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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

The Theory Survival Kit for Instrumental/Voice Teachers

Pre-Grade 1 (ABRSM Syllabus)

• This book is intended for instrumental/voice teachers who wish to train their
students in beginning music theory as part of their music lesson.

• Each unit is intended to last no longer than 5 minutes and can be done at
any suitable point during the music lesson.

• The units are designed to be teacher-friendly, and require no preparation,


photocopying or printing. We know that preparation costs time and money!

• Use this course to make sure that your students have no gaps in their
knowledge and to give them a solid grounding in theory which will last them
a lifetime. This course follows the “little but often” approach to teaching,
and helps students to link “theory” with “practice” by using the music which
they are actually playing.

• For best results, the units should be followed in order. Units may be skipped
if the student is already familiar with the material.

• The best way to be sure that your students understand each point is to ask
them to explain it back to you. If they can’t explain it, they probably don’t
really understand it!

• Parents often appreciate being given the music theory syllabus so that they
can follow their children’s progress.

• Ask your student to buy a music manuscript notebook and to label it “Music
Theory”. They will need it to record their answers. For best results, be strict
about little things like recording the lesson number and date of each
exercise. Loose-leaf pads are less effective, because invariably students lose
pages out of them!

• The first number refers to the lesson number. Steps of the lesson are then
tagged on to the end, e.g. 1.2 is the second step of the first lesson.

• One or two foreign terms are included in each unit, so that students can
build up their knowledge slowly but surely. A list of terms, in the order that
they appear in the units, is available in the appendix. Use this for regular
revision.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

Pre GRADE ONE – THEORY SYLLABUS

1. Clefs – the Treble Clef


2. Clefs – the Bass Clef
3. Notes – the Crotchet and Minim
4. Notes – the Semibreve and Quaver
5. Rests – the Crotchet, Minim, Semibreve and Quaver
6. Notes and Rests – the Semiquaver
7. Dotted Notes
8. Sharps, Flats and Naturals
9. Barlines
10. Time Signatures – 4/4
11. Time Signatures – 2/4 and 3/4
12. Key Signatures – G major
13. Key Signatures – D major
14. Key Signatures – F major
15. Scales – C major
16. Scales – G major
17. Scales – D major
18. Scales – F major
19. Scales – Degrees of the Scale
20. Intervals –Above the Tonic by Number Only
21. Ties and Slurs
22. Rhythm – Finding Patterns
23. Rhythm – Syncopated or On the Beat
24. Rhythm – How Pieces End
25. Rhythm – Writing a 2-bar Rhythm

Please note this PDF uses UK note names.


For reference, these are the USA equivalents:

Breve= double whole note


Semibreve= whole note
Minim= half note
Crotchet= quarter note
Quaver= eighth note
Semiquaver= sixteenth note
Demisemiquaver=32nd note

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

1. Clefs – the Treble Clef


1. Ask your students for the two names of the clef (treble/G clef).
2. Ask why it is called the G clef, and get student to name various notes
as you point to the lines and spaces.
3. Show students how to draw the clef in their notebook. Show them
where to start and demonstrate slowly.
4. Ask students to draw some clefs on their own. Check for errors and
explain.
5. HW: Draw ten treble clefs. Write a row of notes for the student and
ask them to write the letter names.
6. Today’s Term: tempo = time.

2. Clefs – the Bass Clef


1. Ask your students for the two names of the clef (bass/F clef).
2. Ask why it is called the F clef, and get student to name various notes
as you point to the lines and spaces.
3. Show students how to draw the clef in their notebook. Show them
where to start and demonstrate slowly.
4. Ask students to draw some clefs on their own. Check for errors and
explain.
5. HW: Draw ten bass clefs. Write a row of notes for the student and ask
them to write the letter names.
6. Today’s Term: forte = loud.

