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DISSERTATION REPORT

Session: 2015 –16

“FRC AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL”

Guide: Ar. Mohan Taori

Saurabh Dhamija

040112056

Batch: 2012 – 17

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the B.Arch Degree

F aculty o f Architecture
J agannath
1
University
Plot No. – IP2&3, Phase IV, Sitapura Industrial Area, Jaipur
APPROVAL

The study titled" 'FRC AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL’ is hereby


approved as an original work of SAURABH DHAMIJA, enrollment no.
040112056 on the approved subject carried out and presented in manner
satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as per the standard laid down by the
university.

This report has been submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of
BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE degree from JAGANNATH UNIVERSITY

It is to be understood that the undersigned does not necessarily endorse or


approve any statement made, any opinion expressed or conclusion drawn
therein, but approves the study only for the purpose it has been submitted.

November 27, 2015

Jaipur.

External examiner: AR.MOHAN TAORI


Guide
AR.VIVEK KUMAR AR.SUMEET RAI

Coordinator H.O.D (Faculty of architecture)


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DECLARATION

I, SAURABH DHAMIJA, here by solemnly declare that the research

work undertaken by me, titled “FRC AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

original work and wherever I have incorporated any information in the form of
photographs, text, data, maps, drawings, etc. From different sources has
been duly acknowledged in my report.

This dissertation has been completed under the supervision of the

guide allotted to me by the college.

SAURABH DHAMIJA
B.Arch. Batch: 2012-17
School of Architecture,
Jagannath University, Jaipur
3
ACKNOWL EDGEMENT

The study of any subject requires planning, knowledge and proper


line of action. A number of people were directly and indirectly
involved and helped me in compilation of information for this study.
I am thankful of all those for their kind co-operation. I am thankful to
my guide Ar. MOHAN TAORI for believing in me and setting his high
goals for me to achieve. I thank himfor being
shighly co-operative and prov iding timely guidance and feedback on
my work. I am indebted to my friends for helping m e throughout this
study. I shall never forget all those who stood beside me and
boosted me up during this period.

Last but not the least I would like to thank my father – mother, my
brother and my friends for supporting me through out and keeping
my moral high. It took me more effort, time and mental exercise to
do this project than any other in the past. At the end I feel happy
and satisfied with all my efforts which I have put in for the
completion of this study.

SAURABH DHAMIJA
B.Arch. Batch: 2012-17
School of Architecture,
4
Jagannath University, Jaipur
s

CONTENT S PAGE NO.

Approval …………………………………………………………………………… 1

Declaration ………………………………………………………………………… 2

Acknowledgment …………………………………………………………………. 3

Table of content…………………………………………………………………….. 5-8


Chapters …………………………. ……………………………………………......8

CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION
1. Brief of the topic……………………………………………………..…….….8-11

1.1. Aim………………………………………………………………….……….8
1.2. Objective……………………………………….……………………………8

1.3. Scope .......................………………………………………………………....8


1.4. Need for the study............................................................................................8-9
1.5. Methodology And Limitation...............................................................................10

CHAPT ER -2

HISTORY
2. FRC AS ACONSTRUCTION MATERIAL..................................... 11-15
2.1. Introduction...........................................................................................11
2.2. use of fibre...........................................................................................11
2.3. typology of fibre.......................................................................................12-13
2.4. mechanical property.................................................................................14

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CHAPT ER -3

CHAPTER 3. ................................................................................................15-18
3.1.Manufacturing process....................................................................15
3.2.Construction details................................................................................16-17

CHAPT ER -4

APPLICATIONAND ITS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES .......


CHAPTER 4.....................................................................................................19-20
4.1 Applications...........................................................................................18-19
4.2Advantages.........................................................................................19
4.3 Disadvantages.....................................................19

CHAPT ER -5

CASE STUDY
5. live and literature case study ....................................................20-25
5.1. case study crowne plaza............................................................20-21
5.2.dry greek elementary school...................................................22-24

COMPARATIVE ANALYIS
CHAPTER 6 .....................................................................................................25-36
6.1. Comparative analysis with concrete...............................................25-28
6.2. gfrc pannel and concrete pannel for seismic safety...............................29
6.3. gfrc pannel for renovative or re-cladding ...........................................30-36

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CHAPT ER -7

T`YPES OF FRC AS PER FUNCTIONING AND


APPLICATIONS...................................................33-42

7.2 GFRP............................................................................................36-39

7.3GFRC...........................................................................................39-42
7.4GFRG..............................................................................................42-44

CHAPT ER -8
USE OF GFRC IN MIDDLE EASTAND INDIA

CHAPTER 8....................................................................................................45-48
APPLICATION IN MIDDLE EAST...............................................................45-47
APPLICATION IN INDIA.............................................................................47

CHAPT ER -9

OBSERVATIONS.........................................................................................48

CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................49
BIBLOGRAPHY................................................................................................50

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CHAPTER1:

HYPOTHESIS:
Frc as a construction material is an important material and its use
has been increased from past 30 years and is beneficial for use in
complex column design and facade pannels.

