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Yarn Manufacture I : Principal of Carding & Drawing

Prof. R. Chattopadhyay
Department of Textile Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Lecture – 23
Card Autoleveller

Now, our discussion topic is Card Autoleveller. So, what is autoleveller?

(Refer Slide Time: 00:32)

We have already discussed the autoleveller in the context of draw frame. Today, we are
going to discuss autoleveller for carding machines. Card autolevellers are of 3 types;
long term autoleveller, medium term autoleveller and short term autolevellers.
Autolevellers are going to automatically level the thickness variation or mass per unit of
variation in this sliver. That is the purpose; that is it will automatically even out the mass
variation in slivers that you are producing.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:26)

First, we will discuss long term card autoleveller. Long term basically means; there it
will be only taking care of the mass variation who are very long length of the sliver. That
is why, it is known as long term autolevellers. The working principle is closed loop
controlled. We have already discussed, there are 2 types of control system that we have
open loop control system or we can have closed loop control system.

So, in the case of long term card autoleveller, the working principle is closed loop
control system. The diagram is given on the right hand side and if we focus on the
diagram we will see that there is a detection point for detecting the mass variation in
sliver and there must be a control point also. So, detection point is a trumpet placed just
beside the calendar unit, you can see it here. There is a trumpet and that is the detection
point or there is the sensor and the control point is the feed point to the machine. So, it is
at the disclosure to the liquoring that we have.

So, feed point is the control point for us and the detection point is the trumpet placed just
before the calendar rollers. How does it work? The signals corresponding to the mass
variation generated by the detector are averaged out see the sensor is continuously
sensing the mass variations and a corresponding signal is generated. These signals are
now integrated and an average is found out everything is by that this is being done
Now, this average signal strength is compared with the preset reference value. So, we
will compare the single strength and you will see the extent of deviations and there is
always a tolerance that we is given see if the deviation exceeds the tolerance. Then the
speed of the feed roller is changed by a controller. So, there has to be a controller which
will be able to change the speed of the field roller, when the signal is sent to the

So, the deviation has to be more than the tolerance limit. That you have already set
depending upon whether deviation is positive or negative, the feed roller speed will be
either decreased or it will be increased.

(Refer Slide Time: 05:12)

The sensor if we repeat it again is a pneumatic sensor consists of a trumpet having

laterally located air escape channels and positions. Just before the calendar roller, you
can see the diagram that the trumpet is there and there is entry of the fibres through the

Now, as the sliver enters the trumpet, it carries air along with it. As the fibres get
squeezed while passing through the trumpet, they accompanying air tries to escape and
create back pressure, because there are spaces between the fibres and in those spaces air
is there and fibres moving towards the trumpet was the exit end of the trumpet. And
therefore, when you are reaching there, there is a squeezing action and the air in between
the fibres is trying to escape and that is how a back pressure is created.
These pressure restore is transmitted through the channel to a pressure transducer. You
can see that pressure transducer which is placed and this pressure transducer will be
converting the pressure into an electrical signal. So, the device is very very simple in
construction and needs minimum maintenance since there are no moving parts. That is
the advantage here that there is no moving parts in the sensor.

However, the measurement may be influenced by fineness variation of fibres. Since the
extent of squeezing and associated their changes with the fibre fineness. If the fibre
fineness varies along the length, then what will happen? Wherever fibres are more, there
are more spaces in between the fibres. Second thing is that, the fibres finite fibres are
very, very flexible that bending rigid is less. Therefore, the extent of compression that the
finer fibres will receive under similar conditions will be much more in comparison to the
coarser fibres.

And therefore, some variation could be there when fineness of the fibre varies from place
to place.

(Refer Slide Time: 07:50)

There could be mechanical sensor also. So, mechanical sensor also is there. But in this
sensor, there are 2 types there are grooved rollers as shown in the diagram. The sliver is
compressed between the 2 rollers and the up and down movement of the top roller is
transformed into electrical signal.
In this case, that is you see that the sliver cross section is shown here. The bottom roller
is fixed in position the top roller can move up and down and it is up and down movement
depending upon the thickness variation of the sliver will generate an equivalent electrical
signal. And once we get electrical signal, then the process is same as we do with the
signals generated by the pneumatic type of sensors.

But here, the sensors are rotating at a high speed depending upon whatever is the input
speed of the sliver into the drawing system or in this case of card it is the exit speed of
the sliver from the carding machining.