3. Notes – the Crotchet and Minim


1. Find examples of crotchets and minims in some printed music and ask
student to name them.
2. Ask students how many crotchets will fit into a minim, how long does
each note last (1 beat, 2 beats).
3. Ask student which side of the crotchet they think they should write its
stem (depends which way up!)
4. Show students correct way to draw note-heads. They should be egg-
shaped, not round.
5. Ask students to write a few notes out.
6. HW: Students write a treble clef, then write crotchets on every
line/space starting from the bottom, and label the notes. Then on the
next stave, write a bass clef, write minims starting from the top, and
label the notes.
7. Today’s Term: andante = at a walking pace.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

4. Notes – the Semibreve and Quaver


1. Find e.g.s of semibreves and quavers and ask students to name them.
2. Ask students how long the notes last (4 beats, ½ a beat).
3. Test student with some simple sums – crotchet+crotchet=minim, etc.
4. Show students how to write the notes, and let them try. Note-heads
should be oval.
5. Show students how quavers can be “beamed” (joined) together.
6. Find some music your student hasn’t seen before, and ask them to
find semibreves, minims, crotchets and quavers in the piece.
7. HW: Students write out the four note values in order, starting with
the shortest (quaver, crotchet, minim, semibreve). Then write out
quavers in groups of 2, 3 and 4, and beam them together.
8. Today’s Term: allegro = quick.

5. Rests – the Crotchet, Minim, Semibreve and Quaver


1. Ask students to find an example of a rest in some printed music, and
to tell you the length of it.
2. Draw the four rests (quaver, crotchet, minim, semibreve) in your
students note book and ask them to copy.
3. Tell students an easy way to learn the difference between the
minim/semibreve rests position is to think “2 is lower than 4”,
therefore the minim rest sits lower on the stave than the semibreve.
4. Ask students where a whole bar rest is positioned (centred in the
middle of the bar)
5. HW: Draw barlines in your student’s notebook, to make 4 bars on one
stave. Students must fill each bar with the correct number of rests, so
that there are four beats in each bar. The first bar should contain
quavers (8), second bar crotchets (4), third bar minims (2) and last
bar one semibreve (centred).
6. Today’s Term: adagio = slow.

6. Notes and Rests – the Semiquaver


1. Ask students to describe a semiquaver to you (like quaver with 2
tails).
2. See if students can draw a semiquaver rest, based on their knowledge
of a quaver rest.
3. Ask students how many semiquavers are there in a crotchet (4), minim
(8) and so on.
4. Draw groups of 2, 3 and 4 notes in your student’s notebook and ask
them to beam them as semiquavers.
5. HW: draw the following INCORRECT notes in your students notebook,
and ask them to correct the mistakes; a) semiquaver with stem up,
which should be down (i.e. above the middle line of the stave); b)
semiquaver rest written too low on the stave, c) a semiquaver with its
tails pointing left instead of right, d) a semiquaver with a white head,
instead of black.
6. Today’s Term: ritenuto (rit.) = held back.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

7. Dotted Notes
1. Ask your student if they can explain how a dot affects a note’s length.
If they can’t tell you, tell them. (Increases the length by 50%)
2. Ask student where the dot is written (right hand side of note – not
above!)
3. Find some printed music with dotted notes and ask student to name
the value of each note in the bar, and to add them together.
4. Find some music pre-1900 with dotted rhythms, and ask students to
say whether a dotted note generally falls on or off the beat (on).
5. HW: Draw the following notes in your student’s notebook, and ask
them to re-write them in order, starting with the shortest note:
minim, dotted quaver, semibreve, dotted minim, dotted crotchet,
quaver, semiquaver, crotchet. (Semiquaver, quaver, dotted quaver,
crotchet, dotted crotchet, minim, dotted minim, semibreve).
6. Today’s Term: mezzo = half.

8. Sharps, Flats and Naturals


1. Ask student to name notes with sharps, flats and naturals that you
find in printed music.
2. Ask student to explain how the accidental affects the note
(raise/lower by semitone).
3. Ask student which side of the note an accidental is drawn (left).
4. Write a bar with crotchets: C, C sharp, C, C natural. Ask student to
name each note (the 3rd C should be sharpened). Explain rule if
necessary (accidentals affect all notes of that pitch in that bar, also
tied notes).
5. Ask student which is lower/higher: C/C sharp, D/ D flat etc.
6. Write 5 pairs of notes (as in 8.5) in student’s notebook. Ask student to
label each note of the pair as higher/lower.
7. Today’s Term: accelerando = getting faster.

