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Advances in Civil Engineering

Materials
P. N. V. Jayanthi1 and D. N. Singh2

DOI: 10.1520/ACEM20150013

Utilization of Sustainable
Materials for Soil
Stabilization: State-of-
the-Art
VOL. 5 / NO. 1 / 2016

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Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

doi:10.1520/ACEM20150013 / Vol. 5 / No. 1 / 2016 / available online at www.astm.org

P. N. V. Jayanthi1 and D. N. Singh2

Utilization of Sustainable Materials for


Soil Stabilization: State-of-the-Art

Reference
Jayanthi, P. N. V. and Singh, D. N., “Utilization of Sustainable Materials for Soil Stabilization:
State-of-the-Art,” Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2016, pp. 46–79,
doi:10.1520/ACEM20150013. ISSN 2165-3984

ABSTRACT
Manuscript received April 6, 2015; Most of the challenging soil deposits necessitate their stabilization either by
accepted for publication January
adopting mechanical modification, which includes soil replacement,
8, 2016; published online February
26, 2016. compaction, surcharge loading and piling or chemical alteration by using lime,
1 cement, and chemical additives. These methods of stabilization are oriented
Research Scholar, Department of
Civil Engineering, Indian Institute towards improving certain defined properties such as plasticity, swell potential,
of Technology Bombay, Powai, strength, and density of the soil mass. Besides, one of the most crucial
Mumbai-400076, India, e-mail:
prathyusha.jayanthi@gmail.com
challenges that is faced is “stabilization induced cracking of the fine-grained
2
soils,” which turns out to be the basic reason for the failure of the soil mass
Member ASTM, Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering,
and subsequent failure of the structures. However, concerns such as non-
Indian Institute of Technology availability of the ideal soil for replacement of the native soil and even
Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076,
inaccessibility of the site and laborious soil-stabilizer mixing methods
India (Corresponding author),
e-mail: dns@civil.iitb.ac.in necessitate exploring suitable alternatives for stabilization of such soil deposits
that adds up to the vows of the practicing engineers. A few other pressing
issues which need to be addressed are the adverse effects caused by these
additives on the environment (viz., release of greenhouse gases and/or
subsequent leaching of chemicals into the ground water). In such a scenario,
application of industrial by products (viz., fly ash, cement kiln dust, blast
furnace slag, rice husk ash, silica fumes, red mud, and textile waste), which
could be defined as “sustainable materials,” find a special place in the modern-
day soil stabilization and modification exercise. Keeping this in view, a critical
synthesis of the literature has been presented in this paper, which showcases
superiority of the sustainable materials over the conventionally used soil

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JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION 47

stabilizers and the need for conducting further research to make these
materials an easy and choicest replacement over the former.

Keywords
soil stabilizers, man-made resource, sustainable materials, cracking, soil stabilization

Introduction
Soil stabilization/ground improvement has been a part of ancient day geotechnical
engineering and continues to be a part, or rather, a necessity for the present day
advanced geotechnical practices. Following the pace of modernization the materials
and methodologies adopted for soil modification/stabilization also have experienced
a transformation from agriculture and domestic waste to highly equipped machinery
and synthesized stabilizers, to meet the growing requirements. The advanced techni-
ques that are being adopted include soil replacement and physical alteration of soil
properties, such as shear strength, density, and water holding capacity of the soil [1],
by adopting mechanical means viz., compaction/densification, surcharge loading,
band drains and stone columns, and/or piling [2–4]. However, scarcity of suitable
natural resources for replacement, economical restrains, and inaccessibility of the
site make these methods challenging to execute. As an alternative, research has been
advanced in the direction of chemical alteration [3–5] of the geomaterial using appli-
cation of chemically active materials that include lime, which is a naturally available
material, cement, and synthesized chemical additives or fibers, which are man-made
stabilizers. These chemicals form cementitious (hydration) products, which bind or
agglomerate the soil particles during the chemical reaction and/or alter the pH of the
system [4], which in turn influences the basic behavior of soil matrix. Conversely,
lime being a natural resource, the quantity and quality of the source available
becomes a matter of concern and adding to it, the synthesized stabilizers affect the
geoenvironment either by their process of production or by contaminating their sur-
roundings due to leaching [6]. Considering the existing environmental norms and
practices, research has been aimed towards exploring a material that can overcome
the challenges discussed above and has minimum or no adverse effect on the geoen-
vironment, which in specific can be termed as sustainable material.
In a way, the sustainable material has originated and has been refined from the
so called industrial waste that can otherwise be considered as a man-made resource,
which remains toxic and hazardous to the environment when left unattended [7,8].
In fact, from the author’s point of view (refer Fig. 1), the concept of sustainability can
be explained as a cyclic process of extraction of minerals from the nature by human
intervention for technological development and giving back the same in the form of
processed industrial by-products through soil stabilization/ground improvement to
enrich the lost properties of the geomaterial by anthropogenic activities.
The most commonly used sustainable materials include fly ash from thermal
power plant, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, cement
kiln dust from the cement manufacturing industry, silica fume from silicon and
ferrosilicon industry, mine tailings, bagasse ash, carpet waste, red mud that is a

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48 JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION

FIG. 1
The cyclic process of
sustainable development.

by-product from aluminium processing plants, and rice husk ash from the agro
based industry [1,9]. These materials, wherein few cases require a nominal addition
of an activator, have the virtue of being chemically active (i.e., pozzolanic in nature)
and also have a potential to substitute the lime based products, suiting the standards
of sustainability, in terms of availability, cost involved, and effect on the environ-
ment. The research associated with the application of these materials is being carried
out in the direction of improving the basic properties of soil viz., Atterberg limits,
index, and engineering properties (viz., specific gravity, dry density, shear strength,
and unconfined compressive strength) [10].
Nevertheless, whatsoever be the material and the stabilizing method, an issue
that has been bothering the researchers to this date is the stabilization induced
cracking of soil [6,11,12]. This phenomenon can be attributed to (a) migration of
moisture due to mechanical means of stabilization, (b) exothermic chemical reac-
tions forming stiff/brittle cementitious products, and (c) large scale voluminous mix-
ing of stabilizers disturbing the stable natural state of formation of the system.
Hence, extensive research to resolve this concern in order to assure the safety of con-
structions associated with soil and its stabilization is a need now [11,13–15]. In this
context, a critical synthesis of the literature on the existing stabilizing materials
(including conventional and sustainable) has been presented in this manuscript,
which also demonstrates a precedence of application of sustainable materials over
conventional materials used in the present day construction industry.

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JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION 49

Synthesis of the Existing Literature


A critical synthesis of the literature reveals challenges associated with the stabilizing
materials, as discussed in the following.

1. Lime, a naturally available resource and a raw material for many industries, is
considered to be a very effective stabilizing material for improving index and
engineering properties of the problematic soil (refer to Table 1). However, the
issues that arise due to lime and its application in soil are as follows:
• Excessive heat of hydration becomes a valid reason for moisture migration
within the system and development of differential stresses within the matrix
that leads to soil cracking.
• Jawad et al. [31] looked into the advantages and disadvantages associated
with the lime, a most commonly used soil stabilizer, which helps in improv-
ing/controlling the properties such as swelling potential, plasticity index,
permeability, strength, and durability. However, it becomes essential to
mention the limitations of the lime stabilization, which include: (a) carbo-
nation of lime that occurs in the presence of CO2 resulting in the formation
of CaCO3, which results in low strength and “resistance to failure” on con-
tinuous exposure to environmental conditions; (b) the most common issue
with the sulphate bearing sediments is the volumetric heaving due to the
formation of ettringite, a mineral which exhibits swelling under high mois-
ture condition; (c) improper hydration of lime in organic soil, especially
humic soils; and (d) release of greenhouse gases, the most critical issue for
environmental degradation, due to the presence of calcined products. It is
thus recommended to use or invent proper substitutes or measures to avoid
the adverse effects of lime stabilization.
• Lime, when added as stabilizer to expansive soils, controls their swelling
effectively. However, it has also been reported that in case of sulphatic soils,
lime stabilization causes swelling over a period of time due to ettringite for-
mation, which is also responsible for a reduction in shear strength. The for-
mation of ettringite leads to loss in cementing nature and release of free
energy during the chemical reaction, which in turn results in a volumetric
expansion [32].
2. Cement, which uses lime as a major raw material, is an important component
of the present day infrastructure development (refer to Table 2). The issues
that arise with its applications are listed.
• Soil stabilization by cement, when not implemented carefully, would result
in development of excess shrinkage stresses, which induce cracking, and
hence durability of the structure would be a big concern. Soil-cement mix
undergoes cracking due to self-desiccation that occurs during the hydration
process. Besides, when natural desiccation occurs, there would be no suffi-
cient moisture available in the mixture for hydration reaction to complete
gel formation. This in turn would have an effect in a different manner on
the “strength gain” mechanism. Nevertheless, both these cases depict two
extremes associated with cement stabilization of the soil, if due diligence is
not observed [11].
• In situ cement stabilization is associated with a lot of intricacies and one of
the most frequently faced issues is the reflective cracking of the pavements,
whose “crack intensity” and “crack width” would depend on various factors
such as type of the soil, period of curing, type of compaction, and primarily

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TABLE 1

50
Soil stabilizers: conventional and sustainable. Literature on lime.

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type Mix Proportion (%) Findings
Al-Amoudi et al. Sabkha soil 2.5–10 The saline sabkha soil of Saudi Arabia has been treated with lime in addition to lime stone dust, marl, emulsified
[16] asphalt, and cement in order to improve its unconfined compressive strength. From the experimental investiga-
tions it has been observed that lime stone dust and marl acted merely like fillers, whereas emulsified asphalt has
not satisfied the requirements due to the saline conditions of the soil. However, apart from cement, lime stabiliza-
tion has shown a significant improvement in the soil strength, besides its requirement for higher water content to
maintain the water to binder ratio sufficient enough for the hydration to occur.