1. INTRODUCTION:
Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) or (GRC) is a type of fiber reinforced
concrete. Glass fiber concretes are mainly used in exterior building façade panels and
as architectural precast concrete. This material is very good in making shapes on the
front of any building and it is less dense than steel.
GFRC is a form of concrete that uses fine sand, cement, polymer (usually an
acrylic polymer), water, other admixtures and alkali-resistant glass fibers. Many mix
designs are freely available on various websites, but all share similarities in ingredient
proportions.

1.1 AIM:
To know what basically frc is its application and benefits over other material and to
know where it is exactly used.

1.2 OBJECTIVE:
In the study, the following objectives are envisaged:
 Study the aspects of the GRC
 Understand the various applications involving GRC.
 Compare GRC with alternatives such as stone, aluminum, wood, glass, steel, marble
and granite
 To make people aware about its benefits and to make it fimiliar in india

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The scope of the study is broad and attempts to focus on behaviour, manufacturing
use applications and specified areas to be used and how it is benefical then other
materials in same context.

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1.4 NEED OF THE STUDY:

Frc has been widely used as a non strucutral member such as facade panels,
decoreative elements and and for piping and channels and as the material
being a light weight, fire resistant and good appearance material should be
extensively used or should replace concrete as main formwork material so as
to increase more forms and shapes to be inculcate in design aspects which are
not possible to be constructed with plain concrete

1.5 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY:

DATA
COLLECTION

DATA ANALYSIS

OBSERVATIONS

CONCLUSION

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:

 COST ANNALYSIS IS NOT COVERED IN THIS STUDY.

 DESIGN SYSTEM IS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY.

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CHAPTER2:
2. HISTORY:

 The use of fibers goes back at least 3500 years, when straw was used to
reinforce sun-baked bricks in Mesopotamia.
 Horsehair was used in mortar and straw in mud bricks.
 Asbestos fibers were used in concrete in the early 1900.
 In the 1950s, the concept of composite materials came into picture.
 Steel , Glass and synthetic fibers have been used to improve the
properties of concrete for the past 30 or 40 years.
 Research into new fiber-reinforced concretes continues even today.

2.1 INTRODUCTION:
 Concrete containing cement, water , aggregate,
and fibers is called fiber reinforced concrete.
It is a composite obtained by adding a single
type or a blend of fibers to the conventional
concrete mix.
 Fibers can be in form of steel fibers, glass
fibers, natural fibers , synthetic fibers, etc.

2.2 WHY FIBRES ARE USED??


 Main role of fibers is to prevent the cracks that develop in concrete and increase the
ductility of concrete elements.

 There is considerable improvement in the post-cracking behavior of concrete


containing fibers due to both plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage.

 They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.

 Some types of fibers produce greater abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete

 Imparts more resistance to Impact load.

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2.3 TYPOLOGY OF FIBERS:

 Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

 Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

 Synthetic Fibers

 Natural Fiber Reinforced Concrete

STEEL FIBRES
Steel fibers glued
together prior to mixing

Separation of fibers occurs


during mixing to ensure
uniform distribution

GLASS FIBRES

SYNTHETIC FIBRES

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GLASS FIBRES

 Generally, fibers of length 25mm are used.


 Improvement in impact strength.
 Increased flexural strength, ductility and resistance to thermal shock.
 Used in formwork, swimming pools, ducts and roofs, sewer lining etc.

SYNTHETIC FIBRES :
 Cheap, abundantly available.
 High chemical resistance.
 High melting point.
 Low modulus of elasticity.
 It’s types are acrylic, aramid, carbon, nylon, polyester, polyethylene,
polypropylene, etc.
 Applications in cladding panels.

2.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FRC:

 Compressive Strength

The presence of fibers may alter the failure, but the fiber effect will be minor on the
improvement of compressive strength values (0 to 15 percent).

 Modulus of Elasticity

Modulus of elasticity of FRC increases slightly with an increase in the fibers content. It was
found that for each 1 percent increase in fiber content by volume, there is an increase of 3
percent in the modulus of elasticity

 Flexure

The flexural strength was reported to be increased by 2.5 times using 4 percent fibers

 Toughness

For FRC, toughness is about 10 to 40 times that of plain concrete.

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2.5 STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR:

 Flexure

The use of fibers in reinforced concrete flexure members increases ductility,


tensile strength, stiffness. The fibers improve crack control and preserve post
cracking structural integrity of members.

 Torsion

The use of fibers eliminate the sudden failure characteristic of plain concrete
beams. It increases stiffness, torsional strength, ductility, and the number of cracks
with less crack width.

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CHAPTER 3:

3.1 MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

 SPRAY PROCESS
(architectural claddings, channels, tanks, façade elements, ducting,
permanent formwork)

The ‘Spray’ production process involves spraying layers of mix into fibreglass or rubber
moulds. The first layer is a cement/aggregate mix that forms the surface and subsequent
layers contain chopped glass fibres. The spray gun contains both the grout nozzle and
glass chipping gun so that the grout and glass
fibres are sprayed simultaneously. Each layer is
compacted with rollers until the desired thickness
is reached.

