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R.W. Armstrong & Associates 034000

SECTION 03 4000


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SECTION 03 4000



A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General & Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Sections, apply to this Section.


A. This Section includes:

1. Reinforced, Pre-casted Concrete units as per contract’s documents and Engineer’s
2. All precast concrete work are to include for providing all materials, labor and plant to
provide the full section as shown on the drawings, all molds, surface finishes as
described, reinforcement as detailed together with additional reinforcement as necessary
for handling, providing and casting in structural connections in the units and supporting
structures, providing and casting in (and removing if necessary) lifting devices, hoisting
into position as described, cleaning off and complete in all respects.


A. In addition to the requirements of Section 03 3000 "Cast in Place Concrete ", Architectural
Precast concrete shall be performed in strict accordance with provisions of the British
Standard Specification (BS) latest edition or other equivalent International specifications
and standards, including the following:
1. BS 6399: Loading for Buildings
2. BS 8110: Structural Use of Concrete
3. BS 8297: Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Non-load Bearing Precast
Concrete Cladding
4. PCI: Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Manual
5. PCI MNL–117: Manual for quality control for plants and production of Architectural
precast concrete products

B. Section–Damp proofing and Waterproofing

C. Section -Painting


A. Structural Performance: Engineer, fabricate, and install structural pre-cast concrete units to
withstand design loadings indicated within limits and under conditions required.
B. Engineering Responsibility: Engage a fabricator who responsible for engineering
structural pre-cast concrete units by employing a qualified engineer with 10 years
minimum experience in related field to prepare design calculations, shop drawings, and other

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structural data. The fabricator shall be responsible for all design requirements.


A. General: Submit each item in this Article according to the Conditions of the Contract and
Division 1 Specification Sections.
B. Product data and instructions for manufactured materials and products.
1. Certification by paint and curing compound manufacturers that products supplied comply
with local regulations
C. Sample: The fabricator has to submit sample of materials for approval.
D. Shop Drawings: Shop drawings prepared by or under the supervision of a qualified engineer
with ten years minimum experience in detailing fabrication, connection design and
installation of pre-cast concrete units. Indicate member dimensions and cross-sections;
locations, sizes, and types of reinforcement, including special reinforcement; and lifting
devices necessary for handling and erection.

E. Indicate layout and dimensions, and identify each pre-cast concrete unit corresponding to
sequence and procedure of installation. Indicate welded connections by AWS standard
symbols. Detail loose, cast-in, and field hardware, inserts, connections, and joints, including
accessories and construction at openings in pre-cast units.

F. Indicate locations and details of anchorage devices that are to be embedded in other
construction. Furnish templates, if required, for accurate placement.

G. Welder certificates signed by Contractor certifying that welders comply with requirements
specified under the "Quality Assurance" Article.

H. Design mixes for each concrete mix: Submit revised mix proportions when
characteristics of materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other
circumstances warrant adjustments.

I. Material test reports from a qualified independent testing agency evidencing compliance with
requirements of the following based on comprehensive testing of current materials:
1. Concrete materials.
2. Reinforcing materials.
3. Bearing pads.

J. Material certificates in lieu of agency test reports, when permitted by Engineer signed
by fabricator certifying that each material item complies with requirements.

K. Method statement: The fabricator shall submit method statement for design, fabrication,
curing, lifting, transporting and erecting for approval of Engineer.


A. Installer Qualifications: Engage an experienced Installer who has completed structural pre-
cast concrete work similar in material, design, and extent to that indicated for this Project and
with a record of successful in-service performance.

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B. Fabricator Qualifications: Firm have minimum 10 years experienced in producing structural

pre-cast concrete units similar to those indicated for this Project and with a record of
successful in-service performance as well as sufficient production capacity to produce
required units without delaying the Work.
C. Engineer Qualifications: Engineer with ten years minimum experience in related field and
experienced in providing engineering services of the kind indicated that have resulted in the
installation and successful in-service performance of pre-cast concrete units similar to this
Project in material, design, and extent.

D. ACI Publications: Comply with the following ACI publications applicable to types of
structural pre-cast concrete units indicated:
1. ACI 301 "Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings."
2. ACI 318 (ACI 318M) "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete."

E. Welding Standards: Comply with applicable provisions of AWS 01.1 "Structural Welding
Code--Steel" and AWS 01.4 "Structural Welding Code--Reinforcing Steel."
1. Certify that each welder has satisfactorily passed AWS qualification tests for
welding processes involved and, if pertinent, has undergone recertification.


A. Deliver pre-cast concrete units to Project site in such quantities and at such times to ensure
continuity of installation. Store units at Project site to prevent cracking, distorting, warping,
staining, or other physical damage, and so that markings are visible.

B. Lift and support units only at designated lifting or supporting points as shown on final shop

C. Deliver anchorage items to be embedded in other construction before starting such work.
Provide setting diagrams, templates, instructions & directions, as required for installation.