Bell [17] Montmorillonite, 4–6 Lime stabilization of clay minerals and native clay has been performed to make them suitable for the construc-
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Kaolinite, Quartz and tion of a pavement. In this context, montmorillonite mineral has shown a quick reaction with lime and has
Teesside clay (1&2) become less susceptible for moisture fluctuations, as can be understood with reduction in liquid limit by 15 %
when compared to the other clay minerals for which the liquid limit increased by 42 and 38.5 % respectively. Sig-
nificant improvement of compaction characteristics (density by 3 %, optimum moisture content by þ12 %,),
unconfined compressive strength, UCS (by 200 %–400 %) and California bearing ratio, CBR (by 170 %–280 %)
has been observed in the lime stabilized native clay. Also, it has been demonstrated that higher temperatures
(>30 C) would lead to higher strength gain of lime stabilized soils.

Du et al. [18] Grey soil, Black soil, 8 In general, compacted or densified clays show higher swell-shrink potential when compared to natural clays due
Greyish-yellow soil and to the re-orientation and excessive packing of the clay particles in a given volume. Lime stabilization of such
Yellow silty soil compacted expansive soils has reduced the swelling percentage by 50 %–100 % and increased the unconfined
compressive strength, which was initially collapsible, to 100–1190 kPa. This improvement has been attributed to
the development of bonds between the densely packed soil grains which restricted its swelling potential.

Arabani and Veis Clayey sands (S1–S5) 7–8 Lime is considered to be the most effective material to be used for stabilization, clayey sands of Iran have been
Karami [19] investigated after lime treatment. The mechanism of the pozzolanic reactions that occur and the cation exchange-
ability have been considered to be responsible for the observed improvement in the soil properties. Also, lime (at
optimum percentage) treatment of soil at clay content of 25 %–30 % has been demonstrated to yield satisfactory
results of tensile strength and compressive strength, especially due to the cohesion offered by the soil itself, in
addition to its reaction with lime. Thus, an appreciable and desired output has been noted for lime stabilization
of clayey sands at defined/controlled clay contents.

Guney et al. [20] Combinations of 3 and 6 The effect of cycling wetting-drying on the swelling behavior of untreated and lime treated soils has been investi-
bentonite-kaolinite and gated. It has been observed that for untreated soils, the swelling potential and percentage swelling reaches equilib-
Highly plastic clayey soil rium with subsequent cycles of wetting and drying, but with a maximum reduction after first cycle. However,
lime treated soils have shown an increase in swelling potential when subjected to cycles of wetting and drying,
attributed to the breakdown of cementing bonds to clay size particles and also minimization of pozzolanic effect

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TABLE 1. Continued

Reference Soil Type Mix Proportion (%) Findings

of lime. Though the addition of lime reduces the swelling of plastic soil, their response to wetting-drying cycles
was quite disappointing and hence it has been recommended to avoid the use of lime stabilization where condi-
tions of cyclic wetting-drying exist.

Buhler and Cerato Plastic clay (S1–S4) 5–20 Oklahoma expansive clay, stabilized by lime, has depicted a substantial reduction in its linear shrinkage by
[21] 3.9 %–11.6 % with varying percentage mix and properties of soil. However, this has been observed up to an opti-
mum percentage addition of lime, after which this effect gets minimized with the addition of lime. Similar behav-
ior was observed with the unconfined compressive strength variation, and also the increasing trend of strength
was observed to be non-linear with the increase in lime content.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Sahoo and Black cotton soil cush- 8 Lime stabilized red soil was used as a cushion for the black cotton soil, which enabled the formation of cementi-
Pradhan [22] ioned with red soil tious products through the pozzolanic reaction that occurred between lime and clay minerals. The unconfined
compressive strength and California bearing ratio for soaked and unsoaked samples have increased by 75, 335.3,
600, and 170 %, respectively.

Cuisinier et al. Silty soil 0–3 The study has been conducted to understand the influence of lime treatment on the hydraulic conductivity of
[23] compacted silty soils. It has been observed that addition of lime has reduced the dry density of the soil irrespec-
tive of the method of compaction and has been attributed to the smaller pores, obtained from the mercury intru-
sive porosimetry tests, which get formed due to the addition of lime. However, the hydraulic conductivity had

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


responded negligibly to lime addition when compared to the untreated soil. However, the method of compaction
and compaction moisture content has been observed to alter the hydraulic conductivity to a significant order.

Mutaz et al. [24] Expansive soil 4&8 The addition of lime to the expansive soil from Al-Qatif, Saudi Arabia has modified the soil properties to make
them suitable for construction of durable low volume roads. Lime mixing has reduced the plasticity index by
53 %–75 % and the linear shrinkage by 11 %–32 %, indicating a rise in the tensile strength of the soil. Further-
more, the volumetric strain has been observed to have dropped by 1.8 %–11.8 %.

Al-Mukhtar et al. Expansive clay 1, 4 and 10 The mechanism of lime treatment to expansive clays involves the dissolution of silica and alumina from the soil
[25] due to the high pH condition created by calcium from lime. These ions undergo pozzolanic reactions to form
cementitious hydration products. This mechanism has led to the reduction of plasticity and swelling pressure fol-
lowed by an increase in the unconfined compressive strength and permeability due to the flocculation of par-
ticles. TEM and SEM examination also has shown the flocculation of particles, adding to the deductions from
XRD analysis which has shown the modification in the peaks due to the formation of hydration products.

Dash and Hussain Expansive soil and resid- 5&9 A significant modification has been observed in properties such as liquid limit, plastic limit, swelling index, and
[26] ual soil strength of expansive soil, residual soil, and the combination of two at various percentages with the addition of
lime in varying percentages. This modification has been attributed to the reduction in thickness of the diffused
double layer, increase in pH and change in micro-structure of the soil due to the flocculation and gel formation

51
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TABLE 1. Continued

52
Reference Soil Type Mix Proportion (%) Findings

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


(as a result of hydration products), which has been derived from the XRD peaks and SEM micro-graphs. It has
been mentioned specifically that lime beyond the optimum percentage has been observed to have an adverse
effect on the soil properties and would degrade the soil to a level lower than the native soil, due to the excessive
gel formation which reduces the shear strength between the particles and increases the porosity of the system
nullifying the effect of cementation.

Negi et al. [27] Clayey soil 0–6 Subgrade stabilization by mixing lime followed by compaction has been portrayed. The effect of lime with respect
to time on various properties has been briefed. The immediate response of soil to addition of lime has been
observed in terms of its plasticity index and its increased workability for compaction by reducing the dry density.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

With time, the pozzolanic reaction that occurs within the soil-lime system has increased the bearing capacity and
strength of the soil matrix. In addition, the methodology used for in-situ stabilization and the economic benefits
of lime stabilization have been discussed.

Ghobadi et al. [28] Residual clay soil 7 Lime stabilization of residual clay soil has helped in improving its compaction characteristics (by 5 % and 7 %
for density and optimum moisture content, respectively) and unconfined compressive strength (by 390 %). This
has been observed to be the consequence of reduction in peaks of swelling clay minerals, due to the pozzolanic
reaction of lime with the clay minerals to form cementitious products from the XRD patterns. However, investi-
gations were carried out to observe the effect of pH variation on treated and untreated soil and concluded that
lime treated soil would be highly susceptible to pH variations, especially at lower pH where leaching of calcium
ions take place.