(Refer Slide Time: 09:27)

Capability of the sensor the response characteristics of the sensor make it suitable for
controlling variations longer than 20 meter or so and tries to maintain the mean value of
the sliver count constant. Seem these sensor that we have shown their response
characteristics is different from the other sensor which are used for controlling short term
variations. These sensors are little slow in terms of response and as a result, what
happens that the length variations the weight variation in length longer than 20 meter is
what is can be controlled by these senses. And hence, it will keep the means sliver count
constant. It is especially suitable for to treat card which is liable to more fluctuations due
to differing fibre resolutions originating from different bales and volumetric control of
fibre stock within the chute being too inaccurate.
This point is very, very important that in the chute feed cards, we are trying to maintain
the quantity or material in the chute fairly constant. However, whatever the control
system we have within the chute, they are not very very efficient. And therefore,
volumetric control of fibre stock within the chute is not really very accurate. And as a
result of this sliver that is going to be produced on the carding machine, they also have
great variations along it is length.

(Refer Slide Time: 11:39)

So, in curves having chute feed system, this kind of autoleveller is suitable practically,
then we can write or we can say that carded cotton spinning mill with at least 2 draw
frame passages will be suitable why because, the short term variation in the sliver length
will be taken care of by the doubling actions of the draw frames. Because, we are giving
2 draw frame passages; breaker draw frame and finisher draw frame. Therefore, long
term mass variation is taken care of by the autolevellers.

For the short term radiations which is present is taken care of by the draw frames in the
case of carded yarn productions. Generally, for carded n production, we give 2 draw
frame passages and hence the doubling may range between 36 to 64. If we feed 6 slivers
on both the machines breaker draw frame and finisher draw frame, we will have 36
doubling maximum. What we can have.

We can feed 8 slivers to the breaker draw frame and another 8 slivers in the finisher draw
frame. So, that makes it 64. Therefore, the doubling on 2 draw frame can vary between
36 to 64. A 100 meter of yarn corresponds to short term mass variation range in the
breaker draw frames sliver. The count CV of yarn would improve mainly due to doubling

Therefore, so, if we try to find out, then what is the equivalent length of sliver that makes
a yarn of 100-meter length? Why I am choosing 100-meter length because, the count CV
of yarn is based on around 100 meter. Not exactly 100 meter or close to 100 meter. So,
the mass variation of yarn close to a hank which is actually 120 yard and it will be close
to 108 meter or 100.

Therefore, we were writing 100 meter that corresponds to short term mass variation
present in the sliver and that short of mass variation is taken care of by the doubling
actions on draw frame. The improvement that the most would be what is expected from
this statistical law of doubling. This is all of you remember that, if the draw frame is
going to generate breaker draw frame, let us say it is going to generate some amount of
drafting wave or if there is a short term mass variation present in the card sliver, then it
will guess even out because of doubling actions.

But, the extent of separation is dictated by the statistical law of doubling. Beyond that,
we will not be able to produce suppression of variations over long length of the sliver.
Let us say 25 meters and onwards would mean improvement in the mean value of almost
320000 meter of yarn assuming the total draw between card and ring frame being 8 into
8 into 10 into 20 that is 12800. What it basically says that, if we have a long term
autoleveller on carding machine and it will be a it will be winning out the mass variation
present between 20 meter of slivers or beyond 20 meters.

Let us say, it is 25 meters variations which are present is being controlled by the
autoleveller. So, 25 meter of sliver length is equivalent to 320000 meter of yarn.
Therefore, mass variation over very long length of the yarn will be maintained. That is
the advantage that we get and yarn count variation within a batch can only be controlled
that is between bobbins, but not within a bobbin which holds around 5000 meter of yarn

So, by this autoleveller between bobbin count variation will be able to control. However,
controlling count variations within a bobbin which holds at the most 5000 meter of yarn
will not be able to control by the long term autoleveller that you use on carding
machines. It is able to control only very, very long length mass of very long length of
yarn. So, between bobbin count variation will be controlled by the autoleveller. But,
within bobbin conversation will not be able to manage with long term autoleveller. From
long term autoleveller, we move on to medium term autolevellers.

(Refer Slide Time: 17:30)

So, medium term autolevellers, the working principle is closed loop control system also
and if we look at the diagram given on the right hand side, we will find that there are 2
detection point one like the previous one.

