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FINAL PROJECT

Topic
“Concept of Education in Islam”

SUBMITTED BY: Muhammad


Nauman Rashid

SUBMITTED TO: Miss. Saira


Anwar

REGISTRATION NO: FA09-BBA-061

DATED: 24-DEC-2009

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES


COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECNOLOGY
(CHAK SHAHZAD CAMPUS ISLAMABAD)

Table of Contents
Abstract
Education is the birth right of every Muslim and Muslimah. Islam puts
considerable emphasis on its followers to acquire knowledge. Investment in
education is the best investment one can make, because it eventually leads to
intellectual property. Intellectual property is the intangible property, which no one
can steal or destroy. This is the property on which no Government can levy a tax. It
was as a result of application of knowledge that Muslims were the superpower of
the world for twelve centuries.

Islam emphasis us to acquire Education and also permits us to take measures to


acquire knowledge. The Quran and the Islamic tradition (SUNNAH) invite
Muslims to seek and acquire knowledge and wisdom and to hold men of
knowledge in high esteem.

In the Holy Quran the word al-Ilm, knowledge, and its derivatives
are used more than 780 times.

In the Islamic traditions, too, there are many words of praise for
knowledge and the learned. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) at many places also
told us the importance of education and also ordered us to acquire knowledge.
He (PBUH) said:

“It is an obligation for every Muslim

(man and women) to seek knowledge”

1. Accordingly, the tradition intends to state that at whatever stage of


knowledge one May be, he should strive to make further advance. The
Prophet means that acquisition of knowledge is obligatory for all Muslims,
scholars as well as ignorant men, beginners as well as learned scholars.
Whatever stage of knowledge man may attain, he is still like a child entering
into adulthood i.e. he should learn things which were not obligatory for him
earlier.
2. The tradition implies that a Muslim can never be relieved of his
responsibility of acquiring knowledge.
3. No field of knowledge or science is undesirable or detestable in itself; for
knowledge is like light and so it is always desirable. The reason that some of
the sciences have been regarded as "undesirable" is because of the
undesirable effects they produce.
4. The knowledge which is incumbent on every Muslim to acquire is the one
that elevates man's position in the next world, and that which brings him the
knowledge of his self, his Creator, prophets, messengers of God, elite of
Islam, signs of God, doomsday, and whatever causes proximity of God or
divergence from the Almighty's way.

The levels of acquisition of this knowledge differ from person to person in


accordance with their talents, and even in the case of a particular person, the level
of attainment changes with his evolution. Therefore, there is no limit to the
acquisition of this type of knowledge, and no matter what level one reaches, it is
still incumbent on him to attain a higher level (this of course depends on his
capacity and patience too

Therefore, the main objective of man should be seeking proximity to God and
attaining His consent; and his activities should be focused in this direction.
Anything that brings about this proximity or guides in that direction is
praiseworthy. Thus knowledge is useful only if it is an instrument for obtaining
knowledge of God, and His pleasure and proximity; otherwise knowledge itself is
an inscrutable veil (Hijab-e-Akbar), whether it is linked with the sciences of
nature or the sciences of the Shariah.
BACKGROUND
Before Islam had made the acquisition of education compulsory for every
Muslim (man and women) people were illiterate and there doings would reflect
there illiteracy because they didn’t know about their Creator and were also un-
aware of their purpose of creation.

Then Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) came and the acquisition of ilm as
compulsory and made it an obligation for every man and women so they would
have enough knowledge to distinguish between good and bad deeds and may also
find out the real purpose of the creation of man and that they might be able to
achieve their goal.

Within a century after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) the


Muslims not only conquered new lands, but also became scientific innovators with
originality and productivity. The Muslims were the great torchbearers of
international scientific research. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the
fence to Europe.

