name
Family Scientific Name Common Name Frequency Status Tend Conservation Status
DAO CITES
IUCN 2018 2004-15 2014

Ceratobatrachidae Platymantis corrugatus Rough-back Forest Frog Baki 3 Philippine endemic Decreasing Least Concern
Platymantis rabori Rabori's Forest Frog Baki 2 Philippine endemic Decreasing Least Concern VU
Platymantis sp Baki 2
Asian Brackish Frog, Crab-
Dicroglossidae Fejervarya cancrivora eating Frog, Mangrove Frog, Baki 5 Non-endemic Increasing Least Concern
Rice Field Frog
Limnonectes diutus 2
Small Disked Frog, Swamp
Limnonectes leytensis Baki 9 Philippine endemic Decreasing Least Concern
Frog
Limnonectes magnus Mindanao Fanged Frog Bak-bak 11 Philippine endemic Decreasing Near Threatened VU
Java Spadefoot Toad, Hasselt's
Megophryidae Leptobrachium hasselti Baki 5 Non-endemic Not Listed No Record
Litter Frog, Tschudi's Frog

Baki na
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Megophrys stejnegeri Mindanao Horned Frog sungayan Mindanao endemic Unkown Least Concern
Ranidae Pulchrana grandocula Big-eyed Frog Baki 10 Philippine endemic Stable Least Concern
Staurois guttatus Black-spotted Rock Frog Baki 3 Non-endemic Decreasing Least Concern
Rhacophoridae Rhacophorus bimaculatus Mindanao Flying Frog Tambawoo 3 Philippine endemic Decreasing Least Concern
Rhacophorus sp. Tambawoo 2
White-lipped Tree Frog,
Common Tree Frog, Four-lined
Tree Frog
Polypedates leucomystax Tambawoo 5 Non-endemic Stable Least Concern

Distributions Population
Local Name
Family Scientific Name Common Name Frequency Status Tend Conservation Status
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DAO CITES
IUCN 2018 2004-15 2014
Philautus acutirostris Pointed-snouted Tree Frog Baki 8 Mindanao endemic Decreasing Vulnerable

Molted Tree Frog, Malindanag


Philautus surrufus Baki 4 Mindanao endemic Decreasing Near Threatened
Tree Frog, Rufous Bush Frog

Total Number of Species: 16


Total Number of Individuals: 83
Total Endemism: 9 (56.25% ); Mindanao Endemics: 3 ( 33.335)
Total Threatened Species: 1 Vulnerable (IUCN); 2 VU (DAO 2004-15

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During the sampling, hunting of edible amphibians was observed. Use of
pesticides and fertilizers in nearby agricultural lands has severely affected insect populations
which can be food source for amphibians. Based on the study, most of the endemic amphibians
have decreasing population while the non-endemic species, Fejervarya cancrivora has been
increasing in population. This implies that endemic species have difficulty in coping and
adapting the habitat disturbances while the non-endemic is tolerable to any change in its
environment.

Reptiles
Figure 11 shows the percentage distribution of reptiles recorded in the study. The family
Scincidae harbors most of the lizards accounting for 25% (5 species) of all the reptiles. Other
lizards belong to Agamidae (2 species), Gekkonidae (1 species) and Varanidae (1 species). The
family Colubridae has the highest number of snakes with four species for 20% of the total
reptilian species. Two species of snakes belong to Elapidae and one each species for families
Lamprophiidae, Natricidae, Pareidae, Pythonidae and Viperidae.
Of the species recorded, sixty (60) percent (12 species) are endemics in the archipelago
of which three of these are Mindanao island endemics: Brachymeles schadenbergi schadenbergi
(Schadenberg’s Burrowing Skink), Tropidophorous misaminus (Misamis Waterside Skink) and
Aplopeltura boa (Blunthead Slug Snake).

Figure 7. Percentage distribution of reptilian families recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot
of Brgy Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.

