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In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern,

alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated.
One such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced
directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, normally the Earth. The sun creates its energy
through a thermonuclear process that converts about 650,000,0001tons of hydrogen to helium
every second. The process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. The heat remains in the
sun and is instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. The electromagnetic
radiation (including visible light, infra-red light, and ultra-violet radiation) streams out into
space in all directions. Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the
Earth. The radiation that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of
energy used today. The exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion.
Even fossil fuels owe their origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose
life was dependent upon the sun. Much of the world's required energy can be supplied
directly by solar power. More still can be provided indirectly. The practicality of doing so
will be examined, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. In addition, the uses solar energy is
currently applied to will be noted. Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are
required to have a functional solar energy generator. These two components are a collector and a
storage unit. The collector simply collects the radiation that falls on it and converts a fraction of it
to other forms of energy (either electricity and heat or heat alone). The storage unit is required
because of the non-constant nature of solar energy; at certain times only a very small amount of
radiation will be received. At night or during heavy cloudcover, for example, the amount of
energy produced by the collector will be quite small. The storage unit can hold the excess energy
produced during the periods of maximum productivity, and release it when the productivity
drops. In practice, a backup power supply is usually added, too, for the situations when the
amount of energy required is greater than both what is being produced and what is stored in
the container.

People use energy for many things, but a few general tasks consume most of the energy.
These tasks include transportation, heating, cooling, and the generation of electricity. Solar
energy can be applied to all four of these tasks with different levels of success.


Heating is the business for which solar energy is best suited. Solar heating requires almost no
energy transformation, so it has a very high efficiency. Heat energy can be stored in a liquid,
such as water, or in a packed bed. A packed bed is a container filled with small objects that
can hold heat (such as stones) with air space between them. Heat energy is also often stored
in phase-change or heat-of-fusion units. These devices will utilize a chemical that changes
phase from solid to liquid at a temperature that can be produced by the solar collector. The
energy of the collector is used to change the chemical to its liquid phase, and is as a result
stored in the chemical itself. It can be tapped later by allowing the chemical to revert to its
solid form. Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water. This is an easy
application, as the desired end result (hot water) is the storage facility. A hot water tank is
filled with hot water during the day, and drained as needed. This application is a very simple
adjustment from the normal fossil fuel water heaters.



Solar energy can be used for other things besides heating. It may seem strange, but one of the
most common uses of solar energy today is cooling. Solar cooling is far more expensive than
solar heating, so it is almost never seen in private homes. Solar energy is used to cool things
by phase changing a liquid to gas through heat, and then forcing the gas into a lower pressure
chamber. The temperature of a gas is related to the pressure containing it, and all other things
being held equal, the same gas under a lower pressure will have a lower temperature. This
cool gas will be used to absorb heat from the area of interest and then be forced into a region
of higher pressure where the excess heat will be lost to the outside world. The net effect is
that of a pump moving heat from one area into another, and the first is accordingly cooled.



Of the main types of energy usage, the least suited to solar power is transportation. While large,
relatively slow vehicles like ships could power themselves with large onboard solar panels, small
constantly turning vehicles like cars could not. The only possible way a car could be completely
solar powered would be through the use of battery that was charged by solar power at some
stationary point and then later loaded into the car.
Electric cars that are partially powered by solar energy are available now, but it is unlikely
that solar power will provide the world's transportation costs in the near future.


Besides being used for heating and cooling, solar energy can be directly converted to
electricity. Most of our tools are designed to be driven by electricity, so if you can create
electricity through solar power, you can run almost anything with solar power. The solar
collectors that convert radiation into electricity can be either flat-plane collectors or focusing
collectors, and the silicon components of these collectors are photovoltaic cells.


Photovoltaic cells, by their very nature, convert radiation to electricity. This phenomenon has
been known for well over half a century, but until recently the amounts of electricity generated
were good for little more than measuring radiation intensity. Most of the photovoltaic cells on the
market today operate at an efficiency of less than 15%; that is, of all the radiation that falls upon
them, less than 15% of it is converted to electricity. The maximum theoretical efficiency for a
photovoltaic cell is only 32.3%, but at this efficiency, solar electricity is very economical.
Most of our other forms of electricity generation are at a lower efficiency than this.
Unfortunately, reality still lags behind theory and a 15% efficiency is not usually considered
economical by most power companies, even if it is fine for toys and pocket calculators.
Hope for bulk solar electricity should not be abandoned, however, for recent scientific
advances have created a solar cell with an efficiency of 28.2% efficiency in the laboratory.
This type of cell has yet to be field tested. If it maintains its efficiency in the uncontrolled
environment of the outside world, and if it does not have a tendency to break down, it will be
economical for power companies to build solar power facilities after all. Now, we know that
solar panel transfers electrons into DC, and most appliance at home is using AC, that's why
we use inverters.


