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Universidad Abierta Para Adultos


(UAPA)

Subject:

Final Degree Course

Topic
Profile of the Dominican Teacher and the Educational Quality.

Participants:

 Yaelis Escano Eusebio


 Perla Maciel

Facilitator

Licdo.Orelvis.

Date
December 18, 2018 María Trinidad Sánchez, Nagua
Table of Contents.

Introduction .................................................................................... ..
......... ..i

General and specific


objectives ................................................................ ... .ii

Justification ................................................................................. .. ..
.... .. ... ..iii

Module I: Profile of the dominican teacher 7

1.1. Concept Teacher


Profile .............................................................. ........ 8

1.1.2. The profile of the teacher according to some authors 8

1.1.3. Characteristics and competencies of the Dominican


teacher 10

1.1.3.1. Characteristics of the Dominican


teacher ................................... .. 10

1.1.3.1.1. The teacher is a responsible


citizen ......................... .. ...... .. ......11

1.1.3.2. The teacher is a university


professional .................................... ... 11

1.1.3.2. Generic teaching


competences ...................................................... 11

1.1.3.3. Specific teaching competences .........................................


.............12

1.1.4. Dimensions of the teacher ....13


Practice of module I .................................................................. .. ....
......... .16

Module II: Foundation of the Dominican Education


curriculum ............................................................................ ..............
. 19

2.1. Curriculum
Definition ............................................................ .. ...... ... ... 20

Components of Curricular
Design .............................................. ...... ..... 20

2.2.1. The
competitions ............................................. ... ......................... ... ... 20

2.2.1.1. Fundamental Competencies ................................................ .


21

2.2.1.2. Specific competences ............................................................


..... 23

2.2.1.3. Labor-professional
competences .......................................... ...... 23

2.2.2. Contents ........................................................................ ... ......


... ... 24

2.2.2.1. The conceptual


contents ............................................................ 24
2.2.2.2. The procedural contents ............................................. .. ......
24

2.2.2.3. Attitudinal contents ............................................................ .


25

2.2.3. Teaching and learning strategies ....................................... ...


25

2.2.4. The means and resources for


learning ............................ ......... ..... ... .29

2.2.5. The evaluation of the


learnings ................................................... ... 29

2.3. Principles present in the curricular


foundations .................. .. ... .. ... ... 30

Practice Module
II .............................................................................. ... ... 31

Module III: Planning by


Competence .......................................... .. .......

3.1. Definition and importance of planning ...


3.2. Concept of competition ...
3.2.1. Types of competences ...
3.2.1.1. Core competences ...
3.2.1.2. Specific competence ...
3.2.1.3. Labor-professional competence ...
3.3. Crosscutting. Relationship with the fundamental competences
3.4. Identification of the plan according to grade and level

3.5. Learning situation

3.6. Curricular contents. Curriculum

3.6.1. Curriculum

3.7. Achievement indicators

3.8. Teaching and learning strategies

3.9. The means and resources for learning

3.10. The evaluation of learning

Practice module III

Module IV: Evaluation of learning

4.1. Theoretical foundations

4.2. Types of evaluation

4.2.1. Types of evaluation according to the actors involved

4.3. Evaluation criteria

4.4. Instruments and evaluation techniques

4.5. Management of grade registration or progress reports

Practice module IV

conclusion

Bibliography

Annexes
Introduction

The profile of the Dominican teacher is translated into academic


components that must be developed through a systematic training
process within an educational institution. It is conformed by a
programmatic or instrumental orientation represented by the
capacity to perform a determined trade and by a social humanistic
orientation or the capacity to interpret society; All these orientations
must be achieved through academic action.

The teacher must have knowledge about the elements that the
curriculum has in order to plan and evaluate according to the
parameters that the document establishes, that is why this work will
determine the profile of the Dominican teacher and the educational
quality based on the curriculum. .

Likewise, we will develop in the present investigation the importance


of planning in what is the formation of a good teacher, since every
pedagogical process must be properly ordered in a systematic and
continuous manner. In addition, we mention the types of evaluation
and the techniques and instruments that must be applied when
issuing an assessment of the competences developed and obtained
by the students.

General objectives.

Determine the profile of the Dominican teacher, as well as the


foundation of the curriculum and its components to contribute to the
development of educational quality.

Specific Objectives
Determine the profile of the teacher , as well as the characteristics
and competencies of the Dominican teacher of the 21st century,
2017-2018.

Know the foundation of the curriculum, as well as the importance of


planning and evaluation for a better teacher training in Las Terrenas
in the 21st century, 2017-2018.

Justification.

Currently the teaching profession requires attitudes, knowledge and


methodologies that in the past century were sufficient, due in large
part to the fact that the society that was being educated at that time
did not have the social, economic, labor, technological pressures,
differences that either rural or urban context positioned the Master in
a privileged status.