By the ninth century, Islamic medical practice had advanced from talisman
and theology to hospitals with wards, doctors who had to pass tests, and the use of
technical terminology. Then Baghdad General Hospital incorporated innovations
which sound amazingly modern. The fountains cooled the air near the wards of
those afflicted with fever; the insane were treated with gentleness; and at night the
pain of the restless was soothed by soft music and storytelling. The prince and
pauper received identical attention; the destitute upon discharge received five gold
pieces to sustain them during convalescence. While Paris and London were places
of mud streets and hovels, Baghdad, Cairo and Cardboard had hospitals open to
both male and female patients; staffed by attendants of both sexes. These medical
centers contained libraries pharmacies, the system of interns, externs, and nurses.
There were mobile clinics to reach the totally disabled, the disadvantaged and those
in remote areas. There were regulations to maintain quality control on drugs.
Pharmacists became licensed professionals and were pledged to follow the
physician's prescriptions. Legal measures were taken to prevent doctors from
owning or holding stock. in a pharmacy. The extent to which Islamic medicine
advanced in the fields of medical education, hospitals, bacteriology, medicine,
anesthesia, surgery, pharmacy, ophthalmology, psychotherapy and psychosomatic
diseases.
Every Muslim man's and every Muslim woman's prayer should be:

"My Lord! Enrich me with knowledge"

(Surah TA HA, 20:114)

Introduction
We bear witness that our Nabi Muhammad (PBUH) is the true Messenger of
Allah, who emphasized our need to gain true knowledge of life to live a life in
complete submission to Allah (SWT).

O Allah, shower Thy choicest blessings on him, his friends and relatives --
all those, who, sought to improve their understanding of Islam so that they might
teach their progeny and keep the Deen alive among the Ummah. Allah (SWT)
enjoins us in the Holy Qur'an. The first few verses that were revealed to our Holy
Prophet (PBUH) mention the importance of reading, pen, and teaching for human
beings:

“Read: in the name of your Lord who created. He created man from something
which clings. Read and your Lord is the most generous. Who taught with pen.
Taught man what he knew not…”
(Surah Al-Alaq)

When we hear this First Revelation, the first words revealed by Allah
(SWT)..... Iqraa! Read! We marvel at the greatness of Allah's Divine Wisdom. Of
the infinite number of messages Allah could have given to Mankind (for we have so
many needs and so many weaknesses), Allah Who knows all Man's secrets, and his
most intimate needs, chose learning, gaining knowledge or seeking and providing
education as the First Message to mankind. It was revealed in the time of the
Jaahiliyah and money or power in the hands of the Jaahil would be self-
destructive. Hence Allah did not say in His First Message: "Go out and get rich!" or
"Go out and destroy the enemies of Islam!" They could not handle power, or for
that matter their own desires. Thus Allah (SWT) remind us

“And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book;
the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men
of understanding”

(Q.III: 7)

Education or the process of seeking knowledge or sharing it with others is part of


life itself. We cannot live properly without learning HOW to live? Just as we
cannot talk or walk without having been taught by our parents how to do so. Remove
it and we stop living, but we merely survive. This need our Nabi Muhammad SAWS
emphasized in numerous Hadiths.

Our Holy Prophet (PBUH)Said:

“Seek knowledge from cradle to grave”

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who is ranked number one by Michael Hart', a


Jewish scholar, in his book The 100: The Most Influential Persons in History, was
able to unite the Arab tribes who had been tom by revenge, rivalry, and internal
fights, and produced a strong nation acquired and ruled simultaneously. The
Islamic Empire for more than 1000 years remained the most advanced and
civilized nation in the world. This is because Islam stressed the importance and
respect of learning, forbade destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for
authority and discipline, and tolerance for other religions.