Zhao et al. [29] Weathered clay shale NA Weathered clay shale which has caused damage to the pavement and slope of an embankment has been stabilized
by lime injections. It has been observed that the water susceptibility of the soil reduces with the addition of lime
as liquid limit reduces by approximately 7 %, plastic limit increases by 2 %, and shrinkage limit increases by
17.5 %. In addition, the swelling percentage has reduced by 79 %, indicating a major reduction in swell potential
of the soil.

Onal [30] Pond base soft organic 0–8 Pond based soil having very low strength/bearing capacity has been treated with lime, a reduction in liquid limit
soil and plasticity index, and an increase in plastic limit has been observed, which was attributed to the pozzolanic
reactions that have occurred. An optimum content of lime (¼ 8 %) has been derived by performing an analysis
for pH and plasticity variations. This optimum lime addition has yielded maximum unconfined compressive
strength, with as well as without, curing converse to the untreated soil. In addition, the presence of salts in the
soil has multiplied the strength increase due to addition of lime.

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TABLE 2
Literature on cement.

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type (%) Findings
Osula [33] Laterite soil 2–9 Problematic laterite soils that are not suitable for construction of airfield pavements have been stabilized by
cement with NaCl as admixture to meet the requirements. The alkaline nature of NaCl has increased the cement-
ing reaction within the cement stabilized soil, thereby increasing its strength with percentage increase in NaCl.
However, the dry density has reduced and differing with the hypothesis of increase in optimum moisture content
with increase in percentage NaCl, the optimum moisture content was less for 2 % NaCl in comparison to 1 %
NaCl. This was explained to be due to the cementation effect that has increased rather than densifying the
material.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Al-Amoudi et al. Sabkha soil 2.5–10 Saline sabkha soil of Saudi Arabia has been treated with various additives such as lime stone dust, marl, emulsi-
[16] fied asphalt, lime, and cement for its unconfined compressive strength (UCS). From the treatment with lime
stone dust, emulsified asphalt, and marl, no significant change in the properties have been noted even at higher
mix proportions, and hence were not opted as the binders. Cement treatment has shown a noticeable increase in
the unconfined compressive strength of the sandy sabkha soil with the increasing percentage of cement. In addi-
tion, the optimum moisture content required for the stabilization has increased in order to take the cement
hydration into consideration. Apart from lime, cement has been considered to be one of the suitable stabilizers
for sabkha soil.

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Consoli et al. [34] Non-plastic silty sand 1 Reinforced cement stabilization of non-plastic silty sand from southern Brazil has enhanced the peak strength,
cohesion by 575 % and friction by 31 %, residual strength and cohesion by 537 %, and friction by 26 %. More-
over, the ductility and stiffness of the cement (1 %) þ fiber (3 %) stabilized silty sand, which otherwise was insig-
nificant or weak when either of the stabilizing material was absent.

Tremblay et al. Organic soil — Investigations have been carried out to understand the influence of organic matter and hydrocarbons/oils on sta-
[35] bilization due to addition of cement. From the experimental studies conducted on strength, chemical analyses,
and microstructural variations, it has been opined that the presence of organic matter would affect the strength
gain due to cement addition when the pH is less than 9, which does not allow the initiation of hydration. Also,
coating of hydrocarbons and oils on the cement particles would delay the hydration, but the strength gain was
ultimately observed to have reached it. In addition, higher sulphate concentration at pH < ¼ 7.5 was observed to
have an adverse effect on cement stabilization. Hence, it has been stated that type of organic matter and its prop-
erties play a crucial role in stabilization using cement.

Chew et al. [36] Soft marine clay 10 Soft marine clay stabilized by using cement undergoes hydration to form hydration products that are responsible
for the cementing of soil particles. Thus, the unconfined compressive strength of the soil increases by 570 % in
addition to the liquid limit and plastic limit, which increased by 36 % and 134 %, respectively. The mineralogical

53
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TABLE 2. Continued

54
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type (%) Findings
quantification of the treated samples indicated the formation of hydration products and exhaustion of Kaolinite
during the pozzolanic reaction. However, the permeability has increased due to the aggregation of particles creat-
ing intra-aggregate pores. It has been demonstrated that optimum mix of 10 % yields better results than the
excess addition of cement as no further pozzolanic reaction could be expected after the exhaustion of Kaolinite.

Jefferson et al. Loess 2–6 Loess, being a loose and collapsible soil in nature, has been treated with cement at different proportions depend-
[37] ing on the requirement to make it suitable for the construction of a nuclear power reactor and a case study has
been presented. Cushions of loess-cement composite were prepared and laid below the foundations to increase
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

its bearing capacity. In addition to the improvement in bearing capacity, a reduction in settlements and hydraulic
conductivity has been observed making it less susceptible to seismic activities and contamination of ground water
due to leaching of radioactive nuclides.

Fattah et al. [38] Expansive soil 5 % mix/grout The addition of cement by mixing or by grouting has reduced the swell potential of the soil by 93 % and com-
pressibility by 92 % indicating the formation of cementitious hydration products.

Horpibulsuk et al. Silty clay 0–45 Microstructural analysis, in terms of SEM micrographs, mercury intrusive porosimetry studies and thermo-
[39] gravimetric analysis, of cement stabilized silty clays has been performed to understand the effect of cement addi-
tion at a given moisture content on the target sample. It has been observed that three zones: active, inert, and
deteriorating zones exist for percentage cement addition for a modified Standard Proctor compacted specimen.
Cement addition has not only improved the bonding between the particles but also reduced the pore volume,
making the sample a denser and high strength mix. Up to 10 % addition of cement, active zone has been limited
due to the rapid gain in strength and minimum pore volume achieved, whereas for cement >30 % deterioration
of sample strength has been observed due to lack of availability of sufficient sample moisture for hydration, hence
affecting the formation of cementing products. It has been thus recommended to add cement within the active
zone at a moisture content of 1.2OMC to achieve effective stabilization.

Kolay et al. [40] Peat 5 %–20 % An attempt has been made to stabilize the peaty soils of Malaysia with different types of stabilizers which include
ordinary Portland cement (OPC), quick lime (QL), and flyash (FA). It has been observed that all the stabilizers
have improved the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the peat individually, including the combination
of QL and FA. However, OPC has been observed to yield the maximum UCS in comparison to the other materi-
als (QL and FA, as after certain percentage addition the UCS has become steady) with percentage addition and
curing time and hence has been recommended to be the most suitable for peaty soils.

Kolay et al. [41] Peat 5 Alkali activated ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and flyash (FA) have been used for stabilization of NaOH
treated and untreated peat. It has been observed that alkali activation (especially CaSO4) has quickened the
hydration of OPC and FA and thus the gain in strength. Also, the treatment was more effective on treated soil

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TABLE 2. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type (%) Findings
compared to the untreated due to the high alkaline conditions and enhancement in the rate of reaction. Besides,
OPC has been recommended over FA, as OPC yielded higher strength than that of FA.

Mutaz et al. [24] Expansive soil 3&6 Expansive soil from Al-Qatif, Saudi Arabia has been stabilized by adding cement, which reduced the plasticity
index by 53 %–63 %, in addition to the drop in linear shrinkage by 18 %–40 %. This amendment of the soil using
cement was effective when compared to lime addition, both in terms of percentage addition and reduction in vol-
umetric strain, by 9.8 %–23.8 %, due to significant improvement in tensile strength of cement treated clay.

Sing et al. [42] Peat 300 kg/m3 by mass The rate of stabilization of peaty soil with cement has been observed to yield unsatisfactory results due to the
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

of peat high moisture content and organic nature of the native soil. Hence, various cement binders have been blended
with cement accelerators (viz., CaCl2 and NaCl) and pozzolonas (such as granulated blast furnace slag, sodium
bentonite, and kaolinite) in addition to filler material (viz., well graded silica) to yield optimum unconfined com-
pressive strength. This modification has led to rapid setting times, thereby enhancing the immediate strength
gain including the workability. However, it has been observed that the axial strain at failure has reduced making
the material brittle in nature.

Farouk and Silty sand 100–440 kg/m3 A laboratory scale set up has been adopted to study the effect of soil-cement columns on bearing capacity and
Shahien [43] settlements of foundation on silty sands. It has been observed that the compressive strength of the soil-cement

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


columns increases non-linearly with cement percentage, but decreases with increase in water to cement ratio and
its effect on modulus of elasticity was negligible. However, the addition of cement has made the soil brittle and
stiff in nature and with the increase in fines content the strength and stiffness have been observed to decrease.
The soil-cement columns tested for foundation set up has shown that lower replacement area ratios, L/B ratio < 2
and higher curing periods yielded higher bearing capacity and minimum settlements.

Markou and Sand W/C ¼ 1 Engineering properties such as permeability and unconfined compressive strength of sand have been modified by
Droudakis [44] making it almost impermeable and increasing the strength to 14 MPa from zero, with the help of cement grout-
ing. To avoid bleeding of the grout, the water to cement ratio was maintained as 1 and further experiments were
conducted to obtain the optimum pressure required to inject the grout so as to achieve desired strength and per-
meability up to a given distance.