A. Provide forms and, where required, form facing materials of metal, plastic, wood, or another
acceptable material that is nonreactive with concrete and will produce required finish


A. Reinforcing Bars: Tensile strength 460 N/mm2, shall confirm to ASTM A 615.

B. Steel-Welded Wire Fabric: Deformed, shall conform to ASTM A 497.

C. Supports for Reinforcement: Provide supports for reinforcement, including bolsters, chairs,
spacers and other devices for spacing, supporting and fastening reinforcing, complying with
CRSI recommendations.
1. For exposed-to-view concrete surfaces, where legs of supports are in contact with forms,
provide supports with legs that are protected with plastic (CRSI, Class 1) or stainless

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steel (CRSI, Class 2).


A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, OPC & SRC. Use only one brand and type of cement
throughout Project, unless otherwise acceptable to Engineer.

B. Normal-Weight Aggregates: ASTM C33, Class 5S. Provide aggregates from a single source.

C. Water: Potable.

D. Admixtures, General: Provide admixtures for concrete that contain no more than 0.1 percent
chloride ions by mass of Portland cement or cementitious material.

E. Air-Entraining Admixture: ASTM C 260, certified by manufacturer to be compatible with

other required admixtures.

F. Water-Reducing Admixture: ASTM C 494, Type A.


A. The connection materials shall be proposed by manufacturer/fabricator and approved by

Engineer. Unless otherwise directed by Engineer, connection materials and finishes as
1. Steel Shapes and Plates: ASTM A 36 (ASTM A 36M).
2. Plate Stainless Steel: ASTM A 666, Type 304, of grade suitable for application.
3. Bolts and Studs: ASTM A 307, Grade A (ASTM F 568, Property Class 4.6).
4. High-Strength Bolts and Nuts: ASTM A 325 (ASTM A 325M), Type 1.
5. Welded Headed Studs: AWS 01.1, Type B headed studs, cold-finished carbon-steel bars.
6. Deformed-Steel Wire Bar Anchors: ASTM A 496.
7. Welding Electrodes: Comply with AWS standards.
8. Accessories: Provide fixing brackets, clips, hangers, shims, and other accessories
required to install pre-cast concrete units.


A. Provide bearing pads for pre-cast concrete units as follows:

1. Elastomeric Pads: AASHTO M 251, plain, vulcanized, 100% polychloroprene
(neoprene) elastomer, molded to size or cut from a molded sheet, 50 to 70 shore A
durometer, minimum tensile strength 2250psi (15.5MPa) per ASTM 0412.


A. If it is required to use grouting, the fabricator has to submit components, design mix and
application for approval of Engineer.


A. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type I, Class B.

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A. Prepare design mixes for each type of concrete required.

B. Design mixes may be prepared by a qualified independent testing agency or by qualified pre-
cast manufacturing plant personnel at pre-cast fabricator's option and submit for Engineer
for approval.

C. Normal-Weight Concrete: Proportion mixes by either laboratory trial batch or field test data
methods according to ACI 211.1 and ACI 301, using materials to be used on the Project, to
provide normal-weight concrete with the following data:
1. Compressive Strength (28-Day): shall be proposed by manufacturer/fabricator and
approved by Engineer. For the compressive strength of concrete refer to structural
2. Maximum Water-Cement Ratio at Point of Placement: To be design by manufacturer and
approved by Engineer.

D. Add air-entraining admixture at manufacturer's prescribed rate to result in normal-weight

concrete at point of placement having an air content as follows, with a tolerance of plus or
minus 1-1/2 percent:
1. Air Content: 2.5 to 4.5 percent.

E. Other Admixtures: Use water-reducing, high-range water-reducing, water-reducing and

accelerating, or water-reducing and retarding admixtures according to manufacturer's

F. Concrete-Mix Adjustments: Concrete-mix design adjustments may be proposed when

characteristics of materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other circumstances


A. Formwork: Accurately construct forms, mortar tight, of sufficient strength to withstand

pressures due to concrete placing operations, temperature changes. Maintain formwork to
provide completed pre-cast concrete units of shapes, lines, and dimensions indicated, within
fabrication tolerances specified in ACI 301 / 318.
1. Coat surfaces of forms with bond-breaking compound before reinforcement is placed.
Provide commercial-formula, form-coating compounds that will not bond with, stain, or
adversely affect concrete surfaces and that will not impair subsequent treatments of
concrete surfaces requiring bond or adhesion. Apply in compliance with manufacturer's

B. Built-In Anchorages: Accurately position built-in anchorage devices and secure to formwork.
Locate anchorages where they do not affect the position of the main reinforcement or placing
of concrete. Do not relocate bearing plates in units, unless acceptable to Engineer.

C. Cast-in openings larger than 10 inches (250 mm) in diameter or 10 inches (250mm) square
according to final shop drawings. Other smaller holes may be field cut by trades requiring
them, as acceptable to Engineer.