9. Barlines
1. Ask student what the main use of barline is (divide music up to make
it easier to read, according to time signature.)
2. Ask student how many types of barlines they can describe. (Single,
double thin, double thick/thin, double with dots).
3. Ask student to explain when each type is used. (Single: divide music as
per time signature; Double thin: new section of music or new key/time
signature; Double thick/thin: the end of the piece; Double with dots:
repeat section).
4. HW: Write a 4-bar rhythm in 4/4 without barlines. Students use a ruler
to put barlines in where needed, including a thick/thin barline at the
end.
5. Today’s Term: diminuendo = getting quieter.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

10. Time Signatures – 4/4


1. Ask student to explain to you what the two 4s represent (top
4=number of beats in the bar, bottom 4=count crotchet beats.)
2. Point out that the correct way to write time signatures is without
a horizontal line (i.e. not like a fraction!)
3. Ask one or two simple note-value questions, e.g. how many minims
are there in a 4/4 bar.
4. Write out a 4/4 bar with only 3.5 beats (use a variety of note
lengths) and ask students to tell you what value the rest/s should
be to complete the bar.
5. HW: Write out four more bars as in 10.4 in the student’s notebook.
Bar one: 2 beats; Bar two: 1.5 beats; Bar three: 3 beats; Bar four:
2.5 beats. Students should calculate how many beats are missing.
6. Today’s Term: decrescendo = getting quieter.

11. Time Signatures – 2/4, 3/4 & 4/4


1. Ask students to tell you what 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 have in common
(crotchet beats), and what is different (the number of crotchet
beats in the bar).
2. Find printed music using these time signatures, and cover the time
signature with your hand. Ask students what time signature each
piece is in.
3. Students often don’t see the “point” of 2/4, as it seems just like
4/4 cut in half. Ask them if they can explain or even feel a
difference. Help students by getting them to tap or clap crotchets
with a strong beat at roughly crotchet=100. Get them to make a
huge emphasis on the strong (first) beat in 2/4 and then 4/4. Try
to get them keeping a steady beat while you clap/tap a more
complicated rhythm at the same time.
4. If possible, play some 2/4 and 4/4 pieces for your students and ask
them to identify the time signature.
5. HW: Students write three 4-bar melodies in C major using
crotchets only, one in 2/4, one in 3/4 and one in 4/4.
6. Today’s Term: da capo = repeat from the start.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

12. Key Signatures – G major


1. Show some printed music in G major to your student and ask them to
show you where the key signature is located (at the start of every line,
after the clef)
2. Ask students what key is denoted by a key signature containing just F# (G
major).
3. Ask students what they need to remember when playing a piece in G
major (that every written F should be played as F#).
4. In student’s notebook, write out the key signature of G major in the
treble and bass clefs and label them. Point out the fixed position of the
F# in each clef.
5. HW: Students write the clef and key signature for G major in their
notebooks, in treble and bass clef.
6. Today’s Term: dal segno = repeat from the sign.

13. Key Signatures – D major


1. Ask students if they know which sharps or flats are used in D major (F#
and C#).
2. Find some printed music in D major (preferably with F#s and C#s in
different octaves) and ask the student to find examples of F# and C# on
the page.
3. Show students the beginning of the cycle of 5ths. They now know the
keys of C, G and D. Ask them how many notes apart are C-G and G-D (5 –
C,D,E,F,G: G,A,B,C,D). G major has F# and D major has C#. Ask students
how many notes apart F# and C# are (5). Tell students that this is the
beginning of a series. See if they can work out the next key signature (A
major) and the next sharp (G#).
4. In student’s notebook, write out the key signature of D major in the
treble and bass clefs and label them. Point out the fixed position of the
C# in each clef.
5. HW: Students write the clef and key signature for D major in their
notebooks, in treble and bass clef.
6. Today’s Term: cantabile = in a singing style.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