In the 21st century, the teacher in the Dominican Republic must


gather at least three main tools: sensitivity, flexibility and knowledge.

This research is carried out in order to raise awareness of the profile of the
teacher and educational quality, as teachers as time progresses and technology
must move forward together with it to be at the forefront and according to their
students, children and adolescents handle technology with great agility and
every good teacher must be prepared to respond to the needs of their students.
In addition to having mastery of planning and evaluation of training processes
because these elements are essential to have a good teaching practice in the
classroom and therefore a good educational quality.

Module II

Foundation of the Dominican Education Curriculum.. Definition


and importance of planning.

2.1Curriculum definition
Caswell Anderse He say that Curriculum is the set of situations that we use
intentionally to achieve a favorable interaction or a learning response on the
part of the students. It can also be interpreted as follows: the set of factors that
allow the best interaction in the environment created by the school and the
experiences that students gain in those environments. (1956).

The curriculum provides tools to understand the context, the purposes of


education, the sequences, the methodological strategies and the evaluation
processes in an educational institution.

2.2. Components of the curricular design .

Within the components of the curricular design we can find:


• The competences
• Contents.
• Teaching and learning strategies.
• Activities.
• Means and resources for learning.
• Evaluation

2.2.1. The competitions In curricular design, it defines competence as the


capacity to act effectively and autonomously in diverse contexts, mobilizing
concepts, procedures, attitudes and values in an integrated manner.

The competences are developed gradually in a process that is maintained


throughout life, are aimed at personal fulfillment, the improvement of the quality
of life and the development of society in balance with the environment.

The Dominican curriculum is structured according to three types of


competences: a) fundamental, b) specific and c) labor-professional .

2.2.1.1. Fundamental competences.

The fundamental competences express the educational intentions of greater


relevance and significance. They are transversal competences that allow to
connect in a meaningful way the whole curriculum.

The Fundamental Competences of the Dominican curriculum


are:
• Ethical and Citizenship Competition: this is based on the promotion and
respect of human rights and, particularly, on equity and social justice that make
possible the dignified life of citizens. In this sense, groups and social and
political organizations that assert their rights and fulfill their duties play a very
important role.

• Communicative Competence:
This allows the expression of ideas, emotions, feelings, cultural and artistic
values. It is essential for the construction of personal and collective identity and
for the conformation of a worldview that allows interpreting and acting in the
world. In addition, it is a fundamental strategy for the organization and
construction of thought.

• Logical, Creative and Critical Thinking Competence : The


exercise of this competence enables the application of logical procedures to
organize data and information, make judgments, generate new ideas, develop
creative ways of interpreting reality and critically examine our positions and
those of the other people.

• Problem Solving Competence: This allows you to face multiple


situations, learn and apply your knowledge to search, implement and evaluate
possible solutions, which requires flexibility and openness to new alternatives
not necessarily known.

• Scientific and Technological Competence:


this competence is that it allows each student to understand and interpret reality
(natural, social, the world ...), on the basis of knowing how to obtain relevant
information about it, elaborate concepts and theories, deduce principles and
laws. All of which provides you with the means to understand your local and
global environment, mobilize your preconceptions, systematize your
observations, develop appropriate technological applications, anticipate
consequences and act responsibly with respect to the application of scientific
knowledge to technological development.

• Environmental and Health Competence: is committed to the elimination


of stereotypes and prejudices that impede a comprehensive vision of human
sexuality. The person acts in benefit of their own integral health and that of their
community, in interrelation, preservation and care of nature and the social
environment, to counteract the negative effects generated by human action,
avoid other damages and promote autonomously and sustainable life and
health of the planet.

• Competence of Personal and Spiritual Development : it is the


competence that allows the person to value themselves and others, balance
their own needs, desires and projects with those of their peers and open
themselves to transcendence.

3.2.1.2. Specific competences.


The specific competences correspond to the curricular areas. These
competences refer to the capacities that students must acquire and develop
through the mediation of each area of knowledge. They are guided by the
Fundamental Competencies and support its concretion, guaranteeing the
coherence of the curriculum in terms of learning. Professional-professional
competences.

3.2.1.3. The labor-professional competences. They refer to the


development of skills linked to the world of work. They prepare students for the
acquisition and performance of specific professional-professional levels and to
solve the problems derived from the change in work situations. These
competences are present in the different specialties of the Technical-
Professional Modalities and the Arts, as well as in the labor training that include
the Subsystems of Education of Young People and Adults and Special
Education.

2.2.2. The content.


They are mediators of meaningful learning. They are the knowledge or
knowledge of the curricular areas. The contents constitute a selection of the set
of knowledge or cultural forms of knowledge whose appropriation, construction
and reconstruction by the students is considered essential for the development
of competences. They are classified into three types: conceptual, procedural
and attitudinal.

