Sie sind auf Seite 1von 48

# 1

Backward/Forward Sweep

q  Procedure: Iterative Solution
q  Initialization
q  Solving for Injected Currents through the nodes
q  Backward Sweep
q  Forward Sweep
q  Solving for Injected Power
q  Solving for Voltage Mismatch
2

Backward/Forward Sweep

## Bus2 I23 , Loss23 = ?

0.635 + j1.970 Ω Bus3
Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ?
V3 = ?
Utility P3 , Q3 = ?
Grid I24 , Loss24 = ?V4 = ?
0.131 + j1.595 Ω
V1 = 67 kV P4 , Q4 = ?
0.4223 + j0.7980 Ω Bus4
P1 , Q1 = ? V2 = ? Lumped Load A
P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF
1 MVA 85%PF

3

Backward/Forward Sweep
Equivalent Circuit
Bus2
V1 = 67 kV Bus1 0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4
0.0242+j0.0458pu j0.10536
V2 pu
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
Base Values pu
Sbase = 10 MVA
Vbase1 = 67 kV
Base Z =13.22/10 =17.424Ω
Vbase2 = 13.2 kV
4

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution
1.  Solve Injected Currents by Loads
2.  Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep)
3.  Update Voltages (Forward Sweep)
4.  Solve for Injected Power
5.  Solve for Power Mismatch
Continue iteration by Backward-Forward Sweep until
convergence is achieved
After convergence, solve Iinj, Pinj, Qinj, PF, PLoss, QLoss
5

Backward/Forward Sweep
Initialization
Bus2
V1 = 67 kV 0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4
0.0242+j0.0458 pu j0.10536
V2 pu
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
Initialize, V1(0) = 1/0 pu

V2(0) = 1/0
V3(0) = 1/0
V4(0) = 1/0
6

Backward/Forward Sweep
Solving for Injected Currents
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V1 = 67 kV Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4 j0.10536
0.0242+j0.0458 pu pu
V2
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
pu
Solve I1(0) = 0
Injected
I2(0) = 0
Currents by
Loads I3(0) = S3* /[V3(0)]* = __________
I4(0) = S4* /[V4(0)]* = __________
7

Backward/Forward Sweep
Backward Sweep
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V1 = 67 kV Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4 j0.10536
0.0242+j0.0458 pu pu
V2
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
pu
Solve Line
Currents
I24(0) = I4(0) = _______
(Backward
Sweep) I23(0) = I3(0) = _______
I12(0) = 0 + I23(0) + I24(0) = _______
8

Backward/Forward Sweep
Forward Sweep
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V1 = 67 kV Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4
0.0242+j0.0458 pu j0.10536
V2 pu
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
Update pu
V1(1) = 1/0
Voltages
V2(1) = V1(0) – [I12(0)][Z12] = ________
(Forward
Sweep) V3(1) = V2(1) – [I23(0)][Z23] = ________
V4(1) = V2(1) – [I24(0)][Z24] = ________
9

Backward/Forward Sweep
Solving for Injected Power
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V1 = 67 kV Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4 j0.10536
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
pu
V2
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085+
j0.05267
Solve pu
S1(1) = [V1(1)][I1(0)]* = ___________
Injected
Power S2(1) = [V2(1)][I2(0)]* = ___________
S3(1) = [V3(1)][I3(0)]* = ___________
S4(1) = [V4(1)][I4(0)]* = ___________
10

Backward/Forward Sweep
Solving for Power Mismatch
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
V1 = 67 kV Bus1
V3
Utility
Grid 0.0075+j 0.0915 pu Bus4 0.17 +
V1 V4
0.0242+j0.0458 pu j0.10536
V2 pu
~ 1 + j0 pu 0.085 +
j0.05267
Solve pu
ΔS1(1) = S1(sp) - S1(calc) = ____________
Power
Mismatch ΔS2(1) = S2(sp) – S2(calc) = ____________
ΔS3(1) = S3(sp) – S3(calc) = ____________
ΔS4(1) = S4(sp) – S4(calc) = ____________
11

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution

Iteration 2:

