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WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION

To ensure effective and efficient water supply and distribution system. The following will be
considered:

 Type of system layout

 Sizing of mains

 Material selection

TYPE OF SYSTEM LAYOUT


The type of system classified by source of water supply has impact on the design, construction and
operation of the water distribution system. The team will therefore look at the systems associated
with the

 surface water source


 ground water source

 purchased water source

and proposed the best alternative for the community.

system layout
the network configuration of the community will be assessed which will depend on the
interconnectivity of the pipes. The following configuration will be considered for appropriateness
for community: Serial, Branched, grid (loop) combined.

SIZING OF MAINS
Assessment of adequacy of the existing mains to peak domestic and commercial demand of the
community as well as supply at necessary pressure during firefighting will be done.

Quantity of water required


The water demand for the area will depend on the domestic, commercial, Institutional and
firefighting requirements.

Pressure requirement
In case of fire outbreak, the community will require higher pressure firefighting hydrant.
Assessment of the existing firefight hydrant will be done.

MATERIAL SELECTION
The material for existing distribution system will be assess for durability.

NETWORK ANALYSIS
In analysing the flow and pressure in the pipe network, a computer program which stimulate
hydraulic and water quality behaviour with pressurise pipe will be used. The computer software,
EPANET, also computes friction head losses base on Hazen-William, Darcy-Weibach or Chezy –
Manning formulas.

WATER STORAGE
The treated water for distribution require storage to meet the domestic, commercial, instructional
and firefighting requirement for community.
The type and capacity of the water storage for distribution will be assessed depending on the
topography of the area and how the water system is laid out. The water storage to be considered
are:
 Overhead / elevated tank
 Buried reservoir
 Ground – level reservoir
A suitable location for the siting of the water storage tank that will serve the community will be
considered.

PUMPING STATION
In areas where water supply cannot flow under gravity, pumping station will be installed to supply
water to the distribution system with the required pressure.