A solar inverter, or PV inverter, converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a
photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed
into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical
component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary commercial appliances.
Solar inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including
maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection


There are two types of sources for electrical power generation. One is conventional and other
is non- conventional. Today to generate most of electrical power conventional sources like
coal, gas, nuclear power generators are used. Some of conventional source are polluted the
environment to generate the electricity. And nuclear energy is not much preferable because of
its harmful radiation effect on the mankind. After some of ten years conventional sources will
not sufficient enough to fulfill the requirements of the mankind. So some of the electrical
power should be generated by non-conventional energy sources like solar, wind .With the
continuously reducing the cost of PV power generation and the further intensification of
energy crisis, PV power generation technology obtains more and more application.
Conventionally, there are two ways in which electrical power is transmitted. Direct current
(DC) comes from a source of constant voltage and is suited to short-range or device level
transmission. Alternating current (AC) power consists of a sinusoidal voltage source in which
a continuously changing voltage (and current) can be used to employ magnetic components.
Long distance electrical transmission favors AC power, since the voltage can be boosted
easily with the use of transformers. By boosting the voltage, less current is needed to deliver a
given amount of power to a load, reducing the resistive loss through conductors. The adoption
of AC power has created a trend where most devices adapt AC power from an outlet into DC
power for use by the device. However, AC power is not always available and the need for
mobility and simplicity has given batteries an advantage in portable power. Thus, for portable
AC power, inverters are needed. Inverters take a DC voltage from a battery or a solar panel as
input, and convert it into an AC voltage output.



Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types.

1. Stand Alone Inverters
2. Grid Tie Inverters
3. Battery Backup Inverters


Stand-alone inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from
batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral
battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally these
do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, are not required to have anti-
islanding protection.


Grid-tie inverters, which match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave. Grid-tie inverters are
designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. They do
not provide backup power during utility outages.


Battery backup inverters, are special inverters which are designed to draw energy from a
battery, manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export excess energy to the
utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads during a
utility outage, and are required to have anti-islanding protection.

An energy resource is something that can produce heat, power life, move objects, or produce
electricity. Matter that stores energy is called a fuel. Human energy consumption has grown
steadily throughout human history.
There are two type of energy sources
1) Non Renewable Energy Sources
2) Renewable Energy Sources


Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our
lifetimes—or even in many, many lifetimes. Most non-renewable energy sources are fossil
fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels.


Wind, solar, and biomass are three emerging renewable sources of energy. Renewable energy
is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished
on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.


Solar power has two big advantages over fossil fuels. The first is in the fact that it is
renewable; it is never going to run out. The second is its effect on the environment.


While the burning of fossil fuels introduces many harmful pollutants into the atmosphere and
contributes to environmental problems like global warming and acid rain, solar energy is
completely non-polluting. While many acres of land must be destroyed to feed a fossil fuel
energy plant its required fuel, the only land that must be destroyed for a solar energy plant is
the land that it stands on. Indeed, if a solar energy system were incorporated into every
business and dwelling, no land would have to be destroyed in the name of energy.

Global warming and energy policies have become a hot topic on the international agenda in
the last years. Developed countries are trying to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. For
example, the European Union has committed to reduce their greenhouse gas to at least 20%
below 1990 levels and to produce no less than 20% of its energy consumption from
renewable sources by 2020. In this context, photovoltaic (PV) power generation has an
important role to play due to the fact that it is a green source. The only emissions associated
with PV power generation are those from the production of its components. After their
installation they generate electricity from the solar irradiation without emitting greenhouse
gases. In their life time, PV panels produce more energy than that for their manufacturing.
Also, they can be installed in places with no other use, such as roofs and deserts.


They can produce electricity for remote locations, where there is no electricity network. The l
atter type of installations is known as off-grid facilities and sometimes they are the most econ
omical alternative to provide electricity in isolated areas. However, most of the PV power
gen eration comes from grid-connected installations, where the power is fed in the electricity
netw ork. In fact, it is a growing business in developed countries such as Germany which is
world l eader in PV power generation followed by Spain, Japan, USA and Italy. As the
primary element of construction of solar panels, silicon, is the second most common element
on the planet, there is very little environmental disturbance caused by the creation of solar
panels. In fact, solar energy only causes environmental disruption if it is centralized and
produced on a gigantic scale. Solar power certainly can be produced on a gigantic scale, too..
Among the renewable resources, only in solar power do we find the potential for an energy
source capable of supplying more energy than is used.

Suppose that of the 4.5x1017 kWh per annum that is used by the earth to evaporate water
from the oceans we were to acquire just 0.1% or 4.5x1014 kWh per annum. Dividing by the
hours in the year gives a continuous yield of 2.90x1010 kW. This would supply 2.4 kW to
12.1 billion people.
This translates to roughly the amount of energy used today by the average person available to
over twelve billion people. Since this is greater than the estimated carrying capacity of the Earth,
this would be enough energy to supply the entire planet regardless of the population.
Unfortunately, at this scale, the production of solar energy would have some unpredictable
negative environmental effects. If all the solar collectors were placed in one or just a few areas,
they would probably have large effects on the local environment, and possibly have large effects
on the world environment. Everything from changes in local rain conditions to another Ice Age
has been predicted as a result of producing solar energy on this scale. The problem lies in the
change of temperature and humidity near a solar panel; if the energy producing panels are kept
non-centralized, they should not create the same local, mass temperature change that could
have such bad effects on the environment. Of all the energy sources available, solar has
perhaps the most promise. Numerically, it is capable of producing the raw power required to
satisfy the entire planet's energy needs. Environmentally, it is one of the least destructive of
all the sources of energy.
practically, it can be adjusted to power nearly everything except transportation with very little
adjustment, and even transportation with some modest modifications to the current general
system of travel. Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.



