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DECLARATION

I MUHAMMAD hereby declare that this report is written by me and it has not been
presented before anywhere for the award of degree or otherwise expect quotations and
summaries which have been dully acknowledged.

________________________ ________________
MUHAMMAD Date

i
CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this SIWES report was carried out by MUHAMMAD with
registration number0000.
Is examine and found acceptable for the award of degree in physics, Federal University
Gusau.

______________________ __________________
Mal. Sama’ila B. Muhammad Date
(Departmental SIWES supervisor)

_______________________ __________________
Mr. Okoye I. Farancis Date
(Departmental SIWES coordinator)

________________________ ___________________
Dr. Lawal Sa’adu Date
(Head of Department)

ii
DEDICATION
This Technical report is dedicated to My Father Mal. LAWAL MUHAMMAD ISAH
and my lovely Mother, Haj. AMINA YUSUF.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All praise is for Allah who gave me ability to complete this student industrial work
scheme (SIWES). Peace and blessed of Allah be upon the noble prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W), his house hold, companions, and those that follow his path.
I express my gratitude to my parents (Mal. LAWAL MUHAMMAD ISAH and Haj.
AMINA YUSUF) May Allah reward them jannatul-firdaus.
My candid appreciation goes to my institution supervision in person of Mal.
SAMA’ILA BELLO MUHAMMAD and the rest of physics department lectures who
taught and guide me to share their experience with me during my program. Also my
program co-coordinators in person of ENGR MUHAMMAD ALHASSAN SHAGARI,
ENGR MUSA NEHEMIAH, ENGR NURA I. UMAR, ENGR SAGIR GARBA, and
ENGR BELLO LADAN. Who taught and guide me to share their experience during my
program (SIWES), my prayer is that Almighty Allah will continue to bless and keep
you safe. Amin.
I cannot mention you all, but I will like to appreciate you all for your advice, support
and your prayers towards my success (My Family Relatives, My friends and My
Colleagues).

iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This is the summary of all work done during my industrial experience scheme at
Transmission Company of Nigeria Gusau work Centre. The history of SIWES and the
establishment, aims and objectives of SIWES. Having been schedule to work under
four (4) departments as follows: Independent system operation (ISO), Protection control
& metering, Electrical maintenance department, and System lines. In each department
several I acquire several experiences and practical knowledge, which include there duty,
work tools and there measuring instrument, how to use them and handle them with
respect to their safety. The training experience provided include Maintenances of
transformers, circuit breakers, and isolators. Also the monitoring of oil temperature and
winding temperature. Monitoring of frequency, the voltage level such as to stabilize the
system and to load shed when necessary. The training introduced me to several test were
i served and work under the above mention department with different machineries and
electrical equipment’s. The special project carried out tittle as Dielectric strength of
transformer oil.

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Declaration ...................................................................................................................... i
Certification ................................................................................................................... ii
Dedication ..................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................ iv
Executive Summary ....................................................................................................... v
Table of content …………………………………………………………………….…vi
List Of Figure ................................................................................................................ vi
List Of Tables .............................................................................................................. vii
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................ 1
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Historical Background Of Siwes............................................................................ 1
1.2 Siwes Agencies And Their Roles........................................................................... 3
1.3 The Roles And Responsibilities Of The Federal Government .............................. 3
1.4 Roles and Responsibilities of the ITF ………………..…………………………..3
1.5 Roles And Responsibilities Of The Industry (Employer) ...................................... 4
1.6 Roles And Responsibilities Of The Institution ...................................................... 4
1.7 Roles And Responsibilities Of Student.................................................................. 4
1.8 Brief History Of Transmission Company Of Nigeria. ........................................... 5
1.9 Goals Of The Establishment .................................................................................. 5
1.10 Organogram Of Transmission Company Of Nigeria (Tcn) Gusau Work Centre. . 5
1.11 Relevance of physics with electrical engineering…….…………………………..6
CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................... 7
2.0 Description of Different Activities Engaged during the SIWES Exercise .............. 7
2.1 Intoduction To Gusau Work Centre Station ............................................................ 7
2.2 The Transmission Grid ............................................................................................ 7
2.3 Element Of Sub Station ........................................................................................... 8
2.4 SAFETY ..................................................................................................................... 9
2.5 Departments: ............................................................................................................ 9
2.6 Introduction To Independent Systems Operation Dept (ISO) ............................... 11
2.7 Introduction Protection, Control And Metering Dept. (Pc&M)............................. 13
2.8 Introduction To Electrical Maintenance Dept. (Emd) ........................................... 17
2.9 Introduction To System Lines Dept. (S L D) ......................................................... 18
CHAPTER THREE ..................................................................................................... 19
3.0 Special Project Carried Out.................................................................................... 19
3.1 Introduction: ........................................................................................................... 19
3.2 Principles................................................................................................................ 20
3.3 Requirements And The Materials Needed ............................................................. 20
3.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................... 21
3.5 Result/ Observation ................................................................................................ 21
3.6 Table Of Result: ..................................................................................................... 22
3.7 Special Crojrct Conclusion .................................................................................... 22
3.8 Special Project Recommendation .......................................................................... 23
CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................ 24
4.0 Challenges Encountered ......................................................................................... 24
4.1 General Conclusion ................................................................................................ 24
4.2 General Recommendation ...................................................................................... 24
REFRENCES: .............................................................................................................. 25

vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1: Typical single line diagram of Gusau 132/33kV station ............................... 11
Figure2: Digital Multi meter ........................................................................................ 11
Figure3: Insulation Resistance tester ........................................................................... 12

vii
LIST OF TABLES
Table1: Organogram of TCN Gusau Work Centre……………………………………5
Table2: Result of test carried out on mobitra………………………………………...22

viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
The student’s industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is a skill training programme
designed to expose and prepare students of universities, polytechnics, colleges of
technology, colleges of agriculture and colleges of education for industrial work
situation they are likely to meet themselves after graduation. The scheme also owes
students the opportunity of familiarizing and exposing themselves to the needed
experience in handling equipment and machineries that are usually not available in their
institutions.
1.1 Historical Background of SIWES
The Student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established as a result of
the realization by the Federal government of Nigeria in 1973 of the need to introduce a
new dimension to the quality and standard of education obtained in the country in order
to achieve the much needed technological advancement. It has been shown that a
correlation exists between a country’s level of economic and technological development
and its level of investment in manpower development.
The ITF solely funded the scheme during its formative years. But due to the elevated
rate of financial involvement, it was withdrawn from the scheme in 1978. In 1979, the
Federal Government of Nigeria handed the scheme to both the National University
Commission (NUC) and National Board of Technical (NBTE), to change the
management and implementation of SIWES fund to ITF. It was effectively taken over
by ITF in July 1985 with the funding being solely borne by the Federal Government.
The Federal Government, ITF, the supervising agencies – NUC, NBTE, NCE (National
Commission for Colleges of Education), Employers of Labour, and the Institutions
contribute its own quarter in the management of SIWES. The various responsibilities
are as follows (Guros, 2018):
Federal Government
 To provide adequate funds to the ITF through the Federal Ministry of
Industries.
 To make it mandatory for all ministries, companies and industries to
offer places of attachment for students (Guros, 2018).

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Industrial Training Fund (ITF)
Formulation of policies and guidelines on SIWES for distributions to all the SIWES
Participating bodies, institutions and companies involved in the scheme on a regular
basis organizing programs for the students prior to their attachment, receive and process
master and placement list from the institution and supervising agencies i.e. NUC,
NBTE, NCE (Guros, 2018).
Supervise industrial attachment.
Disburse supervisory and student students allowance at the shortest possible time.
Provide insurance during student attachment/Training (Guros, 2018).
The Supervising Agencies
 Ensure the establishment and accreditation of SIWES units in institution
under their jurisdiction.
 Co-ordinate the appointment of full-time SIWES unit in all the
institution.
 Ensure adequate funding of a SIWES unit in all the institutions of the
Federation.
 Vet and approve master and placement list of students from participating
 Institutions and is been forwarded to ITF
 Monitor and review jobs-specification in collaboration with the
Institutions towards national minimum academic standard for all the programs
approved for SIWES.
The Students Industrial Work Experience (SIWES) is a skill training program, designed
to expose and prepare students of different tertiary institution to real life work/situation
after graduation.
The scheme exposes students to industrial based skills necessary for smooth transition
from the classroom to the world of work. It affords students of tertiary institution the
opportunity of being exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and
equipment which are not available in the education institute (ITF, 2004).
The following are some of the objectives of SIWES:
i. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to test their interest in a
particular career before permanent commitments are made.
ii. SIWES students will develop skills in the application of theory to
practical work situations.

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iii. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to test their aptitude for a
particular career before permanent commitment are made.
iv. SIWES students will develop skills and techniques directly applicable to
their careers.
v. SIWES will aid students in adjusting from college to full-time
employment.
vi. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to develop attitudes
conducive to effective interpersonal relationships.
vii. SIWES students will develop employment records/references that will
enhance employment opportunities.
viii. SIWES will increase a student’s sense of responsibility.
ix. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to understand informal
organizational interrelationships.
x. SIWES students will be able to develop a model policy that gives current
front-line leaders the permission and expectation to work with other staff on
conflict resolution and explain how this works to current front line leaders
(Guros, 2018).
1.2 SIWES Agencies and Their Roles
SIWES is a work experience scheme that involves the following agencies, student,
institute (university or Tertiary institution), and industry (employer). Industry Training
fund (I.T.F) and the federal government (ITF, 2004).
1.3 The Roles and Responsibilities of the Federal Government
i. To monitor and evaluate the scheme.
ii. To provide the necessary fund required for the scheme (ITF, 2004).
1.4 Roles and Responsibilities of the ITF
i. To compile all list of employers and subunit to institution.
ii. To supervise the student during the training process.
iii. To conduct verification and assessing the student log book after the
exercise.
iv. To regulate the payment of allowance (ITF, 2004).