Solve I1(1) = 0
Injected
I2(1) = 0
Currents by
Loads I3(1) = S3* /[V3(1)]* = __________
I4(1) = S4* /[V4(1)]* = __________
Solve Line I24(1) = I4(1) = _______
Currents
I23(1) = I3(1) = _______
(Backward
I12(1) = 0 + I23(1) + I24(1) = _______
Sweep)
12

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution V1(2) = 1/0
V2(2) = V1(1) – [I12(1)][Z12] =
Update
________
Voltages
V3(2) = V2(1) – [I23(1)][Z23] =
(Forward
________
Sweep)
V4(2) = V2(1) – [I24(1)][Z24] =
________
Solve S1(2) = [V1(2)][I1(1)]* = ___________
Injected
S2(2) = [V2(2)][I2(1)]* = ___________
Power
S3(2) = [V3(2)][I3(1)]* = ___________
S4(2) = [V4(2)][I4(1)]* = ___________
13

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution

## Solve ΔS1(2) = S1(sp) - S1(calc) = ____________

Power
Mismatch ΔS2(2) = S2(sp) – S2(calc) = ____________
ΔS3(2) = S3(sp) – S3(calc) = ____________
ΔS4(2) = S4(sp) – S4(calc) = ____________

## If Mismatch is higher than set convergence index, repeat the

procedure (Backward-Forward Sweep) [Iteration 3]
14

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution

Iteration 3:

Solve I1(2) = 0
Injected
I2(2) = 0
Currents by
Loads I3(2) = S3* /[V3(2)]* = __________
I4(2) = S4* /[V4(2)]* = __________
Solve Line I24(2) = I4(2) = _______
Currents
I23(2) = I3(2) = _______
(Backward
I12(2) = 0 + I23(2) + I24(2) = _______
Sweep)
15

Backward/Forward Sweep
V1(3) = 1/0
Iterative Solution
V2(3) = V1(2) – [I12(2)][Z12] =
Update ________
Voltages
V3(3) = V2(2) – [I23(2)][Z23] =
(Forward ________
Sweep)
V4(3) = V2(2) – [I24(2)][Z24] =
________

## Solve S1(3) = [V1(3)][I1(2)]* = ___________

Injected S2(3) = [V2(3)][I2(2)]* = ___________
Power
S3(3) = [V3(3)][I3(2)]* = ___________
S4(3) = [V4(3)][I4(2)]* = ___________
16

Backward/Forward Sweep
Iterative Solution

## Solve ΔS1(3) = S1(3) - S1(2)

Power
Mismatch ΔS2(3) = S2(3) – S2(2) = ____________
ΔS3(3) = S3(3) – S3(2) = ____________
ΔS4(3) = S4(3) – S4(2) = ____________

## If Mismatch is lower than set convergence index, compute

power flows
17

Backward/Forward Sweep
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
Bus1
Utility
Grid 0.0242+j0.0458
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
Bus4
VOLTAGE PROFILE 2 MVA 85%PF
V1 = ________ 1 MVA 85%PF

## V4 = ________ P2 + jQ2 = ________ + j ________

P3 + jQ3 = ________ + j ________
P4 + jQ4 = ________ + j ________
18

Backward/Forward Sweep
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
Bus1
Utility
Grid 0.0242+j0.0458 pu
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
POWER FLOW (P-Q) Bus4
P12 + jQ12 = ________ + j ________ 2 MVA 85%PF
P23 + jQ23 = ________ + j ________ 1 MVA 85%PF

## P24 + jQ24 = ________ + j ________

POWER FLOW (Q-P)
P21 + jQ21 = ________ + j ________
P32 + jQ32 = ________ + j ________
P42 + jQ42 = ________ + j ________
19

Backward/Forward Sweep
Bus2
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu Bus3
Bus1
Utility
Grid 0.0242+j0.0458 pu
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
Bus4
2 MVA 85%PF
I12 = ________ Lumped Load B
1 MVA 85%PF
I23 = ________
I24 = ________ POWER LOSSES
I2R12 + jI2X12 = ________ + j ________
I2R23 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________
I2R24 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________
20

Backward/Forward Sweep
Line sections in the radial network are ordered by
layers away from the root node (substation bus).