14. Key Signatures – F major


1. Ask students if they know which sharps or flats are used in F major (Bb).
2. In student’s notebook, write out the key signature of F major in the
treble and bass clefs and label them. Point out the fixed position of the
Bb in each clef.
3. Draw a circle in the student’s notebook and label the first part of the
cycle of 5ths like so:

Tell students that F major fits in the circle before C major, and that all
keys with flats will go on the left hand side of the circle.
4. Ask students to calculate how many notes apart are F-C (5). Now ask
them to calculate C-F (4). Show students that if you count 5 notes in one
direction, it’s the same result as counting 4 notes in the other direction.
Try it with different notes.
5. Fill in the circle of 5ths with F major in the student’s notebook.

6. Today’s Term: crescendo = getting louder.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

15. Scales – C major


1. Your student should be able to play a scale of C without difficulty. Ask
them to name the notes in the scale, then to name the notes in the
descending scale.
2. Ask students to write a treble clef in their notebook, then write out the
notes of C major ascending and descending in semibreves. Make sure
their note heads are oval and not round.
3. Using a piano keyboard if necessary, get students to work out the
distance between each adjacent note of the scale. In their note books
they should write whether the distance is a semitone or a tone between
each adjacent note. (TTSTTTS)

(You can find an A4 keyboard like this to print/photocopy at the end of


this book.)
4. Tell students that this pattern (TTSTTTS) is how all major scales are
constructed, in all keys, and that they need to learn it.
5. HW: Students memorise the pattern TTSTTTS.
6. Today’s Term: legato = smoothly.

16. Scales – G major


7. Your student can probably already play the scale of G major. Ask them to
name the notes in the scale, ascending and descending.
8. Tell students that we can write scales with or without a key signature.
9. Ask students to write out the scale of G major, treble clef, ascending and
descending, in semitones without a key signature, in their notebooks.
10. HW: As 16.3 but using the bass clef.
11. Today’s Term: fine = end.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

17. Scales – D major


1. Ask your student to name the notes in D major, ascending and
descending. Make sure they remember both sharps!
2. In your student’s notebook, write out an ascending scale in semitones,
starting on low D treble clef. Don’t write a clef, key signature or any
accidentals. Ask your student to complete the scale of D major with the
clef and key signature OR accidentals.
3. Repeat 17.2 with different scales – vary the clef, the direction, the key
and whether to use a key signature or not.
4. HW: Set four scales for your students to write out in one octave:
a) Treble clef ascending, G major, with key signature - semibreves
b) Treble clef descending, D major, without key signature - minims
c) Bass clef ascending, D major, with key signature - crotchets
d) Bass clef descending, G major, without key signature – quavers in fours
5. Today’s Term: fortissimo = very loud.

18. Scales – F major


1. Ask students to name the notes of F major ascending and descending.
2. Ask students if they think it’s ok to use A# instead of Bb in the F major
scale (no – because each letter name must only be used once in a scale,
and we already have A natural).
3. Ask students to write out F major ascending and descending, treble and
bass clef, in semibreves, with a key signature.
4. HW: As 18.3, but without a key signature, and using quavers in fours.
5. Today’s Term: moderato = at a moderate speed.

19. Scales – Degrees of the Scale


1. Ask students if they can remember the pattern of tones and semitones in
a major scale (TTSTTTS).
2. Ask students how many individual notes there are in one octave of a scale
(7 – the top note and bottom note are the same).
3. Ask students to write out a scale of C major ascending in their notebooks.
4. Explain to students that we can refer to each note of the scale by
number instead of by using a letter. Ask students to label the notes of
the scale from 1-7, and then 1 again on the top C.
5. Tell students that these are called the “degrees of the scale”, and we say
“first, second, third” etc. when we talk about them. Ask students
“What’s the 5th degree of the scale of C major?” (G) Ask students “Which
degree of the C major scale is D?” (Second).
6. Test the students by asking them questions as in 19.5, but changing the
scales. Use G major, D major and F major. Ask a couple of questions for
each scale. Try to make the students calculate in their heads. They can
use paper if they find it impossible.
7. HW: Use a piece of music your student is currently working on. (Make
sure it is in C, G, D or F major!) Ask students to a) name the key of the
piece and then b) name the degree of the scale for the first ten notes in
the piece. You could also ask them to write out the associated scale, in
whichever clef is less familiar to them.
8. Today’s Term: pianissimo = very quiet.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