There is a trumpet placed just behind the calendar roller and the other sensor is placed on
the cylinder surface as shown here. Here is a sensor and here is a sensor. There are 2
sensors, one like the previous one and the new one is placed on this cylinder surface and
the control point is the feed roller that is the roller that is feeding the lab or the mat of
fibres to the carding machine.

The second sensor is an optical photo sensing device. The first sensor is a pneumatic
pressure sensing device as shown earlier, but the new one is the optical photo sensing
device. So, these are the 2 sensors which are there.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:51)

How the system is working? The optical device being close to the regulating point; the
control can be affected very faster than the pneumatic pressure sensing trumpet used for
long term autoleveller. That is the difference that in this case because, the second
controller that is the optical device is has been placed relatively close to the feed roller
where we have the control and because of this faster controlling action can be taken.

The signal generated by the optical sensor is averaged over a period of time and
compared to the desired set value, as we do in the other cases also the different signal is
used to change the speed of the field roller proportionately so that the layer thickness of
fibres on the cylinder remains constant. The idea in this case is that, if there is a feed
variation, the thickness of fibre layer on the cylinder will also change accordingly.

So in it, if impeding more fibres, the thickness of the fibre layer on the cylinder also
going to be more; if I am feeling less fibre, then the thickness of fibre on the cylinder
also going to be less. So, by sensing the thickness using optical means of the layer of
fibres on the sender, we will be able to get an information about the kind of feed which is
coming to the carding machine.
(Refer Slide Time: 20:58)

The other type of sensor which also could be used or are in use is sensor at the feed point
itself. Here, a series of measuring plates in the form of pedals as shown in the diagram.
Look at the diagram that the pedal is here series of measuring place in the form of pedals
are placed across the feed table. The thickness of the lab or a mat of fibres fed to the
licker in is sensed at the feed table.

So, on the feed table itself there is a series of pedals and each pedal is basically a sensor.
So, across the entire width of the feed plate, we place the pedals that could be 16 pedals
18 pedals or 12 pedals could be there. So, each pedal is sensing the thickness of the mat
which is being fed to the machine. As the thickness varies, the end of the measuring
plates is connected to the displacement detectors.

So, once the thickness varies, the end of the leveller will also move up and down. These
pedal plates which are there at end as shown here is sent the point 6 will move up and
down. So, depending upon thickness variation, it will go up and down. The signals
corresponding to the mass variation generated by the detectors are then fed to a
controller and that movement of the sliver end is sensed by the sensor 3 shown here in
the diagram. And then, we get a large number of signals from the pedals and these
signals are integrated. The average is found out and the average is basically again
compared with the reset reference value.
And then, we after comparison, the decision is taken whether the deviation is really very
large that is going beyond the tolerance or not and accordingly the speed of the feed
roller is changed.

(Refer Slide Time: 23:27)

So, capability and suitability the medium term autoleveller can even out variations from
wavelength range of 3 meter onwards which falls within the medium term wavelength
range. So, medium term where the range is starting from 2.5 to 25 meter and this
particular autoleveller can control variation from 3 meter onwards.

Now the question that comes that in where this kind of autolevellers would be suitable;
this is more suitable for process having one draw frame passage and inconsistent feed by
chute feed system. Now, if we have a process y, where you use only one draw frame,
then this system could be suitable. Let us say, rotor spinning unit.

Generally, we give one draw frame passage. When you produce course count rotor spun
yarn in that kind of situation, this medium term autoleveller can be of some use or when
the long term autoleveller fails to perform due to presence of strong medium term
variations because, long term autoleveller we start working from 20 meter onwards; so
variations in length equivalent to less than 20 meters.

If there is mass variation is there, then the long term autoleveller will not be able to
really manage those variations and in such situations, the medium term autoleveller will
be helpful. So, when long term autoleveller fails to perform due to patience some strong
medium term variations, the medium term autoleveller improves the situation.

(Refer Slide Time: 25:35)

Now, we come to short term autolevellers. So, see if we can control the short term as
variation that is between 0.25 to 2.5 meters, then this would obviate the need of drawing
and doubling operations on draw frame. All together, if I can start controlling 0.25 or 1
meter onwards, the mass variation in the sliver in time spectrum as variations, then we
may not need the drawing and doubling actions at all.

