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Lecture 6,7 Thursday afternoon

Group 4:

Nguyễn Thảo Vy

Phan Thị Thùy Dung

Nguyễn Thị Thanh Nhị

Châu Thị Ngọc Phượng

CHAPTER 5: STRESS

1.What factors make a syllable perceived as stressed?

At least four different factors cause a syllable to be made prominent so that it is heard as
stressed:

- Loudness

- Length

- Pitch

- Quality

2. What are the levels of word – stress? Give illustration.

Word stress shows that what syllable in a word is stressed. There can be two possible levels of
stress within a word:

- Primary/ High stress: the greatest stress given to a syllable within a (polysyllabic) word.

Eg: independent

- Secondary/ Low stress: the next stress given to a syllable within a polysyllabic word.

Eg: experimental

3. Indicate how utterances are stressed? (Which kinds of word are stressed or unstressed?)

Not every word in a sentence is stressed in English. We tend to stress “information” words, such
as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Grammatical words, like prepositions, auxiliaries and
articles tend not to be stressed.
Stressed words Unstressed words
Nouns Pronouns
Demonstartive + interrogative pronouns Preposition
Main verbs Conjuction
Adjectives Helping verbs
Adverbs
4. For what parts of speech are there weak – forms? Specify the words, their strong forms
and weak forms.

The weak form is the usual pronunciation. It is used when the word is unstressed. Some words
have weak forms:

- Prepositions - Possessive adjectives

- Auxiliary verbs - Possessive pronouns

- Modal verbs - Conjunctions

- Pronouns -Articles

Prepositions Weak form Strong Auxiliary verbs Weak form Strong form
form
Am əm æm
From frəm frɒm
To tə tuː Are ə ɑː
At ət æt Have həv hæv
In ɪn ɪn Had həd hæd
On ɒn ɒn Does dəz dʌz

Modal Weak form Strong form


verbs
Can kən kæn Articles Weak form Strong form
Will wɪl wɪl A ə eɪ
Would wəd wʊd An ən æn
Shall ʃəl ʃæl The ðə ði:
Must məst mʌst
5. What are the functions of stress?

- Distinguish between different parts of speech:

Noun Verb/Adjective

Import Import

Contact Contact

Content Content
- Distinguish between a compound and a noncompound (free word group):

WHITEhouse (compound)

White house (noncompound)

LIGHThouse ( compound)

Light house (noncompound)

6.Consider the stress pattern of the following word pairs:

Noun Verb

Graduate Graduate

Alternate Alternate

Duplicate Duplicate

Moderate Moderate

Syndicate Syndicate

Estimate Estimate

What is the difference between the final vowels in the nouns and verbs? What is the stress
pattern of the nouns? What is the stress pattern of the verbs?

Noun Verb

ˈGraduate ˈGraduate

ˈAlternate ˈAlternate

ˈDuplicate ˈDuplicate

ˈModerate ˈ Moderate

ˈSyndicate ˈSyndicate

ˈEstimate ˈ Estimate

=> Both the nouns and the verbs have the stress pattern in the first syllable.
7. Consider the stress pattern of the following word pairs:

Noun Adjective

Government Govermental

Instrument Instrumental

Development Developmental

Department Departmental

What is the difference between the pronunciation of – ment in the nouns and the adjectives?
What is the stress pattern of the nouns? What is the stress pattern of the adjectives?

Noun Adjective
Government Governmental
/ˈɡʌvənmənt/ /ˌɡʌvnˈmentl/
Instrument Instrumental
/ˈɪnstrəmənt/ /ˌɪnstrəˈmentl/
Development Developmental
/dɪˈveləpmənt/ /dɪˌveləpˈmentl/
Department Departermental
/dɪˈpɑːtmənt/ /ˌdiːpɑːtˈmentl/

- Nouns:

+Two syllable words: if the second syllable contains a short vowel the stress will usually come
on the first syllable. Otherwise it will be on the second syllable.