 PREMIX METHOD

(sunscreens, planters, slates & tiles,


drainage components)
The ‘Premixed’ production process closely
resembles the manufacture of precast
concrete and the GRC produced is usually
thicker than that produced by the ‘Spray’
method. Normally around 25mm thick

It involves pouring or pumping a premixed


cement/fibre mix into moulds made from
timber, rubber or glass fibre reinforced
plastic (GRP/FRP). This is similar to other
precast production processes. The mix
typically contains 97% Cement, silica, water and plasticiser, 3% AGR glass fibres
The mix is compacted by either vibration beds or by adding other chemical
components to the mix to mak itself compacting. The unit is left in the mould to set
before demoulding and curingAs with the ‘Spray’ method, polythene and a polymer
curing compound can be used to maintain moisture within the unit before it is exposed
to the elements.

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3.2 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS:
 Basically steel frame is made the n it is attached with the corresponding panel by
riveting and bolting and some tinmes mould are made by pouring the fibre concrete
material over the form and is attached directly with the slab

CLIP SYSTEM: clips


YSTEM: RIVETTING IS are made to hold the
BETWEEN STEEL pannels
N AND PANELS

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steel stud framing is attached with the skin or
pannel throught metal pins

metal stud framing for pannel to be held with


and framing is done by steel so as to hold the
pannel strongly

Rubber moulds are prepared as per the design and then fibreconcrete is
pour as per premisxprocess

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Spray method for preparing frcelement

Section detail showing joinery of cornice with main wall

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CHAPTER 4:

4.1 APPLICATIONS:

 FACADE PANNELS
light weight pannels are made from frc which are
available in variety of colurs and sizes these pannels
are used for new construction as well as for renovation
purposses

 GFRC SCRRENS/JAALI
 Jaalis and screens of various shapes are available these
jaalis are used as an aesthetic feature and for ventilation
and these jaalis are prepared off site like pre cast and first
its design is made and then mould is prepared from the
design

 GFRC BRACKETS

Gfrc brackets atre made which are avaialable in different


sizes and shapes and uncless concrete designing brackets is
nt difficult as there is freedom to design complex design
because of the flexibility of the materials

 LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS
 Gfrc planters, fountains, landscape furniture are made from
gfrc and these elements are made from gfrc and they are
available in glossy look smooth look and rough look and
they are no less beautiful then elements made by stone and
other materials.

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 Thin Shell, Walls, Pipes, and Manholes

Fibrous concrete permits the use of thinner flat and curved structural elements. Steel fibrous
shortcrete is used in the construction of hemispherical domes.

 Agriculture

It is used in animal storage structures, walls, silos, paving, etc.

 Precast Concrete and Products

It is used in architectural panels, tilt-up construction, walls, fencing, septic tanks,vaults and
sculptures.

 Dams and Hydraulic Structure

FRC is being used for the construction and repair of dams and other hydraulic structures to
provide resistance to cavitation and severe erosion caused by the impact of large debris.

 Tunnel Lining and Slope Stabilization

Steel fiber reinforced concrete are being used to line underground openings and rock slope
stabilization. It eliminates the need for mesh reinforcement and scaffolding.

4.2 ADVANTAGES:

• Lightweight – FRC is extremely light weight and can achieve similar structural
performance to GFRC with less thickness.

• Flexibility – FRP is more resilient than PLAIN CONCRETE and does not present the
same brittleness and cracking issues.

• Customizable properties – Panel thickness, orientation of reinforcement, integral


stiffeners, core material and thickness, etc is routinely engineered and customize to
efficiently meet performance criteria.

• Durability and corrosion resistance – properly fabricated FRP

4.3 DISADVANTAGES:

 Experience – Less experience with FRP as a façade material in the construction industry.
Also properly choosing of fibers and matrix is complex

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CHAPTER 5:
5.1 CASE STUDY:

CROWNE PLAZA,JAIPUR

CLIENT:CROWNE PLAZA

LOCATION:JAIPUR

DESIGNER:UNISTONE ARCHITECTURAL STONE WORK

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Panels were made from gfrc

First mould design of panel was made

After design it is then manufactured off


site and then was transported to site and is
installed

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fig (a)
FRC PIERS WERE MADE WHICH ARE JOINED
WITH THE MAIN WALL BY BOLTING AND
RIVETTING SHOWN IN THE FIG (a)

frc columns were made as plain concrete can not be fig (b) shows the section details of the
moulded to such cpmplex shape . columns consisting of steel channels
running inside the column which support
they are also prepared off site .
the light weight frc

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5.2. CASE STUDY:

DRY GREEK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Project-Dry Creek Elementary School

Location- Lehi, Utah

Architect- Sandstorm Architecture Contractor Westland

Construction Material- Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Dry Creek Elementary School is a new school in Lehi, UT. It opened in August, 2014. The
Architect for the project, Sandstorm Architecture, wanted to create an experience for
elementary school kids and families that would blend with the Lehi township cultural
backdrop and lifestyle. The architect had specified GFRC (Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete)
for the high elevation cladding and school name sign. With much lighter weight, GFRC not
only cut down required structural support, but also simplified the installation.