Ismail and Ryden Silty clay 5, 10 and 25 In order to make the soil suitable for the construction of foundation, cement has been added in suitable propor-
[45] tions and investigations have been carried out to assess the degree of improvement by adopting advanced techni-
ques such as high frequency multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Shear modulus and Young’s
modulus obtained from MASW have been correlated with the unconfined compressive strength and tensile
strength, respectively, to perform quality assessment of cement stabilization. In addition, XRD and SEM were
used to portray the formation of silicates and aluminates of calcium due to its hydration, which are cementitious
by nature.

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56 JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION

the cement content. It has also been brought out that with an increase in
cement content, the heat of hydration increases which results in intensive
cracking of the pavement [13].
• Sulphate rich soils have always been “a difficult material to deal with” as far
their stabilization with cement is concerned. This is mainly due to the fact
that the high alkaline system that gets created due to addition of lime/
cement, enables the formation of ettringite [46].
• In case of the organic soil, pH and humus content play a vital role
in affecting the cement hydration and the mechanism of stabilization.
However, usage of suitable admixture(s) has been recommended to
make such soils suitable to react with cement and hence getting stabilized
[47].
• The greenhouse gases (viz., CO2 and CO) released from the cement manu-
facturing plants, lead to carbon loading (i.e., the carbon foot print) on the
environment [48]. Mishra and Siddiqui [49] studied the side effects of a
cement manufacturing plant, which is one of the most essential and flour-
ishing industries in the present day infrastructure sector. With an increase
in cement production, the release of SOx, NOx and particulate matter in
addition to greenhouse gases occurs. These gases cause environmental pol-
lution and are also the reason for many respiratory problems in human
beings. This issue prevails all over the world and hence it is essential to find
a suitable solution (viz., geopolymers, green cement) to control the adverse
effect of cement production on the ecology.
3. Synthesized chemicals/fibers into soil stabilization have proven to be better
substitutes as highly reactive/reinforcing materials (refer to Table 3). However,
the flaws associated with the utilization of these chemicals, as stabilizing mate-
rials, are listed as follows [68]:
• Raw material utilization for production of chemicals in bulk, would lead to
extensive consumption of natural (read non-renewable) resources.
• Manufacturing process of chemicals would result in emission of toxic gases,
generation of toxic and hazardous solid, and liquid wastes, which have
become a bane for modern day civilization.
• Contamination of geo-environment and ground water due to leaching of
these chemicals, when added in high concentration, becomes an issue of
great concern. The presence of some of these chemicals in “free form” in
the soil makes it unsuitable for the plant growth and might even enter the
food chain at times. Furthermore, addition of the fiber in excess would
make the soil more unstable (due to creation of air pockets or lump forma-
tion) than it actually was.
• In addition to the above mentioned limitations, the cost associated with the
chemical or fibre stabilization makes it non-preferred method for projects
where large volumes of soil stabilization are required.
4. Sustainable materials, also known as “the man-made resource,” have proven
to be effective in substituting the conventional stabilizers in the recent past by
the researchers and technologists, as presented in Table 4. For the sake of com-
pleteness, justification for the preference of these materials over the conven-
tional materials is being listed as follows:
• The sustainable materials, for which handling, storage, and disposal is an
environmental hazard and a bug bear to industries, researchers, planners,
and administrators, are mainly industrial by-products and hence do not

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TABLE 3
Literature on synthesized chemicals/fibers.

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Krizek and Sand and Gravel Sodium silicate and — One-dimensional grout model studies have been conducted to understand the behavior of dif-
Perez [50] acrylate polymer as ferent types of chemical grouts in soil permeated by water. It has been observed from the seep-
bases age velocity and gel time relation that higher viscosity and lower miscibility grouts had higher
tendency to corrode or dissolve over a period of time and the converse also applies. Further-
more, grout having higher gelling time and smaller seepage velocities would be prone to dilu-
tion, and furthermore it has been opined that as the grain size decreases (< 0.5 mm) grouting
became difficult. It has been proved that higher strength was achieved in the vicinity of point
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

of injection of grout. Hence, grouts with lower gelling time and higher seepage velocity (i.e.,
low viscosity) yielded better performing soils.

Abadjieva [51] Black cotton soil Con-Aid NA A petroleum product con-aid has been used to stabilize the expansive soils of Botswana. This
and Calcrete material forms a thin film in between the soil particles, thereby allowing free flow of water
during evaporation and also making the soil hydrophobic in nature, thus challenging the
expansive nature of the soil. Thus, con-aid has been used to increase the liquid limit of the soil
by 3.6 %–8 %, plastic limit by 10 %–31 %, density and optimum moisture content by
0.65 %–3 % and 4.8 %–9 %, respectively. Furthermore the California bearing ratio has

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


increased by 40 %–67 % after stabilization to make the soil suitable for pavements
construction.

Katz et al. [52] Montmorillonite Sulfonated limonene 1:500, 1000, 3000, To understand the mechanism involved in the stabilization of soil using ionic stabilizers,
6000 and 9000 montmorillonite has been mixed with the sulfonated limonene and tools such as XRD; SEM
was used to identify the nature of reaction occurred and products formed. It has been
observed that the chemical weathering of clay minerals that has occurred due to the stabilizer
was comparatively lower than expected and with increase in clay content this response was
significant. However, quartz remained unaffected. SEM-EDX showed the conversion of expan-
sive Montmorillonitic clay minerals to the non-expansive phase, which has been observed
from the structure and the peaks of EDX. In addition, for higher clay contents, higher concen-
tration of stabilizer has been recommended.

Petry and Expansive clay Potassium Ammo- NA Chemical injections have been performed on compacted clay samples to create water barriers.
Zhao [53] nium Lignosulfonate A compacted sample injected with KIS has been overlaid by another sample compacted at
(KIS) & ionic sulfo- higher moisture content, with an intention to create a significant moisture gradient within the
nated soil agents sample. Over a period of time, it has been demonstrated that there is no moisture migration
within the sample, which would have normally happened in any natural circumstance. This

57
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TABLE 3. Continued

58
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
inference also supported the reduction in percentage swelling of these samples at various dilu-
tion factors. Furthermore, an increase in total suction, as a result of rise in osmotic suction,
has been observed due to the chemical injection.

Tang et al. Uncemented Polypropylene fibres 0.05–0.25 Polypropylene fibers have been used as stabilizing agent to improve the strength of cemented
[54] and cemented clayey soil. Though addition of cement improves the strength of the soil to a great extent, it
clay makes the soil brittle and stiff making it susceptible tension cracks. Hence, the addition of
polypropylene fibers has been recommended as reinforcement to the cemented soil and the
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

behavior of clay with and without the stabilization with cement and/or fibers has been
observed in terms of the unconfined compressive strength and shear strength parameters in
addition to the propagation of tensile crack. Out of all the combinations, reinforced cemented
soil yielded the best results and has been suggested for a better performance of the soil.

Tingle et al. Problematic Ionic stabilizers, NA The mechanism involved in stabilization of problematic soils using enzymes, salts, resins, and
[55] soils enzymes, petroleum electrolytes is either by cation exchange or by coating of the particle surface. It has also been
resin, tree resins, mentioned that majority of these stabilizers are suitable for granular soils than that of fine-
lignosulfonate and grained soils, as the stabilization involves coating of the soil grains followed by a cementation
salts to improve the density and unconfined compressive strength. For fine-grained soils, the suita-
ble chemical agents (either cationic or anionic) mobilize the surface charges, thereby reducing
the thickness of diffused double layer and hence bringing the particles closer for flocculation.
However, in case of salts, the water retention capacity of the fine-grained soils is observed to
increase due to the increase in surface tension of the capillary surface, followed by an increase
in density of the granular soils due to crystallization of the salts, creating physical bonds. It is
thus recommended to select the chemical agent as per the requirement of the soil and a better
improvement could be expected for granular soils.

Harianto et al. Sandy silts Polypropylene fibres 0–1.2 Synthesized polypropylene fibers have been used for stabilizing the properties such as compaction
[56] characteristics, volumetric shrinkage, and crack intensity factor of the problematic soil. With the
increase in percentage of fibers, the dry density increased by 0.73 %–11 %, optimum moisture
content reduced by 5 %–16 %, and shrinkage limit increased by 32 %–42 % of the soil composite.
However, this behavior has been noted up to 1 % addition of fibers and with further increase in
percentage fiber addition, a degradation in the properties have been observed due to expected
lump formation. The crack intensity factor (CIF) of the composite has been influenced by the per-
centage addition of the fibers which offered resistance to shrinkage during the desiccation and
has reduced the CIF to zero, except for 1 % addition, which has shown crack development and
has been attributed to the moisture content that reduced the efficiency of the fibers.