The use of efficient photovoltaic solar cells has emerged as an important solution in energy
conservation and demand side management. Owing to their initial high costs, they have not
been an attractive alternative for users who are able to buy cheaper electrical energy from the
utility grid. However, they have been extensively used in pumping and air conditioning in
remote and isolated areas where utility power is not available or too expensive to transport.
Although solar cell prices have decreased considerably during the last years due to new
developments in the film technology and the manufacturing process, PV arrays are still
considered rather expensive compared with the utility fossil fuel generated electricity prices.
After building such an expensive renewable energy system, the PV array has to be operated at
its highest conversion efficiency by continuously utilizing the maximum available output of
the array. The electrical system powered by solar cells requires special design considerations
because of the varying nature of the solar power generated resulting from unpredictable
changes in weather conditions which affect the solar radiation level as well as the cell
operating temperature.
The efficiency of a PV plant is affected mainly by three factors: the efficiency of the PV
panel (in commercial PV panels it is between 8-15%). The efficiency of the inverter (95-
98%) and the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking algorithm (which is over
98%). Improving the efficiency of the PV panel and that of the inverter is not easy as it
depends on the technology available. It may require better components, which can increase
drastically the cost of the installation. Instead, improving the tracking of the maximum power
point with new control algorithms is easier, not expensive and can be done even in plants
which are already in use by updating their control algorithms, which would lead to an
immediate increase in PV power generation and consequently a reduction in its price.
In practice, the voltage dependency on the irradiation is often neglected. As the effect on both
the current and voltage is positive, i.e. both increase when the irradiation rises, the effect on
the power is also positive. More the irradiation, the more power is generated. PV panel
manufacturers provide in their data sheets the temperature coefficients, which are the
parameters that specify how the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current and the
maximum power vary when the temperature changes. As the effect of the temperature on the
current is really small, it is usually neglected.
The world demand for electric energy is constantly increasing, and conventional energy
resources are diminishing and are even threatened to be depleted. Moreover; their prices are
rising. For these reasons, the need for alternative energy sources has become indispensable,
and solar energy in particular has proved to be a very promising alternative because of its
availability and pollution-free nature. Due to the increasing efficiencies and decreasing cost
of photovoltaic cells and the improvement of the switching technology used for power
conversion, our goal is to design an inverter powered by PV panels and that could supply
stand-alone AC loads. Solar panels produce direct currents (DC), and to connect these panels
to the electricity grid or use them in other industrial applications, we should have an AC
output at a certain required voltage level and frequency. The conversion from DC to AC is
essentially accomplished by means of a DC-AC inverter, which is the major component in the
system. Yet, the output of the solar panels is not continuously constant and is related to the
instantaneous sunlight intensity and ambient temperature.


The main objective of our project is to design and construct a PV based system that produces
electric energy and operates in dual mode, supplying stand-alone AC loads, while minimizing
its cost and size. The system’s main property is to production of quality electricity from a
renewable source to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and the associated emissions of
pollutants. Our goal is to design and develop an inverter that will handle the task described.

The development of renewable energy such as sun, geothermal, biomass and wind have
become important contribution to the total energy consumed in the world. These alternative
sources of energy can never be exhausted. They cause less emission and therefore stand out
as a potentially feasible source of clean and limitless energy. These resources do not cause
any significant environmental pollution or substantial health hazards and apparently available
as natural abundant resources. Solar energy is amongst the highest development of renewable
resources. Malaysia is one of the countries that receive abundant of sun light in average
mostly in northern side of Peninsular Malaysia. Perlis, Kedah and Penang have high potential
in applying solar energy. With the rapid progress of the power electronic techniques, solar
energy as an alternative energy source has been put to use such as photovoltaic (PV) module.
The basic concept for PV module is to collect solar energy in space and transfer it for
distribution as electrical power. However this renewable source energy requires rather
sophisticated conversion techniques to make them usable to the end user. The output of PV is
essentially direct current (DC) form. Therefore, it needs to be converted to alternating current
(AC) for it to be commercially feasible. This is necessary because the power utilization is
mostly in AC form. This conversion can be done by using inverter. In any PV based system,
the inverter is a critical component responsible for the control of electricity flow between the
modules, battery and loads. Inverters are essentially DC-AC converters. It converts DC input
into AC output. It can be designed to be used with different voltage ranges and topologies for
varying applications A solar inverter takes the DC electricity from the solar array and uses
that to create AC electricity. Inverters are like the brains of the system. Along with inverting
DC to AC power, they also provide ground fault protection and system stats including voltage
and current on AC and DC circuits, energy production, and maximum power point tracking.
When sufficient output available from Solar panels to charge the battery, solar panel charges a
storage battery. In this time mains supply will not be utilized for charging purpose. A control
circuit continuously monitors the battery's voltage. When the battery is fully charged, the circuit
automatically turns on a power inverter and switches the appliance from running on grid power to
running on the energy stored in the battery. Then when the battery's voltage drops too low,
the circuit automatically switches the appliance back to grid power until the battery is
recharged. we can run the equipment like fans, LED lights, pumps etc. directly without using
battery, but as the output of Solar panels are not steady due to clouds, bad weather etc. It’s not
advisable to run the appliances which require stable voltage. However with suitable regulators,
you can very easily run low power devices. Solar pumps works directly on the direct input from
Solar panels. Solar pump is a combination of a DC motor and a centrifugal pump. Solar
submersible pump sets are also available. Solar pump sets are extremely useful where Grid power
supply is not accessible. In India a typical 1 HP, 500 W input 24 volt solar pump set costs
35000/- to 40000/-without the cost of Solar panel and fittings. A complete set can cost around Rs
1 Lakh. These pump set can deliver around 1500 liters of water per hour on sunny days.

There are few sections of the solar inverter they are:

1) The solar battery recharger,
2) The solar panel
3) Rechargeable battery
4) The inverter.


Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system
type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge
controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances).

1) Size and Rating of Solar Panel – converts sunlight into DC electricity.