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EACH PANEL NEEDED CUSTOM DESIGNED
T SITE HARDWARE THAT WAS EMBEDDED IN THE
PANELS.
AAS TEAM DESIGNED INSTALLATION
WILL ANCHORS AND
EMBEDDED THEM IN THE PANELS USING
PRECISE
POURING OF THE CASTING MATERIAL

NNELS IS THE LETTERING ON THE PANELS IS VERY


ICK LIKE SPECIFIC IN THIS PROJECT. OTHER
CLADDING MATERIALS SUCH AS STUCCO
DON’T WORK SO WELL WITH THE
ND
QUALITY AND DETAIL REQUIREMENTS
ING NEEDED IN THIS PROJECT.

 The design of the school entry way cladding required that each GFRC panel had a unique
shape.The working team created unique molds to match geometry of every panel.

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 Each panel needed custom designed hardware that was embedded in the panels.
 GFRC pannels require much less support then other cast stone or precast material.

OF MOULDS CREATED ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN


EVATION PART

THE MATRIX PRODUCES IS SPRAYED


OVER THE MOULD PREPARED AND THE
MOULD PREPARED IS EMBEDDED WITH
CLIP SYSTEM OR BOLT OR RIVETTING
SYSTYEM AND THE MOULD THUS
PRODUCES WILL BE LIGHTER , MORE
EFFECIENT AND LASTING AS
COMPARED TO THE NORMAL
CONCRETE

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CHAPTER 6

6.1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH PLAIN CONCRETE:

PLAIN CONCRETE GFRC

1. Lower Durability 1. Higher Durability


2. less protection to corrossion 2. more protection to corrossion
3. heavier material 3. lighter material i.e pannels can
4. economica lbt maintainance cost is also be carried in hand
high 4. expensive but maintainance and
transportation cost is less as
compared to plain concrete

Plain concrete fails suddenly once the deflection corresponding to the ultimate flexural
strength is exceeded; on the other hand, fiber-reinforced concrete continue to sustain
considerable loads even at deflections considerably in excess of the fracture deflection of
the plain concrete.

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plain concrete bend totally or get
fibre concrete bend partially but it resist
ruptured easily due to impact load or
the load n do not break totally and bond
some external force .
between fibres help in preventing
cracking

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CONCRETE SLAB

CONCRETE WALL PANNELS

 Concrete pannels of different sizes are available with thicknesss starting from 150mm or more.
 Concrete pannels are rigid and strong but are not so environment friendly and get affected by
atmosphere easily as compared to gfrc
 As the thickness of the starting range pannel is 150mm and the concrete quantity will also be
more which leads to heavy structures and seismic safety decreases with more weight.
 Concrete pannels are difficult to mould in desiresd shape as the flexural strength and torsional
strength due to absence of fibres is less.

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GFRC PANNELS

ACOTA DIFFERENT
METTALIC
COLOURS
COLOUR

 GFRC are available in different colour, shape texture and can be moulded to the
same colour and specification as that of stone, concrete marble wooden etc.
 It can be matched with any other materials appearance and texture and strength will
be more as compared to the concrete pannel as well stone.
 It is available in differrent shape and sizes, thickness vary from 10mm to 25mm or
mre .
 Due to low thickness weight of the pannels pr sq, ft is less as compared to plain
concrete and these pannels are designed with perfect support sysem as the moulds are
designed first and within the mould steel support frame with flex anchors clip system
and other joinning elements are made in different ways for differrent purposses and
make these structures prone to earth quake
 Re-cladding with GFRC is the ultimate in recycling. The old building is “re used” and
the new GFRC cladding is environmentally friendly.
 Sustainability has become an increasingly important component of building design.
LEED emphasizes state-of-the-art strategies for sustainability. GFRC re-cladding can
reduce environmental impact by re using the existing structure and help earn points
for Optimized Energy Performance, Construction Waste management, Recycled
content, Regional materials, Life Cycle CO2 Reduction, Durability, Resource
Efficient Cladding.

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6.2.GFRC PANNELS AND PRECAST PANNEL FOR
SEISMIC SAFETY:

Figure2: Glass damage in Mexico City


earthquake, 1985. Note the extreme
distortion
Figure 1. Concrete panelsof the first floor, but only
falling from thea J.C.
fewPenney
glass panels were severely
damaged. Even with the massive
store, 1964 Alaska
earthquake. shaking, glass in the upper floors is
undamaged

Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) is a cladding material of intermediate


weight now in frequent use. The term is applied to products manufactured using
a cement/aggregate slurry reinforced throughout with alkali resistant glass
fibers. The material is applied in a spray-up process under controlled factory
conditions. The material is a composite with reinforcing elements randomly
distributed throughout the matrix, unlike reinforced concrete in which the
reinforcing is placed only in tensile stress areas. GFRC architectural panels
generally weigh from 10 to 25 pounds per square foot (48 kg/m² to 121 kg/m²)
depending on surface finish, panel size, shape and arrangement of the steel stud
or tube framework. This is approximately one third to one quarter the weight of
pre-cast concrete, so that seismic forces are substantially reduced.