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TABLE 3. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Yilmaz and Bentonite Gypsum 2.5–10 The addition of gypsum to bentonite improves its properties in terms of reduction in percent-
Civelekoglu age swell, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and an increase in unconfined compressive
[57] strength. This has been attributed to the replacement of monovalent sodium ions by calcium
ions, which reduces the swelling tendency. Moreover, with curing, the strength of the compos-
ite was observed to increase (up to 5 % followed by minimum change) and was preferred over
lime considering the cost associated.

Eisazadeh Montmorillonite Phosphoric acid 7 Montmorillonite has been stabilized by phosphoric acid, which dissolved the alumina content
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

et al. [58] of the soil to form alumina hydrates, which further has increased the unconfined compressive
strength of the soil by 170 %. Besides, advanced techniques such as XRD, SS-NMR, FTIR,
EDAX, and FESEM have been employed to identify the enhancement of properties at micro-
structural level (i.e., mineralogical alterations, chemical bonds developed and soil fabric).

Azzam [59] Swelling soil Polymer nano- 5–15 The addition of polymer nano-composites to the swelling clays has converted the soil to hydro-
composites phobic, thus reducing its percentage swell and swelling pressure, thereby making it compressible
in nature. Moreover, the polymer addition has increased the unconfined compressive strength of
the expansive clay and has changed the failure behavior from brittle to elastic. Adding to it, the

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


polymer nano-composites were observed to improve the bearing capacity of a footing.

Thyagaraj Expansive soil CaCl2 and NaOH — As a challenge to the existing technique of lime piles where the effect of lime stabilization does
et al. [60] not get highlighted, due to its inability to modify the properties up to a larger distance, mixing
of soil by CaCl2 and NaOH in a sequential manner at desired concentration levels of
10 %–65 % and 7.3 %–47.3 %, respectively, has been adopted and investigated. A significant
reduction in plasticity index by 84 %–66 % and a steep drop in percentage swell from 4.5 % to
no swell (i.e., zero) was achieved, due to the replacement of monovalent ions by divalent cal-
cium ions, in addition to its alkalinity as explained by the authors. With the increase in con-
centration of the chemicals, pH of the system increased, thereby disintegrating the soil
minerals to react with calcium hydroxide to form cementitious products, hence leading to an
appreciable rise in the unconfined compressive strength. The efficacy of this method has been
proved by comparing with the existing methodologies.

Venkara Black cotton soil KCl, CaCl2 and 1 Locally available black cotton soil has been stabilized by electrolyte solutions which increased
Muthyalu FeCl3 the cation exchange capacity of the soil when added in optimum percentage. Properties such
et al. [61] as liquid limit decreased by 57 %–70 %, plastic limit increased by 0 %–5 %, and shrinkage
limit showed an increment of 15 %–25 %. In addition, a significant enhancement has been
noted for unconfined compressive strength, 133 %–230 %, California bearing ratio,

59
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TABLE 3. Continued

60
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
133 %–230 % and shear parameters; c and /, 135 %–160 %, and 50 %–100 %. However,
among the three solutions, FeCl3 has resulted in maximum improvement.

Moayedi et al. Peat Sodium silicate 2–6 The effect of viscosity and pH of sodium silicate grout on shrinkage and micro-structure prop-
[62] erties of peat has been investigated. The viscosity and pH of sodium silicate with and without
additives such as calcium chloride and formamide has shown that the grout without any addi-
tives has exhibited a minimum viscosity and higher pH conditions, which are the most prefer-
able conditions for any grout to penetrate into the pores and initiate reaction. However, the
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

shrinkage reduction due to sodium silicate grout without the additives, though within the
range of standards, was comparatively higher than with calcium chloride as additive.

Yi et al. [63] Sand Reactive MgO 10 Carbonated MgO has been introduced either by auger mixing or column insertion to stabilize
sand for its unconfined compressive strength that increased by 630 %–693 % for triaxial and
column specimens, respectively. Among these methods, the column of MgO has shown higher
strength gain and hence has been recommended for weak soil.

Anagnosto- Sand Epoxy resin — Sands grouted with epoxy resin were observed to increase the compressive strength with time and
poulos et al. concentration of epoxy resin. Higher water content has significantly affected the strength devel-
[64] opment and hence ER: W ratios of 1.5:1 and 2:1 were recommended. In addition to compressive
strength, shear strength of the grouted sand multiplied when compared to the untreated sand,
though the friction angle was reduced due to the loss of inter-grain contact after resin coating.

Lv et al. [65] Loess CO2 -Silicification — Loess stabilized with CO2 -Silicification grout, has been investigated for its water stability
grout characteristics by performing permeability, Atterberg limits, XRD, SEM, and EDS studies. It
has been observed that natural and compacted loess has trellis pores and weak point-to-point
contact and susceptibility to water, which was the main reason for the high settlements of
foundations on this soil. Post treatment effects have been observed to have created a surface
contact between the particles, increased the liquid and plastic limits as the clay percent
increased, and also resistance to water penetration. Furthermore, the coefficient of permeabil-
ity has been observed to be minimum in comparison to the native and compacted loess. The
grout coating has made the soil hydrophobic due to the physico-chemical reactions that have
occurred and thus less susceptible to load and/or moisture fluctuations.

Moayedi et al. Peat Cationic reagents — Cationic reagents such as calcium chloride, calcium oxide, sodium silicates, and aluminium
[66] hydroxide have been injected into peat to improve its compressive strength and shear
strength, which occurred by means of ion exchange and advection, which further led to

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TABLE 3. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
cementation of the soil particles. Electro kinetic process has been adopted to inject the
reagents into the soil through anode, distilled water at cathode and has been allowed to
migrate and/or diffuse into the soil which alters the pH and causes moisture migration
depending on the charge distribution, which was generally from cathode to anode. Among all
the reagents calcium oxide and aluminium hydroxide have yielded better results due to their
ability to form cementitious silicates and aluminates, that would dissolute from the soil at
high pH conditions created by these reagents.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Zhao et al. Weathered clay Potash, Ammonium NA Texas clay has been chemically stabilized to observe the response of the system to moisture
[29] shale Lignosulfon-ate & fluctuations. The highly active chemicals reacted with soil to reduce the liquid limit by
ionic sulfonated soil 2.5 %–4.5 %, vary the plastic limit by 5 % to 2 %, increase the shrinkage limit by 4.5 %–64 %
agents and decrease shrinkage limit by 65 %–85 %. This has been attributed to the exchangeable cati-
ons present within the system, which reduces the thickness of the diffused double layer that
directly had an impact on the swell potential of the soil. Similarly, the cation exchangeability
has led to a rise in osmotic suction thereby total suction of the stabilized soil.

Zaimoglu [67] Fine-grained soil Polypropylene fibers 0–25 Polypropylene fibers with additives such as borogypsum, flyash, and cement mixed at various
and additives proportions were added to a fine-grained soil and were tested for the unconfined compressive

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


strength. Taguchi method has been applied to obtain the optimum proportion for different
curing times (7, 14, and 28 days) that yields maximum compressive strength. It has been
derived from Taguchi analysis that polypropylene fibers were effective among all the additives
and borogypsum acted as a retarder and hence affected the cement properties, whereas flyash
had negligible influence for 7 and 14 days. Hence, either of borogypsum or cement were
avoided to achieve optimum strength as obtained from the analysis of variance.

61
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TABLE 4

62
Literature on sustainable materials.

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Kamon and Volcanic ash or Sludge or cakes from 12 Various industrial by-products have been taken in required proportions, mixed with gypsum
Nontananandh Loam soils sugar, rubber. Brewery and finely ground to form a new cement-like stabilizer, to improve the properties of loamy
[69] and slag combined to be a soils. The ability of this material to form ettringites, which has high water holding capacity,
cementitious compound has reduced optimum moisture content by 15 % and the cementitious nature of the product
has resulted in increase in unconfined compressive strength by 560 %, to make it suitable as a
sub-grade material.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Wild et al. [12] Lime stabilized Ground granulated blast 4–8 The effect of GGBS addition on lime stabilized kaolinite sample with and without gypsum has
kaolinite furnace slag (GGBS) been investigated. Presence of sulphate source, i.e., gypsum in a lime-kaolinite mix leads to
expansion or swelling of the sample due to the deposition of sulphate ions on the clay particles
which expand in the presence of water. To control this, GGBS has been added to the artifi-
cially created lime-kaolinite-gypsum mix to enable the formation of ettringites by sulphate
when reacted with GGBS, which gets parked on the clay particles and exhibit minimum
expansion. However, the ratio of GGBS to lime has to be maintained optimum preferably low
in the presence of gypsum to keep the expansion of clay in control, whereas when no gypsum
is present, a higher ratio of slag to lime also yielded a considerable improvement in the
strength.