Holy Prophet(PBUH) said:

“God has revealed to me, 'Whoever walks in the pursuit of knowledge I


facilitate for him the way to heaven.”
Islamic Concept of Education
The meaning of education and of what it involves is of utmost importance in the
formulation of a system of education and its implementation. Education is a
process of instilling something into human beings. The process of instilling refers
to the method and the system by which what is called “Education” is gradually
imparted; ‘something’ refers to the content of what is instilled; and ‘human beings’
refers to the recipient of both the process and the content. Now the answer
encompasses the three fundamental elements that constitute education: the process,
the content, the recipient; but it is not yet a definition because those elements are
deliberately left vague. Furthermore, the way of formulating the sentence meant to
be developed into a definition gives the impression that what is emphasized is the
process. Supposing I reformulate the answer: Education is something progressively
instilled into man. Now here we still encompass the three fundamental elements
inherent in education, but the order of precedence as to the important clement that
constitutes education is now the content and not the process. Let us consider this
last formulation and proceed in analyzing the inherent concepts. I shall begin with
man, since the definition of man is already generally well known, and that is, that
he is a ‘rational animal’.Since rationality defines man, we must at least have some
idea as to what ‘rational’ means, and we all agree that it refers to ‘reason’.
However, in Western intellectual history, the concept of ratio has undergone much
controversy, and has become—at leastfrom the Muslim point of view—
problematic, for it has gradually become separated from the ‘intellect’ or
intellectus in the process.

Types of Education
There are only 2 types of knowledge according to the division made in islam
which are given below.

• Beneficial (religious)
• Non-Beneficial
Beneficial knowledge means knowledge which is related to both worlds the present
world as well as the hereafter. One should move towards attaining such kind of
education because it will help us also on the Day of Judgment.

Non beneficial education means worldly education which is attained to earn money
or we can say to earn a living in the world but such kind of education would not be
preferred.

The supplications of the Prophet (PBUH)

“‫ما أسئلك إني اللهم‬


ً ‫عا عل‬
ً ‫”ناف‬

“O Allah! I ask you for the beneficial knowledge”

“‫”ينفع ل علم من بك أعوذ إني اللهم‬

“O Allah! I take refuge in You from useless knowledge”

Classification of Knowledge in Islam according to Importance


o Obligatory (‫)فرض‬
o ‫( فرض كفاية‬Obligatory on society)
o ‫( مستحب‬Desirable)
o ‫( مباح‬permissible)
o ‫( مكروه‬detested)
o ‫( حرام‬prohibited)

1. Obligatory Knowledge

On every Muslim; so that he can live Islamically. He should know the basics
of:

o Beliefs ‫عقائد‬
o Worships ‫عبادات‬
o Dealings ‫معاملت‬
o Prohibitions which lead to punishments ‫عقوبات‬
o Etiquettes of life ‫آداب معاشرت‬
o Purification of heart ‫قلب‬

2. Fard Kifayah

In every locality, there has to be a group which knows these areas otherwise
the whole society will be a sinner.

These are of Two types. Those which are:

o Means to know obligatory knowledge (Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh,


Arabic, ..). If we know Qur’an, we can know our creed…
o Essential for a human society to excel others (Science, Technology,
Economics, Business, Administration, Media…). Our focus is here,
missing the first one!!!

o Not just to learn for the sake of learning


o The goal should not to be left on children. They are too young to come
up with one. You have to help them.
o If you don’t specify the goal, they will make some mean or cheap
goals

Importance of Education
Allah says:

ُ ّ ‫والل‬
‫ه‬ ْ ُ ‫جك‬
َ ‫م‬ َ ‫خَر‬ْ َ‫ن أ‬
ْ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ن‬ِ ‫طو‬ ُ ُ‫م ب‬ْ ُ ‫هات ِك‬َ ‫م‬
ُ
ّ ‫ن لأ‬ َ ‫مو‬ ُ َ ‫عل‬ْ َ ‫شْيئا ً ت‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ج‬
َ ‫و‬ ْ ُ ‫ل َك‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ْ َ ‫وال‬
‫ع‬َ ‫م‬ْ ‫س‬
ّ ‫صاَرال‬َ ْ ‫والب‬ َ ‫ة‬َ َ‫فئ ِد‬ ْ ُ ‫عل ّك‬
َ ‫م‬ َ َ‫ن ل‬ َ ‫شك ُُرو‬ ْ َ‫ت‬
• Here the faculties mean the use of hearing (collecting), seeing (observation)
and thinking (deriving results).