1.5 Roles and Responsibilities of the Industry (Employer)


i. To accept student on industrial training.

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ii. To attach an experience staff to supervise and monitor the student
activities.
iii. To allow the institution to come and supervise her student.
iv. And they should also assist in assessing and evaluate the student log
book performance (ITF, 2004).
1.6 Roles and Responsibilities of the Institution
i. To organize orientation to student for SIWES program.
ii. To discipline student that fail to abide by the rule of institution and
industries.
iii. To assess the student during and after industrial training.
iv. To prepare a master and placement list and supervise the student.
v. To access the student log book performance after the exercise (ITF,
2004).
1.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Student.
i. To participate actively throughout the training exercise.
ii. To record all work done in their log book.
iii. Should be discipline and comply with all the rules and regulation of the
organization.
iv. To participate in any orientation program organized by the institution
prior to their going for industrial training (ITF, 2004).
1.8 Brief History of Transmission Company of Nigeria.
The federal government of Nigeria in 1950 established the electricity corporation of
Nigeria (ECN) and was commissioned in that same year, responsible for generating,
transmitting, distributing and selling of electricity to all customers in Nigeria.
In 1962, Niger dam’s authority (NDA) was by acts of parliament for generating
electricity by means of hydro (water) was established, but came into practice in 1968.
In 1969, the federal government decided to merge the ECN and NDA into a single body.
Consequently, by decree 24 of 29th June, 1972, which became effective from 1st April,
1972. The ECN and NDA were merged to form what was called national electric power
authority (NEPA).
In 2005, the name NEPA was changed to power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN).
Before then, in September 1990, the partial commercialization came into being with the

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appointment of a managing director/chief executive director to superintend over the
corporation. Also, the authority was divided into four autonomous divisions:
 Generation and transmission;
 Distribution and sales;
 Engineering, and
 Finance and administration.
Each division is headed by an executive director.
Under the transmission sector (TCN), a semi –autonomous sector, independent system
operations (ISO) was established after acquiring its license to operate as an independent
company (Engr Bello, 2013)
1.9 Goals of the Establishment
The mission goal and objective of Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) Gusau
work center is to cost effective assets, equipment and transmission grid networks for
erecting and dispatching height quality and reliable electricity with work mimed
technical loss (Engr Bello, 2013).
1.10 Organogram of Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) Gusau Work
Centre.

PRINCIPAL MANAGER SECRETARY

SENIOR MANAGER SENIOR MANAGER SENIOR MANAGER SENIOR MANAGER


SENIOR MANAGER HUMAN
EMD RESOURCES LINES SAFETY
PC &M ACCOUNTS
MANAGER

GENERAL OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE


GENERAL OFFICE
GENERAL OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE STORE OFFICE
LINES ACCOUNTS
EMD
PC &M HR

MOTOR VEHICLE
CLEANERS SECURITY GUARDS
DRIVERS

Table 1: Organogram of Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) Gusau Work Centre.

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1.11 Relevance of Physics with Electrical Engineering
The usually understanding of the relationship between electro physics and electrical
engineering is that physicists discover facts and laws develop method of measurement
determine varies constants propose and work out in detail mathematical theories and
hypothesis etc. while electrical engineers later apply some of these valuable facts and
theories or the design construction and aggregate.
While such a relationship exist b/w the two profession in many cases, get there are
numerous other cases in which certain practical requirement have to be meet empirically
ahead of a careful study by physicists and engineers have been working in parallel on
different phases of some problem (wikipedia, 1927).