18
Table 9. Reptiles recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.
Distributions
Population Tend
Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name Frequency Status Conservation Status
DAO CITES
IUCN 2018
2004-15 2014
Lizards
Two-spotted Flying Philippine
Agamidae Draco bimaculatus Hambubukag 2 Stable Least Concern
Lizard endemic
Philippine sailfin
lizard, Crested lizard,
Philippine
Hydrosaurus pustulatus Sail-fin lizard, Sailfin Ibid 2 Decreasing Vulnerable
endemic
water lizard, Soa-soa
water lizard OTS
Gekkonidae Gecko gecko Tokay Gecko Toko 4 Non-endemic Stable Not recorded
Brachymeles schadenbergi Schadenberg’s Mindanao
Scincidae 2 Stable Least Concern
schadenbergi Burrowing Skink endemic
Common Sun Skink,
East Indian Brown
Eutropis multifasciata Mabuya, Javan Sun Tabili 5 Non-endemic Not yet assessed Not recorded
Skink, Many-lined
Sun Skink
Eutropis multicarinata Many-keeled Philippine
Tabili 3 Not yet assessed Not recorded
borealis Mabuya endemic
Banded Philippine
Sphenomorphus fasciatus Tabili 2 Stable Least Concern
Sphenomorphus endemic
Tropidophorous Misamis Waterside Mindanao
Manantoy 3
misaminus Skink endemic
Varanidae
Philippine water
Philippine
Varanus cumingi monitor , Cuming's Halo 1 Decreasing Least Concern VU II
endemic
Water Monitor

Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name Frequency Distributions Population Tend Conservation Status
19
Status
DAO CITES
IUCN 2018
2004-15 2014
Snakes
Ahaetulla prasina Asian Vine Snake, Philippine
Colubridae Dahon-dahon 2 Not yet assessed Not recorded
preocularis Boie's Whip Snake endemic
Calamaria lumbricoidea Variable Reed Snake Halas 2 Non-endemic Stable Least Concern
Coelognathus erythrurus Reddish Rat Snake Halas 1 Non- endemic Not yet assessed Not recorded
Dendrelaphis Striped Bronzeback
Momo-an 2 Non-endemic Not yet assessed Not recorded
caudolineatus Snake
Philippine
Elapidae Naja samarensis Samar Cobra Dupong 1 Unknown Least Concern
endemic EN(II) II
Ophiophagus hannah King Cobra Momo-an Non-endemic Decreasing Vulnerable EN(II) II
Psammodynastes Common Mock
Lamprophiidae Halas 1 Non-endemic Not yet assessed Not recorded
pulverulentus Viper
Rhabdophis auriculata White-lined Water Philippine
Natricidae Halas 2 Unknown Least Concern
auriculata Snake endemic
Blunthead Slug Mindanao
Pareidae Aplopeltura boa Halas 1 Unknown Least Concern
Snake endemic OTS
Pythonidae Reticulated python Reticulated Python Baksan Non-endemic Not yet assessed Not recorded OTS II
Trimeresurus Philippine
Viperidae Philippine pitviper Momo-an 1 Not yet assessed Not recorded
schadenbergi endemic OTS
Total Number of Species: 20 (9 Lizards; 11 Snakes)
Total No. of Individuals: 37
Endemism: 12 (60%); 25% Mindanao endemics
No. of Threatened Species: 2VU (IUCN, 2018); 2EN(II), 1VU and 4OTS (DAO 2004-15; 3II (CITES 2014)

20
Two reptilian species are considered “vulnerable” to extinction by the IUCN
(2018). These are the Hydrosaurus pustulatus (Philippine sailfin lizard ) and
Ophiophagus hannah (King Cobra). The continuous hunting and habitat loss and
fragmentation affect the health and survival of individual populations as well as entire
species of reptiles.