Basically the weight of the pannel in concrete is subjected over the structure
which leads tp fall or destruction during earthquake but in case of gfrc the
weight is less and is supported by metal stud framing and the weight is
negligible as compared to concrete and proper connection as well flexibility is

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there in gfrc so gfrc pannels can resist under seismic influence and is more
beneficial than using concrete pannels

6.3 GFRC AS RECLADDING OR RENOVATIVE MATERIAL


OR REPLACEMENT MATERIAL FOR CONCRETE, STONE
OR OTHER FRAMEWORK MATERIAL:

GFRC Case Study: Galleria Tower II, Houston TX

The 320,000 square foot 21 story building needed a new


exterior look and a new 1 story parapet and signage added at the
roof.
Access was limited. The surrounding area is underground
parking with a weight limit that prevented using a traditional
crane. The building is embedded in a popular shopping area and
access to the building was difficult. The building was occupied
and was to remain occupied during the work.
The architect had originally designed pre finished metal
cladding panels but the “details were problematic.” The
cladding needed to be attractive, light weight, durable, fast and
easy to erect, hurricane proof and cause minimal disruption.

solution:
THE TEAM OF STOMBERG worked with the architect to
create details and engineered solutions. The GFRC cladding
panels were cast in a buff colored architectural concrete
texture. The panels were erected by roof top davit type cranes
to minimize disruption and reduce the load on the parking
garage. Shopping at the Galleria and office work inside the
building continued during the installation of the GFRC panels

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RESULT:
A low maintenance, high quality cladding that meets the needs of the owner and the tenants. The
GFRC panels were installed on time, on budget and to the owner’s
satisfaction

hurricane test:
Just 18 months after the GFRC was completed, the panels passed a real world test of their
durability. Hurricane Ike hit Houston in 2008. It was the third costliest hurricane ever
causing over $32 billion in damages and 195 deaths. Galleria II reported no damage to the
Stromberg GFRC panels.

THIS STUDY SHOWS THAT DAY BY DAY PLAIN CONCRETE OR HEAVY CLADDINGS ARE
REPLACED BY LIGHT WEIGHT FRC REASON BEING THE RESISTANCE TO THE SEISMIC
ACTIVITY AS WELL RESTORATION OR RECLADDING WITH GRC IS AN ECONOMICAL AS
WELL SUSTAINABLE WORK AS IT DOES NOT REQUIRE MAINTAINANCE LIKE
CONCRETE TERRA COTTA OR METAL CLADDING AND IT CAN BE INSTALLED EASILY
WITH CRANES AND ITS INSTALLATION IS A EASY AND CLEAN PROCESS AND IS A
FAST PROCESS THEN PLAIN CONCRETE AND OTHER MATERIALS.

GFRC RECLAD AT TERRACOTTA PENTHOUSE

CRACKS DEVELOPED DUE 32


TO WEATHERING AND IMAGE BEFORE RE-CLADDING
WITH
TILE TIME
BLACKENED
DUE TO
In May of 2007, GFRC Cladding Systems completed the refurbishment of a
mechanical penthouse located on top of a

90+ year old corporate headquarters building in Milwaukee, WI. The


cracked and weathered terra cotta tiles shown in
Fig. 1a below were first removed, and then replaced with a new panelized
GFRC system (Fig. 1b).

 after using it over the detoriated cladding th e interior and exterior elements were
also to be renovated by gfrc so cornice were also renovated by gfrc

 The highly elaborate gfrc cornice shown consists of a projecting ogee with a deep
soffit return with

 Alternating cast rosettes and brackets, and a lower entablature with a classical "egg &
dart" pattern and dentils. many

 of the gfrc shapes on this cornice were fabricated from rubber molds cast directly
from the existing granite and

 terracotta components. panels were erected from the outside of the building only, with
minimal interference to the

 offices or ongoing building functions during the reconstruction.

 over1900 panels covering 54,000 sq.ft area were fabricated and were installed

NEW AND REFORMED


TERRACOTTA LIKE TILES
OF GFRC FORMED

RECLADDING OVER THE TERRACOTTA TILES . IMAGES AGES AFTER COMPLETION RECLADDING
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GFRC CORNICE

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CASE STUDY:

Parking Garage Reclad:

 Case Study: On an 11 story parking garage in Houston, Texas, the existing


Marblecrete exterior

 had corroded to the point that it was no longer structurally viable, and had to be
replaced. Because of the

 high relative humidity and rainfall typical of the Gulf Coast, the owner wanted a
replacement cladding

 without steel framing or other potentially corrodible elements. Panels had to be


designed to resist high

 wind loads, yet be light-weight to minimize superimposed loads on the existing


structure. Connection

 spans of nearly 15 feet made the design and engineering of the GFRC panels
particularly challenging.