Those as we have already produced a sliver which is very good in uniform provided, one
important point which is here they provided paralyzation and straightness of fibres are
not so much important for yarn quality which is generally not true. That is, usually we
have seen it is not the mass variation which is only important for us from the quality
point of view of the yarn or efficiency of the downstream machines.

If the paralyzation and straightness of the fibres are also important and autoleveller
cannot help us in improving the paralyzation or straightness of fibres. This is only
possible by dropping actions or drawing actions on draw frame otherwise with short term
autolevellers. We could have directly gone to the spinning unit for production of yarn.
(Refer Slide Time: 27:42)

Now, these autolevellers short term autolevellers working principle is mixed loop control
system, that is we have both open loop systems and we also have closed loop systems
working together.

The question comes ok. Why do you need this kind of mixed loop control systems?
Closed loop systems are not suitable for controlling short term variations due to inherent
dead time, but works fine with long term variations. So, the advantage of closed loop is
that it can control long term mass variation because your response time is much more
than short term controllers. And therefore, the advantage with closed loop system is that
it can control long term mass variations, but cannot control short term mass variations.

Whereas, open loop systems suitable for controlling extremely short wavelength mass
variations, but not for keeping the average count of the sliver at the desired level, there it
fails. So, long term mass variations will not be able to control with the open loop control
systems. And therefore, what we need a combination of these 2 and integrated systems
working on both open and closed loop principles.

So, the short term autolevellers will be always working with mixed loop control
principles where both open and closed loop principles are used simultaneously and short
term autoleveller will be able to control the mass variations starting from very short
length to very very long length.
(Refer Slide Time: 29:55)

Now, a diagram is shown here for the autoleveller. At the detection point is the trumpet
in the calendaring unit and the trumpet as discussed earlier is just placed behind the
grinding unit.

But, the control points are draw box in front of the trumpet or calendar rollers and also,
we control the speed of the feed roller which is behind the detection point. So, detection
point is there as shown in the diagram, but the control points are in front of it and also
behind it. So, the trumpet is basically pneumatic sensors. We sense the sliver mass as
discussed earlier and it will generate the electrical signals.

These signals are processed and they are after used by microcomputer to vary what to
vary. The draft in the draw box placed in front of it. So, here it is working on the
principle of open loop is sensing behind and controlling the speed of the rollers in the
draw box which is placed in front of it. Therefore, what about control action it takes?
There is no recheck on it in the draw box; the draft range is in the lies, in the range of 1.2
(Refer Slide Time: 31:51)

So, whenever we sense a mass variations, we have to either increase the draft in the draw
box or decrease the draft to the draw box and whenever the draft has to be increased or
decrease, this question even nearly comes to our mind that how do I change the draft,
should I change the speed of the front pair of rollers or should I change the speed of back
pair of rollers, this question will always come and we have to decide which one you
should choose.

Here, the draft is varied by varying the speed of output roller of the draw box the speed
of the draw box is going to vary within a very short range and this should necessitate a
corresponding speed variations in the coiler. So, as to lay the sliver appropriately in the
can see the delivery roller speed is changed in this case in the delivery speed or speed is
changed, then I am sometimes delivering more, sometime delivering less.

So, therefore, the coiler speed also needs to be changed accordingly. Now, speed
changing of the coiler is generally not practiced. So, what we do is because it is not
really very feasible, instead what we do? The excess sliver is stored in a storage box for
the compensation. So, that is storage box in front of the draw box and any excess sliver
length is toward there and from there, it is being pulled at a constant rate by the coiling
mechanism of the can. This is how it is done.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:49)

Now, what we do? Also, that in order to maintain the average sliver count at the desired
level, the input to the card is also regulated. So, we also regulate the speed of the feed
roller, so that through this, we will be able to control the long term mass variation in the
sliver that we are going to produce. So, the singles from the same sensor after suitable
processing are used to regulate the input that is the feed roller speed of the card. So, that
the average input to the card remains constant.

So, the sensors are used to vary the speed of the output roller or delivery roller of the
drawing box. At the same time is also used to change the speed of the feed roller and by
doing. So, we will be able to basically control the mass variations starting from very
short length to very long length. Entire spectrum of mass variation in sliver can be
controlled using this short term autoleveller. The short term autoleveller is just it is not
meant for only short term as variations.