2.2.2.1. The Conceptual Contents.


They correspond to the area of knowledge, that is, the facts, phenomena and
concepts that students can "learn". These contents can be transformed into
learning if it is based on the previous knowledge that the student possesses,
which in turn are interrelated with the other types of contents.
2.2.2.2. Los Contenidos Procedimentales.

Constituyen un conjunto de acciones que facilitan el logro de un fin


propuesto. El estudiante será el actor principal en la realización de los
procedimientos que demandan los contenidos, es decir, desarrollará su
capacidad para “saber hacer”. En otras palabras contemplan el conocimiento
de cómo ejecutar acciones interiorizadas. Estos contenidos abarcan
habilidades intelectuales, motrices, destrezas, estrategias y procesos que
impliquen una secuencia de acciones.

2.2.2.3. The Attitudinal Contents. It involves knowledge and affective-


social behaviors such as compliance with norms and values as well as knowing
how to behave in a socially acceptable manner. It is knowing how to be ...
Attitudes are hypothetical constructs, that is, something that is not seen but
whose existence is inferred indirectly.

2.2.3. Teaching and learning strategies.


The teaching and learning strategies constitute the sequence of activities
planned and systematically organized to support the construction of knowledge
in the school environment, in permanent interaction with the communities. They
refer to the pedagogical interventions made with the intention of enhancing and
improving the learning and teaching processes, as a means to contribute to a
better cognitive, socio-affective and physical development, that is to say, of the
competences necessary to act socially.

Here are some strategies and techniques:

• Recovery strategies from previous experiences that value popular


knowledge and pauten and guarantee meaningful learning of the knowledge
developed. It is possible to resort to the environment of the school, to the family
and home environment, to the care activities usually carried out by the women
or to the school itself.

• Expositive strategies of knowledge elaborated and / or accumulated, using


varied resources and materials (oral, written, digital, manipulative, audiovisual,
among others). They can expose the teachers, the students and also invited
people from the community for their mastery of specific topics. You can watch
movies or videos at school, in the homes of some members of the educational
community or in an institution that facilitates the equipment. You can read
textbooks, or better yet, specialized books on certain topics, from the school,
from some of the children, from libraries or from members of the educational
community.

• Discovery and inquiry strategies for methodological learning of search


and identification of information, as well as the use of bibliographic research
and adequate forms of experimentation, according to age, content to work and
equipment available.

• Strategies for the insertion of teachers, teachers and students in the


environment. Within the framework of these strategies, it is possible to resort to
some of the activities mentioned in the strategies for recovering individual
perceptions, such as visits or excursions. The difference is that in this type of
strategies a greater involvement is foreseen, a dynamic of greater exchange
with the environment.

Socialization strategies focused on group activities. The group allows the


free expression of opinions, the identification of problems and solutions, in an
atmosphere of cooperation and solidarity. Some of the socialization strategies
that can be organized and carried out are the dramatizations, the staging of
plays, the production of newspapers and student bulletins, the organization of
entities and student groups to serve special interests: dancing, the musical
performance, the plastic one, among other activities.
• Problem Based Learning (ABP). It is a learning strategy in which
problems similar to those that the student will face in their life with the aim of
developing competencies are used. This strategy differs from the traditional
ones, because instead of exposing the contents first and then working on their
application in daily life, it starts with the approach of a problem of daily life that
will motivate students to investigate and learn about a certain topic. The
purpose of problem-based learning is to solve the problem and also create the
scenario as a means to identify their need for learning and investigate content
previously selected by the teacher and in certain cases proposed by the
student.

• Project Based Learning Strategy. Through this strategy, students explore


problems and situations of interest in the context and assume the challenge of
creating or modifying resources or procedures that meet a need. The process of
carrying out a project is done in collaboration with others and allows obtaining
original results or products that generate interest and satisfaction.

• Socio drama or dramatization. It is a technique that presents an argument


or theme through the simulation and dialogue of the characters in order to excite and
motivate. It is used to represent a fact, historical event or a social situation. To
implement it, the theme is determined, research is carried out, roles are assigned, the
script is written, the scenario is prepared, choreography, set design, among other
activities.

• Case Study Technique. This technique differs from Problem Based


Learning (ABP) in that the situation described must be real, presenting a
difficulty that a person, a community or an institution at a specific time. This
situation must be analyzed by the academic community in order to formulate
alternative solutions and make recommendations based on the information
presented in the case and in additional investigations.

• The debate. It is a technique in which two or more participants exchange


contradictory points of view on a chosen topic. For this, you must select a topic,
investigate it, prepare the arguments and presentations, assign the roles and conduct
the debate in front of a jury. Each participant exposes and argues their position and
questions the argumentation of their interlocutor.
2.2.4. The means and resources for learning . The learning resources
in all levels, modalities and subsystems favor the development of competences,
help to organize knowledge, facilitate the research process, promote self-
learning, stimulate the imagination and support the development of dynamic
and participative educational processes. It is important to take into account that
these didactic resources must be adapted to the specific needs of the student.