D. Reinforcement: Comply with the recommendations of CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice"

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for fabricating, placing, and supporting reinforcement.

1. Clean reinforcement of loose rust and mill scale, earth, and other materials that reduce or
destroy the bond with concrete.
2. Accurately position, support, and secure reinforcement against displacement by
formwork, construction, or concrete placement operations .Locate and support
reinforcement by metal chairs, runners, bolsters, spacers and hangers, as required.

3. Place reinforcement to obtain at least the minimum coverages for concrete protection.
Arrange, space, and securely tie bars and bar supports to hold reinforcement in position
while placing concrete. Set wire ties so ends are directed into concrete, not toward
exposed concrete surfaces.
4. Install welded wire fabric in lengths as long as practicable. Lap adjoining pieces at least
one full mesh and lace splices with wire. Off set laps of adjoining widths to prevent
continuous laps in either direction.

E. Exposed steel bars & frames: Fix the bars & frame plumb, and true, without exceeding the
erection tolerances according to ACI requirements.

F. Finish: Unless otherwise directed by Engineer, follow reqts as below:

1. Finish of concrete: Finish concrete surfaces by trowel. Consolidate concrete; bring to
proper level with straightedge, float, and trowel to a smooth, uniform finish.
2. Finish of exposed steel bars and frame (If required) shall be as follows:
a. Hot-Dip Galvanized (minimum 120 micron).
b. Apply zinc primer coating as base coat by the hot-dip process, complying with
ASTM A 123 for galvanizing rolled, pressed, forged shapes, plates, bars, & strips.
c. Color: To be appointed by Engineer.


A. Quality-Control Testing: Test and inspect pre-cast concrete according to ACI requirements.

B. Strength of pre-cast concrete units will be considered potentially deficient when pre-cast
concrete units fail to comply with requirements, including the following:
1. Fail to meet compressive-strength test requirements.
2. Concrete curing and protection of pre-cast units against extremes in temperature fail to
meet requirements.
3. Pre-cast units are damaged during handling and erecting.

C. Testing: When there is evidence that the strength of pre-cast concrete units may be deficient
or may not meet requirements, employ an independent testing agency to obtain, prepare, and
test cores drilled from hardened concrete to determine compressive strength according to
ASTM C 42.
1. A minimum of 3 representative cores will be taken from pre-cast concrete units of
suspect strength, from locations directed by Engineer.
2. Cores will be tested, following immersion in water, in a wet condition per ACI 301 when
pre-cast concrete units will be wet under service conditions.

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A. Examine substrates and conditions for compliance with requirements, including installation
tolerances, true and level bearing surfaces, and other conditions affecting performance of pre-
cast concrete units. Do not proceed with installation until unsatisfactory conditions have been


A. Bearing Pads: Install bearing pads as pre-cast concrete units are being erected. Set pads on
true, level, and uniform bearing surfaces and maintain in correct position until pre-cast units
are placed.

B. Erection Tolerances: Install pre-cast units level, plumb, square, and true, without exceeding
the erection tolerances according to ACI requirements.

C. Shore and brace pre-cast concrete units to maintain location, stability, and alignment until
permanent connections are installed.

D. Grouting Connections and Joints: If it is required to use grouting, follow the fabricator's
instructions for applications.


A. Manufacturing procedures and tolerances shall comply with PCI - MNL - 116 - 85 and
general industry standards as outlined below:
1. Length
a. Up to 3m ± 6mm
b. 3m to 4.5m ± 10mm
c. 4.5m to 6m ± 12mm
d. Additional for every subsequent 6m ± 6mm
2. Cross Section in Each Direction
a. Up to 5m ± 6mm
b. 5m to 7.5m ± 10mm
c. Additional for every subsequent 2.5m ± 3mm
3. Straightness or Bow (Deviation From Intended Line)
a. Up to 3m ± 6mm
b. 3m to 6m ± 10mm
c. 6m to 12m ± 12m
d. Additional for every subsequent 2.5m ± 6mm
4. Squareness of Corner: The longer of the two adjacent lines should be taken as the base
line, and the perpendicular of the shorter side from the perpendicular to the base line is to
be related to the length of the shorter side. Length of the shorter sides:
a. Up to and including 1.2m ± 6mm
b. Over 1.2m but less than 1.8m ± 10mm
c. 1.8m and over ± 12mm

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5. Twist: The distant of any one corner from the plane containing the other three corners
a. Up to 0.67m side and up to 6m in length ± 6mm
b. Over 0.67m wide and for any length ± 12mm


A. Clean exposed surfaces of pre-cast concrete units after erection to remove dirt, stains and
1. Wash and rinse according to pre-cast concrete fabricator's recommendations. Protect
other work from staining or damage due to cleaning operations.
2. Do not use cleaning materials or processes that could change the appearance of exposed
concrete finishes.


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