Here, we sometimes miss understand from the name itself that short term autoleveller is
not only for controlling short term mass variations, it also controls the long term and
medium term all variations. But, as long term autoleveller will only control long term as
variation, but not the medium term as variations or not the short term mass variations; so
now, suitability of short term autoleveller. So, the system is capable of eliminating short
as well as medium and long term as variations.
(Refer Slide Time: 35:49)

As I just mentioned, the level sliver does not need any further doubling because we have
already made it very regular. So, it does not need any doubling and drawing for
improving short term variations, but it still needs doubling and drawing because we want
to improve the paralyzation of fibres in this sliver we want to get rid of hooks in the
fibre. So, because of this drawing will be required, but in case if there is spinning system
where too much paralyzation in this level is not required instead of 2 draw frame passage
we can opt for single draw frame passage or if there is system where the paralyzation
orientation of fibres in the sliver really does not matter, then also directly we can feed the
sliver from the carding machine to the spinning machine like spinning. Of course, yarn
on rotor spinning machines the high efficiency of this term autoleveller does not get
manifested for normal carded and combed yarn.

Since, short term leveling is provided anyway by the doublings on draw frames. So, this
also it will you remember that the improvement that we get in the short term and medium
term range in this case that we can get to some extent by the doubling actions on draw
frames because, we use generate 2 draw frame passages. So, the doubling actions on the
draw frames can take care of short term and medium term mass variation.

Therefore, one can think that we can have a long term autoleveller and carding machine
and the medium term and short term variations will be controlled or will be left for
controlling by the doubling actions on breaker and finisher problem. There is a concept
of correction length and we must know what it is. This is in the context of the
autolevelling. So, you should know what is correction length and what is the implication
of correction length.

(Refer Slide Time: 38:48)

Now, here I have drawn a diagram on the left hand side and look at this diagram
carefully. There is a blue line and there is an orange line. If we look at this diagram first
and you see the orange line shows that there is a sudden drop in mass per unit length
suppose of the feed material. However, I am feeding a lap to the cutting machine and
there is a sudden drop and the drop is to the order of 10 percent 10 percent certain
reduction in the mass of the material that is being fed to the carding machine and this
reaction is mass is then continuing with time.

Now, if we see the corresponding response of the machine. That means, this sliver that I
am producing from the machine, then we will see a difference like this. Suppose, the
machine is having somewhat a leveling unit also means, what we will see that whatever
there is sudden drop in 10 percent mass, the output also will fall by 10 percent
immediately there because and then it will continue with that reduction for some time.
And gradually, the mass in the output is going to increase and it will come back to the
original mass per unit length.

So, from this vertical dotted line, this time onwards if we see even though the material
being fed to the machine is thinner by 10 percent the sliver being produced. From this
time onwards is of normal thickness there is no change in it. So, over a length l as shown
here, there is a change in mass per unit length in the sliver. So, as soon as the input mass
decreases the output mass also decreases immediately, but the gradually it comes back to
the original mass per unit length.

So, the length over which the mass of this sliver still remain defective in the final in the
output is known as the correction length. So, the partially corrected portion is actually
known as correction length. So, correction length is shown in the diagram because this
part of the output sliver is not exactly similar to the normal part of the sliver. So, ideally
there should not have been any reduction in the mass per unit length of the output sliver,
that is we should have got the sliver like this.

But, this is something the autoleveller and the system that we have cannot achieve it will
slowly respond and try to bring back the mass per unit length to the normal one. So, little
part of the sliver will still depend effective this is the partially corrected portion is known
as the correction length. And the time the system takes to bring back the faulty sliver to
the desired set value is known as the correction time. That is the concept of correction
length. So, ideally the correction length should be 0. That is what is ideal, but practically
it is never 0. It all depends upon the efficiency of the autolevelleling system that we have

The better autolevelleling is the smaller will be is going to be the correction length. So,
correction length l is going to be v into t where, t is the time to level a certain percentage
of increase in mass variations or maybe decrease in mass variation or whatever it could
be. So, t is the correction time and v is the velocity in centimeters per second of the
material flow for the machine. And therefore, correction length becomes v into t
centimeter where t is in second and v is in centimeters per second.

So, l is equal to v into t. So, that is the concept of correction length. So, in industrial or
when you discuss about the auto levellers, this question comes in your mind that the
correction length what is the correction length. And we should understand what exactly
correction length means or what is correction time.
(Refer Slide Time: 44:25)

And correction length depends upon what factors that we are going to now take it up. It
depends upon the distance between sensing and regulating point distance between the
sensing and regulating point. So, where is the sensor placed to detect a shift in variation
in sliver mass and where is the regulation point. So, this physical distance between these
2 is important in deciding the correction length inertia of the regulating system. So, the
regulating system is has it is own inertia and what is that inertia? That also matters. It is
depends upon the design of the entire system.