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MARBLECRETE FAÇADE BEFORE DEMOLITION

 LEFT SIDE IMAGE


DESCRIBE THE
ARCHITECTURAL IMAGE
OF GFRC PANEL

 RIGHT SIDE IMAGE


DESCRIBES THERIBS
AND BEAMS ON BACK

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A prototype panel was tested successfully under simulated wind pressure loads of 1.3x
the design load of 65.7

 lbs/square foot (PSF). On average, panels weigh only 15-20 PSF. The largest panel
measured 11’8” tall by 14’4”

 wide, and weighed under 3,000 lbs.

 Over 500 total panels, totaling over 40,000 SF, were fabricated for this application.
Panels were installed at night to

 enable the parking garage to be used continuously during construction. IMAGE


shows the new GFRC facade:

AFTER DEMOLITION

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CHAPTER 7

7.1 TYPES OF FRC AS PER FUNCTIONING AND APPLICATIONS

 GFRP
 GFRS
 GFRC
 GFRG

7.2 GFRP(GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER)


History:
First developed in the mid 1930's, Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) has become a
staple in the building industry. Originally used merely for the construction of parts, in 1967,
the architectural advantages were discovered with the attempted destruction of Disneyland's
"House of the Future." Built in 1956-7, the futuristic house was built entirely of fiberglass,
and when the attraction was no longer deemed necessary, it was scheduled to be destroyed in
1967. Amazingly, the wrecking ball merely bounced off the structure, and the possibilities for
GFRP were recognized and began to grow. By 1994, nearly 600 million pounds of composite
materials were used in the building industry.

Applications: Interior and Exterior


Domes ,FountainS,Columns,

Balustrades, Planters, Panels

Sculptures,Entryways ,Moldings

Facades Cornices, Porticos, Cupolas ,Signs Roofs

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140’ tall Bronze Clad
Fiberglass Marlin and
Waves. Stone Clad
Buttresses and Panels,
Atlantis Resort,
Paradise Island,
Bahamas

a mold will be
constructed.
Depending on the
level of detail, it
may be fabricated from fiberglass, steel, wood, or
rubber. A carefully designed mix of polyester or
epoxy resin and alkali-resistant glass fibers will
then be sprayed into the mold. Virtually any shape
or form can be molded in this manner.

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Canyon Creek Baptist
Church Richardson, Texas
7.2 GFRP(GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED STONE)
History:
Fifteen years ago, after many years experience working with cast stone and fiber reinforced
materials, Glass Fiber Reinforced Stone, a product which combines the light weight
properties of GFRP with the look and texture of quarried stone. Its strength and durability
have been proven through the years both in the lab and in the field. With the invention of
GFRS,

BUFF CORNICE
FINISH

DISTRESS WHITE
Applications
ED FINISH

GFRS can be used any place you might normally use cast stone.
 Domes
 Porticos
 Fountains
 Cupolas
 Columns
 Signs
 Balustrade
 Roofs
 Planters
 Custom designed fixtures
 Panels
 Sculpture
 Entryways
 Moldings
 Façades

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 Lightweight
Low weight of 3 lbs. per square foot means faster installation, less structural framing
and lower shipping costs
 Resistance
Resists salt water, chemicals and the environment - unaffected by acid rain, salts and
most chemicals
 Flexibility
Able to mold complex shapes: virtually any shape or form can be molded
 Durability
GFRS has the same durable qualities of our GFRP, which endured Category 5 hurricane
Floyd with no damage, while nearby structures were destroyed.
 Beauty
GFRS offers the look and texture of stonework, but without the weight and at a fraction
of the cost

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.3 GFRC(GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE)
GFRC is concrete that uses glass fibers for reinforcement instead of steel. It is typically cast
in a thin section of around 1/2" to 3/4". Since the fibers cannot rust like steel, there is no need
for a protective concrete cover thickness to prevent rusting. With the thin, hollow
construction of GFRC products, they can weigh a fraction of the weight of traditional precast
concrete.

GFRC can be used wherever a light, strong, weather resistant, attractive and fire retardant
material is required.
GFRC can be used in manufacturing architectural products such as wall panels, window
surrounds, column covers, soffits, cornices, brackets, quoins, railings, pilasters, copings,
domes, site furnishings, planters, bollards, urns and tables.
IT has pioneered its use in other areas including sandwich panels, bus shelters, security
barriers, noise barriers, marine structures, cable ducts, floating pontoons, sunscreens and
storage tanks.

GFRC buff GFRC dark GFRC white


buff

As an engineered material, the properties of GFRC can vary depending upon mix design,
glass content and production methods. Glass fiber used in quality GFRC has a higher tensile
strength than steel. As a general rule, the higher the fiber content, the higher the strength. A
typical mix with 5% glass fiber has a compressive strength of 6,000 to 8,000 psi.

Glass fiber reinforced concrete has been tested both by accelerated aging tests in the
laboratory and in real life installations. GFRC can be expected to last as long as pre-cast
concrete. In many environments, as when exposed to salt spray or high moisture, the GFRC
can be expected to perform better, as there is no steel reinforcement to corrode. Since the
surface of GFRC is a Portland concrete, it weathers much as a quality architectural pre-cast
concrete would.