Miller and Azad High, Medium Cement kiln dust (CKD) 0–50 Cement kiln dust, a by-product of cement industry, has been utilized to stabilize the soils of
[70] and Low plastic different plasticity for their compressive strength and plasticity index. An optimum percentage
clays addition (15 % in this study) of CKD has shown a significant increase in the unconfined com-
pressive strength and reduced the strain at failure, due to its nature of forming cementitious
products through pozzolanic reactions at high pH. Also, the plasticity index has been observed
to reduce significantly for high and medium plastic soils, whereas CKD addition has induced
plasticity to the low plastic or cohesionless soil. In terms of compaction characteristics, the
moisture content increased due to higher affinity of CKD to water and dry density decreased
due to the flocculation of particles caused by CKD.

Cokca [71] Expansive soil Class C Flyash 3–25 In view of stabilizing expansive clay, two types of flyash with low and higher calcium contents
have been selected and laboratory experiments have been performed to obtain a reduced swel-
ling potential, activity, and plasticity index of the clay with increase in percentage of flyash.
The obtained results have been compared with cement and lime stabilized samples and it has
been deduced that for a 20 % mix of flyash, the percentage reduction in swell potential was
matching with that of lime and cement stabilized sample and also the effect of curing time has

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TABLE 4. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
been specifically discussed. In addition, it has been mentioned that both the flyash have equal
potential to stabilize the expansive soil.

Kaniraj and Silty sand Flyash and 25–75; 1; 3and 6 Silty sands mixed with flyash had brittle nature in terms of their unconfined compressive
Havanagi [72] fibers þ cement strength and addition of cement also made the composite brittle. However, the addition of
fibers without cement, has increased the failure deviator stress but had negligible effect on the
unconfined compressive strength. Hence, the combination of fibers and cement added to
flyash mixed soil has been recommended to obtain a higher unconfined compressive strength
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

and a ductile failure criteria.

Puppala et al. [73] Expansive soil Flyash and recycled poly- 0–20 and 0–0.9 Flyash and polypropylene fibers used in isolation in two different expansive soils have
propylene fibres increased the unconfined compressive strength. However, flyash was not capable of making
the soil non-problematic in terms of linear shrinkage, though it could control the free swell
completely. Similarly, the fiber addition could control the linear shrinkage of soil but increased
the free swell index. Hence, it has been recommended that both the materials could be used in
isolation for strengthening of the soil, but minding the flaws associated with the isolation.

Al-Rawas [74] Expansive clay Cement by-pass dust 3 %–9 % Expansive soils having swelling minerals exhibit a high percentage of swell and swelling pres-

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


(CBPD), copper slag, slag- sure. In view of stabilizing the soil by-products such as CBPD, copper slag, slag-cement, and
cement and granulated GBFS have been used. It has been observed that except for copper slag, all the other materials
blast furnace slag (GBFS) have reduced the percentage swell as well as swelling pressure significantly and GBFS was
observed to perform the best due to the presence of a good percentage of calcium in it. How-
ever, the XRD peaks with CBPD addition have shown a major modification when compared
to the other two, but no relation has been expected between XRD peaks and swelling pressure.
In addition, the micro-fabric of the untreated and treated soils has been investigated and has
discussed the presence of dense clay particle arrangement in the untreated soil while an
agglomerating and connecting particle structure could be observed for the treated soils, thus
exhibiting a minimum susceptibility to swelling.

Jiang et al. [75] Soft clay Granulated blast furnace 0–30 Soft clays containing organic matter when stabilized with cement or lime have shown no
(GBF) slag desired improvement in properties, due to the humic acid that affects the reaction and also
cost associated with the quantity of material. Hence, the partial replacement of cement and/or
lime by GBF slag has produced effective results due to its potential hydraulicity that enabled
pozzolanic reactions and increased the unconfined compressive strength of the soft (organic)
soil.

63
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TABLE 4. Continued

64
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Basha et al. [76] Residual soil Rice husk ash 0 %–20 % Residual soil has been treated with cement and rice husk ash to reduce its plasticity and
increase its unconfined compressive strength as well as the California bearing ratio to make it
suitable for the construction of subgrade of a pavement. Rice husk ash containing high per-
centage of silica has been observed to increase the binding capacity and water holding capacity
of the cement treated soil so as to multiply the strength of the soil composite. An X-ray dif-
fraction and SEM analysis has been performed to demonstrate the pozzolanic reaction occur-
ring within the system with the addition of flyash.
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

Bhuvaneshwari Plastic clay Flyash 10–50 Plastic clay from ash dykes of Ennore has been stabilized by flyash at given percentage to vary
et al. [77] its liquid limit by 6.7 % to negligible variation, increase the plastic limit by 5.6 %–16.7 %.
Furthermore, a reduction in permeability by 49 %–33 %, dry density by 16 %, and optimum
moisture content by 10 %–31 % has been noted, whereas the unconfined compressive strength
has shown a wide variation from 56 % to 31 %. This has been executed by in–situ mixing
followed by compaction with smooth wheeled rollers.

Kate [78] Expansive clay Flyash 0–20 Expansive clays (combination of bentonite and kaolinite at various proportions) have been
blended with flyash alone and mixture of flyash and lime at different percentages, to reduce
the free swell index and percent swell and increase the unconfined compressive strength,
which can be attributed to the pozzolanic reactions due to flyash and/or flyash þ lime. It has
been recommended that flyash without lime also yields better stabilization of soil, but rela-
tively lower than flyash þ lime mix.

Mackiewicz and Problematic soil Class C flyash — The potential of Class C flyash for stabilizing soils for better compaction characteristics,
Ferguson [79] higher unconfined compressive strength, higher California bearing ratio, and reduced shrink/
swell properties due to its self-cementing properties, has been presented. Considering the
compaction characteristics, a delay in compaction after treating with flyash has degraded the
properties due to the formation of lumps, when compared with compaction having no delay.
However, addition of retarders could control the speed of reaction and hence delayed compac-
tion had no much effect on the compaction characteristics.

Yarbasi et al. [80] Granular soil Silica fume, flyash and red 0–20 Sand-gravel mixtures treated with combinations of silica fume with lime (MIXA), flyash with
mud lime (MIXB) and red mud with cement (MIXC) have been subjected to cycles of freeze-thaw.
It has been observed that though the addition of these materials caused a reduction in the dry
density and an increase in the optimum moisture content, the CBR value has shown a rela-
tively low percentage variation for the mixes when compared to the native soil similar to the
compressive strength behavior. This response has been effective for MIXA when compared to

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TABLE 4. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
the others, which has been attributed to the fineness and smaller particle size that has
improved the specific surface area, making it highly active. However, a significant increase in
the durability of the granular soil has been observed with the addition of these materials, in
spite of their brittle nature.

Buhler and Cerato Plastic clay Flyash 5–20 The effect of Class C flyash on Oklahoma expansive soil has been investigated to prove its effi-
[21] (S1–S4) cacy with respect to lime. Linear shrinkage has shown notable reduction by 0.8 %–5.4 % with
varying percentage of flyash. Though the percentage reduction in linear shrinkage due to addi-
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

tion of lime was very high compared to that of flyash stabilization, flyash has been recom-
mended by authors due its ease of workability, cost of availability, and importantly its nature
of sustainability.

Brooks [81] Highly compressi- Flyash and Rice husk ash 25 and 12 Flyash and rice husk ash, which are industrial by-products, have been used as potential stabi-
ble clay lizing materials for highly compressible clays. These materials when mixed with the soil at
optimum percentage have shown a significant rise in unconfined compressive strength by 106
and 97 %, California bearing ratio by 566.7 %, respectively, due to their ability to exchange
cations with the native soil. An in–situ study on treatment of sub-grade of a high way, with

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


this mix, has been performed to show that sub-base can be avoided for this case.

Kalkan [82] Clayey soil Silica fume 10–50 In view of stabilizing clayey soil used for barriers and liners against desiccation, silica fume
has been used. Experimental investigations to determine compaction characteristics, desicca-
tion cracking, permeability, swelling, cation exchange capacity, and specific surface area have
been carried out to observe the response of silica fume treated soil with respect to native soil.
With the percentage increase in silica fume crack minimization has been observed in addition
to reduction in compressibility and swelling of soil composite. This response has been attrib-
uted to the non-plastic and pozzolanic nature of the silica fume, which modified the soil prop-
erties and also reduced the dry density and increased the optimum moisture content.