2.2.5. The evaluation of learning. The evaluation is a systematic and


continuous process of collecting relevant information in order that the actors of
the educational process recognize and appreciate the effectiveness of teaching
and the quality of learning. It is necessary to start from an integral approach of
the evaluation in which both the external standardized tests, as well as the
evaluations that are carried out in the classroom and the evaluation that is
made to the Educational System as a whole have the main objective of
improving the learning of the and the students. The decisions that are taken
when reorienting the educational process must be based on the information
provided by said evaluations. Evaluation is not an end in itself, but a means to
contribute to educational improvement.

2.3. Principles present in the curricular foundations.

Significant learning. Learning involves the construction of knowledge in terms of


meaningful referents for the person, from which he transforms his mental schemas, to
give answers to the different situations that are presented to him. The significance of
learning is psychological, sociocultural and logical.

Functionality of learning. Meaningful learning involves the construction


and mobilization of knowledge and its application in a given context to respond
to a situation, solve a problem or produce new realities. It also implies,
according to Ausubel, the processes that the individual puts into play to learn:
what happens in the classroom when the students learn, the nature of those
learning, the conditions required to learn, their results, and their evaluation.
There are two important aspects for the student to learn in a meaningful way: •
That they have prior knowledge (conceptual, procedural and attitudinal)
organized coherently . • That he or the teacher consider the student body as the
center of school activity.
Integration of knowledge. Competent performance implies the integration of
concepts, procedures, attitudes and values of different disciplines. Based on the fact
that human beings see integrated reality, articulation is facilitated by strategies that link
different areas of knowledge around competences and learning situations. To facilitate
this connection, various strategies can be used and / or designed. Strategies based on
centers of interest, projects, problems, cases, learning units, among others, are useful
for integration purposes.

Visit an educational center in your community: Observe the


practice of a teacher at the level.

The Educational Center visited was Prof. Leonora King Hernández where they
received us with much affection and took us to the teacher we were going to observe,
who is a Social Sciences teacher and was teaching second grade in secondary school
(8th grade). The name of the teacher is Yamilka Calcaño Maldonado.

Based on what has been observed, prepare a comparative table presenting the
following

Cuatro comparativo de la práctica


docente de la Licda. Yamilka
Calcaño Maldonado
strength opportunity area

 Get involved with technology,


Promotes their students to as it would be very useful for
participate actively during your students to be motivated.
the class they teach, asking
them questions about the  Have more control of the
topic being discussed. course at the time of teaching
the class.

Rescue the previous


knowledge of the students  Use of more strategies
before approaching the topic, according to the theme.
asking questions about the
subject to their students to
see the knowledge they have.
Good command of the
contents worked.

 complete your class with


examples, looking for that
relate to the subject.

 . Links the contents with the


context in which their
students are.

 At the end of the content
evaluates the class, feedback
and finally leaves tasks
According to the observed, he tells us that in teaching practice it is
very important to use strategies that motivate students, because if
they are motivated we can achieve our purpose, which will be
provided that our students obtain meaningful learning.

In addition to the visit made to the school you can tell us that it has
served because we could notice the strengths and weaknesses of
the practice that the teacher has, and so we can improve them in
the future.

We could also observe that in practice a teacher must have mastery


of the course, since it turns out to be of the utmost importance
because through this we can manage to give the class more easily
and thus the students can obtain more learning.

Module III Planning by Competition.

3.1. Definition and importance of planning.

According to Requeijo (2000), he says that educational planning should not


remain a mere analytical, intellectual or diagnostic exercise of reality, but should
have an eminently practical nature and, ultimately, the transformation of reality
into reality. a more or less immediate future. Although in the field of planning
and management you have a proven set of techniques, tools and support tools
(diagnostic, prioritization, among others).

According to Requeijo (2000), he says that educational planning should not


remain a mere analytical, intellectual or diagnostic exercise of reality, but should
have an eminently practical nature and, ultimately, the transformation of reality
into reality. a more or less immediate future. Although in the field of planning
and management you have a proven set of techniques, tools and support tools
(diagnostic, prioritization, among others). The importance of planning lies in the
need to organize coherently and systematically what you want to achieve with
students in the classroom. This involves making decisions prior to the practice
about what will be learned, what will be done and how it can be achieved in the
best way.

3.2. Concept of Competition

The competence refers to some aspects of knowledge and skills; those that are
necessary to reach certain results and demands, in a certain circumstance. It is
the real capacity to achieve an objective or result in a given context according to
the International Labor Organization "(Chomsky, 2000).

3.2.1. Types of Competencies.


The Dominican curriculum is structured according to three types of competences: a)
fundamental, b) specific and c) labor-professional.