Eg: balloon /bəˈluːn/

+Three syllable words: if the final syllable contains a short vowel or əʊ, it is unstressed. If th
syllable preceding this final syllable contains a long vowel or dipthong, or if it ends with more
than one consonant, that middle syllable will be stressed.

Eg: insolent /ˈɪnsələnt/

-Adjective:

+Two syllable words:

 Two syllable adjectives are stressed according to rule: the second one contains diphthong,
therefore, the second syllable is stressed.

Eg: alive / ə‫׳‬laiv/.

 If it end with two consonants, that the first syllable is stressed.


Eg: honest /ˈɒnɪst/
+ Three syllable words:

If the final syllable in each has long vowel and the second one has two consonants, therefore,
the stress should be on the first syllable.

Eg: opportune /ˈɒpətʃuːn/

8.Consider the pronunciation of the following words when the sufic – y is added.

Group 1:

Democrat Democracy

Aristocrat Aristocracy

Photograph Photography

Diplomat Diplomacy

Group 2:

Literate Literacy

Secret Secrecy

Pirate Piracy

Consistent Consistency

Private Privacy

Confederate Confederacy

In group 1, stress shifts upon the addition of the suffix – y whereas in group 2, stress does not
shift. Describe any changes to the vowel of group 1 which are associated with the stress shift.

Group 1:

Democrat /ˈdeməkræt/ Democracy /dɪˈmɒkrəsi/


Aristocrat /ˈærɪstəkræt/ Aristocracy /ˌærɪˈstɒkrəsi/
Photograph /ˈfəʊtəɡrɑːf/ Photography /fəˈtɒɡrəfi/
Diplomat /ˈdɪpləmæt/ Diplomacy /dɪˈpləʊməsi/
Group 2:

Literate /ˈlɪtərət/ Literacy /ˈlɪtərəsi/


Secret /ˈsiːkrət/ Secrecy /ˈsiːkrəsi/
Pirate /ˈpaɪrət/ Piracy /ˈpaɪrəsi/
Consistent /kənˈsɪstənt/ Consistency /kənˈsɪstənsi/
Private /ˈpraɪvət/ Privacy /ˈprɪvəsi/
Confederate /kənˈfedərət/ Confederacy /kənˈfedərəsi/
- Group 1: Vowels is changed / æ / => /ə /, / ɒ/ => / ə / , stress is backed by 1 sound, the word is
stressed just as if the affix was not there.

9.Look at the transcriptions and write the sentences that are transcribed.

a. maɪ ˈhæmstə ˈdaɪˈʤestədeɪ ||ˈfel əˈsliːp ət ðə wiːl

My hamster died yesterday || fell asleep at the wheel.

b. həv jʊ ˈevə ˈnəʊ.tɪs ðæt rɒŋ ˈnʌm.bəz ə nevə iŋˈɡeɪdʒd?

Have you ever notice that wrong numbers or never engaged ?

c. ðæts ə ˈwɜːk ɒv ən əˈbaʊt ˈlɪtrətʃə

That’ s a work of an about literature.

d. ə prəˈfesər ɪz ˈsʌmwʌn huː ˈtɔːksin ˈsʌmwʌn ˈelsiz ˈsliːp

A professor is someone who talks in someone else’ s sleep.

e. ɪf ˈmen laɪk ˈʃɔːpɪŋ ðeɪd ˈkɔːlɪt rɪˈsɜːtʃ

If men like shopping they’d call it research

10.Mark the stress for the words given.

a. Photographer /fəˈtɒɡrəfə(r)/

b. Presentation /ˌpreznˈteɪʃn/

c. Semantics /sɪˈmæntɪks/

d.Grammatical /ɡrəˈmætɪkl/

e. Postgraduate /pəʊstˈɡrædʒuət/

g. Intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃn/

h. Inaccurate /ɪnˈækjərət/

i. Researcher /rɪˈsɜːtʃə(r)/

j. Comfortably /ˈkʌmftəbli/