• Which ever group excels in using it becomes the leader, especially when
Muslims do not follow Islam.

Difference b/w Muslim and Non-Muslim in two areas


 Knowledge; and

 Action

Allah says in the Holy Quran:

“Are the educated and uneducated equal?”

The Quran declares the superiority of Adam in these words:

“And He taught Adam, the names of all things; then He placed them before the
angels and said: “Tell me the names of these if you are right”.

They said: “Glory to Thee: of knowledge we have none save Thou hast taught
us, in truth it is Thou who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom”.

(Surah Al Heifer)

The angels and Satan failed in the test of knowledge. Hence the vicegerency was
assigned to Adam. Knowledge made him superior to all creatures. The first word
of the revelation deals with the importance of knowledge. The importance of
knowledge is manifest at different places in the Quran. The Quran says that we
send the Prophets to teach people wisdom. It further says that only the people of
knowledge fear God.

The Quran says:

“But the best of provisions is right conduct so fear me, O ye that are wise”

(Surah Al Heifer)

The Arabic word “Olilalbab” (The men of mind), has been used in the
Quran maintaining that the verses of the Quran are for the men who cogitate. The
animals share humans in sex and stomach. They do not share the humans in
intellect. The humans are superior to the animals because of the mind. If we negate
the element of rationality from human they are nothing more than cattle and
chattel. The Quran again says:

“Why don’t you meditate?”

. Hence we see that the Quran is a Book of wisdom and exhorts to pick up the
glistening pearls of wisdom. Besides the Qur’anic emphasis on education we find
many sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on this subject.

“A drop of sweat of the brow of a thinker is better than the thousand blood drops
of the martyr”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once issued the orders of release of those prisoners
of war who could teach the Muslim children.
Hazrat Ali, in his book entitled “Nehjul Balaga” emphatically stressed on the
significance of knowledge saying that the one who cognizes his Self, cognizes his
Lord. In a poem Hazrat Ali has beautifully portrayed the significance of knowledge
saying:

“The beautiful dress does not reflect beauty.

The beauty is the beauty of knowledge and morals.

The one whose father dies is not an orphan,

The real orphan is he who brings bad name to his tribe.”

Islam believes in the mastery of matter and mind. In Surah Al-Jathiya the
Quran says:

“For you (God) subjected all that is in the heavens and on the earth, all from
Him. Behold! In that are signs for people who reflect”

(Verse no 13)

The message of God makes us to ponder over the natural objects. It is a scientific
enquiry and research, which are made obligatory. The Greek philosophers gave
importance to abstractions. Their method of inquiry was deductive. The Muslims
introduced the Inductive method, which is analytical and scientific. Dr. Maurice
Bucaille in a book entitled, “The Bible, The Quran and Science” proves that
Islam is a scientific religion emphasizing on the need of scientific inquiry.
There are four gates of knowledge, Perception, Intellect, Intuition and
Revelation. Perception deals with five senses and enhances material research. It
provides us information on the matter and the properties of matter. Scientists use
this method. Philosophers, Logicians and Jurists use intellect to solve the problems.
The mystics and poets are endowed with the boon of intuition. The Prophets have
been given the special and chosen duty of reformation through the gift of
revelation. Islam ordains to use all these methods for the benefit of humankind.
The antonym of “ Ilm” (knowledge) is “ Jehl” (ignorance). The Quran at a place
says that turn your back to the ignorant. It means that we should not strike our head
with the stony walls of illiteracy and ignorance rather we should educate the
uneducated lot. An eminent Muslim political thinker Al-Mauwardi in his book
entitled “The leadership and Politics” writes that four characteristics are essential
for a Muslim ruler or leader, Knowledge, Piety, Justice and Administration.
Eminent British philosopher Bertrand Russell in his book entitled “Education and
Social Order” writes that tolerance is the first step towards learning. The real
knowledge makes us tolerant, civilized and rational. In Islamic jurisprudence no
one can become Faqih (Jurist) without sound intellectual background. Whether
someone is a scientist, a ruler, a leader or a jurist, knowledge is the basic
requirement for these positions. Islamic conception of education teaches us to be
the master of matter and mind to serve the human kind