3.2.1.1. Fundamental competences. The fundamental competences


express the educational intentions of greater relevance and significance. They are
transversal competences that allow to connect in a meaningful way the whole
curriculum. The Fundamental Competences of the Dominican curriculum are:

• Ethical and Citizenship Competition:


it is based on the promotion and respect of human rights and, particularly, on
equity and social justice that make possible the dignified life of citizens. In this
sense, groups and social and political organizations that assert their rights and
fulfill their duties play a very important role.

• Communicative Competence:
This allows the expression of ideas, emotions, feelings, cultural and artistic values. It is
essential for the construction of personal and collective identity and for the
conformation of a worldview that allows interpreting and acting in the world. In addition,
it is a fundamental strategy for the organization and construction of thought.

• Logical, Creative and Critical Thinking Competence:

The exercise of this competence enables the application of logical procedures to


organize data and information, make judgments, generate new ideas, develop creative
ways of interpreting reality and critically examine our positions and those of other
people.

• Problem Solving Competence:


This allows you to face multiple situations, learn and apply your knowledge to
search, implement and evaluate possible solutions, which requires flexibility and
openness to new alternatives not necessarily known.

• Scientific and Technological Competence:


This competence lies in the fact that it allows each student to understand and
interpret reality (natural, social, the world ...), on the basis of knowing how to
obtain relevant information about it, elaborate concepts and theories, deduce
principles and laws. All of which provides you with the means to understand
your local and global environment, mobilize your preconceptions, systematize
your observations, develop appropriate technological applications, anticipate
consequences and act responsibly regarding the application of scientific
knowledge to technological development.
• Environmental and Health Competence:
is committed to the elimination of stereotypes and prejudices that prevent a
comprehensive vision of human sexuality. The person acts in benefit of their
own integral health and that of their community, in interrelation, preservation
and care of nature and the social environment, to counteract the negative
effects generated by human action, avoid other damages and promote
autonomously and sustainable life and health of the planet.

• Personal and Spiritual Development Competence:


is the competence that allows the person to value themselves and others,
balance their own needs, desires and projects with those of their peers and
open themselves to transcendence.

3.2.1.2. Specific competences.


The specific competences correspond to the curricular areas. These
competences refer to the capacities that students must acquire and develop
through the mediation of each area of knowledge. They are guided by the
Fundamental Competencies and support its concretion, guaranteeing the
coherence of the curriculum in terms of learning. Professional-professional
competences

3.2.1.3. Labor-professional competences.


They refer to the development of skills linked to the world of work. They prepare
students for the acquisition and performance of specific professional-
professional levels and to solve the problems derived from the change in work
situations.

3.3. Crosscutting. Relationship with the fundamental


competences
The curriculum established by Ordinance 1'95 identified seven Transverse
Axes. Subsequently, through Resolution 3599-04 of 2004, the Gender
Education Axis was incorporated. These Axes were conceived as "great themes
to travel all levels, cycles and degrees of the Dominican Educational System,
enabling them to articulate curricular development as a whole, while promoting
the integration of different types of content: information, concepts, procedures,
values, attitudes and norms "

The relationship that exists between the transversal axes and the
fundamental competences is that from the Fundamental
Competencies, as well as from the Transversal Axes, a strategic and
integrating view of the formative process of the students is sought
taking into consideration all the dimensions of their being, in intimate
articulation with the diversity of contexts in which they live.

To the extent that the work with the Fundamental Competences is helping to
build meanings and penetrating the educational system, the intentionality of
everything that was conceived from the very nature of the Transverse Axes will
be significantly reflected and resized in the work of the and teachers and from
this perspective, the marginality that Transversal Axes have had in practice,
which by their very nature are dynamic and changing, will surely be overcome.

3.4. Identification of the plan according to grade and level.


There are different types of planning that can be used, to a different degree, in
the levels and areas described above, namely:

Annual planification:
It is usually prepared at the beginning of the school year. It is at this moment
when it is proposed what students want to learn and how to make learning
easier.

This planning must have a logical sequence and must be timely, for this it is
necessary that the teacher has information from their group of children to be
able to do it. The annual plan can have objectives or purposes, with broad
contents planned for the year, with general strategies, institutional projects for
that group of students, annual projects of the general way. It is important to
foresee the dates of the school calendar that require a specific treatment such
as ephemerides or didactic outings.

Unit planning:
It is shorter than the annual planning, although it is not governed by a fixed
number of pedagogical hours, but each teacher decides it according to the time
he considers necessary to achieve a specific learning.

Daily planning:
Daily planning is the tool that will facilitate the day-to-day organization. They
allow the teacher a better organization in order to consider the predetermined
schedules in the grid of the institution, such as hours of music and physical
education. This makes it possible to foresee the activities that will be included
and avoid too many or too few.