2) Solar charge controller – regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels
going to battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life.
3) Size of Inverter – converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC
current for AC appliances or fed back into grid line.
4) Size of Battery Bank – stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there
is a demand.
5) Load – is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio,
TV, computer, refrigerator, etc.
6) Type of Connection of Solar Panel
7) Energy from Solar Panel as per Daily Sun lights
8) Select Type of connection of Batteries in Battery Bank


There are many topologies or circuit designs for creating higher power AC from low voltage
DC sources. Two common topologies are the Push-Pull and H-Bridge. The Push-Pull
topology is suitable for producing square and modified square wave inverter while the H-
Bridge is useful for producing modified square wave and sine wave inverter.



The basic theory of Push-Pull topology is shown in Fig 2.4. There are two transistor switches
in this design. If the top switch closes, it will cause current to flow from the battery negative
through the transformer primary to the battery positive. This induces a voltage in the
secondary side of the transformer that is equal to the battery voltage times the turn’s ratio of
the transformer.

This phenomena flow is shown in Fig 2.5(a). Only one switch is closed at a time. The
switches flip-flop after a period of approximately 8ms which is one-half of 60Hz AC cycle.
The top switch opens and then the bottom switch closes allowing current to flow in the
opposite direction as illustrate in Fig. 2.5(b). The continuing of closes and opens switch will
produce a square wave output waveform which is higher voltage AC power.

The addition of an extra winding in the transformer along with a few other parts allows
output of a Modified Square Wave.


The operation of H-Bridge topology is similar to Push-Pull topology. The term H-Bridge is
derived from the typical graphical representation of such a circuit. An H-Bridge is built with
four transistor switches. The transistors are divided into four groups with the transformer
primary connected across the middle of the bridge as illustrate in Fig 2.6.


The transistors are switched on and off in a specific pattern to produce each part of the
waveform. If the switch 1 and 4 are closed, current will flow from the battery negative
through transformer primary to the positive terminal of the battery as shown in Fig. 9(a). This
current induces a current flow in the secondary of the transformer, which has a peak voltage
equal to the battery voltage times the turn ratio of the transformer. The switch 1 and 4 open
after a period of time and the switch 2 and 4 close providing off time shorting like in Fig.
9(b). The length of the on and off time is determined according to the Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) controller.
Then, the switch 2 and 3 are close and allow current flow through the transformer in a
direction opposite to the current flow. The switch 2 and 4 are close after this cycle is
complete for off time shorting. This cycle will continuous to produce AC power.


There are few sections of the solar inverter they are:
1. The solar battery recharger,
2. The solar panel
3. Rechargeable battery
4. The inverter.


A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable) batter
y by forcing an electric current through it. The charge current depends upon the technology
an d capacity of the battery being charged. For example, the current that should be applied to
rec harge a 12 V car battery will be very different from the current for a mobile phone battery

The solar battery recharger as the name suggest it is in fact a battery charger which charges a
s ealed rechargeable battery of 6V 4.5 AH in this case. The solar battery charger derives its
pow er from the12V 500mA solar panel. The solar panel which in turn converts the sunlight
to ele ctrical energy. The charger converts the raw 12V from the solar panel to a regulated
voltage f eed for the sealed rechargeable battery.

The solar battery recharger features:

1. Custom controllable voltage regulation.
2. Auto cut-off when battery is fully charged.
3. Filtered input from the solar panel.
4. No current back flows from the battery.
5. Very simple, compact and efficient.
A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged,
connected assembly of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be
used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in
commercial and residential applications.

Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, many installations
contain several panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an
inverter, and sometimes a battery and interconnection wiring.


Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the
photovoltaic effect. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer
or the back layer. The majority of modules use wafer- based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film
cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The conducting wires that take the current off the
panels may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals.

The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Cells
must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most solar panels are rigid,
but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells.

Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to
provide a desired current capability. Separate diodes may be needed to avoid reverse currents, in
case of partial or total shading, and at night. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline
silicon cells may have adequate reverse current characteristics that these are not necessary.
Reverse currents waste power and can also lead to overheating of shaded cells. Solar cells
become less efficient at higher temperatures and installers try to provide good ventilation
behind solar panels. Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is
focused by lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with
a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way. Depending on
construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light,
but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or
diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and
they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore,
another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the
beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This has been projected to be capable of
raising efficiency by 50%. Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel
efficiency) is around 21% in commercial products, typically lower than the efficiencies of their
cells in isolation. The energy density of a solar panel is the efficiency described in terms of peak
power output per unit of surface area, commonly expressed in units of watts per square foot
(W/ft2). The most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy density values of greater
than 13 W/ft2 (140 W/m2).


The battery used in this project is a rechargeable sealed lead sulphate battery rating 12V
4.5AH. This type of battery is excellent for rechargeable purpose

A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells.

They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemical reactions are electrically
reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything
from a button cell to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution
network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead–
acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH),lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium
ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).


Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than disposable
batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes as disposable types.
Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost, but can be recharged very cheaply and used
many times.


Since normal dc can’t be used in most applications due to which there is a requirement that
somehow the dc is changed to ac for this the inverter is used which converts the dc to ac of
suitable range for use in house hold appliances.
In this project the dc from the sealed rechargeable battery of 6V is fed to the inverter which then
converts it to ac of 140V – 220V this makes it possible to recharge normal mobile chargers.
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current
(AC), the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of
appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.

Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from
small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct
current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC
power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. The inverter performs the opposite
function of a rectifier.