So, electrical signals can flow very fast, but when it comes to finally, changing the speed
of a of a roller. It could be feed roller, they had heavy mass, they are turning at a certain
speed and if we want to change the speed either decrease or increase whatever it is, a
quick change may not be possible. The change will take place with a certain time and if
you want to change too fast and too much of vibration may set up, too much of power
may be required immediately, too much of torque has to be generated and there are
difficulties in the mechanical design of the actuators.

Therefore, the design comes into play. That is, ultimately it is the inertia of the regulating
system that matters. The other thing that matters is the delivery speed what speed I am
delivering the material, what is the production speed of the carding machine in terms of
meters per minute not kg per minute, what is the delivery rate is it 100 meters per minute
or it is 200 meters per minute what is the rate at which I am delivering the material. That
also matters because you have seen l is equal to v into t v where v is the delivery speed.

It also depends upon the draft. That is what is the draft in the (Refer Time: 45:59) in the
machine, because by drafting also the correction length is going to be extended or going
to be increased by the draft. So, draft also will matter and extent of mass variations of the
sliver from a straight value how much mass has changed mass per unit length has
changed from the nominal value is it the changes by 10 percent or 15 percent or 20
percent or 25 percent. That will also matter.

The bigger the change, more time will be required to bring the output back to the
nominal value again. And therefore, the correction length is going to increase. So, extent
of mass variation therefore is important and sense of change of mass also matters that is
whether it is from normal level to lighter side that change in input is from normal to
become lesser on the lighter side or from lighter level to the normal.

The other possibilities could be normal level to heavier side, that is just feeding at a
certain rate which is normal and it has increased the feed has increased by 10 percent or
20 percent because, there is more mass which is flowing. Now, the input material has
increased in terms of thickness or weight per unit length. So, it become from normal to
becomes heavy. So, correspondingly we will have a correction length and suppose, it is
fitting heavy for quite some time about 10 minutes or 5 minutes and then it has suddenly
turns again come coming back to the normal.

So, from heavier side to normal, in all these cases the correction length is going to be
different from each other. So, these are the various factors on which correction length
depends. Out of this factors, what is what is in our control is basically the delivery speed
distance between the sensing a go to point we cannot change because, that already has
been designed and there is no, we cannot change it in a share of the derivating system
also cannot be changed once the system has been designed.

Delivery speed is something that we can change and by changing delivery speed, we can
also influence the correction length, the draft. Yes, periodically also we can change the
draft by draft depends on other factors like delivery speed also depends on productivity
of the machine. So, not much scope is there with the these 2 important parameters all
draft and delivery speed, but still it is possible because, they are basically the processing
parameters and the extent of mass variation of the sliver from the set value or mass
variation. In the case of your carding machine, it could be mass variation in the feed
material from the set value not the sliver.

Sliver will be the case when we are discussing autoleveller for draw frames, but when it
is carding machine into mass variation in the feed material from the set value from the
reference value. Now, this is not also under your control because whatever is being fed
through chute pit system or by feeding by a lab. There the mass variation which is the
present in the lab or in the matter of fibres being fed which would be system is
something is beyond the control or you will not know in advance.

The other thing also will not be able to know that whether the change is from normal to
lighter, lighter to normal or normal to heavy and heavy to normal. This is something not
possible for us to change. Well, delivery speed and draft, these 2 some extent can be
changed to manage the correction length.

(Refer Slide Time: 52:04)

Here it gives an idea about the delivery speed versus correction lengths for 4 different
situations mode of change of sliver mass; one is the orange, one shows from 0 percent to
minus 25 percent, that is it has that mean nominal to the finer side.

The next blue one shows finest side to nominal. The green is from normal to heavier side
change and the black line is indicating a change from heavy to normal. So, 4 different
situations what is going to be the correction length that is depicted in this particular a
graph and this has been done for difference delivery speed. So, as what we can see we
have already shown you that correction length l is v into t.