3.5. Learning situation.


The learning situations are conceived as moments, spaces and environments
organized by the teacher, in which a series of learning-teaching-assessment
activities is developed, which stimulate the construction of meaningful learning
and promote competences in the students, through the resolution of simulated
or real problems of daily life

To build the learning situation you need to define five components:

1. The scenario, circumstance or operating environment (environment) where


learning has to take place.
2. The issue, situation or problem to solve or product to be made.
3. The intention or initial situation, the starting point and the role of the student.
4. The learning that is required to solve the problem or make the product.
5. The general procedure with which said learning is achieved,
including the final scenario or point of arrival.

3.6. Curricular contents. Curriculum.


The contents are mediators of meaningful learning. They are the knowledge or
knowledge of the curricular areas, through which specific competences are
specified and developed. The contents constitute a selection of the set of
knowledge or cultural forms of knowledge whose appropriation, construction
and reconstruction by the students is considered essential for the development
of competences.

They are classified into three types

Conceptual:
They correspond to the area of knowledge, that is, the facts, phenomena and
concepts that students can "learn". These contents can be transformed into
learning if it is based on the previous knowledge that the student possesses,
which in turn are interrelated with the other types of contents. For many years
they were the almost exclusive foundation in the specific field of teaching
intervention. They are made up of concepts, principles, laws, statements,
theorems and models.

Procedural:
Constitute a set of actions that facilitate the achievement of a proposed
purpose. The student will be the main actor in carrying out the procedures that
demand the contents, that is, will develop their capacity to "know how to do". In
other words, they contemplate the knowledge of how to execute internalized
actions. These contents include intellectual, motor, skills, strategies and
processes that involve a sequence of actions.

Actitudinal :
It involves knowledge and affective-social behaviors such as compliance with
norms and values as well as knowing how to behave in a socially acceptable
manner. It is knowing how to be ... Attitudes are hypothetical constructs, that is,
something that is not seen but whose existence is inferred indirectly.

This construct allows to explain the tendencies or dispositions acquired, and


relatively durable, to evaluate, in a determined way, an object, person, event or
situation. What not to do to teach values: lecturing, blaming, imposing,
moralizing, being incongruous, inconsistent, giving double messages, not
putting limits.

3.6.1. Curriculum.
The curriculum is the structure that accounts for the way in which teachers
approach knowledge from pre-school to eleventh grade. It is an instrument that
allows them, in a communitarian way, to integrate the areas from different
approaches, propitiating the dialogue between knowledge; that is to say, a good
curricular mesh leads the teachers to carry out their articulated and integrated
pedagogical work. Therefore, the curricular mesh provides an overview of the
general structure of an area.

3.7. Achievement indicators. To assess the mastery of specific competences,


achievement or performance indicators are established. These allow to determine if the
expected learning has been achieved for each level and / or academic area. The
indicators characterize the competence and refer to the key aspects. They are clues,
signs, features of the competition that show the domain of the same and its
manifestation with a specific context. Depending on their level of concretion, the
indicators of achievement can refer specifically to conceptual, procedural or attitudinal
contents; they can also refer to a combination of some of them, to the three integrated
ones.

3.8. Teaching and learning strategies.


The teaching and learning strategies constitute the sequence of activities
planned and systematically organized to support the construction of knowledge
in the school environment, in permanent interaction with the communities. They
refer to the pedagogical interventions made with the intention of enhancing and
improving the learning and teaching processes, as a means to contribute to a
better cognitive, socio-affective and physical development, that is to say, of the
competences necessary to act socially.

• Recovery strategies from previous experiences that value popular knowledge


and pauten and guarantee meaningful learning of the knowledge developed. It
is possible to resort to the environment of the school, to the family and home
environment, to the care activities usually carried out by the women or to the
school itself.

Expositive strategies of knowledge elaborated and / or accumulated, using


varied resources and materials (oral, written, digital, manipulative, audiovisual,
among others). They can expose the teachers, the students and also invited
people from the community for their mastery of specific topics. You can watch
movies or videos at school, in the homes of some members of the educational
community or in an institution that facilitates the equipment. You can read
textbooks, or better yet, specialized books on certain topics, from the school,
from some of the children, from libraries or from members of the educational
community.

• Discovery and inquiry strategies for methodological learning of search and


identification of information, as well as the use of bibliographic research and
adequate forms of experimentation, according to age, content to work and
equipment available. Case studies and diagnostic activities can also be carried
out. These strategies can be combined with those of exposure, with those of
recovery of individual perceptions and those of problematization

• Strategies for the insertion of teachers, teachers and students in the


environment. Within the framework of these strategies, it is possible to resort to
some of the activities mentioned in the strategies for recovering individual
perceptions, such as visits or excursions. The difference is that in this type of
strategies a greater involvement is foreseen, a dynamic of greater exchange
with the environment. The aim is to ensure that it is possible to perceive,
understand and propose solutions for natural, social and environmental
problems.