Birds
Figure 12 presents the percentage distribution of bird families recorded in the
study. Among the thirty-three (33) families, Columbidae got the highest number of
species (nine) accounting for 12.16% of the total birds observed. Family Columbidae is
the group of doves. This was followed by Family Dicaeidae with six species or 8.11%.
A total of seventy-four (74) species with 546 individuals recorded in the two-
hectare permanent plot. Fifty percent (50%) of the birds are endemics to the archipelago,
with additional twenty-two (22) Mindanao endemics and five Malindang endemics. The
Malindang endemics include Aethopyga boltoni malindangensis (Apo Sunbird), Dicaeum
anthonyi masawan (Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker), Dicaeum hypoleucum mindanense
(Buzzing Flowerpecker), Malindangia mcgregori (McGregor's Cuckoo-shrike)andTurdus
poliocephalus malindangensis (Island Thrush).
The value of birds in the ecological balance of each habitat is quite clear. Birds
play an important role in plant fertility, energy exchange in ecological systems,
population control of many pests, and economic development (Aazami & Nafar, 2018).
The Malindang endemic birds are unique since these cannot be seen in the other area.
Birds are distributed in a wide range based on flight power and structural changes
in their composition. So, the ecological diversity and density can be indicative of the
environmental changes. An uncontrolled population reduction of these precious species
with economic, ecological, and social values is because of human activities.
In this study, eight (8) species of birds are listed in the IUCN (2018). These
include one endangered (Penelopides panini affinis, Visayan Hornbill), four (4)
vulnerable (Otus gurneyi, Giant Scops-Owl; Bubo philippensis, Philippine Eagle-Owl;
Buceros hydrocorax, Northern Rufous Hornbill and Actenoides hombroni, Blue-capped
Kingfisher) and five (5) Near Threatened with extinction in a global scale.
This data support to the study of BirdLife International (2011), that over 80% of
threatened bird species currently are a decline with just 9% and 5% are stable and
increasing respectively while the 3% presently stated unknown or unset. This was
reported before by Jenkins (2003) that the current global bird population decreases, once
the native habitat decrease and believed native habitat for birds continuing to decline
within 1.1% / year (Idilfitri et al., 2014).
This decline in avian diversity was observed from forest habitat to urban
landscapes. Avian species react rapidly to anthropogenic impact. Agriculture
intensification in the vast area produces a negative impact on the bird diversity, caused by
indirect effects, such as the use of chemicals, reduced nesting site, mortality of birds due
21
to farming operations, and many-fold increase in the predation rate after harvesting the
crops. It is also noted that large area with high numbers of trees has positive relationship
with the bird diversity; the reason is that birds even can get food and shelter from the
trees (Altaf et al., 2017).

Fig.7 .

Percentage distribution of bird families recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of


Brgy Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site

22
Table 10. Birds recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.

Population
Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name Frequency Distribution Status Trend Conservation Status
DAO
IUCN 2018 2004-15 CITES 2014
Accipitridae Haliastur indus Brahminy Kite Banog 3 Resident Decreasing LC
Falconidae Microhierax erythrogenys Philippine Falconet 2 Philippine endemic Decreasing LC EN(II) II
Phasianidae Gallus gallus Red Junglefowl Manok ihalas 6 Resident Decreasing LC
Rallidae Rallina eurozinoides Slaty-legged Crake Korwakwak 2 Resident Not listed
Galliralus torquatus Barred Rail Kiyaw 2 Resident Not listed
Amaurornis olivacea Philippine Plain Bush-hen Tikling 4 Near endemic Unknown LC
Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted Waterhen Mantik 4 Resident Unknown LC
Columbidae Phapitreron cinereiceps Dark-eared Brown-Dove Lutgaw 10 Mindanao endemic CR II
Phapitreron leucotis White-eard Brown-Dove Alimukon 5 Philippine endemic Stable LC
Buro-
Phapitreron amethystinus Amethyts Brown-Dove buro/Mangutot 4 Phillipine endemic Not listed
Yellow-breasted Fruit-
Ramphiculus occipitalis Dove Punay 5 Phillipine endemic Stable LC
Columba vitiensis Metallic Pigeon Punay 2 Resident Stable LC
Marcropygia phasianella Reddish Cuckoo-Dove Manok-manok 7 Resident Not listed
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted Dove Tukmo 9 Resident Not listed