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CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Description of Different Activities Engaged during the SIWES Exercise.
Many activities were engaged during my SIWES exercise which include introducing
me to the Gusau transmission Work Centre, and I was given schedule to work under the
technical department which were;
 Independent System Operations, Protection Control and Metering
 Electrical Maintenance Department, and System lines.
From the above mention department I was been able to introduced to the Transformers
and there principles of working, several equipment and safety, measuring instruments
and the working tools. Also a special project was carried out by me entitle as Dielectric
Strength of Transformer Oil (Lawal, 2018).
2.1 Introduction to Gusau Work Centre:
Stations under Gusau Work Centre (W/C):
 132kv/33kv Gusau sub station
 132kv/33kv Funtua sub station
 132kv/33kv Talata Mafara sub station
Types of Transformers & Their Nomenclature Used In Gusau Work Centre:
 132/33kv 60 MVA Transformer T4
 132/33kv 30mva Transformer T1B
 132/33kv 60mva Transformer T1C
 132/33kv 7.5mva Transformer T2A
 132/33kv 30mva Transformer T1B
 132/33kv 30mva Mobile Transformer T1A
The entire above mentioned substation under Gusau Work Centre work together in
order to achieve one goal. i.e.: maintaining stability of electricity transmission under
Gusau Work Centre, e.g. 132/33kV FUNTUA T.S, 132/33kV GUSAU T.S, AND
132/33kV T/MAFARA T.S. By going through the responsibilities each department
plays, one will notice that the general responsibility covers the entire course units under
electrical/electronic engineering technology (Engr Bello, 2013).
2.2 The Transmission Grid
The transmission grid consists of conduct carried on steel towers in between
transmission stations. If conveys generated power from power stations to major load
centers (Engr Bello, 2013).

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2.3 Element of Sub Station:
 132/33kv power transformers
 Grounding transformers
 Ground
 (110v) battery bank D.C
 (110v) battery bank charger
 Overhead lines conductors
 Current transformers
 Voltage transformers
 132kv circuit breakers
 132kv isolators
 33kv circuit breakers
 33kv isolators
 Lightening arrestors (Lawal, 2018).
2.4 Safety
Is defined as certainty that no injury/damage will occur as a result of use of material or
process.
Safety application is very important in power system transmission, being the use of
electricity is the commonest activity in any industrial plant, especially after the
industrial revolution.
In Transmission Company of Nigeria all the transmission line equipment, power
transformers and their respective switchgear’s are expected to operate strictly by safety
rule and regulation.
Safety Precaution
When working on high or low voltage network system, for instance, 132kv, the main
supply.
While on the field, an operating road should be connected to the earth. This process
ensure that any mistake by choosing the feeder, or if there is any leakage somewhere,
the bridge of the line will not allow the supply to pass through where the lines men are
working.
If is at the bridging point the supply will be transported to the ground.

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If there is no possibility of making use of an operating road, then ways must be created
by opening the jumper conductor cut.
While on the field helmet must be part on so that any falling object is it tools instrument.
Equipment over head will not hit the head directly hence reduce the extent of injury.
Electrical Safety
Electrical accident, unlike most other industrial accidents quite often happens to training
staff. There are essential basic requirements for person to work on electrical power
equipment which are as follow:-
 Very good understanding of safety rules and regulation
 Knowledge and skills about the job
 Rationality/capability
 Adequate wearing of personal protection equipment
 Good health
 Firefighting knowledge
 First aid treatment knowledge.
2.5 DEPARTMENTS:
1. Independent System Operation (ISO)
2. Protection Control And Metering (PC&M)
3. Electrical Maintenance Department (EMD)
4. System Lines Department
5. Administrator Department
6. Safety Department.
The above names departments combine together and also they work together to achieve
one goal, this departments all fall under Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN)
(Lawal, 2018).
2.6 Introduction to Independent System Operation Department (ISO)
The independent system operation department (ISO) is a department that is capable of
maintaining, monitoring electrical devices and electrical equipment in both switch
yard and control room, the in charge of responsibility, operating apparatus and the
man on duty is known as “operator”.
Operator: The particular operating representative in charge of and responsible for the
operation of apparatus. Who is qualified for the operation of apparatus” who is qualified
and authorized to deal with related matters under consideration.

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Control Room: A control room is a room dedicated to electrical equipment. Electrical
equipment may in both conditions either be for power distribution equipment, or for
communications equipment.
Figure 8: Typical single line diagram of 132/33kv Gusau sub station.
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM (SLD): single line diagram of a power system is the
network which shows the main connections and arrangement of the system components
along with their data in power station (Lawal, 2018).

Figure 1: Typical single line diagram of 132/33kV Gusau Substation

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Main Duty of Independent System Operation (ISO)
 Monitoring system
 Voltage level
 Frequency
 Report any faulty equipment to maintenance department.
 Load consumption by the customers
 Write report on daily basis on load
 To operate the transmission system and the connected installed
generation in a safe and reliable manner.
 It is responsible for the overall security and reliability of the grid system.
 it is responsible to the economic dispatch of available generation
resources
 Protects the authority’s personnel and equipment, firefighting within the
station.
 maintaining system stability
 Recording of hourly and monthly readings.
 Issuing and receiving of protection guarantees.
 Keeps proper records of the system operations.
 Report any abnormalities observed in the station to the appropriate
authority for necessary actions (Lawal, 2018).
2.7 Introduction to Protection Control and Metering Department (PC&M)
Main Duty of Protection, Control and Metering (PC&M)
 Maintenance of transformer and circuit breaker
 Maintenance of 110 volt battery bank D.C charger
 Maintenance o control protection panels
 Over seen of over current and earth fault
 Ration test
 Trip test
 Short current test
 Short circuit and open circuit test (Lawal, 2018).