A successful design involves accurate knowledge of daily electrical load calculation and
accounts for all worst case scenarios which might possibly occur during operation. A good
designer will be pragmatic and keep the costs down by cutting on unnecessary over sizing the


Now let’s begin,

Suppose we have to design an inverter for load of 40 Watts and required backup time for
batteries is 1 Hour and we have to model a Solar Inverter than Inverter ratings, Required No
of Solar Panel and No of batteries are calculated as follows.

Inverter should be greater 25% than the total Load

40 x (25/100) = 10
40+10 = 50 Watts
This is the rating of the UPS (Inverter)

Now the required Back up Time in Hours = 2.5 Hours

Suppose we are going to install 4.5Ah, 6 batteries, 6V
x 4.5Ah = 27Wh
Now for One Battery (i.e. the Backup time of one battery)
27Wh / 40W = 0.675 Hours
But our required Backup time is 1 Hour.
Therefore, 1/0.675 = 2→ i.e. we will now connect two batteries each of 4.5Ah, 6V.

So this is a 12 V inverter system, now we will install two batteries (each of 6V, 4.5Ah) in
Parallel. Because this is a 6V inverter System, so if we connect these batteries in parallel, then the
Voltage of batteries 6V remains same, while it’s Ah (Ampere Hour) rating will be increase
1. In parallel Connection, Voltage will be same in each wire or section, while current
will be different i.e. current is additive e.g. I1+I2+I3…+In = 4.5Ah +4.5Ah = 9Ah
2. In Series Circuits, Current is same in each wire or section while voltage is different
i.e. Voltage is additive e.g.V1+V2+V3….Vn. For The above system if we connect
these batteries in series instead of parallel, then The rating of batteries become
V1+V2 = 12V while the current rating would be same i.e. 4.5Ah.

We will now connect 2 batteries in parallel (each of 4.5Ah, 6V), therefore for two Batteries it
will be 9 Ah 6V, Now Required Charging Current for these two batteries (Charging current
should be 1/10 of batteries Ah) → 9Ah x (1/10) = 0.9A

Now the required No of Solar Panels

P = VI
P = 6V x 0.9 A
P = 5.4 Watts

This is our required watts for solar panel (only for battery charging, and then battery will supply
power to the load), Now
5.4W/3W = 2 Solar panels
Or 5.4W/6 = 1 Solar panels

The Push-Pull topology was the first step in electronic inverter technology. The advantage of this
topology is the simplicity of the overall circuit design and cost effective in manufacturing. But,
the major problem is the current in the transformer has to suddenly reverse directions. This will
causes a large reduction in efficiency. The disadvantages of this topology are complexity of the
transformer design and higher transformer losses in square wave design.

The square wave inverter is the simplest and cheapest form of inverter. But, the output
waveform of square wave inverter has high total harmonic distortion (THD). Motor will
generate excess heat and most of electronic equipment will not operate well from square
wave inverter. Modified square wave inverters have better improvement over square wave
types. It has good voltage regulation, lower total harmonic distortion and better overall
efficiency. The operation of electric motor is better from a modified square wave and most
electronic component will operate without problems.

The advantage of H-Bridge topology is the simplicity of needing only one primary winding
on the transformer. The efficiency of this design based on the quality of the transistors used
and the number of transistors in parallel. Mostly, the losses in this topology are at the
transistor switches. The performance of this design will improve as transistors improve and
become available.

For small load applications in PV system, the inverter can be design by using the Push-Pull
topologies. This topology is simple and easy to design. This kind of inverter can run the lamp
and fan. However some modification of the design is needed for this topology. The next step
will continue with further improvement in the circuit design and simulation of this topology
in order to improve and modify the circuit design.



S. No Component Ratings
i. Step Down Transformer 230V/12V, 1A
ii. Diodes IN4001, IN 4007
iii. Capacitors 470µF, 50V
iv. Voltage regulator IC 7812 IC 7812
v. Transistor BC547
vi. Resistors (Each 0.25 watt) 10kΩ,1.5kΩ,100kΩ
vii. Buzzer 12V

i. IC CD4047 CD4047
ii. Resistors 1K, 18K, 100Ω- 0.5W
iii. Capacitor 0.22µF
v. Step Down Transformer 230V/12V-0-12V,5A

3. Battery 12V,4.5Ah
4. Miscellaneous


A transformer is an electrical device and it consists of 2 coils of wire that are joined by an
iron core. It offers the much required capability of changing the current and voltage levels
simply. The main function of the transformer is that to increase (step-up) or decrease (step-
down) AC voltages. The transformer works on the principle of Faraday’s law of
electromagnetic induction, that is, mutual inductance between 2 circuits that is linked by a
common magnetic flux. Transformer converts an electrical energy from one circuit to
another circuit with the help of mutual induction between the 2 windings without electrical
connection between them, and also converts power from one circuit to another} circuit
without changing the frequency however with a different voltage level.

In a step up transformer, secondary winding contains a lot of winding than the first coil.
Returning to a transformer, it has more windings in the primary than the secondary winding.
These are one of the main reasons we use AC current in our homes and not DC. DC voltages
can’t be modified using transformers.


3.2.2 DIODE

The 1N4007 series (or 1N4000 series) is a family of popular 1.0 amp general purpose silicon
rectifier diodes commonly used in AC adapters for common household appliances. Blocking
voltage varies from 50 to 1000 volts. This diode is made in an axial-lead DO-41 plastic

The 1N5400 series is a similarly popular series for higher current applications, up to 3 A.
These diodes come in the larger DO-201 axial package. These are fairly low-speed rectifier
diodes, being inefficient for square waves of more than 15 kHz. The series was second
sourced by many manufacturers. The 1N4000 series were in the Motorola Silicon Rectifier
Handbook in 1966, as replacements for 1N2609 through 1N2617.