Solanki et al. [83] Sulphate rich lean Class C flyash (CFA) and 5–15 Rise in density with a reduction in optimum moisture content (OMC) has been attributed to
clay Cement kiln dust (CKD) spherical flyash particles. Reduction in density with a rise in OMC for CKD and reduction in
density with increased OMC for lime stabilization has been observed due to the aggregation of
particles, whereas resilient modulus and unconfined compressive strength, UCS, of these sam-
ples improved significantly with capillary soaking. In addition, the minimum moisture suscep-
tibility and ettringite formation has been observed for CFA stabilized soil when compared to
CKD or lime stabilized soil due to the high pH of lime and CKD.

65
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TABLE 4. Continued

66
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Hughes et al. [84] Artificially created Pulverized fuel ash (PFA), 10 Industrial by-products such as PFA, GGBS, and gypsum, activated by an alkali composed of
low strength clay Ground granulated blast sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, have been used for stabilization of low strength clay.
furnace slag (GGBS), Red The strength gain and durability properties of alkali activated GGBS have been observed to be
gypsum very high when compared to that of alkali activated PFA and gypsum, due its pozzolanicity.
The unsatisfactory performance of PFA was attributed to its fineness, which influences its
reactivity and gypsum being a non-pozzolanic material has yielded relatively poor results.

Patel et al. [85] Sand Activated micro fine slag — Activators such as Sodium Carbonate, Potassium Carbonate, Sodium Fluoride, Potassium Flu-
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

cement oride, and Sodium Sulphide have been used to enhance the properties of the micro-fine slag
grout. Sodium Fluoride at a 0.1 % mix has been proven to give the best results in terms of
maximum unconfined compression strength and minimum grout viscosity, whereas Sodium
Sulphide has turned out to be poor grout in terms of its minimum strength and high viscosity.

Wilkinson et al. Clay and Silty clay Lime/flyash slurry — A case study in Australia has been presented where lime/flyash pressurized slurry has been
[86] injected to control the swell/shrink nature of the soil. CPT studies have been conducted
in-situ before and after stabilization to distinguish the strengthening behavior due to the injec-
tion of slurry. Laboratory studies have been performed to understand the response to swelling,
and a noted reduction was observed that has been attributed to the physic-chemico-mineral-
ogical reactions occurring due to the slurry injection and the involvement of native soil miner-
als to form cementing products, with the help of XRD and SEM.

Kolay et al. [87] Peat Class F pond ash (PA) 5 %–20 % Class F Pond ash has been used to stabilize the highly compressible peaty soils to improve
their compressive strength and compaction characteristics. It has been observed that with per-
centage increase in PA the unconfined compressive strength in addition to maximum dry den-
sity, increased due to the replacement of voids in peat matrix by the finer PA and reduction in
moisture content due to the cementitious reactions that occurred with the addition of PA.
Also, the increase in curing time had a positive effect on the strength of the peat to a great
extent.

Rahman et al. [88] Peat Class F flyash 5 %–25 % Low strength peat soil has been stabilized by Class F flyash to improve its California bearing
ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). It has been observed hat with the
increase in percentage flyash up to 20 % the CBR value increased in addition to the UCS
attributing to the cementing pozzolanic property of the flyash. It has also been opined that
20 % is the optimum percentage addition of flyash beyond which the CBR decreased.

Tastan et al. [89] Organic soil Class C flyash 10–30 The effect of flyash treatment on organic soil in terms of the unconfined compressive strength
and resilient modulus has been investigated and compared with replacement of organic soil

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TABLE 4. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
by inorganic silt. It has been observed that with increase in percentage of Class C flyash, the
unconfined compressive strength has increased and the resilient modulus also increased, but
at higher binding water contents. It has also been opined that higher CaO to SiO2 ratio yield
better results and higher percentage of organic content depletes the strength of the stabilized
mixture. The pozzolanic activity of flyash has made its application superior to that of the soil
being replaced by inorganic silt, which has no effect on strength of the soil.

Yadu et al. [90] Black cotton soil Flyash (FA) and Rice 12 and 9 Expansive soil with unsuitable properties, when stabilized, with FA and RHA the specific grav-
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

husk ash (RHA) ity (1.9 and 3.8 %), plasticity index (17 and 47 %), and dry density (27 and 8 %) have shown a
reduction and in converse the optimum moisture content with addition of RHA (26 %)
increased due to its high water holding capacity. Adding to it the CBR and UCS have shown a
significant increase of around 125 %–200 % and 76 %–192 %, respectively, due to the pozzola-
nic reaction up to a certain optimum percentage, portraying the effect of stabilization on these
properties.

Albusoda and Sand dunes Cement kiln dust (CKD) 8 The creep effect of sand dunes makes them inefficient for heavy projects and hence their stabi-
Salem [12] lization with cement kiln dust (having properties similar to cement) has been proposed. Modi-

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


fication in properties such as liquid limit (by 22.6 %), dry density, cohesion (increased with
the percentage of CKD with curing) and friction angle, collapse potential (by 66 %), and an
increase in bearing capacity of the soil indicates the cementitious bonds that have developed
as a result of stabilization using CKD.

Khalid et al. [91] Highly plastic Waste paper sludge ash 10 The clay soil has been treated with waste paper sludge ash having pozzolanic activities, due to
sandy clay which properties such as unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio
(soaked and unsoaked got enhanced by 87 % and 79 %–240 %, respectively). Additionally,
construction cost has been controlled by saving the expenditure on materials such as lime and
cement.

Hakari and Black cotton soil Flyash 20–40 Black cotton soils considered to be one of the most problematic among the expansive soils has
Puranik [92] been considered for this study. Flyash from a local Paper mill has been adopted to improve
the index and engineering properties. From the study it has been observed that the liquid limit
and OMC have decreased, whereas dry density, unconfined compressive strength, and Califor-
nia bearing ratio increased with the addition of optimum percentage flyash. This modification
in soil properties has been attributed to the reduction in thickness of diffused double layer and
increase in cohesion among the soil particles in the presence of flyash.

67
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TABLE 4. Continued

68
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Horpibulsuk et al. Silty clay Calcium carbide residue 7 and 10 In order to enhance the properties of a silty clay, sensitive to moisture changes, calcium car-
[93] (CCR) and Calcium car- bide residue, a by-product of acetylene production process has been used at an optimum mix
bide residue and flyash percentage of 7, which reduced the dry density, increased the OMC, which implies to reduc-
tion in water sensitivity of the soil, and unconfined compressive strength got enhanced by
580 %. In addition, a combination of CCR and flyash has been used to understand the behav-
ior of the soil in terms of (a) dry density: which increased relatively due to high specific gravity
of flyash, (b) unconfined compressive strength: out of various combinations of CCR: flyash,
the ratio 70:30 has been observed to be optimum and an increase in strength was observed to
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

be by around 850 %. This relative improvement in properties of the soil with the addition of
flyash was accounted to the pozzolanic reaction with flyash in the presence of Ca(OH)2 of
CCR.

Obuzor et al. [94] Clayey soil Ground granulated blast 0–16 Considering the conservation of natural resources and management of waste material, lime
furnace slag (GGBFS) activated GGBFS has been used for stabilizing the soil along the flood plain for their strength
and durability. The strength of the soil composite has been observed to increase with percent-
age increase in the GGBFS; however, when tested for durability by soaking the sample, the
properties were observed to degrade. And, conversely, lime addition has shown a higher dura-
bility, though the magnitude of strength was lower than lime replaced by the GGBFS compo-
sites. Hence, partial soaking has been employed and a durable composite could be achieved.
Thus, it has been recommended to compact the GGBFS þ lime mixed soil at wet of optimum,
which represents partial soaking, to ensure higher strength gain and durability.

Sharma and Black cotton soil Ground granulated blast 10–90 The addition of GGBS to black cotton soil has increased the unconfined compressive strength
Sivapullaiah [95] furnace clag (GGBS) and tangent modulus, but up to a certain percentage addition (i.e., 10 % and 20 %, respec-
tively), whereas a reduction in dry density and optimum moisture content has been observed
in contrast to general behavior of pozzolanic materials, which has been attributed to the fric-
tion due to coarser slag particles and its lower affinity towards moisture.

Fatahi et al. [96] Expansive soil Polypropylene fibres & 0.1–0.5 and 0.5–1 Expansive soils such as bentonite and kaolinite have been treated with cement and geo–fibres
Carpet fibres (which includes polypropylene fibers and carpet fibers) to minimize the shrink potential of
the soil. From the study, it has been observed that the addition of geo-fibers have controlled
the radial and axial shrinkage; the reason being the reduction in water content available with
the addition of fibers and hydration of cement thereby solidifying the soil. It has also been
opined that, due to the addition of geo-fibers, the requirement of cement addition in the mix
has reduced significantly, which in turn reduces the carbon footprint on the environment.