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Measurement Instrument
Measurement instrument: is a process that involves the use of instrument to determine
the magnitude and the quantity of any variable such as current voltages, resistance, and
power e.g. of measuring instrument are as follows (Engr Bello, 2013):
 Digital Multi Meter
Digital Multi Meter (DMM) is a test tool used to measure two or more electrical
values—principally voltage (volts), current (amps) and resistance (ohms).

Figure 2: Digital Multi Meter (DMM)


 Digital Clamp Ammeter
A digital clamp ammeter is an electrical test tool that combines a basic digital multi
meter with a current sensor, The Clamps measures current.
 Primary Current Injection Testing Machine
Primary current injection testing is utilized in high current/high voltage scenarios found
at large electrical installations such as substations.
 Secondary Current Injection Testing Machine
Secondary current injection testing machine refers to the location the test is conducted,
a secondary current injection occurs right where the trip unit is located. Secondary
current injection test sets do not test the wiring or current sensors in a circuit breakers,
instead focus solely on trip unit operation.
 Insulation Resistance Tester (MEGGER)
The Insulation Resistance Test is the second test required by the electrical safety testing
standards. The Insulation Resistance Test consists in measuring the Insulation
resistance and polarization index of a device under test, while phase and neutral are
short circuited together.

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Figure 3: Insulation resistance tester (MEGGER)
Injection Testing Machine: Normally use for injecting over current earth fault for trip
relays (Lawal, 2018).
The Relay: is an electronic device for receiving signals and transmitting them against
with greater strength that increase the distance over which they are carry.
Types of Relays
1. Over Current Relay
2. Current Relay
3. Instantaneous Relay
Over Current Relay: a relay which operate when energizing quantity of current excess
the operating value of relay
Current Relay: a relay which at pre-determined value of current (this include over
current and under current relay) (Engr Bello, 2013).
110 Volt Battery D.C Charger
The Battery Charger: 110V battery charger is a charger where battery are connected in
a cell device that convert channels energy in to electrical energy by means of reversible
of channels reaction and that may be recharged by passing current through it.
Figure 14: 110 Volt Battery D.C Charger
2.8 Introduction to Electrical Maintenance Department (EMD)
Main Duty of Electrical Maintenance Department (EMD)
 maintenance and repairs o transformers, isolators, circuit breaker,
current transformers and voltage transformer
 sealing of oil leakage of current transformer
 installation of power transformer, circuit breaker, and isolators

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 maintenance of (110v) battery bank
 indoor and outdoor snitch yard illuminator
Works Tools
Work tools: is a tool that carries out maintenance during work e.g. electrical tools box,
pumping machine flange house.
Measurement Instrument
 Digital Multi Meter: is an instrument use for measuring current voltage
resistance
 Insulation Resistance Tester: is an instrument use for measuring or taken
insulation resistance tester.
 Oil Testing Machine: use for measuring or test the sample of transformer
oils. E.g. diverter top button sampling
Transformer:
Transformer is a static device which transforms A.C. electrical power from one voltage
to another voltage keeping the frequency same by electromagnetic induction.
Types of Transformers:
There are several transformer types used in the electrical power system for different
purposes, like in power generation, distribution and transmission and utilization of
electrical power. The transformers are classified based on voltage levels, Core medium
used, winding arrangements, use and installation place, etc. The different types of
transformers are the step up and step down Transformer, Distribution Transformer,
potential or Instruments Transformer, Power Transformer, 1-phase (ϕ) and 3-Phase (ϕ)
transformer, earthing transformer, etc.
In transmission system they all use step-down transformers, while in generation they
use both step-up and step-down transformers.
The Types of Transformers Used In Gusau T.S:
1. Power Transformers:
The Power transformer is a one kind of transformer that is used to transfer electrical
energy in any part of the electrical or electronic circuit between the generator and the
distribution primary circuits.
 132/33KV 30MVA MOBILE TRANSFORMER T1A
 132/33KV 30MVA TRANSFORMER T1B
 132/33KV 60MVA TRANSFORMER T1C