These devices are widely used and recommended. The table below shows the maximum
repetitive reverse blocking voltages of each of the members of the 1N4000 and 1N5400 series


A capacitor is a tool consisting of two conductive plates, each of which hosts an opposite
charge. These plates are separated by a dielectric or other form of insulator, which helps
them maintain an electric charge. There are several types of insulators used in capacitors.
Examples include ceramic, polyester, tantalum air, and polystyrene. Other common
capacitor insulators include air, paper, and plastic. Each effectively prevents the plates from
touching each other. A capacitor is often used to store analogue signals and digital data.
Another type of capacitor is used in the telecommunications equipment industry.


This type of capacitor is able to adjust the frequency and tuning of telecommunications
equipment and is often referred to a variable capacitor. A capacitor is also ideal for storing
an electron. A capacitor cannot, however, make electrons. A capacitor measures in voltage,
which differs on each of the two interior plates. Both plates of the capacitor are charged, but
the current flows in opposite directions. A capacitor contains 1.5 volts, which is the same
voltage found in a common AA battery. As voltage is used in a capacitor, one of the two
plates becomes filled with a steady flow of current. At the same time, the current flows away
from the other plate. To understand the flow of voltage in a capacitor, it is helpful to look at
naturally occurring examples. Lightning, for example, is similar to a capacitor. The cloud
represents one of the plates and the ground represents the other. The lightning is the
charging factor moving between the ground and the cloud.


7812 is a famous IC which is being widely used in 12V voltage regulator circuits. Truly
speaking it is a complete standalone voltage regulator. We only need to use two capacitors,
one on the input and second one on the output of 7812 in order to achieve clean voltage
output and even these capacitors are optional to use. To achieve 12V 1A current, 7812
should be mounted on a good heat sink plate. Thanks to the transistor like shape of 7812
which makes it easy to mount on a heat sink plate. 7812 has built in over heat and short
circuit protection which makes it a good choice for making power supplies.



A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals

and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals
for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the
transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the
controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can
amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are
found embedded in integrated circuits.


The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied
between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals.
This property is called gain. It can produce a stronger output signal, a voltage or current,
which is proportional to a weaker input signal; that is, it can act as an amplifier.
Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically
controlled switch, where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements.


A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an
electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device
such as a transistor. All other factors being equal, in a direct-current (DC) circuit, the current
through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance, and directly proportional to the
voltage across it. This is the well-known Ohm's Law. In alternating-current (AC) circuits, this
rule also applies as long as the resistor does not contain inductance or capacitance.
Resistors can be fabricated in a variety of ways. The most common type in electronic
devices and systems is the carbon-composition resistor. Fine granulated carbon (graphite) is
mixed with clay and hardened. The resistance depends on the proportion of carbon to clay;
the higher this ratio, the lower the resistance.

Another type of resistor is made from winding Nichrome or similar wire on an insulating
form. This component, called a wire wound resistor, is able to handle higher currents than a
carbon composition resistor of the same physical size. However, because the wire is wound
into a coil, the component acts as an inductors as well as exhibiting resistance. This does not
affect performance in DC circuits, but can have an adverse effect in AC circuits because
inductance renders the device sensitive to changes in output.

3.2.7 BUZZER

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device which may be mechanical,

electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm
devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.


3.2.8 IC CD4047

The CD4047B is capable of operating in either the monostable or astable mode. It requires
an external capacitor (between pins 1 and 3) and an external resistor (Between pins 2 and 3)
to determine the output pulse width in the monostable mode, and the output frequency in the
astable mode. Astable operation is enabled by a high level on the astable input or low level
on the astable input. The output frequency (at 50% duty cycle) at Q and Q outputs is
determined by the timing components. A frequency twice that of Q is available at the
Oscillator Output; a 50% duty cycle is not guaranteed. Monostable operation is obtained
when the device is triggered by LOW-to-HIGH transition at + trigger input or HIGH-to-
LOW transition at - trigger input. The device can be retriggered by applying a simultaneous
LOW-to-HIGH transition to both the + trigger and retrigger inputs. A high level on Reset
input resets the outputs Q to LOW, Q to HIGH.

FIG. 3.7 IC CD4047

3.2.9 MOSFET

MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) is a special type of field-effect

transistor (FET) that works by electronically varying the width of a channel along which charge
carriers (electrons or holes) flow. The wider the channel, the better the device conducts. The
charge carriers enter the channel at the source, and exit via the drain. The width of the channel is
controlled by the voltage on an electrode called the gate, which is located physically
between the source and the drain and is insulated from the channel by an extremely thin
layer of metal oxide.

The MOSFET has certain advantages over the conventional junction FET, or JFET. Because
the gate is insulated electrically from the channel, no current flows between the gate and the
channel, no matter what the gate voltage (as long as it does not become so great that it
causes physical breakdown of the metallic oxide layer). Thus, the MOSFET has practically
infinite impedance . This makes MOSFETs useful for power amplifiers. The devices are also
well suited to high-speed switching applications. Some integrated circuits (ICs) contain tiny
MOSFETs and are used in computers.


Because the oxide layer is so thin, the MOSFET is susceptible to permanent damage by
electrostatic charges. Even a small electrostatic buildup can destroy a MOSFET
permanently. In weak-signal radio-frequency (RF) work, MOSFET devices do not generally
perform as well as other types of FET.



Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each photon (light particle) hitting the silicon,
will liberate an electron and a corresponding hole. If this happens within range of the electric
field’s influence, the electrons will be sent to the N side and the holes to the P one, resulting
in yet further disruption of electrical neutrality. This flow of electrons is a current; the
electrical field in the cell causes a voltage and the product of these two is power. The solar
energy is stored in the battery from Photo-Voltaic cells with the help of charging circuit.

The charging circuit is built around voltage regulator IC 7812 and two transistors BC 548.
That DC voltage is then fed to the voltage regulator IC 7812; the output will be regulated
12V. 12 volt rechargeable battery is connected at the output of voltage regulator and it
charges when main power is available.

This circuit also indicates the charging status that is the LED1 is glows when the battery is
charged (Above 10.5V). When battery voltage goes below a particular value, LED1 stops
glowing and the buzzer produces sound indicating that the battery has been discharged and it
needs recharge.



This circuit is DC to AC inverter, where the circuit work based on the stable multi-vibrator
does. On this circuit using CD4047 IC as the heart of multi-vibrator that functions to
generate a wave 50Hz is not stable, because this type of IC to provide a complementary
output stage, contrary to the other (pins 10 and 11, as shown), and 50% of the cycle to meet
the obligation to produce pulse inverter.

Circuit is called a simple DC to AC inverter, as there is no output signal is not sinusoidal, and
there were lots of harmonic signals on the output. To suppress this signal we have to use a filter
such as capacitor C. Because of this simplicity is only suitable circuits for lighting needs. To
build a sinusoidal inverter DC to AC. At the circuit this multivibrator is used to make power is
too high, then we have to use the MOSFET IRFZ44. IRFZ44 provide high current to drive step-
up transformer, so power is available in addition to the high voltage transformer.
The power MOSFETs are connected in Push Pull configuration (Power amplifier). The
MOSFETs will switch according to the pulse from CD4047 astable multivibrator. Thus an
AC voltage is transferred to the primary of transformer; it is stepped up to 230V.
The transformer used here is an ordinary step down transformer which is connected in
inverted manner. That is, the primary of a 230V to 12V-0-12V step down transformer can be
treated as secondary for this inverter project. This circuit uses 12V input (12V battery) to out
220V 50HZ. For safety please note for the installation of cooling on the components transistors,
it serves to remove excess heat transistor.

A PCB is used to mechanically support and electrically connects electronic components using
conductive pathways, tracks or etched from copper sheets. It is also referred to as PWB. A
PCB populated with electronic components is PCA, also known as a PCBA. PCB is
inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher
initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits, but are much
cheaper and faster for high-volume production. One of the most discouraging things about
making a hardware project is building PCB. Due to the improvements in printing
technologies it is now relatively easy to make inexpensive high quality PCB's at home.

PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. It is of two types:

1) General purpose - It is already drilled and etched.

2) Special purpose - It requires step by step process of making layout then etching and
then drilling.


The different processes that take place in the fabrication of a PCB are as follows:-

1. Layout designing
2. Transfer of pattern on copper board.
3. Drying
4. Etching
5. Tinning
6. Drilling
7. Soldering
8. Surface cleaning
9. Final inspection of PCB

First of all layout design of the circuit switch, to be traced on the PCB, is prepared. The layout of
a PCB has to incorporate all the information on the board; one can go to the art of work
preparation. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but one must
also have familiar with the design concept & with the philosophy behind the equipment. In this
process the layout designer, traces the circuit on a graph paper. By this process he/she marks
where the holes should be. Thus the circuit, which is to be traced on the PB, is firstly traced on
the graph paper or its layout is designed. In layout designing the distance between the copper
tracks & length, size etc. of components are also taken into consideration.



After designing the art work on the graph paper, we transferred it onto the trace paper. The
conductor pattern is then transferred to the copper clad lamination with the help of carbon
paper. By this, the pattern gets transferred on the copper clad lamination.


Etching is done to remove all the unwanted copper which is present on the portion other than
the pattern on the PCB. For this the PCB is kept dipped in the solution (FeCl 2) and two or
three drops of HCL. The chemicals react with copper & dissolve it. After some hours of time
we get the PCB left with only copper tracks on it.


The board is tinned using a soldering iron and a small piece of tinned solderwick. Tinning
isn't absolutely necessary but it improves the appearance of the board and prevents the copper
from oxidizing before it's time to solder the parts to the board.

Drilling of component mounting holes into PCB is the most important mechanical matching
operation in PCB production process. Holes are made by drilling where ever a superior hole
finish in is required. Therefore, drilling is applied by all the professional grade PCB
manufacturers & generally in all smaller PCB production plants & laboratories.


Soldering is the process of joining two metallic conductors, the joint where the two metallic
conductors are to be joined or fused is heated with a device called soldering iron and then an
alloy of tin and lead called solder is applied which melts and cover the joint. The solder cools
and solidifies quickly to ensure a good and durable connection between the joined metals.
Covering the joint with solder prevents oxidation.

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED - The various tools and equipments required for construction of
a PCB are given below:-

a) Solder kit consist of:-

i) Soldering iron.
ii) Soldering wire.
iii) Flux
b) Tweezers
c) Cutter
d) Multi-meter (Measuring instrument)


i. The quantity of soldering of component on PCB should be good quantity.

ii. The component fitted on the PCB should loosely fit.
iii. Use ferric chloride safely.
iv. Add ferric chloride to the water, not water to the ferric chloride.

After drilling, the surface is cleaned so that the scraps may be removed which are settled on
the board during drilling.


After complete fabrication, PCB is inspected for any defect such as short circuit or open circuit.
If no defect found, then the PCB will be directly considered for operation.