23
Grey-capped Emerald
Chalcophaps indica Dove Manatad 4 Resident Decreasing LC
Geopelia striata Zebra Dove Korokokok 6 Resident Stable LC
Blue-crowned Racquet-
Psittacidae Prioniturus discurus tail 3 Philippine endemic Stable LC EN(II) II
Trichoglossus johnstoniae Mindanao Lorikeet Managing Near
4 Mindanao endemic Decreasing EN(II) II
Threatened
Philippine Hanging-
Loriculus philippensis parrot Kusi 13 Philippine endemic Decreasing LC EN(II) II
Tanygnathus sumatranus Blue-backed Parrot Managing 3 Resident Stable LC EN(II) II
Square-tailed Drongo-
Cuculidae Surniculus lugubris cuckoo 4 Resident Decreasing LC
Centropus viridis Philippine Coucal Kokok 8 Philippine endemic Stable LC
Eudynamys scolopacea Western Koel Bulay-og 4 Resident Stable LC
Centropus bengalensis Lesser Coucal Kokok 8 Resident Increasing LC

Tytonidae Tyto capensis African Grass Owl Ngiw-ngiw 2 Resident Decreasing LC EN(II) II
Mindanao Highland
Strigidae Otus mirus Scops-owl Pungak 4 Mindanao endemic Decreasing NT EN(II) II

Otus gurneyi Giant Scops-Owl Pungak 2 Philippine endemic Decreasing VU VU I

Bubo philippensis Philippine Eagle-Owl Pungak 3 Mindanao endemic Decreasing VU VU II

Caprimulgidae Lyncornis macrotis Great-eard Nightjar Tortor 4 Resident Stable LC

Apodidae Collocalia troglodytes Pygmy Swiftlet Kulampisaw 14 Philippine endemic Stable LC

Collocalia esculenta Glossy Swiftlet Sayao 22 Resident Stable LC


Alcedinidae Alcedo argentata Silvery Kingfisher Tikarol 2 Mindanao endemic Unkown Not listed VU

Tikarol sa
Actenoides hombroni Blue-capped Kingfisher lasang 5 Mindanao endemic Decreasing VU VU

24
Ceyx lepidus MoluccaDwarf-kingfisher 2 Resident Decreasing LC

Todiramphus chloris Collared Kingfisher Tikarol 3 Resident Decreasing LC

Trogonidae Harpactes ardens Philippine Trogon Agik-ik 11 Philippine endemic Decreasing LC VU

Bucerotidae Buceros hydrocorax Northern Rufous Hornbill Kalaw 5 Philippine endemic Decreasing VU VU II

Penelopides panini affinis Visayan Hornbill Tagiptip 4 Mindanao endemic Decreasing EN EN II

Aceros leococephalus Writhed Hornbill Ungik 4 Resident Unknown Not listed

Capitonidae Psilopogon haemacephalus Coppersmith Barbet Pok-pok 7 Philippine endemic Increasing LC


Picoides Philippine Pygmy
Picidae maculatus fulvifasciatus Woodpecker Balatok 13 Mindanao endemic Stable LC

Chrysocolaptes lucidus Buff-spotted Flameback Balatok 10 Resident Decreasing LC


McGregor's Cuckoo-
Campephagidae Malindangia mcgregori shrike 6 Malindang endemic Decreasing LC VU

Pycnonotidae Hypsipetes rufigularis Zamboanga Bulbul Tagmaya 11 Mindanao endemic Decreasing NT

Hypsipetes philippinus Philippine Bulbul 12 Philippine endemic Stable LC

Pycnonotus goiavier Yellow-vented Bulbul Pirok-pirok 16 Resident Increasing LC


Poliolophus urostictus
basilanicus Yellow-wattled bulbul Piluk-piluk 4 Mindanao endemic Stable LC

Oriolidae Oriolus chinensis Black-naped Oriole Antulihaw 6 Resident Unknown LC

Corvidae Corvus enca Slender-billed Crow Uwak 15 Resident Stable LC

Sittidae Sitta frontalis Velvet-fronted Nuthatch 6 Mindanao endemic Decreasing LC

