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MATH 127

MIDTERM I SOLUTIONS

1. (20 pts) Compute the following integrals.


Z
2
(a) xex dx

Let u = x2 . Then du = 2x dx, and the above is


du 1
Z
= eu = eu + C
2 2
1 2
= ex + C.
2
Z 1
(b) xex dx
0

Use integration by parts. Let u = x and dv = ex dx, so that du = dx and v = ex . Then


Z 1 Z 1
x x 1
xe dx = xe |0 − ex dx
0 0

= e − (e − 1) = 1.

2. (20 pts) Compute the following integrals.


Z Z Z
(a) cos (x) sin (x) dx = cos (x) sin (x) cos(x)dx = (1 − sin2 (x)) sin4 (x) cos(x)dx.
3 4 2 4

Let u = sin(x), so du = cos(x)dx. The above is


u5 u 7
Z Z
= (1 − u )u du = (u4 − u6 )du =
2 4
− +C
5 7
sin5 (x) sin7 (x)
= − + C.
5 7

2x + 1 2x 1
Z Z Z
(b) dx = dx + dx.
x2 + 4 2
x +4 x2 +4
This one is just like 2b on the sample midterm. The second integral equals (1/2) arctan(x/2)+
C. Make the substitution u = x2 + 4 in the first integral. The above is
1
Z
= du + (1/2) arctan(x/2) + C = ln |x2 + 4| + (1/2) arctan(x/2) + C.
u
3. (10 pts)

(a) Give the form of the partial fractions decomposition of

3x2 − x − 1
.
x3 (x2 + 1)

Do not solve for the constants A, B, . . . Do not integrate anything.

3x2 − x − 1 A B C Dx + E
3 2
= + 2+ 3+ 2 .
x (x + 1) x x x x +1

(b) Solve for one (your choice) of the unknown constants A, B, . . . above.

Cross multiplying, we get

3x2 − x − 1 = Ax2 (x2 + 1) + Bx(x2 + 1) + C(x2 + 1) + (Dx + E)x3 .

Setting x = 0, we find:
−1 = C.

1
Z
4. (16 pts) Compute the following integral: √ dx
x2 x2 − 9
This one was also from the sample midterm: Let x = 3 sec θ. Then dx = 3 sec θ tan θdθ, and

x2 − 9 = 3 tan θ. Thus we get
3 sec θ tan θ 1 1 1 sin θ
Z Z Z
2
dθ = dθ = cos θ dθ = + C.
27 sec θ tan θ 9 sec θ 9 9
From our substitution x = 3 sec θ, we see that sec θ = x3 . This gives the following triangle:

x
sqrt(x^2−9)

θ
√ 3 √
x2−9 x2 − 9
Note that sin θ = . Thus the above integral is equal to + C.
x 9x
5. (16 pts)

(a) Use the Trapezoidal rule with n = 4 to approximate


Z 4
2
ex dx.
0

4−0
Note ∆x = 4
= 1. Therefore

1 1
T4 = [f (0) + 2f (1) + 2f (2) + 2f (3) + f (4)] = [1 + 2e + 2e4 + 2e9 + e16 ].
2 2

(b) What n would you need to guarantee that Tn is accurate to 5 decimal places?
3
(Recall that ETn ≤ K (b−a)
12n2
.)
2 2
You may use the following fact: f ′′ (x) = 4x2 ex + 2ex .

The largest |f ′′ (x)| can be is when x = 4. So we can take

K = f ′′ (4) = 4 · 16e16 + 2e16 = 64e16 + 2e16 = 66e16 .

For 5 decimal places of accuracy, we need

(4)3 1
ETn ≤ 66e16 2
< 6,
12n 10
i.e.
66e16 43 106
< n2 ,
12
or r
66e16 43 106
n> .
12
6. (18 pts) Compute the following improper integrals
Z 2 Z 2
1
(a) √ dx = lim+ (x − 1)−1/2 dx
1 x−1 t→1 t

2 √
= lim+ 2(x − 1)1/2 t = lim+ (2 − 2 t − 1) = 2.
t→1 t→1

∞ t
1
Z Z
(b) √ dx = lim (x − 1)−1/2 dx
2 x−1 t→∞ 2

√ t √
= lim 2 x − 1 2 = lim (2 t − 1 − 2) = ∞.
t→∞ t→∞

The integral is divergent.