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GFRC CLADDING PANELS
GFRC DURABILITY
Glass fiber reinforced concrete has been tested both by accelerated aging tests in the
laboratory and in real life installations. GFRC can be expected to last as long as pre-cast
concrete. In many environments, as when exposed to salt spray or high moisture, the GFRC
can be expected to perform better, as there is no steel reinforcement to corrode. Since the
surface of GFRC is a Portland concrete, it weathers much as a quality architectural pre-cast
concrete would.

ADVANTAGES OF GFRC
 Made of minerals and will not burn. In addition, the nature of concrete acts likes a
thermal regulator when exposed to flame. GFRC not only will not burn, but it also
protects the materials behind it from the heat of the flame.
 Relatively light in weight compared to traditional stone or terra cotta ornaments. Its
installation is quick and relatively easy.
 Can be cast to virtually any shape. We supply wall panels, columns, bas relief, domes,
column capitals, fireplace surrounds, moldings, medallions and all types of custom
GFRC shapes.
 Available either with a cast in integral color and texture: limestone, precast, acid wash,
etc. or as paint grade that is easily finished with virtually any paint
LIGHTWEIGHT
GFRC, thin yet strong, weighs 80% to 95% less than solid concrete. This makes it easier
and faster to install and reduces the load on the buildings structure. The lighter weight and
stronger material also saves transport costs, allows more design freedom and, by using less
material, reduces environmental impact.
SUPERIOR STRENGTH
GFRC is strong. For GFRC panels, this means it has the proven ability to withstand
seismic loads and hurricane winds. For architectural elements, stronger means less chance for
damage, easier to install and longer lasting.

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DURABLE
GFRC lasts. It is less susceptible to weather erosion and more freeze thaw resistant than
conventional concrete. The use of glass fibers for reinforcement rather than steel means it
cannot rust and can even be used under salt water and in marine environments.
BEAUTIFUL
GFRC provides the look and feel of natural stone, architectural precast concrete, terra
cotta, wood or smooth panels. It allows the designer more freedom in shape, color and
texture than any material.
NATURALLY FRIENDLY TO THE ENVIRONMENT
GFRC has a much lower environmental impact than conventional concrete, stone or other
materials. Made with minerals: cement, aggregates, glass fibers and, in some cases mineral
pigments and special polymers, GFRC is designed to be long lasting and earth friendly.
DISASTER RESISTANT
Hurricanes, floods, fires and earthquakes are no match for GFRC. Over the years it has
proven itself both in the lab and in the real world.

DESIGN FREEDOM WITH GFRC


COLOR.
. GFRC color options include:
CAST-IN COLORS: Cast in solid and mottled colors in smooth, acid wash or
sandblasted.
STAINS: A range of concrete stains and antiquing stains.
GLAZES: Custom hot glazed finishes for a glazed tile or terra cotta look.
PAINT: Custom pre painted finishes or ready to paint.

TEXTURE
 Smooth
 Brick
 Sandblasted
 Terra Cotta
 Honed
 Carved details
 Exposed Aggregate
 Travertine
 Coral Stone
 Wood Grain

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 7.4 GFRG(GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED GYPSUM)

HISTORY:
A new concept of material was brought from England to the United States and Canada in
1977: a product now known as Glass Fiber Reinforced Gypsum, also referred to as Fiberglass
Reinforced Gypsum (FRG) and Glass Reinforced Gypsum (GRG). This included gypsum
plaster reinforced with glass fibers to produce a thin,lightweight, yet strong material.
Before long, North American manufacturers began promoting and selling products
produced with GFRG. By late 1978, GFRG jobs were being sold and installed in North
America. In the early 1980's.

FABRICATION:
GFRG is primarily composed of two raw materials:
high density alpha-based gypsum and glass fiber
reinforcement. The gypsum plaster should be neutral
or of low alkalinity to ensure its compatibility with
"E" glass fibers. Additives commonly used within the
plaster industry are acceptable provided they are used
in accordance with the gypsum manufacturer's
recommendations

GFRG elements, St. Anthony's Cathedral

APPLICATIONS:
GFRG is for use where it is not subject to dampness. (Do not use where it is openly
exposed to rain or for fountains, pools or wet locations. For these applications see
GFRP).GFRG can be used wherever a light, strong and fire retardant
material is required (casinos, hotels, theaters, residential, etc.)  Fireplace Surrounds
 Moldings  Columns  Bas  Medallions
 Ceilings  Light Relief  Custom shapes
coves  Domes
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 Capitals
 Why GFRG?
 Flame Resistant
 GFRG is a mineral and will not burn. In addition, the nature of gypsum acts like a
thermal regulator when exposed to flame. GFRG not only will not burn, but it also
protects the materials behind it from the heat of the flame for up to two hours.
 Easy Installation
 GFRG is relatively light in weight compared to traditional stone or plaster ornaments.
Its installation is quick and relatively easy.
 Selection
 GFRG can be cast to virtually any shape.
 Finish
 GFRG is available in a white color and is easily finished with virtually any paint.