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 33/11KV 7.5MVA TRANSORMER T2A
 33/11KV 7.5MVA TRANSFORMER T2B
2. Earthing Transformers
An earthing transformer (neutral coupler) is a three-phase transformer connected to the
power system to provide a neutral connection for earthing, either directly or via
impedance. The earthing transformers may in addition supply a local auxiliary load.
The earthing transformer creates a neutral point for a network.
3. Instrument Transformers
 Current Transformer (C’T)
A current transformer (C’T) is a type of transformer that is used to measure alternating
current (AC). It produces a current in its secondary which is proportional to the current
in its primary. Current transformers, along with voltage or potential transformers, are
instrument transformers. Also current transformer serves as sense that sense any
abnormal condition or fault to the transformer and send signal directly to relay.
NOTE: The physical identification of CT along the Line is that it connected in parallel
and it has two point of connection.
 Voltage Transformer (V’T)
Voltage transformers (VT), also called potential transformers (PT), are a parallel
connected type of instrument transformer. They are designed to present negligible load
to the supply being measured and have an accurate voltage ratio and phase relationship
to enable accurate secondary connected metering.
NOTE: The physical identification of VT along the Line is that it connected in series
and it has one point of connection (Engr Bello, 2013).
Transformer Accessories
1. Bushing s/p
2. Winding temperature
3. Conservator tank
4. Piping
5. Cooling fan
6. Arching horns
7. Tapped changer
8. Temperature gauge
9. Transformer oil temperature

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10. Silica gel (Lawal, 2018).
Circuit Breaker (CB):
Is electrical devices used for making and braking a circuit both under normal and
abnormal condition
Types of Circuit Breakers (CB):
1. Oil Circuit Breaker:
This uses oil as interrupting and insulating medium. The oil circuit breakers are divided
in two types based on the pressure and amount of oil used as Bulk oil circuit breaker
and minimum oil circuit breakers.
These two types are older circuit breakers. In recent years in addition to the above two,
two more interrupting mediums are introduced.
2. Vacuum Circuit Breakers:
This uses vacuum as the interrupting medium because of its high dielectric and diffusive
properties as interrupting medium.
3. Sf6 Circuit Breakers:
SF6 has 100 times high dielectric strength than air and oil as interrupting medium. The
breaker with SF6 interrupting medium is called as SF6 circuit breaker.
Classification of Breakers
1. Medium of electric are extension: are quenching e.g. oil s6, air
compressor and vacuum
2. Current breaking capacity: maximum current the circuit breaker can
operate
3. Type of construction: means of indoor and out door
4. Base on operating mechanism: energy required to close and open the
breaker
Summary: Circuit breakers the transformer oil provides insulation as well as is
quenching medium.
Opening of Circuit Breaker
To open the circuit breaker the closing coil level is energized by the closing springs it
fully charged. This work the moving contact upward to close the circuit breaker (Engr
Bello, 2013).
Isolator: is a grantee item used in substation to open the circuit physically. When carry
out any maintenance or isolator is a switching device which is used in the transmission

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and distribution substation to isolate the one part of electrical circuit from another
temporarily (Engr Bello, 2013).
110 Volt D.C Battery Bank
There is (55) fifty five no cell battery bank D.C connection in each cell has two (2) volts
when of is full charge and they are all connected in series which goes to D.C panels.
That controlling motor inside the circuit breaker and transformer auxiliary protection
control panel where relays is mounting (Lawal, 2018).
2.9 Introduction to System Lines Department (S L D)
Main Duty of System Lines Department (S L D)
 Replacement of broken insulator
 Replacement of vandalized tower
 turn of cut conductor
 temporary of water erosion control
 cutting of dangers threes along the line
 patrolling of (132kv) line that are iron structure (tower) also carry out
maintenance works on them
 construction of 132kv line that is to be above the ground on an iron
structure(tower) (Lawal, 2018)
The Tower: is a steel structure for supporting electrical power conductors above the
ground level and the height of structure is usually designed base on voltage level (Engr
Bello, 2013).
Things to Be Observed During Lines Patrol
1. Conductor sagging
2. Tower member (missing tower member)
3. Jumper vibration damper
4. Tower fooling increase of water erosion
5. Tower position (by make sure they are upright)
6. Check danger trees (tress approaching line conductor) (Engr Bello, 2013).
Types of Tower Use in Transmission System
1. Tension Tower
2. Suspension Tower
3. Dead End Tower

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Tension Tower: this is the types of tower that is used at point division form along the
transmission lines and the positions of the isolator are usually vertical
Suspension Tower: These types of tower use when lines go on a straight lines and the
position of the tower are usually horizontally
Dead End Tower: this type of tower is using at end of the lines before links it to the line
(Engr Bello, 2013).
Number of Tower Used From Funtua to Gusau T.S Are As Follows:
1. Number of tower(366)
2. Number of suspension tower(320)
3. Number of tension tower (23) (Engr Bello, 2013).
The Numbers of Tower Used Rom Gusau to Talata Mafara T.S Are As Follows:
1. Number of towers (366)
2. Number of suspension towers(344)
3. Number of tension tower (22) (Engr Bello, 2013).
The Conductor Used In Over Head Lines
1. Copper conductor
2. Aluminum conductor
3. Steel wire conductor
The Insulator Used In Over Head Lines
1. Spindle insulator
2. Pin type insulator
3. Post cap insulators
4. Disk insulators (Engr Bello, 2013).