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TABLE 4. Continued

Mix Proportion
Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
Malhotra and Expansive soil Lime activated 5–25 Flyash and bottom ash activated by lime (5 %) has been added to react with the expansive soil
Naval [97] flyash þ bottom ash in proportion of 5 %–25 % to reduce the free swell index by 63 %–80 %, liquid limit by
4 %–22.8 %, and increase the optimum moisture content at which maximum dry density
could be achieved.

Mirzababaei et al. Clayey soil Carpet waste fibres (ABF 1,3 and 5 Clayey soils treated with carpet waste fibers (ABF and GBF) of varying moisture retention
[98] and GBF) capacity, at different dry densities and moisture contents have shown a significant modifica-
tion in the swelling pressure response. It has been observed that lower densities and higher
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

moisture contents have preferably shown a maximum reduction in the swelling pressure than
at lower moisture contents and 1 % addition has shown a substantial drop in swelling pressure
due to the lubrication effect of the fibers. However, fiber pockets were dominant for ABF type
in comparison to GBF due to their higher water holding capacity, and hence have caused an
adverse effect on the swelling pressure response.

Takhelmayum Black cotton soil Flyash 5–30 Investigations on compaction characteristics of the black cotton soil treated with fine and
et al. [99] coarse grained flyash have been performed and it was observed that the dry density has
reduced and the optimum moisture content has been increased in both the cases attributing to

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


the lower specific gravity of fine flyash and the flocculation of particles due to cation exchange
capacity of the coarse flyash.

Takhelmayum Black cotton soil Fine and coarse ground 5–30 Black cotton soil of India has been stabilized with fine and coarse GGBS; it has been observed
et al. [100] granulated blast furnace that the dry density increase with the percentage addition of GGBS (both coarse and fine) and
slag (GGBS) excess addition of moisture has led to a reducing trend. This response has been attributed to
the high specific gravity, particle size, and cementitious nature of the products formed due to
hydration of slag.

Yadu and Tripathi Soft soil Granulated blast furnace 9 Stabilization of soft soil by adding GBS in optimum percentage has decreased the plasticity
[101] slag (GBS) index by 17 %, percentage free swell index by 63 %, and increased the dry density by 3 % with
a reduction in optimum moisture content by 9 %. However, the unsoaked and soaked Califor-
nia bearing ratio has shown an increment of 138 % and 500 %, respectively, which was pre-
sumed to be due to replacement of clay particles by GBS and its pozzolanic reaction within
the system to cement the matrix.

Gu et al. [102] Clayey and Clayey Ground granulated blast 4–12 Dolomite calcined at 800 and 1000 centigrade has been added as an activator to GGBS in 1:3
silty sand furnace slag ratio for stabilizing two different soils and studied for their unconfined compressive strength
(GGBS) þ calcined (UCS) and elastic stiffness, followed by their micro-structural and mineralogical analysis. The

69
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TABLE 4. Continued

70
Mix Proportion

JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION


Reference Soil Type/Chemical Type (%) Findings
dolomite obtained results have been compared with the performance of GGBS activated by synthetic
CaO and MgO mix and it has been observed that the calcined dolomite þ GGBS mix has
yielded better gain in strength than the synthetic mix and has proved to be a potential activa-
tor. In addition, it has been recommended that for clayey soils a stabilizer percentage > 4 %
would be preferable.

Harbottle et al. Sands Bio-cementing bacteria — Sporosarcina pasteurii, an aerobic bacterium, has been used to act as self-sealing/self-healing
[103] material in sands by the process of bio-cementation. It has been observed that when the bacte-
Advances in Civil Engineering Materials

rium gets exposed to moisture/chemical due to opening of crack in a soil or cemented struc-
ture, this would lead to carbonate precipitation during the spore formation, thus sealing the
crack. It has also been proved to be effective to increase the shear strength of the soil.

Oormila and Clayey soil Flyash and blast furnace 10 & 20 Native clayey soil has been stabilized for its unconfined compressive strength and California
Preethi [104] slag bearing ratio (CBR) by addition of flyash and blast furnace slag. An increment of 75 and 281 %;
98 and 600 % has been observed in unconfined compressive strength and CBR, respectively,
with flyash and blast furnace slag, added individually, at their optimum percentage. A combina-
tion of 15 % flyash and 25 % blast furnace slag has shown a further improvement in CBR by
800 % to that of the native soil, proving the efficacy of these materials and their combination.

Tan et al. [105] Granular soil Flyash, silica fume and 10–40, 0–20 and Injection of flyash, silica fume, and bentonite in various combinations optimized by Taguchi
bentonite 0–3 method into granular bases was compared with cement injection. The uniaxial compressive
strength response from the Taguchi method portrayed that silica fume was the major contrib-
uting material to obtain the maximum uniaxial compressive strength, whereas bentonite
played a minor role and flyash has shown a reducing trend with percentage increase. Never-
theless, it has been observed that an optimum combination of 3 % bentonite, 10 % flyash, and
20 % silica fume has yielded the maximum compressive strength. However, cement injection
was observed to have underperformed due to water/binder ratio and setting issues while the
proposed composite mix has better workability and other properties.

Huang and Wen Liquefiable soils Colloidal silica, bentonite — Due to the limitations of existing methodologies used for stabilizing liquefiable soils, new tech-
[106] suspension, bio- niques such as (a) utilization of colloidal silica and bentonite suspension as grouts to increase
cementation, biogas, tire to fines content thereby its shear strength, (b) bio-cementation to cement or agglomerate the
chips soil particles, (c) air injection or biogas formation due to nitrogen fixation, which creates an
unsaturated state of the soil mass, and (d) introduction of tire chips, which is a low dense ma-
terial and enables drainage thereby dissipating the pore water pressure, have all been proposed
to mitigate liquefaction in a more sustainable and economical manner. Nevertheless, the effec-
tiveness of these methods has to be proved.

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JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION 71

involve any separate manufacturing process. As such, the utility of these


materials for modern day infrastructure development is welcome.
• The quantity of these materials is not an issue, as they are being generated
continuously, in this era of industrialization, due to ever increasing
demands from population explosion.
• These materials being self-pozzolanic, or in which the pozzolanicity could
be induced due to “a specific process or a combination of several processes,”
satisfy the basic criteria of being a stabilizer.
• It is also evident from the literature that most of these materials are chosen
as replacement for lime and cement in sulphate rich soil stabilization, and
hence can be considered to induce durability to the structures.
• However, considering the “stabilization induced cracking,” it should be real-
ized that judicious choice of an activator, which could alter primarily the
pH of the composite system, would be most critical. In this context, conven-
tional application of various alkalis (viz., MgO, Ca(OH)2, NaOH) and
chemicals could easily be stopped and replaced by “sustainable materials,”
by virtue of their versatility, as discussed earlier in detail. Moreover, applica-
tion of such materials would result in “gradual gain” in strength due to a
controlled hydration reaction with relatively low heat of hydration. This, in
turn, would eliminate the cracking of the stabilized soils [107–109].
• In context of the cost associated with these materials, it must be noticed
that the basic cost involved is that of “transportation” from the point of
their origin (read generation at various industrial units) to the “project spe-
cific sites.” This could be achieved by intervention of the “Government” by
resolving “appropriate legislation,” creation of “incentives,” or “by modify-
ing the existing bylaws related to eco-friendly handling, storage and dis-
posal of such materials.” Motivating industries in this context and their
partnership in all possible manners, seems to be the top order of the day.

Concluding Remarks
Ground improvement/soil stabilization is inevitable considering the pace of industri-
alization and its infrastructural requirements (demand in terms of rehabilitable
lands), and thus certain would be its after effects. One such side effect of soil stabili-
zation with the conventional materials (viz., lime, cement and chemicals) is the
“stabilization induced cracking,” which hampers the complete purpose of stabiliza-
tion, converging to catastrophic failures. It is thus essential to re-look into the
methods and particularly the materials that are used for stabilization and to adopt
state-of-the-art resources whose kinetics are yet to be explored. In addition, it can be
opined that the impact of the traditional stabilizers does not restrict itself to the con-
tamination of the geoenvironment, but turns out to be a serious global threat due to
the emission of greenhouse gases. Hence, it becomes essential to utilize the efficiency
of industrial by-products that are not only sustainable, but active enough to avoid
the use of conventional activators or can use a potential activator, which itself is an
industrial by-product. This by-product should be able to satisfy the requirements of
“an ideal activator,” in the literary sense, so as to create more durable and sustain-
able composites. This situation would help in our endeavors towards sustainable
infrastructure development, which would be a boon for the present day society.

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72 JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION

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JAYANTHI AND SINGH ON MATERIAL FOR SOIL STABILIZATION 73

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