20. Intervals – Above the Tonic by Number Only


1. Ask students if they can remember the circle diagram in their notebooks
(14.3). Ask them what the word “5th” refers to, in that diagram (the
distance between two notes e.g. C-G or G-D).
2. Tell students that we call the distance between two notes an “interval”.
“The distance between C and G is called an interval of a 5th” because we
count five notes from C to G”.
3. Sometimes intervals confuse students because they don’t want to count
the first AND last note. Ask students to write out the notes C-D-E-F-G-A-
B-C in their notebooks, using crotchets. Then write the numbers 1, 2, 3,
4, 5 under the notes C-G, and then bracket them together. Label the
bracket “INTERVAL=5th”.
4. Explain to students that we always work out an interval by starting on the
lower note.
5. Explain that we use special words for the intervals of “1” and “8” i.e. C-C
and C-C1. When it is the same note, we say the interval is “a unison”, and
when the interval is eight notes higher it is “an octave”.
6. Take some music your student is studying, and ask them to calculate the
interval between each adjacent note in the first couple of bars. (Don’t
worry that they are not tonic based intervals, it doesn’t matter; but
avoid accidentals which are not part of the key signature and intervals
greater than an octave.) Make sure to include some melodic intervals
which have a higher first note. Test in both clefs.
7. HW: As 20.6 but choose two different bars of music.
8. Today’s Term: staccato = short and detached.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

21. Ties and Slurs


1. If possible, find examples of ties or 2-note slurs in some printed music
you are currently using. If not, in your student’s notebook, draw a pair of
tied Gs and a G-A slur.
2. Tell students that a tie and slur basically use the same symbol (a short
curved line) but it has a different meaning. A tie is used to add together
the value of two notes of the same pitch, whereas a slur connects two
notes of a different pitch but tells the player to play them smoothly (or
in one breath/movement of a bow).
3. In your student’s notebook, write out the following tied notes, then ask
the student to tell you the total value: a) minim + crotchet (3
beats/dotted minim); b) quaver + quaver (1 beat/crotchet); c) minim +
minim (4 beats/semibreve).
4. Explain that ties are often found across barlines too. Draw some
examples: a) minim + barline + crotchet etc.
5. Explain that when a tied note crosses a barline, any accidentals will also
apply to the next note. For example:

The second G is also sharpened.


6. Test students by asking them to say whether the following is a tie or a
slur:

(It’s a slur, because the notes are not the same pitch – G and G#).
7. Explain that we can tie together many notes – it doesn’t have to be only
two.
8. HW: Students look through a piece they are studying and write down the
bar numbers each time they see a tie/slur. Say whether it’s a tie or slur
in each case.
9. Today’s Term: piano = quiet.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

22. Rhythm – Finding Patterns


1. Explain to students that music usually contains blocks of rhythms which
are repeated throughout the piece, and/or which are varied slightly.
Music which is not like this would sound more like random notes than
music, and would be more difficult to remember or understand aurally.
2. Take a look at one or two piece your student has been working on
recently, and try to identify the principal rhythmic blocks in use. Look for
repeated patterns.
3. Help your student describe the character of those rhythmic blocks, by
naming the type of note values used, noticing whether dotted rhythms
occur, and thinking of an adjective or too to describe the musical effect
(spiky, smooth, lyrical, military, bouncy etc).
4. If possible, find minor variations of the rhythmic blocks (e.g. one or two
note values altered, but the basic feel is the same) and point them out to
your student. Explain that minor variations mean the character is the
same, but the rhythm can be a bit more interesting.
5. HW: Write down a rhythmic block which occurs in a piece your student is
playing, and ask them to count how many times it occurs in the piece.
You could also ask them to try to alter it, in a way which preserves its
character (this is a hard task for grade 1, however).
6. Today’s Term: poco = a little.