25
Langgam sa
Timaliidae Macronous striaticeps Brown-Tit Babbler yuta 3 Philipine endemic Decreasing LC

Turdidae Brachypteryx montana Javan Shortwing 4 Resident Decreasing LC


Turdus poliocephalus
malindangensis Island Thrush Tigbay 10 Malindang endemic Decreasing LC

Sylviidae Phylloscopus trivirgatus Mountain Warbler 16 Resident Stable LC

Locustellidae Megalurus palustris Striated Grassbird Toryok 12 Resident Unknown LC

Muscicapidae Ficedula westermanni Little Pied Flycatcher Taguto 6 Resident Decreasing LC


Eumyias panayensis
nigriloris Turquoise Flycatcher 3 Mindanao endemic Decreasing LC
Rhipidura
nigrocinnamomea Black-and-cinnamon
hutchinsoni Fantail Bulay-og 8 Mindanao endemic Stable LC

Rhipidura javanica Sunda Pied Fantail Bali-ala 13 Resident Stable LC


Pachycephala
Pachycephalidae philippinensis Yellow-bellied Whistler 4 Philippine endemic Decreasing LC

Laniidae Lanius schach Long-tailed Shrike Amomunggot 11 Resident Unknown LC

Lanius cristatus Brown Shrike Tibalas 7 Migrant Decreasing LC


White- breasted
Artamidae Artamus leucoryn Woodswallow Git-git 25 Resident Stable LC

Sturnidae Aplonis panayensis Asian Glossy Starling Kulansyang 15 Resident Unknown LC


LC

Sarcops calvus Coleto Sal-ing 3 Near endemic Unknown

26
Population
Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name Frequency Distribution Status Trend Conservation Status
DAO 2004-
IUCN 2018 15 CITES 2014

Nectariniidae Cinnyris jugularis jugularis Olive-backed Sunbird Tamsi 2 Mindanao endemic Stable LC
Aethopyga boltoni
malindangensis Apo Sunbird Tamsi 12 Malindang endemic Decreasing NT
Dicaeum anthonyi Yellow-crowned
Dicaeidae masawan Flowerpecker Tamsi 3 Malindang endemic Decreasing NT
Prionochilus olivaceus Olive-backed
olivaceus Flowerpecker Tamsi 10 Mindanao endemic Stable LC

Dicaeum bicolor bicolor Bicoloured Flowerpecker Tamsi 20 Mindanao endemic Stable LC


Orange-bellied
Dicaeum trigonostigma Flowerpecker Pitsiw 13 Resident Stable LC
Dicaeum hypoleucum
mindanense Buzzing Flowerpecker Tamsi 9 Malindang endemic Decreasing LC

Dicaeum australe australe Red-keeled Flowerpecker Tamsi 18 Mindanao endemic Stable LC


Hypocryptadius
Zosteropidae cinnamomeus Cinnamon Ibon 4 Mindanao endemic Decreasing LC

Total Number of Species 74

Total No. of Individuals: 546

37 (22 Mindanao endemic- 5 Malindang endemic); 50% (59% Minanao endemics; 23% Malindang endemics)
Endemism:
1 Endangered; 4 Vulnerable; 5 Near Threatened (IUCN, 2018); 1 Critically Endangered; 8 Endangered (II); 1 Endangered; 7 Vulnerable (DENR-DA) 2014-15)
No. of Threatened Species: 12 II; 1 Appendix I (CITES 2014)

27
Mammals
Figure 13 displays the percentage distribution of nine (9) families where the
mammalian species recorded belong. Among the families, family Pteropodidae or fruit-
eating bats are the most crowded harboring five (5) species or 33.33% of the total
mammals. Muridae and Viverridae followed this with both two (2) species or 13.33%.
Fruit-eating bats in general, are increasingly assuming essential ecosystem functions for
the effective seed dispersal of a large number of plants (Seltzer et al., 2013; Fahr et al.,
2015). Habitat loss and fragmentation of tropical forest ecosystems and associated
depletion of seed dispersers threaten the long-term survival of animal-dispersed plants.
These threats do not only affect biodiversity and species abundance but ultimately
ecosystem functions and services (Abedi-Lartey et al., 2016).