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Special Project Carried Out
Tittle of the Project: Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil.
Aim and Objective: To measure the Dielectric strength or breakdown voltage of the
transformer oil Varies with time.
3.1 Introduction:
Dielectric strength of transformer oil provides reliable operation of electrical
equipment. Dielectric strength of transformer oil, in turn, is mainly determined by the
presence of fiber and water, so the mechanical impurities and water in such oils must
be completely absent. The dielectric strength of the oil decreases with time. Dielectric
strength of oil - the value is extremely sensitive to its hydration. Under the action of the
electric field of the emulsified oil droplets of water are drawn to places where the field
strength is particularly high and where, in fact, begins the development of breakdown.
Even more dramatically reduced dielectric strength of oil, if it is other than water, fiber
contained impurities. Under the influence of the field forces the wet fibers not only
drawn in places where the field is stronger, but arranged in the direction of lines of
force, which greatly facilitates the breakdown of the oil.
Dielectric strength of transformer oil is also known as breakdown voltage of transformer
oil or breakdown voltage of transformer oil. Breakdown voltage is measured by
observing at what voltage, sparking strength between two electrodes immerged in the
oil, separated by specific gap. Low value of BDV indicates presence of moisture content
and conducting substances in the oil.
Dry and clean oil gives BDV results, better than the oil with moisture content and other
conducting impurities. Minimum breakdown voltage of transformer oil or dielectric
strength of transformer oil at which this oil can safely be used in transformer, is
considered as 30 KV. Dielectric features of oils are mainly determined by the dielectric
loss tangent. Dielectric strength of transformer oil is mainly determined by the presence
of fiber and water, so the mechanical impurities and water in oils must be completely
absent. Low pour point (-45 ° C and below) is necessary for saving their mobility at low
temperatures (Sheekhar Mahmud, 2014 ).
3.2 Principles
Dielectric breakdown voltage testing is an important element in the maintenance
programme of any item of oil insulated electrical equipment. However, to get the

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maximum benefit from this type of testing, Megger strongly recommends that the oil is
tested at least once a year and preferably twice a year. The results should be recorded,
as trending the data will make it easier to identify sudden or unexpected changes. If a
sudden change in the results is found, the transformer can be inspected for leaks, the oil
level can be checked and the water content of the oil evaluated. If contamination is
confirmed, it will often be possible to dry and filter the oil, thereby reconditioning it
rather than having to replace it with new oil (Sheekhar Mahmud, 2014 ).
3.3 Requirements and the Materials Needed
The materials needed to carryout dielectric strength of transformer oil are;
 The Megger dielectric breakdown voltage test sets,
 Oil Sample, and
 DC Voltage.
The dielectric breakdown voltage test is a relatively quick and easy way of determining
the amount of contamination in insulating oil. Usually the contaminant is water, but it
can also be conductive particles, dirt, debris, insulating particles and the by-products of
oxidation and aging of the oil.
For in-service equipment, the dielectric breakdown voltage test offers a useful and
convenient way to detect moisture and other contamination in the oil before it leads to
a catastrophic failure. The information gained from the test can also be used as an aid
to:
 Predicting the remaining life of a transformer
 Enhancing operational safety
 Preventing equipment fires
 Maintaining reliability Dielectric breakdown voltage testing is also
carried out on new oil before it is used to fill equipment, and as part of the
acceptance testing for deliveries of new and reprocessed oil (Sheekhar Mahmud,
2014 ).
3.4 Procedure
Put simply, a dielectric breakdown voltage test is a measure of the electrical stress that
an insulating oil can withstand without breakdown. The test is performed using a test
vessel that has two electrodes mounted in it, with a gap between them.
A sample of the oil to be tested is put into the vessel and an AC voltage is applied to the
electrodes. This voltage is increased until the oil breaks down – that is, until a spark

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passes between the electrodes. The test voltage is then immediately turned off. The
voltage at which breakdown occurred is the test result, and is typically evaluated by
comparing it with guidelines set out in various standards, or in the oil manufacturer’s
specifications.
The exact method of performing the test is determined by the standard that is being
used;
The standard typically defines parameters such as the size and shape of the electrodes,
the gap between them, the rate at which the test voltage is increased, how many times
the test is repeated and whether or not the oil is stirred during the test.