1 2 3 Layer 1
4 5 6 Layer 2
7 9 10 11 12
8 Layer 3
17
13 8 14 15 18 20
16 19 Layer 4
21 22 23
26
24 25 Layer 5
27 31
28 29 30
Layer 6
32 33 34
Layer 7
35 Layer 8
21

Three-Phase Backward
/Forward Sweep Method
The iterative algorithm for solving the radial system
consists of three steps. At iteration k:
Step 1: Nodal current calculation
⎡ I ia ⎤
(k )
(
⎡ S / V ( k −1 )
⎢ ia ia( k −1 )
)∗
⎤ ⎡Y *
ia
⎤ ⎡Via ⎤
( k −1 )

⎢ I ⎥ ∗ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ib ⎥ (
= ⎢ Sib / Vib ) ⎥ − ⎢
*
Yib ⎥ ⎢Vib ⎥
⎢⎣ I ic ⎥⎦ (
⎢ S / V ( k −1 )
⎢⎣ ic ic )∗ ⎥
⎢
⎥⎦ ⎣ Y * ⎥
ic ⎦ ⎢
⎣Vic
⎥
⎦
Where, I ia , I ib , I ic Current injections at node i
Sia , Sib , S ic Scheduled power injections at node i
Via ,Vib ,Vic Voltages at node i
Yia ,Yib ,Yic Admittances of all shunt elements at node i
22

Three-Phase Backward
/Forward Sweep Method
Step 2: Backward Sweep to sum up line section current
Starting from the line section in the last layer and
moving towards the root node. The current in the
line section l is:
(k ) (k ) (k )
⎡ J la ⎤ ⎡ I ja ⎤ ⎡ J ma ⎤
⎢ J ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ lb ⎥ = − ⎢ I jb ⎥ + ∑ ⎢ J mb ⎥
m∈M
⎢⎣ J lc ⎥⎦ ⎢ I jc ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ J mc ⎥⎦
Where, J la , J lb , J jc are the current flows on line section l

## l and M Is the set of line sections connected to node j

23

Three-Phase Backward
/Forward Sweep Method
Step 3: Forward Sweep to update nodal voltage
Starting from the first layer and moving towards
the last layer, the voltage at node j is:
(k ) (k ) (k )
⎡V ja ⎤ ⎡Via ⎤ ⎡ zaa ,l zab ,l zac ,l ⎤ ⎡ J la ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢V jb ⎥ = ⎢Vib ⎥ − ⎢ zab ,l zbb ,l zbc ,l ⎥ ⎢ J lb ⎥
⎢V jc ⎥ ⎢⎣Vic ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ zac ,l zbc ,l zcc ,l ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ J lc ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦
24

Three-Phase Backward
/Forward Sweep Method
After the three steps are executed in one iteration,
the power mismatches at each node for all phases
are calculated:
2
ΔS (k )
ia =V(k )
ia (I ) − Y
(k ) ∗
ia
*
ia Via − Sia
2
ΔS (k )
ib =V(k )
ib (I ) − Y
(k ) ∗
ib
*
ia Vib − Sib
2
ΔS (k )
ic =V(k )
ic (I ) − Y
(k ) ∗
ic
*
ic Vic − Sic
If the real and imaginary part (real and reactive
power) of any of these power mismatches is greater
than a convergence criterion, steps 1, 2 & 3 are
repeated until convergence is achieved.
25

## q  Prime mover and excitation control of generators

q  Reactive Var Compensation (e.g., Capacitors)
q  Control
of tap-changing and voltage regulating
transformers
26

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control

jX
The complex power delivered to the
bus (Generator Terminal) is
I
Ei∠δ ~ Vt∠0
* ⎡ Ei ∠δ − Vt ∠0 ⎤
Pt + jQt = [Vt ∠0]I = [Vt ∠0]⎢ ⎥
⎣ jX ⎦

