Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Respiration in Organisms

Chapter-10
1. Bacteria and fungi can respire --------------Ans: Anaerobically

2. --------------is one- celled fungus and respires anaerobically to produce alcohol Ans: Yeast

3. The respiration which takes place in the absence of oxygen is called ----Anaerobic respiration

4. Anaerobic respiration takes place in our skeletal muscles and produce --- alcoholAns: Ethyl

5. The respiration which takes place in the presence of oxygen is called -----Ans: Aerobic respiration

6. The process of oxidation of food to release energy from absorb food in living cells is called ---------
-Ans: respiration or cellular respiration.

7. In cockroaches air enters the body through ------Spiracles

8. During heavy exercise, we get cramps in the legs due to the accumulation of ------lactic acid

9. As we breathe in, the diaphragm moves ---- and ribs move up or expands Downward

10. Below the lungs is a strong, flat sheet of muscle called --------Diaphragm.

11. Each bronchus enters the lungs and divides into small tubes bronchioles which end up in air sacs
called -------Alveoli

12. The walls of alveoli are supplied with thin blood vessels called -------
Capillaries

13. Frogs breathe through their -------- as well as their lungs.


skins

14. during exhalation, the ribs moves ----, as the diaphragm moves up to its original place
Ans: downward

15. In unicellular and smaller multicellular animal’s exchange of gas takes place by --Diffusion

16. Exchange of gases takes place in insect through -------into trachea. Spiracles

17. Plants breathe through tiny pores in the leaves called --------- Ans: Stomata.

1. Name the gas which is used by white blood cells to kill the invading bacteria.
(a) Oxygen (b) Carbon dioxide
(c)Nitrogen (d) Chlorine

2. What is the percentage of oxygen in the inhaledair?


(a) 21% (b) 16.4%
(c) 18% (d) 20%
3.What is the percentage of CO2 in the exhaled air?
(a) 23% (b) 4.4%
(c) 6% (d) 0.04%

4.Normal range of breathing rate per minute in an adult person at rest is


(a) 9 - 12, (b) 15 - 18,
(c) 21 - 24, (d) 30 - 33
5.Muscle cramps occurs due to accumulation of
(a) Lactic acid (b) Acetic acid
(c) Alcohol (d) Malice acid

6. During exhalation the ribs


(a) move down and inwards (b) move upwards
(c) move outwards (d) do not move at all

7.In cockroach, air enters the body through


(a) Lungs (b) Gills
(c) Spiracles (d) Skin

8.The air tubes in insects are called


(a) Bronchus (b) Tracheae
(c) Nostrils (d) blowholes

9. Name the muscular sheet which separates the abdomen from the chest cavity.
(a) Diaphragm (b) Ribs
(c) Spiracles (d) Tracheae

10.Birds breathe through


(a) Lungs (b) Kidney
(c) Spiracles (d) Skin

11. Which of the following organism can do anaerobic respiration?


(a) Yeast (b) Leech
(c) Amoeba, (d) Fish

12.The food material used to release energy inbody cells, which is considered as a biological fuel is
(a) Glucose (b) Vitamin
(c) Water (d) Minerals

13.Snake breathe through


(a) Lungs (b) Spiracles
(c) Tracheae (d) Skin

14.During anaerobic respiration the end product other than CO2 and energy is
(a) O2 (b) Alcohol
(c) Nitrogen (d) Water
15. Name the chemical used to test the presence of CO2 in exhaled air.
(a) Lime juice (b) Lime water
(c) Lime stone (d) Quick lime
16.Name the tiny pores present in the leaves of the plants for exchange of gases
(a) Stomata (b) Tracheae
(c) Chloroplast (d) Spiracles

17. Yeast respire an aerobically to produce


(a) Water (b) Alcohol
(c) Glucose (d) Lactic acid

18.The number of times a person breathe in a 0 is termed as breathing rate


(a) Second (b) Minute
(c) Hour (d) Day

19. Chest cavity is surrounded by


(a) 12 pair of ribs (b) 10 pair of ribs
(c) 11 pair of ribs (d) 25 ribs.

20.Wind pipe is called


(a) Oesophagus (b) Tracheae
(c) Bronchus (d) Nasal Cavity

Solution
(1) a (2) a (3) b
(4) b (5) a (6) a
(7) c (8) b (9) a
(10) a (11) a (12) a
(13) a (14) b (15) b
(16) a (17) b (18) b
(19) a (20) b

Q1. Fill in the blanks.


 In cockroaches, air enters the body through spiracles.
 During heavy exercise, we get cramps in the legs due to the accumulation of lactic acid.
 Normal range of breathing rate per minute in an average adult person at rest is 15ñ18.
 During exhalation, the ribs move downwards.
 Breathing is a part of the process of respiration.