Fig. 9.
Percentage
distribution
of
mammalian
families recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy)
BAMS site

Table 11 shows the list of mammals recorded in the two-hectare permanent


BAMS site. The fifteen mammals are composed of six (6) bats and nine (9) non-volant
mammals with a total of 197 individuals. There are two Philippine endemic species of
bats. These are Ptenochirus jagori or Greater musky fruit bat and Ptenochirus minor or
Lesser musky fruit bat. There are also six (5) non-volant species considered as Philippine
endemics. These include Rattus everetti, Philippine forest rat; Macaca fascicularis ssp.

28
philippensis, Philippine Long-tailed Macaque; Tarsius syrichta, Philippine tarsier;
Sundasciurus philippinensis, Philippine Tree squirrel; and Sus philippensis, Philippine
warty pig. The Tupaiia everetti, Mindanao Tree shrew, is considered as Mindanao island
endemic. Sus sp. has been assessed as Vulnerable to extinction.
Sus sp and other frugivores in the area are relevant in ecosystems because they are
associated with seed dispersal and forest regeneration (Gallegos et al., 2014). They may
disperse plants to new habitats; therefore, the loss of these fauna could change plant
communities and lead to local losses in particular plant species (Munguía et al., 2016)
The decline of faunal species is primarily caused by habitat destruction,
overhunting for food and pets and to some extent the introduction of exotic species
particularly during uncontrolled trekking. Also, these can create the introduction of fauna
or pests and disease, reduced or prevention of access to feeding or roosting habitats,
disruption of the dispersal of individuals and disruption of pollinators and seed dispersals.

29
Table 11. Mammals recorded in the two-hectare permanent plot of Brgy. Fertig Hills (Hoyohoy) BAMS site.
Local Distributions Population
Family Scientific Name Common Name Name Frequency Status Trend Conservation Status
DAO
2004- CITES
IUCN 2018 15 2014
Bats
Philippine Stable Least Concern
Pteropodidae Ptenochirus jagori Grteater musky fruit bat Kabog 27 endemic
Philippine Stable Least Concern
Ptenochirus minor Lesser musky fruit bat 37 endemic
Greater Shortnosed Fruit Non-endemic Increasing Least Concern
Cynopterus sphinx Ba Kwaknit 22
Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Non-endemic Unknown Least Concern
Bat, Common Short-
nosed Fruit Bat, Lesser
Short-nosed Fruit Bat
Cynopterus brachyotis Kwaknit 48

Hill Long-tongued Fruit


Bat, Greater Long-nosed
Fruit Bat, Greater Long-
tongued Fruit Bat, Greater
Nectar Bat
Macroglossus sobrinus Kwaknit 29 Non-endemic Stable Least Concern
Rhinolophidae Rhinolophus sp. Horseshoe Bat Kwaknit 2
Non-volant Mammals
Philippine Forest Rat Ilaga 4 Philippine
Muridae Rattus everetti endemic
Oriental House Rat,
Rattus tanezumi Ilaga 8 Non-endemic Increasing Least Concern
Tanezumi Rat

30
Local Distributions Population
Family Scientific Name Common Name Frequency Conservation Status
Name Status Trend

DAO
2004- CITES
IUCN 2018 15 2014
Macaca
Philippine Long-tailed Philippine Near
Cercopithecidae fascicularis ssp. philippensi Unggoy 4 Decreasing
Macaque endemic Threatened
s OTS II
Philippine Near
Tarsiidae Tarsius syrichta Philippine Tarsier Basing 2 endemic Decreasing Threatened OTS II
Philippine
Sciuridae Sundasciurus philippinensis Philippine Tree Squirrel Laksoy 4 Stable Least Concern
endemic
Suidae Sus philippensis Philippine Warty Pig Baboy Philippine
sulop endemic Decreasing Vulnerable VU
Mindanao
Tupaiidae Tupaia everetti Mindanao Tree Shrew Mugsaw 6 endemic Stable Least Concern EN(II) II
Viverra tangalunga
Malayan Civet, Malay
Viverridae Civet, Oriental Civet Tinggalong Non-endemic Stable Least Concern
Paradoxurus Common Palm Civet,
Milo 4 Non-endemic Decreasing Least Concern
hermaphroditus Mentawai Palm Civet