23. Rhythm – Syncopated or On the Beat


(Note: this is not something which is explicitly tested at grade 1, but we include
it here because a common fault in the rhythm-writing section is that students
(especially those who listen to a lot of pop music) add syncopation where it is
not appropriate.
1. Take a piece in 2/4, 3/4 or 4/4 and ask your student to mark short
vertical lines above the bar, where each crotchet beat occurs. Do this for
about four bars.
2. Then ask your student to decide whether the music mainly falls “on the
beat” or “off the beat”. Most classical music will fall on the beat – with a
sounded note on the first beat of most bars, and other notes falling
where the vertical lines were written. Explain that until the 20th century,
this was the “norm”.
3. Find some syncopated music. (If you don’t have any to hand, you can use
“Knowing Me, Knowing You”, by Abba from here
http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0071117.)
Repeat 23.1 and point out which notes are played/sounded off the beat.
Tell students that this technique is very common in music (of many
genres) since the 20th century and is called “syncopation”.
4. Make clear to your students that syncopation is a very stylistic feature.
Usually a piece either employs a lot of syncopation, or none at all. It’s
rare to find a piece which just uses the odd bar here and there. Tell
students that this is something they should remember when they
compose their own rhythms/pieces.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

5. HW: Find a section of about ten bars in a piece your student is studying,
and ask students to mark the beats with short vertical lines above the
stave, and to say whether the music is syncopated or not.
6. Today’s Term: mezzo-forte = moderately loud.

24. Rhythm – How Pieces End


1. Without looking at any pieces of music, ask students what sort of note
values they think are common in the last bar of a piece. (Longer note
values – usually at least a crotchet and often a minim or semibreve in
length.)
2. Find an album of pieces and explore the final bar of each piece together.
Make a note of what note values occur.
3. Explain to your student that when they compose, they need to make sure
the last bar follows the same kind of pattern – i.e. has a suitably long
ending note value.
4. HW: 2-bar rhythms. Write out the first bar of three 2-bar rhythms, in 2/4,
3/4 and 4/4. You could use these, for example:

Tell students that these are very short pieces, and they need to write the
final bar. (In all cases, a single note in the last bar would work fine.)
5. Today’s Term: mezzo-piano = moderately soft (quiet).

25. Rhythm – Writing a 4-bar Rhythm


1. Explain to students that in writing a 4-bar rhythm they need to remember
the points from the previous lessons about a) using rhythmic blocks with
minor variations, b) avoiding syncopation unless it is a feature of the
piece as a whole and c) finishing on a reasonably long note. In grade 1,
students write a 2-bar answering rhythm to a 2-bar opening.
2. Find any music to hand which is unfamiliar to your student (in 2/4, 3/4 or
4/4) and ask students to tap/clap out the rhythm of two bars you have
picked (pick bars which start a phrase). See if they can improvise an
answering phrase of two more bars, without repeating it exactly, and
without changing it too much. Discuss their attempts – point out what
works and what doesn’t, and why. (Never say “it just sounds wrong” –
students will need concrete reasons).
3. HW: Choose a piece which your student knows well, and ask them to
write a 2-bar answering phrase to the first two bars which is different to
the original piece. It is worth repeating this exercise frequently with
different piece of music. (Note: if your student produces terrible
attempts at rhythm writing, try to get them to self-assess by reviewing
points 22, 23 and 24 together.)
4. Today’s Term: a tempo = in time.

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Theory Survival Kit – Grade One

List of “Today’s Terms”, in Order of Appearance:

1. Tempo
2. Forte
3. Andante
4. Allegro
5. Adagio
6. Ritenuto
7. Mezzo
8. Accelerando
9. Diminuendo
10. Decrescendo
11. Da Capo
12. Dal Segno
13. Cantabile
14. Crescendo
15. Legato
16. Fine
17. Fortissimo
18. Moderato
19. Pianissimo
20. Staccato
21. Piano
22. Poco
23. Mezzo-forte
24. Mezzo-piano
25. A Tempo

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