Q2. True/False
 During heavy exercise the breathing rate of a person slows down. False
 Gills are well supplied with blood vessels for exchange of gases. True
 Plants carry out photosynthesis only during the day and respiration only at night. False
 Frogs breathe through their skins as well as their lungs. True
 The fishes have lungs for respiration. False
 The size of the chest cavity increases during inhalation. True

Q3. What are some common uses of Yeast?


Ans. Some common uses of Yeast are bread, wine and beer.

Q4. Name an organism that can survive in the absence of air.


Ans. Yeast can survive in the absence of air.
Q5. How do earthworms breathe?
Ans. Earthworms breathe through their skins.

Q6. What does a breath mean?


Ans. A breath means one inhalation plus one exhalation.

Q7. What is cell?


Ans. A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.

Q8. What are all organisms made up of?


Ans. All organisms are made of small microscopic units called cells.

Q9. Name the respiratory organ of birds.


Ans. They have lungs in their chest cavities like the human beings.

Q10. What forms the floor of the chest cavity?


Ans. A large, muscular sheet called diaphragm forms the floor of the chest cavity.

Q11. What are the end products of anaerobic respiration?


Ans. The end products of anaerobic respiration are alcohol, carbon dioxide and energy.

Q12. What is produced during anaerobic respiration in muscles that causes cramps?
Ans. Lactic acid is produced during anaerobic respiration in muscles that causes cramps.

Q13. What is cellular respiration?


Ans. The process of breakdown of food in the cell with the release of energy is called cellular
respiration.

Q14. What is breathing rate?


Ans. The number of times a person breathes in a minute is termed as the breathing rate.

Q15. Why smoking should be avoided?


Ans. Smoking damages lungs. Smoking is also linked to cancer. So, it must be avoided.

Q16. What are spiracles?


Ans. Insects have small openings on their body that allow them to breathe. These openings are called
spiracles.

Q17. Why we should eat regularly?


Ans. We should eat regularly because food has stored energy, which is released during respiration.

Q18. What is a stomata and what is its function?


Ans. Leaves of the plants have tiny pores called stomata for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Q19. What is breathing?


Ans. Breathing means taking in air rich in oxygen and giving out air rich in carbon dioxide with the
help of respiratory organs.
Q20. What is inhalation and exhalation?
Ans. The taking in of air rich in oxygen into the body is called inhalation and giving out of air rich in
carbon dioxide is known as exhalation.

Q21. How do frogs breathe?


Ans. Frogs have a pair of lungs like human beings to breathe air. They can also breathe through their
skin, which is moist and slippery.

Q22. Name some animals that breathe through lungs.


Ans. Animals such as elephants, lions, cows, goats, frogs, lizards, snakes, birds, have lungs in their
chest cavities like the human beings.

Q23. Why do mountaineers carry oxygen with them?


Ans. Mountaineers carry oxygen with them because the amount of air available to a person is less than
that available on the ground.

Q24. Why should we cover our nose while sneezing?


Ans. When we sneeze, we should cover our nose so that the foreign particles we expel are not inhaled
by other persons.

Q25. How does respiration occur in earthworms?


Ans. Earthworms breathe through their skins. The skin of an earthworm feels moist and slimy on
touching. Gases can easily pass through them.

Q26. What role does hair present in the nasal cavity play in the process of respiration?
Ans. When we inhale, the particles get trapped in the hair present in our nasal cavity. Thus, the hairs
present in the nasal cavity filters the air.

Q27. What is normal range of breathing rate per minute in an average adult person at rest?
Ans. On an average, an adult human being at rest breathes in and out 15ñ18 times in a minute.

Q28. Why do we get muscle cramps after heavy exercise?


Ans. The cramps occur when muscle cells respire anaerobically. The partial breakdown of glucose
produces lactic acid. The accumulation of lactic acid causes muscle cramps.

Q29. What happens during exhalation?


Ans. During exhalation, ribs move down and inwards, while diaphragm moves up to its former
position. This reduces the size of the chest cavity and air is pushed out of the lungs.

Q30. What happens during inhalation?


Ans. During inhalation, ribs move up and outwards and diaphragm moves down. This movement
increases space in our chest cavity and air rushes into the lungs. The lungs get filled with air.

Q31. What happens to the air we breathe in?


Ans. The air we breathe in is transported to all parts of the body and ultimately to each cell. In the
cells, oxygen in the air helps in the breakdown of food and energy is released.
Q32. How does respiration work in yeast?
Ans. Yeasts are single-celled organisms. They get energy through anaerobic respiration. In the
absence of oxygen, glucose breaks down into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Q33. Why are yeasts used to make wine and beer?


