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Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

5.0 APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION


5.1 AREA OF A REGION
1. The definite integral can be used in finding the area of a region in an xy-plane and
volume of solid obtained when revolving a region about a line

A)The area of a region bounded by a curve y=f(x), x-axis and two lines x = a and x = b

y For the continuous function f(x) with


f ( x)  0

b b
f(x) A=  f ( x)dx   ydx
a a

x
a b

y For the continuous function f(x) with


a b f ( x)  0
x
b b
A=  0  f ( x)dx =   ydx
a a

f(x)

y The range of f ( x)  0 for x  c and


f ( x)  0 for x  c
f(x)
c b
a c b x A =  0  f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx
a c
c b
  f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx
a c

B) Area of a region bounded by a curve x = f(y), y-axis and two lines y = a and y = b
y The graph of a continuous function f with
f ( y)  0

b b
A=  f ( y)dy
a f(y) a

x
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025
b

y The value of integral  f ( y)dy  0


a
b
A=  0  f ( y)dy
b
a
b
f(y) a =   f ( y)dy
x a

y
c b

b A=  f ( y)dy   0  f ( y)dy
a c
c b
c
f(y) =  f ( y)dy   f ( y)dy
a c
x

C) Area between two curves


The area of the region between y1 = f (x) and y2 = g(x) from x = a to x = b, where y1 > y2

b
A    y1  y2  dx
y
a
A b
   f ( x)  g ( x) dx
a
x
a b

The area of the region between x1 = f (y) and x2 = g(y) from y = a to y = b where x1 > x2

b
y
A   x1  x2  dy
a
b b

A    f ( y)  g ( y) dy
a a
x
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

D) Area of a region bounded by two curves and two lines


Area bounded by the curves f ( x), g( x), x  a and x  b
y c b

 
A  f ( x)  g ( x)dx  g ( x)  f ( x)dx
a c
g(x)

f(x)
x
a c b

Area bounded by the curves f ( y), g( y), y  a and y  b


y
c b

b g(y) 
a

A  f ( y)  g ( y)dy  g ( y)  f ( y)dy
c

a f(y)

A)The area of a region bounded by a curve y=f(x), x-axis and two lines x = a and x = b
Example 1:
Find the area of the shaded region in each of the following diagrams
a) y b) y

y  x2  2x  1 4

-1 x

1 2 x y  x 2  4x  5

1 1
Ans: unit 2 Ans: 33 unit 2
3 3
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

Example 2:

Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y  10  3x  x2 , the x-axis and the lines
x  1 and x = 3
2
Ans : 42 unit 2
3
Example 3:

A region R is bounded by the curve y  x2  5x  8 , the x-axis, the line x  1 and x = 2. Find
the area of R.
1
Ans: 19 unit 2
2
Example 4: y

y  x( x  5)(x  3)

x
-3 0 5

The diagram shows the curve y  x( x  5)(x  3) . Find the area of the region bounded by the
curve, the x-axis and the line x  2 and x = 3
11
Ans: 85 unit 2
12
B) Area of a region bounded by a curve x=f(y), y-axis and two lines y = a and y = b
Example 1:
Find the area of the shaded region in the diagram

y y 2  2( x  3)

3
1
xx

1
Ans: 10 unit 2
3
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

Example 2:

Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y  x3  3 , the y-axis and the lines y  5
and y = 2
1
Ans: 11 unit 2
4
Example 3:
y

x  ( y 1)( y  4)

x
-1

The diagram shows the curve x  ( y 1)( y  4) . Find the area of the shaded region.

Ans: 12 unit 2
C) Area between two curves
Example 1:
Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y  x(8  x) and the straight line y  3x .

5
Ans: 20 unit 2
6

Example 2:
Find the area of the shaded region in each of the following diagrams:
a)
y
y  x  12

y  4x 2  x 3  6

x
-1 2

1
Ans: 11 unit 2
4
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

b)
y

-1 y  9  2x x

1
Ans: 9 unit2
4
D) Area of a region bounded by two curves and two lines
Example 1:

A jeweller has sketched the outline of an earning on a coordinate diagram with


boundaries as described by the given equation. Calculate its area.

9
Ans: unit 2
4
Exercises 1:
1. a) Find the area of the region bounded by the x-axis
i) the curve y  ( x 1)2  3 , the lines x  1 and x = 4
2
Ans: 26 unit 2
3
ii) the curve y  10  2x  x2 , the lines x  1 and x = 3
2
Ans: 38 unit 2
3
a) Find the area of a region R if the region R is bounded by the x-axis,
i) the curve y  x2  3x  5 , the lines x  2 and x = 4
Ans: 36 unit 2
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

ii) the curve y  2x2  x  6 , the lines x  1 and x = 3


2
Ans: 38 unit 2
3
2. The diagram shows the shaded region that is bounded by the curve y  ( x  2)2 , the
straight lines x = 1 and x = 3 and the x-axis

y
y  x  22

x
1 3

2
Calculate the area of the shaded region. unit 2
Ans:
3
3. The diagram shows the shaded region that is enclosed by the curve y  (1  x)(2  x)
and the x-axis

y  (1  x)(2  x)
x
0

1
Calculate the area of the shaded region. Ans: 4 unit2
2
4. The diagram shows the curve y  ( x  2)3. The shaded region is enclosed by the curve,
the x-axis and the y-axis. Calculate the area of the shaded region.
y

y  ( x  2)3.
0 x

Ans: 4 unit 2
5. The diagram shows the curve y  ( x 1)(x  1)(3  x) . Find the area of the shaded
region
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

y
y
y  ( x 1)(x  1)(3  x)

