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TWO TANK INTERACTING

SYSTEM

GROUP MEMBERS

NITISH BHARADWAJ – 1610110237


SHACHI SHANBHAG - 1610110298
VISRUDH V – 1610110425
OBJECTIVE:
To study the dynamic response of liquid level in two tank interacting system.

AIM:
 To calculate valve resistance for both the tanks.
 To calculate time constant of both the tank
 To calculate the step response of two tank interacting system to a step change in input
flow and compare it with the theoretical response.

SCHEMATIC AND APPARTUS DESCRIPTION:

When two systems (tanks) are coupled they interact with one and other and they are
altered by each other’s interaction by their contribution. In interacting systems, the levels in
both the tanks are affected by any change as change in downstream will affect the
upstream level.
Two tanks of the same dimensions are arranged as shown above. A rotameter is provided to
control the flow. A sump tank and a pump are provided for the purpose of recirculation.
Level indicators with scale are attached to each tank.
PROCEDURE:

1) Fill the sump tank with water.


2) Switch on the pump to fill the overhead tank.
3) Open the flow control valve( Rotameter) and set the desired flow rate ( 20, 22.5 , 25 LPH).
4) Open the valve V1 connecting Tank 1 and Tank 2 such that the height of water in the
Tank 1 and Tank 2 starts increasing.
5) Now set the exit valve V2 of Tank 2 such that the height of water in the Tank 1 and Tank 2
becomes constant.
6) Note down the initial height for both tanks and let the meniscus of fluid stabilizes.
7) After the height becomes constant increase the flow rate (2.5 LPH in this case).
8) Note down the increase in height in both the tanks at a time interval of 30 seconds.
9) Keep on repeating this until the height in tanks become constant.

OBSERVATION:
Inner Diameter of the tank D1: 0.108m
Outer Diameter of the down comer D2: 0.022m
Qi = 22.5 LPH
Qf = 25 LPH
H1i = 11.7 cm
H1f = 16.5 cm
H2i = 11.1 cm
H2f = 15.8 cm

T h1 h2 (H/MR) th (H/MR) exp


30 11.7 11.1 -0.147342436 0
60 11.9 11.2 -0.125770795 0.021276596
90 12.1 11.4 -0.104288136 0.063829787
120 12.2 11.5 -0.083214809 0.085106383
150 12.4 11.7 -0.062543626 0.127659574
180 12.5 11.8 -0.042266915 0.14893617
210 12.6 11.9 -0.022377148 0.170212766
240 12.7 12 -0.002866942 0.191489362
270 12.8 12.1 0.016270948 0.212765957
300 12.9 12.2 0.035043626 0.234042553
330 12.9 12.3 0.053458062 0.255319149
360 13 12.3 0.071521092 0.255319149
390 13.1 12.4 0.089239422 0.276595745
420 13.2 12.5 0.106619629 0.29787234
450 13.3 12.6 0.123668167 0.319148936
480 13.4 12.7 0.140391365 0.340425532
510 13.4 12.7 0.156795431 0.340425532
540 13.5 12.8 0.172886455 0.361702128
570 13.6 12.9 0.188670412 0.382978723
600 13.7 13 0.20415316 0.404255319
630 13.7 13 0.219340448 0.404255319
660 13.8 13.1 0.234237914 0.425531915
690 13.9 13.2 0.24885109 0.446808511
720 14 13.3 0.263185399 0.468085106
750 14 13.4 0.277246165 0.489361702
780 14.1 13.5 0.291038606 0.510638298
810 14.2 13.5 0.304567843 0.510638298
840 14.3 13.6 0.3178389 0.531914894
870 14.4 13.7 0.330856703 0.553191489
900 14.5 13.8 0.343626085 0.574468085
930 14.6 14 0.356151786 0.617021277
960 14.7 14.1 0.368438457 0.638297872
990 14.8 14.2 0.380490659 0.659574468
1020 14.9 14.3 0.392312867 0.680851064
1050 15 14.4 0.40390947 0.70212766
1080 15.1 14.4 0.415284773 0.70212766
1140 15.2 14.5 0.43738829 0.723404255
1170 15.2 14.5 0.44812471 0.723404255
1200 15.3 14.6 0.458656245 0.744680851
1230 15.3 14.6 0.468986805 0.744680851
1260 15.4 14.7 0.479120225 0.765957447
1290 15.5 14.8 0.489060268 0.787234043
1320 15.5 14.8 0.498810622 0.787234043
1350 15.5 14.8 0.508374909 0.787234043
1380 15.6 14.9 0.517756679 0.808510638
1410 15.6 14.9 0.526959415 0.808510638
1440 15.7 15 0.535986533 0.829787234
1470 15.7 15 0.544841386 0.829787234
1500 15.7 15 0.553527259 0.829787234
1530 15.8 15.1 0.562047379 0.85106383
1560 15.8 15.1 0.570404907 0.85106383
1590 15.9 15.2 0.578602948 0.872340426
1620 15.8 15.1 0.586644543 0.85106383
1650 15.9 15.2 0.59453268 0.872340426
1680 15.9 15.2 0.602270285 0.872340426
1710 16 15.3 0.609860233 0.893617021
1740 16.1 15.4 0.61730534 0.914893617
1770 16.1 15.5 0.624608371 0.936170213
1800 16.2 15.6 0.631772037 0.957446809
1830 16.4 15.7 0.638798997 0.978723404
1860 16.4 15.7 0.645691861 0.978723404
1890 16.5 15.7 0.652453187 0.978723404
1920 16.5 15.7 0.659085485 0.978723404
1950 16.5 15.7 0.665591218 0.978723404
1980 16.5 15.8 0.671972801 1
2010 16.5 15.8 0.678232603 1
2040 16.5 15.8 0.684372948 1
2070 16.5 15.8 0.690396115 1