Socialization strategies focused on group activities. The group allows the


free expression of opinions, the identification of problems and solutions, in an
atmosphere of cooperation and solidarity. Some of the socialization strategies
that can be organized and carried out are the dramatizations, the staging of
plays, the production of newspapers and student bulletins, the organization of
entities and student groups to serve special interests: dancing, the musical
performance, the plastic one, among other activities .

• Strategy of dialogical inquiry or questioning. Through this strategy,


questions are asked throughout the teaching and learning process: at the
beginning to introduce a topic or to motivate, during the development to verify
the understanding and at the end to evaluate. At the moment of questioning it is
important to be clear about the intention and relate it to the contents and the
interests of the students.

Project Based Learning Strategy. Through this strategy, students


explore problems and situations of interest in the context and assume the
challenge of creating or modifying resources or procedures that meet a need.
The process of carrying out a project is done in collaboration with others and
others and allows obtaining original results or products that generate interest
and satisfaction.

• Socio drama or dramatization. It is a technique that presents an argument or


theme through the simulation and dialogue of the characters in order to excite
and motivate. It is used to represent a fact, historical event or a social situation.
To implement it, the theme is determined, research is carried out, roles are
assigned, the script is written, the scenario is prepared, choreography, set
design, among other activities.
• The debate. It is a technique in which two or more participants exchange
contradictory points of view on a chosen topic. For this, you must select a topic,
investigate it, prepare the arguments and presentations, assign the roles and
conduct the debate in front of a jury. Each participant exposes and argues their
position and questions the argumentation of their interlocutor. For this, it needs
to be based on evidences, examples, illustrations, statistics, opinions of experts,
supporting the arguments, with the presence of third parties that are the true
recipients of the debate, since the ultimate goal of the exercise is that the
audience is inclined to favor one or the other position.

3.9. The means and resources for learning. The learning resources in all
levels, modalities and subsystems favor the development of competences, help
to organize knowledge, facilitate the research process, promote self-learning,
stimulate the imagination and support the development of dynamic and
participative educational processes. It is important to take into account that
these didactic resources must be adapted to the specific needs of the student. It
should be noted, in fact, that the specific needs of some and others can be very
diverse, since girls and boys start from different elements of socialization from
birth, so that their habits and practices differ at the time of arrival to the school,
something that this must take into account at the time of the adjustments in the
didactic resources. One of the advantages attributed to the competency
approach is its practical nature centered on know-how, which refers to
procedural knowledge that, in most cases, has a cognitive and psychomotor
component, requiring both that The student interacts with different resources
and means.

3.10. The evaluation of learning.


The evaluation is a systematic and continuous process of collecting relevant
information in order that the actors of the educational process recognize and
appreciate the effectiveness of teaching and the quality of learning. It is
necessary to start from an integral approach of the evaluation in which both the
external standardized tests, as well as the evaluations that are carried out in the
classroom and the evaluation that is made to the Educational System as a
whole have the main objective of improving the learning of the and the students.
The decisions that are taken when reorienting the educational process must be
based on the information provided by said evaluations. Evaluation is not an end
in itself, but a means to contribute to educational improvement.
The ultimate goal of evaluation in a competency-based curriculum is to
promote learning based on these competencies. The evaluation must be
completely aligned and coherent with the curricular intentions, as well as with
the learning expectations of the students, the educational community and
society in general

MODULE IV

Evaluation of the Learning.

4.1. Theoretical foundations.


The evaluation of learning is an objective process in which data are
collected, analyzed and interpreted to produce (J George and o
judgments 1999). Fernández (2002), defines evaluation as: "A
contextualized and systematized process, intentionally designed and
technically based, of gathering relevant, reliable, and valid
information that allows judgmental judgment based on the criteria.

In the Basis of the Curricular Review and Update (2014) the


evaluation is defined as a systematic and continuous process of
collecting relevant information in order that the actors of the
educational process recognize and appreciate the effectiveness of
teaching and the quality of the learnings

The ultimate goal of evolution in a competency-based curriculum is


to promote learning based on these competencies. The evaluation
must be completely aligned and coherent with the curricular
intentions, as well as with the learning expectations of the students,
the educational community and society in general.

4.2. Types of Evaluation.

In the competency-based approach, the evaluation is continuous,


that is, there must be no rupture between the teaching-learning
process and the evaluation. This is designed so that the observation
of the students' performance generates information that allows the
teacher to realize what needs to be done so that the student can be
better directed towards the mastery of the competences. For this
reason, each unit, project, or module that begins will contemplate
the different types of evaluation: diagnostic, formative and
summative.