Figure 27: Megger OTS60PB oil tester


3.5 Result/ Observation
The dielectric strength breakdown voltage test of transformer oil is a test that is been
carryout by electrical maintenance department (EMD), hence the test may be in both
condition of either to PASS or FAIL.
When the test is carried out the observation of the result when it’s PASSED is expected
to be from 30kv above, E.g.: 31kv, 45kv, 56kv, 60kv. While the expected result when
it’s FAILED is below 30kv, i.e. from 29kv below, E.g.: 27kv, 22kv, 18kv, 15kv, and
9kv E.T.C.
NOTE: The standard Break-down voltage for dielectric strength of transformer oil is
60Kv (Sheekhar Mahmud, 2014 ).

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3.6 Table of Result:
Test carried out on mobile transformer on 13-Sep-2018 at Gusau T.S on mobile
transformer 132/33Kv 30MVA mobile transformer using British standard (Lawal,
2018):

S/No Testing Points Breakdown Voltage Average Remarks


1,2,3,4,5,6 (kV)

1 Main Transformer 34,44,47,59,32,40 kV 43 kV Pass


(Mobitra)

2 Drum No_ 1 21,35,24,15,32,24 kV 25 kV Fail

3 Drum No_ 2 51,43,38,25,32,44 kV 39 kV Pass

4 Drum No_ 3 24,39,37,32,35,18 kV 31 kV Pass

5 Drum No_ 4 18,27,20,15,16,25 kV 20 kV Fail

6 Drum No_ 5 7,8,10,8,10,9 kV 9 kV Fail

(Lawal, 2018)
Table 2: Result Test carried out on mobile transformer 30MVA
3.7 Special Project Conclusion
The breakdown voltage in case of the DC voltage type was lower than that of both the
AC and impulse voltages types due to the establishment of a continuous bridge between
the electrodes. The impurities had a significant effect on reducing the dielectric strength
of the insulating oil. Using the t-test, the significant difference of the measurements
between the pure oil and oil with impurities can be observed. The non-uniform electric
field was developed when the point-plate electrode was used and therefore, the
dielectric strength of the oil was lower than in the other plate-plate and rod-plate
electrodes. The curvature of the rod electrode mitigated the electric field and hence, the
breakdown voltage enhanced rather than in plate-plate and point-plate electrodes
(Sheekhar Mahmud, 2014 ; Lawal, 2018).

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3.8 Special Project Recommendation
Operational properties of transformer oils checked by an electrically insulating and
physical- chemical characteristics:
 Determination of the electrical strength of oil;
 Determination of the loss tangent oil;
 Determination of moisture content of oil. The method is based on
separation of hydrogen by reacting water in oil located hydride oxygen;
 Determination of the gas content of oil. Performed using absorption
meter. The method of determining is by measuring changes in the residual
pressure in the vessel after pouring it into a test oil sample.
 Determination of mechanical impurities. Quantitative solids content
consists of passing dissolved in gasoline samples of transformer oil through ash
less filter paper (Sheekhar Mahmud, 2014 ).

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Challenges Encountered
I thank god i didn’t encounter what i will call a problem but will say my being moved
from one department to another where i served, instead of restricting me in one field of
study.
4.1 General Conclusion
The student’s industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) has exposed me to practical
skills acquisition which i have not been able to have in the school theory, and to
maintenance, management (administration) and relating to human beings.
4.2 General Recommendation
I whole hearted and strongly recommend that instead of students looking for where
they would do the attachment let the school authority take it upon themselves to use
related lecturers assigned to take the students to relevant places where the courses of
study are being carried practically. the school can negotiate, because some work-places
is because of financial implications they don’t want to take the students at relevant
places which students have no options but to manage where it is not relevant just to say
they had the SIWES.

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References:
Engr Bello, L. s. (2013). SIWES Report Printed. Gusau: Gusau Work Centre; page 2-
22.
Guros, A. (2018, December 13). History of SIWES in Nigeria. Retrieved from
Guros.com: http://www.Guros.com
ITF. (2004). Minutes & resolutions of the 5 Chief Executives forum of SIWES
Supervising Agencies . Abuja: National Comission For College of Education.
Lawal, K. (2018, Octorber 23). Description of Work done During SIWES at TCN
Gusau work centre.
Sheekhar Mahmud, I. O. (2014 ). Annual Report conference. Annual Report
conference on Electtrical insulation and Dielectric Strength Phenomena (pp.
19-22). Google.com.
TCN. (2018, October 5th ). mission & goals of TCN. Retrieved from www.tcn.go.ng:
http://www.tcn.gov.ng
wikipedia. (1927). journal of the AIEE. Relevance of Physics to Electrical
Engineering , vol:46; of page 2.

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