So, here also, we see as we increase delivery speed v l is going to increase linearly for all
the cases; that means, the correction length is increasing as delivery speeds are changed
from 200 to 400 - 500 meters per minute in this case. This is due to increase in correction
time and more delivery at a given response time. This is how the changes are there and.
So, by reducing delivery speed, the correction length can be reduced. This experiment
was done in the context of the change in correction length delivery speed for draw

Because, such kind of speeds are there for draw frames. So, this is the interesting point
about the correction length and correction time reduction in correction length. So, a long
connection length is not good that we have understood the smaller it is or the shorter it is
the better it is.

(Refer Slide Time: 54:42)

The correction length has been brought down to 3 centimeter depending upon the
operating speed by the modern autolevellers. So, connection length has been brought
down to 3 centimeter in the modern autoleveller that have been designed. So, that is a
great improvement; that means, the faulty sliver that we will see will be off just 3
centimeter in length and that this centimeter faulty sliver will produce the yarn that has to
be multiplied by whatever draft use to convert a sliver to yarn. So, that much length of
the yarn a little no thicker or little thinner it could be, but this has been brought down to
almost 3 centimeter and even less maybe in some autolevellers.

For system design on closed loop principle, the correction line lies between 5 to 10
meters of sliver length when correction is initiated in the main drop zone 10 to 20 meters
sliver length, when correction is needed in the break draw zone in the case of draw
frame. This is true that the correction length the closed loop control system is always
much larger in comprising to open loop systems and this is 5 to 10-meter sliver length
when I do the correction in the main draft zone.

If I do the correction in the break drop zone, then it gets extended by the drop in the front
zone. So, it will be little more than what we get when the correction takes place in the
break draft zone. So, it is 10 20 meter. Otherwise, it is 5 to 10 meter.

(Refer Slide Time: 56:39)

Now, factors affecting autolevellering performance what are the factors that affect the
performance, that also we should know one is the moisture content variation in part of
the batch may lead to differential response especially with capacitating type sensor used
in autolevellers. That means, if the moisture content varies now there are some fibres we
all know that cotton viscose these fibres absorb moistures.
So, the moisture content varies the response also a lot of the sensor may also change if it
is on capacitance based sensors. And therefore, a differential response might we might
get and it can affect the autolevellering performance, but if it is if the sensor are not
based on not capacitance type, in that case it will not really matter blend level variation
in pre carded blended material may also lead to variation in response of sensors leading
to introductions of weight variations by autoleveller itself.

So, blend level variation in the pre carded blended material can also affect the response
of the sensors. This is also important that if there is too much of variation, that is in the 2
components of the blend, if it is a polyester and cotton, some places I have more
polyester and some places have less polyester in the sliver. In that case, the sensors will
respond differently and as a result, the performance of the true leveller will be affected.
Other thing is draft differences between autoleveller draw frames that is if the draft
differences are there between autoleveller draw frames running on the same mixing.

This can also affect the autoleveller performance. So, that is also you have to be very
careful that if we have a set of draw frames having autolevellers and the draft in all those
draw frames would be exactly same that we should maintain and the variation of fibre
density or fibre fineness may also lead to different response by the sensors. Hence,
attaining mixing homogeneity in the blue room is also important.

So, variation in fibre density like suppose we take 2 fibres of 2 different densities
especially let us say polyester and cotton. So, densities are different polyester. Since, it is
much less than cotton or do you take some other combinations where density differences
are there or there is a variation in fineness of the fibres within cotton. Also, sometimes
we mix cottons of different varieties where finesse could be different from each other
and if the final blend that will produce on the mixing that you produce. If it is not
homogeneous, then the responses that we get over a period of time from the auto
levellers can also change.

Somewhat suppose, I have coarse or fibres in the sliver, somewhat I have finer fibres in
the slivers and we have mechanical sensors, then where the finest fibres are there, they
will get compressed easily the movement of the sensor. Sensing rollers may be less and
why do you have coarser fibres coming the movement of the sensing rollers may be
more. And therefore, even though the mass may be same still the responses that will be
generated when this mass predominantly having fine fibres and a mass of the sliver
predominantly having coarser fibres. They will give different type of no response to the
compressive rollers.

The rollers will move differently. As a result, the signal that you generated by the rollers
will be different and therefore, it will affect the performance of the autolevellers. So,
these are the main points which can affect the performance of the autolevellers. And
therefore, mixing homogeneity is very, very important. Moisture content of the material
is also important and draft differences between the draft and rollers draw frames are also

With this, we close today’s discussions.

Thank you.