0 x

3
Ans: 5 unit 2
4
1 2
6. The diagram below shows a shaded region bounded by the curve y  x  1 , the x-
2
axis and the straight lines x = 2 and x = p

y
1
y  x2  1
2

0 x
2 p

a) If the area of the shaded region is given by A unit2, express A in terms of p


p3 10
Ans: a)  p
6 3
Exercises 2:

1. a) Find the area of the region bounded by the curve x  ( y  3)2  2 ,the y-axis
i) the lines y = 0 and y = 4
1
Ans: 17 unit2
3
ii) the lines y = 4 and y = 5
1
Ans: 4 unit2
3
b) A region R is bounded by the curve y  x3  1 , the x-axis, the y-axis and the line
y  7 . Find the area of the region R
1
Ans: 11 unit2
4
2. The diagram shows the curve 3 y2  x  2 . The shaded region is enclosed by the
curve, the straight lines y = 1 and y  2 and the y-axis. Calculate the area of the
shaded region.
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

3y2  x  2

0 x
-2

Ans: 15 unit 2

3. The diagram shows part of the curve y  4  x2 . PQ is a straight line. Find the area of
the shaded region

y
y  4  x2
P

x
0 Q

1
Ans: 1 unit 2
3
4. The diagram shows part of the curve y 2  x  1. Calculate the area of the shaded
region

y2  x  1

0 x
3

1
Ans: 1 unit 2
3
5. The diagram shows part of the curve y  x  3 and the straight line y = 1
3
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

y  x  33
y

B x
0

a) the coordinates of points A and B


b) the area of shaded region
Ans: (a) A(2,1), B (3,0)
1
(b) 2 unit 2
4
6. The diagram below shows a shaded region bounded by the curve y2  x  k , the y-
axis and the straight lines y = -3 and y = 3
y

3 y2  x  k
0 x

-3

Ans: k = 2
7.

The diagram shows the graphs of y  x 2 and y  2  x 2 . Calculate the shaded area
8
Ans: unit2
3
5.2 VOLUME OF A SOLID OF REVOLUTION

1. When a region is revolved about a line, we obtain a solid that is known as the solid
of revolution.
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

2. The line where the region is revolved is known as the axis or revolution.
A) Revolving a region about the x-axis
The volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving R completely about the x-axis

y
b
V    y 2dx
a
b
    f ( x) 2dx
a

a b

B) Revolving a region about the y-axis


The volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving R completely about the y-axis
y

b
b V    x 2dy
a
b
    f  y  2dy
a a
x

Example 1:

Find the volume of revolution when the region bounded by the curve y  x2  4 , the x-axis,
the lines x = 1 and x =2 is rotated completely about the x-axis
13
Ans: 40  unit3
15
Example 2:

The diagram shows the curve y  ( x  2) 2 16 with a shaded region. Find the volume of
revolution when the shaded region is rotated about the x-axis completely.
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

y  ( x  2)2 16
-1 2
x

3
Ans: 528  unit 3
5
Example 3:

Find the volume of revolution when the region bounded by the curve x  y 2  6 y , the lines

y = 1 and y = 3 is rotated about the y-axis completely.


2
Ans: 120  unit 3
5
Example 4:

Find the volume of revolution when the region bounded by the curve y  9  x2 , the line y =
3 and the line y = 6 is rotated about the y-axis completely.

Ans: 13.5 unit3

Exercises 3:
1. The diagram shows the shaded region that is enclosed by the curve y  x(2  x) and the x-
axis. Calculate the volume generated when the shaded region is revolved through 360 o about
the x-axis

y  x(2  x)

x
0

1
Ans: 1  unit3
15
2. The diagram shows the shaded region that is bounded by the curve y  x3  8 , the y-axis
and the x-axis. Calculate the volume generated when the shaded region is revolved through
360o about the x-axis
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

y  x3  8

x
0

2
Ans: 82  unit3
7
3. The diagram below shows the shaded region that is enclosed by the curve y  6  x2 , the
x-axis and the y-axis. Calculate the volume generated when the shaded region is revolved
through 360o about the y-axis.
y

y  6  x2

x
0
Ans: 18 unit3

6
4. The diagram below shows the curve y  and straight lines x = 2 and x = 6. Calculate the
x
volume generated when the shaded region is revolved through 360o about the y-axis.
6
y y
x

x
2 6

Ans: 24 unit3

5. The diagram shows part of the curve y 2 16  x and the straight line 2x  3y  6 .
Calculate the volume of the solid generated when the shaded region is revolved through 360o
about the x-axis
Chapter 5: Application of Integration DM025

y2 16  x

x
0
2x  3 y  6
Ans: 124 unit3

x2
6. In the diagram below, the equations of the curve and the straight line RAQ are y  2
2
and 2 y  x  10 respectively.Find
y
x2
y 2
R 2
A(2,4)
2 y  x  10
Q
x
0

a) the area of the shaded region


1
Ans: 21 unit2
3
b) the volume of the solid generated when the region bounded by the curve, the straight
line y = 4 and the y-axis is rotated through 360o about the y-axis

Ans: 4 unit3