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

= (25 – 22.5)/1000 x 3600 = 6.94E-07

= (16.5 – 11.7)/100 = 0.048 m

= (15.8 – 11.1)/100 = 0.047 m

= (0.048 – 0.047) /6.94E-07 = 1440 s/m2

= 0.047/6.94E-07 = 67680 s/m2

====================== = 0.7853((.108)2 – (.022)2) = .008780751 m2

====================== = 0.7853((.108)2 – (.022)2) = .008780751 m2


=== 0.008781 x 1440 = 12.64428 s

= 0.008781 x 67680 = 594.2813 s

PLOTS:

Dimensionless height(H/MR2exp) vs Time(t)


1.2

0.8
H/MR2 exp

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
t

Dimensionless height(H/MR2 th) vs Time(t)


0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4
H/MR2 th

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
-0.1

-0.2
t
RESULT AND CONCLUSION:
Here, the two tanks are arranged in series, such that the second tank affects the variables of
first tank i.e. the system is interacting. For an interacting system, the transfer function is

𝐻2 (𝑠) 𝑅2
= 2
𝑄(𝑠) 𝜏1 𝜏2 𝑆 + (𝜏1 +𝜏2 + 𝐴1 𝑅2 )𝑆 + 1

Where subscript 1 denotes tank 1 and 2 denotes tank 2


For 𝜏1 = 𝜏2
On taking the inverse Laplace for a step input of magnitude M we get,

𝑡 𝑡
− −
𝐻2 (𝑡) = 𝑀𝑅2 [1 + 0.17𝑒 0.38𝜏1 − 1.17𝑒 2.62𝜏1 ]

This is the theoretical response of an interacting two tank liquid level system. We also
calculate the experimental value of (H2/MR2) via the experimental data. By plotting both
the experimental as well as theoretical values against time, it is seen that both the curves
follow a similar trend. As observed from the above calculations that with a given step input,
time taken to achieve a constant height increases. Though the deviation between the two
values is large in the beginning, the experimental value approaches the theoretical value as
time goes on increasing. The error in the values can be because of manual error (while
taking readings), fluctuation in flow rates, etc.

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