Ans. Yeasts are single-celled organisms. They respire anaerobically and during this process yield
alcohol. They are, therefore, used to make wine and beer.

Q34. What is the function of gills in fish?


Ans. Gills in fish help them to use oxygen dissolved in water. Gills are projections of the skin and are
well supplied with blood vessels for exchange of gases.

Q35. How do plant roots respire?


Ans. Like all other living cells of the plants, the root cells also need oxygen to generate energy. Roots
take up air from the air spaces present between the soils particles.

Q36. Why do we feel hungry after a physical activity?


Ans. When we need extra energy, we breathe faster. As a result more oxygen is supplied to our cells.
It speeds up the breakdown of food and more energy is released. Due to rapid breakdown of food we
feel hungry.

Q37. What is anaerobic respiration?


Ans. Food can also be broken down, without using oxygen. This is called anaerobic respiration.
Breakdown of food releases energy.

Q38. Do the plants also respire?


Ans. Like other living organisms, plants also respire for their survival. They also take in oxygen from
the air and give out carbon dioxide. In the cells oxygen is used to break down glucose into carbon
dioxide and water as in other organisms.

Q39. When we release our breath after holding it for some time, we had to breathe heavily. Why it
was so?
Ans. This is so, because whenever we need extra energy, we breathe faster. As a result more oxygen
is supplied to our cells. It speeds up the breakdown of food and more energy is released.

Q40. How does exchange of gases take place in insects?


Or
Explain respiration in insects.
Ans. Insects have a network of air tubes called tracheae for gas exchange.
Oxygen rich air rushes through spiracles into the tracheal tubes, diffuses into the body tissue, and
reaches every cell of the body. Similarly, carbon dioxide from the cells goes into the tracheal tubes
and moves out through spiracles.
Q41. When and where does anaerobic respiration occur in humans?
Ans. During heavy exercise, fast running, cycling, walking for many hours or heavy weight lifting, the
demand for energy is high. But the supply of oxygen to produce the energy is limited. Then anaerobic
respiration takes places in the muscle cells to fulfill the demand of energy.

Q42. What is the percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air?
Ans. When we exhale, we breathe out less oxygen but more carbon dioxide than we inhale.
Inhaled air: Oxygen 21% and Carbon dioxide 0.04%
Exhaled air: Oxygen 16.4 % and Carbon dioxide 4.4%

Q43. Why do we get relief from cramps after a hot water bath or a massage?
Ans. Hot water bath or massage improves circulation of blood. As a result, the supply of oxygen to the
muscle cells increases. The increase in the supply of oxygen results in the complete breakdown of
lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water. Thus, we get relief from cramps after a hot water bath or a
massage.

Q44. Why do we often sneeze when we inhale a lot of dust-laden air?


Ans. When we inhale a lot of dust-laden air, the particles get trapped in the hair present in our nasal
cavity. However, sometimes these particles may get past the hair in the nasal cavity. Then they irritate
the lining of the cavity, as a result of which we sneeze. Sneezing expels these foreign particles from
the inhaled air and a dust free, clean air enters our body.
Q45. How does respiration occur in plants?
Or
How do the plants breathe in oxygen?
Ans. In plants each part can independently take in oxygen from the air and give out carbon dioxide.
Roots take in air present in the soil. Leaves have tiny pores called stomata through which they
exchange gases. The breakdown of glucose in the plant cells is similar to that in other living beings.

Q46. What parts of the human body are involved in respiration?


Ans. We take in air through our nostrils. When we inhale air, it passes through our nostrils into the
nasal cavity. From the nasal cavity, the air reaches our lungs through the windpipe. Lungs are present
in the chest cavity. This cavity is surrounded by ribs on the sides. A large, muscular sheet called
diaphragm forms the floor of the chest cavity. Breathing involves the movement of the diaphragm and
the rib cage.

Q47. How do the cockroaches breathe?


Ans. A cockroach has small openings on the sides of its body. These openings are called spiracles.
They have a network of air tubes called tracheae for gas exchange. Oxygen rich air rushes through
spiracles into the tracheal tubes, diffuses into the body tissue, and reaches every cell of the body.
Similarly, carbon dioxide from the cells goes into the tracheal tubes and moves out through spiracles.