The purpose of the diagnostic evaluation is to know the initial state


of the students, to adapt the pedagogical process to their situation
and to identify the most appropriate teaching and learning strategies
in each case. The results of this evaluation are the first reference
that the teacher has to make the necessary adjustments to their
planning.

The formative evaluation is carried out continuously and at certain


moments of the process, after finishing with significant segments of
it. Its purpose is to identify achievements or strengths and
weaknesses that could be used as a reference for feedback. This
evaluation is the parameter from which the activities are designed
with which the recursion of the pedagogical process will be
constructed.

The summative evaluation is the one applied at the end of the


pedagogical intervention, and its function is to determine to what
degree the mastery of the competence(s) has been achieved.
In any case, the evaluation offers feedback about the aspects that
should be improved during the process and also about the strengths
of the student, their types of intelligence and their zone of proximal
development, that is why it is always formative, regardless of the
moment and context in which it occurs, either at the beginning,
during or at the end of a didactic sequence.

4.2.1. Types of evaluation according to the actors


involved.

According to its agents, the types of evaluation are:

 Self-evaluation: each student


values their achievements,
strengths and weaknesses.

 Coevaluation: the student pairs


participate in the establishment and
assessment of the learning
achieved.

 Heteroevaluation: the teacher


performs work, performance,
student performance.
4.3. Evaluation criteria by competences.
Evaluating competencies involves designing instruments in which
the student demonstrates with executions (evidences) that he can
perform the tasks of the required competence.

The evaluation by competences is based on criteria because it


compares the current real performance of a student's competences
in a given moment, with his associated performance criterion fixed
previously.

The Curricular Design of the 1st cycle of the Secondary Level (2016)
defines the evaluation criteria as the components and elements of
the Fundamental Competences and orientates towards the aspects
that must be taken into account when judging the type of learning
achieved by the students. These criteria identify what should be
considered when evaluating a competence, establishing the quality
or relevant characteristic that should be observed in the
performance of the students.

The criteria do not specify the level to be reached, but indicate the
aspects on which the teacher will define guidelines to determine to
what extent their students show to have developed the
competences.

4.4. Instruments and evaluation techniques.


The Instruments and Techniques of evaluation are the tools that the
teacher uses to obtain evidences of the performances of the
students in a teaching and learning process. That is why the teacher
must select the evaluation techniques and instruments that
contribute to guarantee the permanent construction of learning.

The techniques tell us how is it going to be evaluated? And it can be


defined as the procedure by which the evaluation will be carried out.

Some techniques are:

Observation: It is the evaluation technique that allows evaluating


states of development of the learning process of students and helps
that the actions of this occur naturally, they are taken into account,
the ideas and principles that characterize the individual, that is, their
creativity, initiative and commitment to face different situations.

The summative evaluation is the one applied at the end of the


pedagogical intervention, and its function is to determine to what
degree the mastery of the competence(s) has been achieved.

In any case, the evaluation offers feedback about the aspects that
should be improved during the process and also about the strengths
of the student, their types of intelligence and their zone of proximal
development, that is why it is always formative, regardless of the
moment and context in which it occurs, either at the beginning,
during or at the end of a didactic sequence.
4.2.1. Types of evaluation according to the actors
involved.

According to its agents, the types of evaluation are:

 Self-evaluation: each student


values their achievements,
strengths and weaknesses.

 Coevaluation: the student pairs


participate in the establishment and
assessment of the learning
achieved.

 Heteroevaluation: the teacher


performs work, performance,
student performance.
4.3. Evaluation criteria by competences.

Evaluating competencies involves designing instruments in which


the student demonstrates with executions (evidences) that he can
perform the tasks of the required competence.

The evaluation by competences is based on criteria because it


compares the current real performance of a student's competences
in a given moment, with his associated performance criterion fixed
previously.
The Curricular Design of the 1st cycle of the Secondary Level (2016)
defines the evaluation criteria as the components and elements of
the Fundamental Competences and orientates towards the aspects
that must be taken into account when judging the type of learning
achieved by the students. These criteria identify what should be
considered when evaluating a competence, establishing the quality
or relevant characteristic that should be observed in the
performance of the students.

The criteria do not specify the level to be reached, but indicate the
aspects on which the teacher will define guidelines to determine to
what extent their students show to have developed the
competences.

4.4. Instruments and evaluation techniques.

The Instruments and Techniques of evaluation are the tools that the
teacher uses to obtain evidences of the performances of the
students in a teaching and learning process. That is why the teacher
must select the evaluation techniques and instruments that
contribute to guarantee the permanent construction of learning.

The techniques tell us how is it going to be evaluated? And it can be


defined as the procedure by which the evaluation will be carried out.

Some techniques are:


Observation: It is the evaluation technique that allows evaluating
states of development of the learning process of students and helps
that the actions of this occur naturally, they are taken into account,
the ideas and principles that characterize the individual, that is, their
creativity, initiative and commitment to face different situations.