Significance in Islam

“‫ن‬ ِ ّ ‫ه ال‬
َ ‫ذي‬ ُ ّ ‫ع الل‬ َ ‫جاٍتآ ي َْر‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ ‫م دََر‬ ِ ْ ‫ن ُأوُتوا ال‬
َ ْ ‫عل‬ ِ ّ ‫وال‬
َ ‫ذي‬ ْ ُ ‫من ْك‬
َ ‫م‬ ِ ‫مُنوا‬
َ ”

“Allah has taught the Prophet the Supplications”


“‫ل‬ ُ ‫و‬
ْ ‫ق‬ َ ‫ب‬
ّ ‫زدِْني َر‬ ً ْ ِ “
ِ ‫علما‬
“O my lord increase me in my knowledge”

Knowledge – Attribute of Allah. (‘Aleem)

“.‫و‬
َ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫و‬ ّ ُ ‫ء ب ِك‬
َ ‫ل‬ ٍ ‫ي‬ َ ‫م‬
ْ ‫ش‬ ٌ ‫عِلي‬
َ ”

َ َ ‫حان‬
“‫ك‬ َ ْ ‫سب‬ َ ْ ‫عل‬
ُ ‫مل‬ ِ ‫ما إ ِل ّ ل ََنا‬ ْ ّ ‫عل‬
َ ‫مت ََنا‬ َ ّ ‫عِليمن ْت َأ َ إ ِن‬
َ ‫ك‬ َ ْ ‫مال‬
ُ ‫كي‬ َ ْ ‫”ال‬
ِ ‫ح‬

The only Source—Allah(Ayatl Kursi)

“‫ن وََل‬ ُ ‫حي‬


َ ‫طو‬ ِ ُ ‫يءٍ ي‬ َ ِ‫ن ب‬
ْ ‫ش‬ ْ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ه‬ ِ ْ ‫عل‬
ِ ‫م‬ ِ ‫ما إ ِّل‬ َ ”
َ ِ ‫شاَء ب‬

The Pleasure of Learning

The rise of Muslims to the zenith of civilization in a period of four decades was
based on Al-lslam's emphasis on learning. This is obvious when one takes a look at
the Qur'an and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (s) which are filled with
references to learning, education, observation, and the use of reason.

"Are those who have knowledge and those who have no knowledge alike? Only
the men of understanding are mindful. "
(Quran, 39:9)

And the Qur'an exhorts the Muslims to do scientific research:

"And whoso bringeth the truth and believeth therein such are the dutiful."

(Quran, 39:33)

Traditions of Holy Prophet (PBUH)


Some traditions and regards pf our great Holy Prophet (PBUH) are given below
which clearly show the importance of education in our life.

• "The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr."
• "The best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge
• "God has revealed to me, 'Whoever walks in the pursuit of knowledge I
facilitate for him the way to heaven.'
• Scholars should endeavor to spread knowledge and provide education to
people who have been deprived of it. For, where knowledge is hidden it
disappears."
• Someone asked the Prophet (SAS): "Who is the biggest scholar?" He
replied: "He who is constantly trying to learn from others, for a scholar is
ever hungry for more knowledge."
• "Seek for knowledge and. wisdom, or whatever the 'vessel from which it
flows, you will never be the loser."
• "Thinking deep for one hour (with sincerity) is better than 70 years of
(mechanical) worship."
• "Worship, without knowledge, has no goodness in it and knowledge
without understanding has no goodness in it. And the recitation of the
Qur'an, which is riot thoughtful has no goodness in it."
• "To listen to the words of the learned and to instill unto others the lessons
of science is better than religious exercises