Total Number of Species: 15 ((6 Bats; 9 Non-volant Mammals)


Total Number of Individuals: 197
Total Number of Endemic Bats: 2 (33.33%); 6 (66.67%) –Non-volant mammals
Total Number of Endemic Mammalian Species: 8 (53.33%)
Total Number of Threatened Species: 1VU (IUCN, 2018); 1EN(II), 1VU and 2OTS (DAO 2004-15); 3 II (CITES 2014)

31
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The 2-hectare permanent monitoring plot is a second growth forest which is


primarily occupied by 4,193 trees having a diameter of less than 20 cm. Alternatively,
approximately equivalent to 84%. The 200 quadrats established were characterized by
varying vegetation such as young, intermediate and old growth.
A total of 5009 species were recorded distributed among 59 families of which 2
families are gymnosperms and are 57 Angiosperms. The latter was dominated by
family Dipterocarpaceae, Fagaceae, and Myrtaceae. The two (2) Gymnosperm families
include Podocarpacea and Araucariaceae.
The assessment of data disclosed that there were 8 species classified as
Critically Endangered, Vulnerable and other threatened based on IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species and DENR DAO 2017-11 entitled Updated National List of
Threatened Philippine Plants and their Categories. Some of these are Shorea contorta,
Shorea squamata, Shorea negrosensis, among others.
The forest area in Brgy. Fertig Hills has gradually recovered from the
destruction caused by logging four (4) decades ago and by illegal logging and timber
poaching activities. The presence of a considerable number of trees with smaller
diameter or size are capable of growing into mature trees and eventually restore healthy
forest attaining the climax stage of forest succession. This is also an indication of a dense
stock in the future. Indeed, the natural process in forest restoration exists without man’s
intervention.
The species with high demand in market or in-house construction are the most
vulnerable to destruction and were identified as Critically Endangered, Vulnerable and
Other Threatened. However, the population of which will continue if appropriate
protection activities are sustained.
The forest in Brgy Fertig Hills is still rich in biodiversity both flora and fauna.
The proper management and conservation by the park stakeholders specifically the
residents with LGU of Tangub City ensure the forest succession and the ecosystem
services derived therefrom.

RECOMMENDATION

Based on the findings of the study, the following are highly recommended:
1. The forest area of Brgy. Fertig Hills is very accessible to the community hence
forest, and wildlife resources are vulnerable to poaching and destruction. The
32
Mt. Malindang Protected Area Office and with the LGU of Tangub City shall
intensify the forest protection activities initiated to deter forest violators and
intruders.

2. An in-depth study to determine the medicinal value of species which were


reported as medicinal plants and can cure ailments be conducted to ascertain its
veracity. Research on the phenology, propagation, and harvesting to ensure
appropriate silvicultural practices.

3. The Protected Area Office (PAO) can jointly plan and implement with the
LGU of Tangub City their Forest Land Use Plans (FLUP) specifically for Brgy
Fertig as contained in their Comprehensive Land Use Plan to ensure proper
protection of the forest particularly the species of flora and fauna identified as
Critically Endangered, Vulnerable and other threatened species.

4. The LGU of Tangub City shall be encouraged to adopt a particular species/or a


number of species to ensure its protection and conservation as prescribed in
RA 9146 known as Wildlife Reform Act

5. Encourage the Barangay Council of Fertig Hills to enact a local ordinance that
could be based from the Barangay Environmental Management Plans (BEMP)
regarding the protection of forest resources in their area in Mt Malindang.

6. The DENR with partners institutions shall conduct periodic monitoring of the
2.0-hectare permanent plot;

7. Conduct of Information Education and Communication for Behavioural change


activities specifically on wildlife species considered by some residents as pests
in their farm and livestock.

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