Q48. Why does an athlete breathe faster and deeper than usual after finishing the race?
Ans. During fast running the demand for energy is high. But the supply of oxygen to produce the
energy is limited. Our muscle cells can also respire anaerobically, but only for a short time, when there
is a temporary deficiency of oxygen. Thus, an athlete breathes faster and deeper than usual after
finishing the race so that more oxygen is supplied to the cells. This speed up the breakdown of food
and more energy is released.
Q49. Why do we respire?
Ans. All organisms are made of small microscopic units called cells. A cell is the smallest structural
and functional unit of an organism. Each cell of an organism performs certain functions such as
nutrition, transport, excretion and reproduction. To perform these functions, the cell needs energy.
Even when we are eating, sleeping or reading we require energy. The food has stored energy, which is
released during respiration. Therefore, we respire to get energy from food.

Q50. How do we breathe?


Ans. Normally we take in air through our nostrils. When we inhale air, it passes through our nostrils
into the nasal cavity. From the nasal cavity, the air reaches our lungs through the windpipe. Lungs are
present in the chest cavity. This cavity is surrounded by ribs on the sides. A large, muscular sheet
called diaphragm forms the floor of the chest cavity. Breathing involves the movement of the
diaphragm and the rib cage. During inhalation, ribs move up and outwards and diaphragm moves
down. This movement increases space in our chest cavity and air rushes into the lungs. The lungs get
filled with air. During exhalation, ribs move down and inwards, while diaphragm moves up to its
former position. This reduces the size of the chest cavity and air is pushed out of the lungs.

Q51. List the similarities and differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Ans. Similarities
 Both aerobic and anaerobic respirations are types of cellular respiration.
 Both generate energy by breaking down glucose and produces byproducts.
Differences
Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration
1. It occurs in the presence of 1. It occurs in the absence of
oxygen. oxygen.
2. Large amount of energy is 2. Small amount of energy is
released. released.
3. Glucose breaks down into water 3. Glucose breaks down into
and carbon dioxide. alcohol and carbon dioxide.
4. It is a slow process. 4. It is a fast process.
5. It occurs in most of the plants and 5. It occurs in human muscles
animals. cells, yeast, bacteria etc.

Q52. Take three test-tubes. Fill ¾ th of each with water. Label them A, B and C. Keep a snail in test-
tube A, a water plant in test-tube B and in C, keep snail and plant both. Which test-tube would have
the highest concentration of CO2?
Ans. Snail breathes in oxygen and breathes out carbon dioxide. Hence concentration of CO2increases
in the test tube. Therefore, Test tube A will have high concentration of carbon dioxide.
In test tube B water plant uses carbon dioxide for synthesizing food and hence there will be less
concentration of carbon dioxide compared to test tube A.
In test tube C, carbon dioxide produced by snail is utilized by plant for synthesis of food and oxygen
released by plant is utilized by snail for respiration. Hence, concentration of carbon dioxide is least in
test tube C.

Q53. Write one word for the following:


 The air tubes of insects - Trachea
 Skeletal structures surrounding chest cavity - Ribs
 Muscular floor of chest cavity - Diaphragm
 Tiny pores on the surface of leaf - Stomata
 Small openings on the sides of the body of an insect - Spiracles
 The respiratory organs of human beings - Lungs
 The openings through which we inhale - Nostrils
 An anaerobic organism - Yeast
 An organism with tracheal system - Ant

Q54. Whales and dolphins often come up to the water surface. They even release a fountain of water
sometimes while moving upwards. Why do they do so?
Ans. Whales and dolphins are mammals and breathe air into their lungs, just like we do. They cannot
breathe under water like fish can as they do not have gills. They breathe through a nostril, called a
blowhole, located right on top of their heads. This allows them to take breaths by exposing just the top
of their heads to the air while they are swimming or resting under the water. After each breath, the
blowhole is sealed tightly by strong muscles that surround it, so that water cannot get into the
dolphin’s lungs.
When they surfaces for air, they breathes out (exhales) first and then breathes in (inhales) fresh air.
The water spray is not coming from theirs lungs; it is just water sitting on top of their head around the
blowhole being blown away before they inhale.

Q55. Explain the mechanism of breathing with the help of an activity.


Ans. Take a wide plastic bottle. Remove the bottom. Get a Y-shaped glass or plastic tube. Make a hole
in the lid so that the tube may pass through it. To the forked end of the tube fix two deflated balloons.
Introduce the tube into the bottle. Now cap the bottle. Seal it to make it airtight. To the open base of
the bottle tie a thin rubber or plastic sheet using a large rubber band. To understand the expansion of
the lungs, pull the rubber sheet from the base downwards. The volume of the cavity increases. This
causes the pressure to decrease. Air rushes in to equalize the pressure, causing the balloons to inflate.
Next, push the rubber/plastic sheet up. The volume of the cavity decreases. This causes an increase in
pressure within the bottle, the air rushes out of the balloons causing them to deflate.