Sayings of Iman Ali (A.S)


Some important sayings of Iman Ali (A.S) are given below in regards of the
importance of education in islam.
• “You who carry knowledge around with you; are you only carrying it
around with you? For surely knowledge belongs to whoever knows and
then acts accordingly, so that his action corresponds to his knowledge.
There will be a people who will carry knowledge around with them, but it
will not pass beyond their shoulders. Their inner most thoughts will
contradict what they display in public, and their actions will contradict
what they know”
• “Do not turn your knowledge into ignorance and your surety into doubt.
When you acquire knowledge then act in accordance with it and when you
achieve surety then proceed with it”
• “Knowledge is accompanied by action. Thus he who knows acts in
accordance with it. Knowledge is called through action. Thus if called it
responds and if left uncalled it leaves”
• “The lowest form of knowledge is the one which (only) appears upon the
tongue while the loftiest is the one made manifest by the organs and the
limb”
• “Verbal Knowledge is of the least value, while practical knowledge is of
the highest”
• “The more knowledgeable the man, the more valuable the man”
• “The most complete gift of God is a life based on knowledge”
• “Knowledge gives life to the soul. Knowledge creates fear of God”
• Practice makes knowledge perfect.
• The one who engages in business without knowledge of its laws is
inevitably dragged into usury.
• Two types of people will never be satiated, the seeker of knowledge and the
seeker of this world.
• The best companion is satisfaction while knowledge is a noble heritage.
Good morals are renewable garments and thought is a clear mirror.
• There is no virtue in your possession of excessive wealth and offspring
rather virtue and merit are (awarded) by greater knowledge and insistence
and by your devotion to your Lord.
• When a dead person is placed in his grave, four kinds of fire will cover
him, but then the prayer will come and put one of them out, and the fast
will come and put another one of them out, and then charity will come and
put another one out, and knowledge will come and put the forth one out,
and it will say: If I had come sooner, I would a have put all of them out,
and given you delight for I am with you now, and you'll not see anything
else distressing.
• When Allah wishes to humiliate a person He prevents him from gaining
knowledge
Knowledge is better than Wealth because of the following
seven reasons:

• Knowledge is inheritance of Prophets while wealth is inheritance of Firauns


(Pharaohs).
• Knowledge does not diminish (rather increases) with spending, while wealth
diminishes with spending.
• Wealth requires to be protected, while knowledge protects its owner.
• Knowledge will enter the Kafan (Shroud) while wealth will be prevented
from doing so.
• Wealth reaches both believers and unbelievers (Kafir), while knowledge is
reserved only for those who are worthy of it.
• Knowledge will facilitate passing over the Seraat (Bridge over Hell) while
wealth will pore hurdles.
• People are always in need of scholars while they might not be in need of
those possessing wealth.

History of Muslims
The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and
civilized nation in the world. .This is because Al-Islam stressed the importance and
respect of learning, forbade destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for
authority, discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The teachings of Qur'an and
Sunnah drove many Muslims to their accomplishments in science and medicine.

By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasms for learning resulted in all essential
Greek medical and scientific writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus,
Cairo, and Baghdad. Arabic became the international language of learning and
diplomacy. The center of scientific knowledge and activity shifted eastward, and
Baghdad emerged as the capitol of the scientific world. The Muslims became
scientific innovators with originality and productivity.

For example Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best known facets of
Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. The Muslims were
the great torchbearers of international scientific research. Some of the best and
most eloquent praises of science ever written came from the pens of Muslim
scientists who considered their work to be acts of worship. The same motives led to
the establishment of Al-Azhar (800 AD) the first university in the world. They hit
the "source ball of knowledge” over the fence to Europe. In the words of
Campbell, "The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in
its structure. The Arabs are the intellectual fore bearers of the Europeans."

Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times

Within a century after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) the
Muslims not only conquered new lands, but also became scientific innovators with
originality and productivity. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence
to Europe. By the ninth century, Islamic medical practice had advanced from
talisman and theology to hospitals with wards, doctors who had to pass tests, and
the use of technical terminology. The then Baghdad General Hospital incorporated
innovations which sound amazingly modern. The fountains cooled the air near the
wards of those afflicted with fever; the insane were treated with gentleness; and at
night the pain of the restless was soothed by soft music and storytelling. The prince
and pauper received identical attention; the destitute upon discharge received five
gold pieces to sustain them during convalescence. While Paris and London were
places of mud streets and hovels, Baghdad, Cairo and Cardboard had hospitals
open to both male and female patients; staffed by attendants of both sexes. These
medical centers contained libraries pharmacies, the system of interns, externs, and
nurses. There were mobile clinics to reach the totally disabled, the disadvantaged
and those in remote areas. There were regulations to maintain quality control on
drugs. Pharmacists became licensed professionals and were pledged to follow the
physician's prescriptions. Legal measures were taken to prevent doctors from
owning or holding stock. in a pharmacy. The extent to which Islamic medicine
advanced in the fields of medical education, hospitals, bacteriology, medicine,
anesthesia, surgery, pharmacy, ophthalmology, psychotherapy and psychosomatic
diseases are presented briefly.

MEDICAL EDUCATION

In 636 A.D., the Persian City of Jundi-Shapur, which originally meant beautiful
garden, was conquered by the Muslims with its great university and hospital intact.
Later the Islamic medical schools developed on the Jundi-Shapur pattern. Medical
education was serious and systematic. Lectures and clinical sessions included in
teaching were based on the apprentice system. The advice given by Ali ibnul-
Abbas (Haly Abbas: -994 -A.D.) to medical students is as timely today as it was
then'. "And of those things which were incumbent on the student of this art
(medicine) are that he should constantly attend the hospitals and sick houses; pay
unremitting attention to the conditions and circumstances of their intimates, in
company with the most astute professors of medicine, and inquire frequently as to
the state of the patients and symptoms apparent in them, bearing in mind what he
has read about these variations, and what they indicate of good or evil."

Razi (Rhazes: 841-926 A.D.) advised the medical students while they were seeing
a patient to bear in mind the classic symptoms of a disease as given in text books
and compare them with what they found (6).

The ablest physicians such as Razi (Al-Rhazes), Ibn-Sina (Avicenna: 980-1037


A.D.) and Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar: 116 A.D.) performed the duties of both hospital
directors and deans of medical schools at the same time. They studied patients and
prepared them for student presentation. Clinical reports of cases were written and
preserved for teaching'. Registers were maintained.

Rise and fall of muslim scientist


MUSLIM HERITAGE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Prophet Muhammad(SAS) was able to unite the Arab tribes who had been torn by revenge,
rivalry, and internal fights, and produced a strong nation, that acquired and ruled simultaneously
the two known empires at that time, namely the Persian and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic
Empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean on the West to the borders of China on the East. Only
80 years after the death of their Prophet the Muslims crossed to

Europe to rule Spain for more than 700 years. The Muslims preserved the cultures of the
conquered lands.

The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and civilized nation
in the world. This is because Al-Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade
destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for authority, discipline, and tolerance for other
religions. The Muslims recognized excellence and hungered intellectually. The teachings of
Qur'an and Sunnah drove many Muslims to their accomplishments in sciences and medicine.

By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasms for learning resulted in all essential Greek
medical and scientific writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad.
Arabic became the international language of learning and diplomacy. The center of scientific
knowledge and activity shifted eastward, and Baghdad emerged as the capitol of the scientific
world. The Muslims became scientific innovators with originality and productivity. The rise of
Muslims to the zenith of civilization lasted over a thousand years. During this millennium
Muslims contributed vastly to the enhancements of arts, science and cultural growth of mankind.