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CHAPTER8:

8.1. GFRC APPLICATIONS IN MIDDLE EAST:

 GFRC has been in use from past 40 years in middle east.


 gfrc in middle east is well established as a decorative and a
functional material
 grc material ic continously being improved by testing and by
extensive use.
 manufacturing and usage is also increasing everywhere in
middle east

WHERE IS GFRC MANUFACTURED IN MIDDLE


EAST??

 BAHRAIN  IRAN
 EGYPT  IRAQ
 KUWAIT  YEMEN
 OMAN  SYRIA
 QATAR
 SAUDI ARAB
 NITED ARAB EMIRATES

GFRC APPLICATIONS IN MIDDLE EAST:

1ST MAJOR PROJECT IN RIYADH-140,000m2


WHICH COMPLETED IN 1984 THE FIRST BUILDING WITH
USE OF FRC WAS SUCCESSFULLY BUILT .

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GRC INSULATING CLADDING PANNELS
WITH DECORATIVE FEATURES
CHAMPIONSHIP GOLF COURSE

THE LIGHTWEIGHT OF GFRC ALLOWS FOR IMAGINATIVE


ARCHITECTURAL USES TO CREATE STRIKING
BUILDING THAT WOULD BE OTHERWISE DIFFICULT TO BE BUILD

MASDAR CITY, ABU DABI

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DECORATIVE JAALI LIKE SCREENS WERE MADE BY GFRC AS A
NN
AESTHETIC FEATURE AS WELL FOR LIGHT VENTILATION

MORE APPLICATIONS OF GFRC IN MIDDLE EAST ARE AS


FOLLOWS:
 PRINCESS NOURA WOMEN UNIVERSITY, SAUDI ARAB

 CEREMONIAL COURT , EDUCATION CITY ,QATAR

 16M PERMANENT FOREMWORK ,SAUDI DOME

 GRAND MOSQUE , MUSCAT OMAN

 TURKEY TOWERS

8.2. GRC AS A GREEN CEMENT:

 More than 4 billion tonnes of cement was produced in 2013

 650 to 920 kgs of carbon per tonne

 Cement production accounts for about 5% of world"s carbon emission

 Estimated to generate about 9 billion tonnes of carbon by 2030.

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 so, ordinary portland cement is not green i.e. not safe as it emmits co2 in large
amount.

 But grc has reduced the level of CO2 and it has been certified by LEED

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8.3. GFRC APPLICATION IN INDIA:

 In india use of gfrc is new as compared to the middle east,

 in middle east permanent formwork ,decorative works as well insulating pannel work ,
interior finishing etc is done by gfrc.

 but in india only few citiesare familiar to this gfrc concepts and its advantages over other
material.

APPLICATIONS OF GFRC IN INDIA:

 MATTHAN HOTEL BANGALORE


 BERGAMO MALL,CHENNAI
 INFOSYS, MYSORE

THE PROJECT IS DESIGNED BY THAILAND


BASED ARCHITECT . THE DESIGN IS
INSPIRED FROM ASIAN STYLE OF
ARCHITECTURE. IN THIS PROJECT GFRC
COLUMNS AND SCREENS WERE BUILT.

LORE

IS
AS

TC

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BERGAMO MALL,CHENNAI
CHAPTER 9
OBSERVATIONS:

 It has been observed that india lack in awareness of the benefits of gfrc as a structural
material as well its benefits over other material.
 it has been observed that india has very less no of manufacturer of gfrc as compared to
the other countries like middle east
 plain concrete ,steel and glass are used as a primary building material for modern
buildings

CONCLUSIONS:

 plain concrete is less flexible and more heavier than gfrc and heavier material
gets deflected or destroyed easily by earthquake.

 Gfrc being a light weight material wid its design being made by mold
preparation is done properly by making a solid frame and with flex anchors
which do not allow the wind as well seismic load to move or destroy, but in
concrete pannel the weight of the pannel itself is on the main frame n leads to
deflection.
 Gfrc can be casred in any desired colour and shape and can be casted to the
same colour as that of the stone , wood ,or other materaial and is not affected by
the weathering agent due alkali agents so it can be used to renovate old
historical monuments which have complex ornamentation
 gfrc production as well installation is fast and gfrc can be easily transported to
the site as compared to precast material.
 instead of plain concrete gfrc should be produced so as to reduce carbon
emission.
 comples design are possible to be constructed through gfrc

 use of gfrc should me more precise so as to make better looking , better


functioning and less material wasting building and more complex form type
building which were limited before the introduction of gfrc

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A

WEBLIOGRAPHY:

http://www.indiamart.com/eco-vision/gfrc-products.html

http://authenticworks.in/projects.html

http://claddingcorp.com/cladding-materials/

http://www.clarkpacific.com/product/Architectural-Cladding-Systems/GFRC

www.unistoneproducts.in

www.gfrc.info

www.wbdg.org/resources/env_seismicsafety.php?r=envelope

claddingcorp.com/cladding-materials/

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