Usage of solar energy and especially installation of photovoltaic systems has increased
throughout the last years affected by many reasons such as: the increased rate of the price of
electricity utilizing fuel and diesel oil, the improvements in techniques used for installing
solar systems, increase in efficiency of solar systems etc. On the other hand, due to the
equipment required, PV power generation is more expensive than other resources.
Governments are promoting it with subsidies or feed-in tariffs, expecting the development of
the technology so that in the near future it will become competitive. Increasing the efficiency
in PV plants so as to increase the power generated is a key aspect, as it will increase the
incomes, reducing the cost of the power generated, cost approaching the cost of the power
produced from other sources. This increase in the usage of solar energy has led to a dramatic
decrease in the prices of this renewable energy. It is reported that the prices are declining at a
rate of 4% per annum and over the last 15 years. Although installing a PV system costs a
considerable amount of money, these systems can be of economic benefit in the long run.
This is due to the fact that a big amount of money is paid once to purchase the system after
which the annual costs are limited to maintenance, and upgrading the power delivery system.
The annual costs are very small compared to costs you pay for running a diesel engine
(maintenance, fuel etc...), and they range between 0.02 and 0.1 cents/kWh. In the future,
when the prices of fossil fuels rise and the economic advantages of mass production reduce
the peak watt cost of the photovoltaic cell, photovoltaic power will become more cost
competitive and more common.

S. No Component Ratings Cost

viii. Step Down Transformer 230V/12V, 1A 70/-
ix. Diodes IN4001, IN 4007 4/-
x. Capacitors 470µF, 50V 5/-
xi. Voltage regulator IC 7812 IC 7812 30/-
xii. Transistor BC547 40/-
xiii. Resistors (Each 0.25 watt) 10kΩ,1.5kΩ,100kΩ 10/-
xiv. Buzzer 12V 27/-

vi. IC CD4047 CD4047 45/-
vii. Resistors 1K, 18K, 100Ω 5/-
viii. Capacitor 0.22µF 10/-
ix. MOSFET IRFZ44 40/-
x. Step Down Transformer 230V/12V,5A 70/-

3. Battery 12V,4.5Ah 700/-

4. Solar Plate 6W 700/-
5. Miscellaneous 300/-
TOTAL 2056/-



An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells
to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC
equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power
when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC
power to recharge the batteries.


With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is
transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant
converts the power back to AC.


A transformer allows AC power to be converted to any desired voltage, but at the same
frequency. Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be designed to convert from any voltage, AC
or DC, to any other voltage, also AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output power can
never exceed the input power, but efficiencies can be high, with a small proportion of the
power dissipated as waste heat.


1. Constant and uninterrupted supply.

2. There is no requirement of electricity and manpower to operate the device.
3. With no moving parts involved, its efficiency is further enhanced.
4. It acts as a power back up solution.
5. Circuit can be checked with 12 volt (DC) universal power supply.
6. It is one of the methods of renewable generation.
7. This is an ecofriendly means of power generation.
8. It can be used in distant villages where transmission cost is much high.
9. Reduction in consumption from conventional sources of energy.
1. Initial cost of installation is very high.
2. Area required for installation is large.
3. It will be less effective in rainy days.
4. Protection system installment is very high.
5. Cause problems to eye sight because of solar reflectors.

Photovoltaic power production is gaining more significance as a renewable energy source

due to its many advantages. These advantages include everlasting pollution free energy
production scheme, ease of maintenance, and direct sunbeam to electricity conversion.
However the high cost of PV installations still forms an obstacle for this technology.
Moreover the PV panel output power fluctuates as the weather conditions, such as the
insolation level, and cell temperature.

The described design of the system will produce the desired output of the project. The
inverter will supply an AC source from a DC source.

The project described is valuable for the promising potentials it holds within, ranging from
the long run economic benefits to the important environmental advantages. This work will
mark one of the few attempts and contributions in the Arab world, in the field of renewable
energy; where such projects could be implemented extensively. With the increasing
improvements in solar cell technologies and power electronics, such projects would have
more value added and should receive more attention and support.

As whole world is facing a problem of global warming and energy crisis, our project will help to
reduce these problems by using solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an infinite
source of energy. Main motto of our project is to promote use of renewable energy sources. This
project is most useful in our life because in this project one time investment fixed on life time. In
future one day nonrenewable energy will end then we will use to the renewable energy.

The solar inverter made by us is just a prototype for making future projects which incorporate
advanced technologies like micro controlled solar tracking, charge control, etc. this is to
show that solar inverters are very cheap and easy to install so that the energy demands are
shifted on using renewable sources of energy. There is more advancements pending in this
field which will revolutionise the energy stream and solar energy will be playing the most
important role of all.

The reference of the books and websites, we have referred in order to complete my training
report are as follows:-

[1] Khan, B.H.: Non-Conventional Soures of Energy, 5/e, Mc Graw Hill Education(India).

[2] Van Valkenburg, M.E. : Network Analysis, 3/e, Mc Graw Hill Education (India).

[3] Milliman, Jacob & Christos Halkias: Integrated Electronics, 2/e, Mc Graw Hill

[4] Gupta, J.B. : Electronics Devices & Circuit, 3/e, S.K. Kataria & Sons, 2009.

[5] Salivahanan, S. & S. Arivazhagan: Digital Electronics, 3/e, Vikas Publication, 2007.

[6] Fitzgerald, A.E., Charles Kingsley & Stephen D. Umans : Electric Machinery, 3/e, Mc
Graw Hill Publication (India).

[7] Hussain, Ashfaq : Electrical Machines, Second Edition, Dhanpat Rao Publications.