For example Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best-known facets of Islamic
civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. The Muslims were the great torchbearers
of international scientific research. Some of the best and most eloquent praises of science ever
written came from the pens of Muslim scientists who considered their work to be acts of
worship. The same motives led to the establishment of Al-Azhar (800 AD) the first university in
the world. They hit the "source ball of knowledge" over the fence to Europe. In the words of
Campbell, "The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in its structure.
The Arabs are the intellectual forbearers of the Europeans." In fact the Muslims are directly
responsible for the European Renaissance.

At the apex of its glory around the tenth century Cordoba, the Capital of Muslim Spain, had
pavements, street lighting, three hundred public baths, parks, palaces, one hundred thousand
houses and seventy libraries. There were close to half a million books in a single library whereas
the whole of France contained much less than this figure. The Muslim physicians performed
complicated eye surgery 600 years earlier than in Europe. The Muslim scientists used paper 200
years before Europe; they had paper mills, banks, and police stations and invented spherical
trigonometry (indispensable for space sciences) in the late 10th century, solved equations of the
third and fourth degree, binomials to the nth degree, and developed differential and integral
mathematics. They discovered the force of gravitation, blood circulation, laws of motion, and
even developed they theory of evolution and taught it in their universities. They measured the
circumferences of the earth and value for specific gravities correct to three decimal places almost
a thousand years ago. There is hardly a field of knowledge where Muslims did not research,
thinks, or investigate and explore or invent something exemplary.

PRESENT STATUS OF MUSLIM UMMAH


The status of the Muslim Ummah is of great concern to all the Muslim intellectuals. No one can
deny that the Muslim Ummah occupies a position, which is at the lowest rung of the ladder in the
world. The share of the Muslims in Nobel Prizes and the Olympic Games is close to nothing.
Muslims' contributions to literature both general and scientific are marginal at the best. It is very
sad to see the status of Muslims in the present world at

the bottom. Muslims have been economically exploited and politically subjugated.
Economically, Muslims are poor; in education they are backward; and in science and technology
they are marginal. Even very small countries export arms, medicine and

technology to the Muslim countries. The average literacy rate is around 38 percent and in rural
areas in Muslim countries, the illiteracy rate among Muslim women is 93 to 97 percent. This is
contradictory to the message of the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad (SAS) as mentioned earlier.
The Muslims educated in the western world know about western books and western scholars but
they know very little about Muslims books and the intellectual achievements of the Muslims
(Fig. 1). The data presented in Table 1 show the Muslims to be at the bottom of the three
measures identified. Inspite of the comparable levels of development the mean rate for literacy
for the Muslims is 35 per cent lower than

that for the Third World, and 40 percent below the world's average. The data suggests that almost
two-thirds of the Muslims worldwide are illiterate. This low level of literacy, evidently, is
responsible for the grinding poverty, the backwardness, and the deplorable conditions under
which the vast majority of the Muslims live at present( 4). In Table 2 gives the literacy rates for
the most populous nations. Pakistan is the most advanced Muslim country in science and
technology among Muslim nations. However, the literacy rate for Pakistan, home to the second
largest Muslim ummah in the world, ranks the lowest among the most populous nations, is even
below the average for the Muslim nations. What is shocking is India the second most populous
nation in the world, has a significantly higher rate of literacy than Pakistan and Bangladesh. At
one time the three countries constituted a single country(British India) with a literacy rate of 12
percent on the eve of the partition in 1947.
Conclusion
References
• http://www.readingislam.com/servlet/Satellite?
c=Article_C&cid=1153698300132&pagename=Zone-English-Discover_Islam
%2FDIELayout

• http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/sheikhrafi-141284-islamic-
education-system-ppt-powerpoint/

• http://www.scribd.com/doc/11535744/The-Islamic-Education-System

• http://74.125.153.132/search?
q=cache:MU9Y3ulJW7cJ:prophetmuhammadforall.org/webfiles/downloads/eng
lish/education.pps+concept+of+education+in+islam&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk
&gl=pk

• http://www.quransearch.com/quran_search.htm

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education