⎡ EiVt ⎤ ⎡ EiVt Vt 2 ⎤
Pt = ⎢ sin δ ⎥ Qt = ⎢ cos δ − ⎥
⎣ X ⎦ ⎣ X X ⎦
27

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control
⎡ EiVt ⎤ ⎡ EiVt Vt 2 ⎤
Pt = ⎢ sin δ ⎥ Qt = ⎢ cos δ − ⎥
⎣ X ⎦ ⎣ X X ⎦
Observations:
1.  Real Power is injected into the bus (Generator Operation), δ must
2.  Real Power is drawn from the bus (Motor Operation), δ must be
negative (Ei lags Vt)
3.  In actual operation, the numeric value of δ is small & since the
slope of Sine function is maximum for small values, a minute
change in δ can cause a substantial change in Pt
28

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control

⎡ EiVt ⎤ ⎡ EiVt Vt 2 ⎤
Pt = ⎢ sin δ ⎥ Qt = ⎢ cos δ − ⎥
⎣ X ⎦ ⎣ X X ⎦

Observations:
4.  Reactive Power flow depends on relative values of EiCosδ and Vt
5.  Since the slope of Cosine function is minimum for small values of
angle, Reactive Power is controlled by varying Ei
•  Over-excitation (increasing Ei) will deliver Reactive Power into the Bus
•  Under-excitation (decreasing Ei) will absorb Reactive Power from the
Bus
29

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Capacitor Compensation
The voltage of bus q can be
~ q expressed as
Ipq
p + jQc X pqQq X pq Pq
Eq = V p − −j
PL - jQL Vp Vp
Observations:
1.  The Reactive Power Qq causes a voltage drop and thus largely
affects the magnitude of Eq
2.  A capacitor bank connected to bus q will reduce Qq that will
consequently reduce voltage drop
30

31

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Tap-Changing Transformer
a:1 The π equivalent circuit of
q r transformer with the per unit
transformation ratio:
1
s p y pq
a

Observation:
The voltage drop in the 1− a a −1
transformer is affected by 2
y pq y pq
a a
the transformation ratio a
32

## q  Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study

q  Analysis of Existing Conditions
q  Analysis for Correcting PQ Problems
q  Expansion Planning
q  Contingency Analysis
q  System Loss Analysis
33

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service.
3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus.
4) Add new transmission or distribution lines.
5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines.
6) Change bus voltages.
7) Change transformer taps.
8) Increase or decrease transformer size.
9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
34

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
IEEE 14-Bus
System
35

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
Removal of Line
4-5
36

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
IEEE 14-Bus
System
37

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
Removal of
generator at
Bus 2
38

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
IEEE 14-Bus
System
39

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
Removal of
rotating VAR
supply at bus
3

From 1.010 pu
40

q  Sensitivity
Analysis
Example
IEEE 14-Bus
System
41

q  Sensitivity
From 14.9 MW +
5.0 MVAR;
V: from 1.035 pu

Example
Increase in P
and Q at bus
14
42

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS
•  Check for voltage violations
§  PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission)
§  PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.
•  Check for branch power flow violations
•  Check for system losses
§  Caps on Segregated DSL
43

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
•  Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point
§  Request TransCo to improve voltage at
connection point
§  TransCo as System Operator will determine
feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and
other adjustments such as transformer tap
changing and reactive power compensation
44

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
•  Transformer tap changing
§  Available Taps
§  At Primary Side
§  At Secondary Side
§  Both Sides
§  Typical Taps
§  Tap 1: +5%
§  Tap 2: +2.5%
§  Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage)
§  Tap 4: -2.5%
§  Tap 5: -5%
45

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
• Capacitor compensation
•  Check overvoltages during Off-Peak
•  Optimize Capacitor Plan
•  System configuration improvement
46

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

3) EXPANSION PLANNING
•  New substation construction
•  Substation capacity expansion
•  New feeder segment construction / extension
•  Addition of parallel feeder segment
•  Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit
•  Circuit conversion to higher voltage
47

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

3) EXPANSION PLANNING

Image from: Coster etal, "Integration Issues of Distributed Generation in Distribution Grids." Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 99, No. 1, January 2011
48

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS
Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and
Subtransmission System

## 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

Segregation of System Losses