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A STUDY ON CUSTOMER ANALYSIS

SYNOPSIS

A customer analysis (or customer profile) is a critical section of a company's


business plan or marketing plan. It identifies target customers, ascertains the
needs of these customers, and then specifies how the product satisfies these
needs. A customer analysis can be broken down into a behavioral profile
(why your product matches a customer's lifestyle) and a demographic profile
(describing a customer's demographic attributes). A customer profile is a
simple tool that can help business better understand current and potential
customers, so they can increase sales and grow their business. Customer
profiles are a collection of information about customers that help determine
why people buy or don't buy a product. Customer profiles can also help
develop targeted marketing plans and help ensure that products meet the
needs of their intended audience. A behavioral analysis of customers (or
psychographic profile) seeks to identify and weigh the relative importance of
factors consumers use to choose one product over another. These factors,
sometimes called buying criteria, are key to understanding the reasons that
customers choose to buy your product (or service) versus the products
offered by your competitors. The four major criteria that customers use to
distinguish competing products are: price, quality, convenience and prestige.
In consumer transactions, price and quality tend to be the dominant factors.
However with business-to-business (B2B) transactions (also called industrial
marketing), service issues such as reliability, payment terms, and delivery
schedule become much more important.
CHAPTER- I

INTRODUCTION

A customer analysis (or customer profile) is a critical section of a


company's business plan or marketing plan. It identifies target customers,
ascertains the needs of these customers, and then specifies how the product
satisfies these needs. A customer analysis can be broken down into a
behavioral profile (why your product matches a customer's lifestyle) and
a demographic profile (describing a customer's demographic attributes).
A customer profile is a simple tool that can help business better
understand current and potential customers, so they can increase sales and
grow their business. Customer profiles are a collection of information about
customers that help determine why people buy or don't buy a product.
Customer profiles can also help develop targeted marketing plans and help
ensure that products meet the needs of their intended audience.
Behavioral Analysis (Customer Buying Criteria)
A behavioral analysis of customers (or psychographic profile) seeks to
identify and weigh the relative importance of factors consumers use to
choose one product over another. These factors, sometimes called buying
criteria, are key to understanding the reasons that customers choose to buy
your product (or service) versus the products offered by your competitors.
The four major criteria that customers use to distinguish competing products
are: price, quality, convenience andprestige.
In consumer transactions, price and quality tend to be the dominant
factors. However with business-to-business (B2B) transactions (also called
industrial marketing), service issues such as reliability, payment terms, and
delivery schedule become much more important. The sales transaction in an
industrial marketing scenario also differs from consumer marketing in that
the purchase decision is typically made by a group of people instead of one
person, and the selling process can be much more complex (including stages
such as: request for bid, proposal preparation and contract negotiations).
By identifying customer needs through market research and analysis,
companies can develop a clear and concise value proposition which reflects
the tangible benefits that customers can expect from the company's products.
And once the primary buying criteria have been identified, marketing efforts
can influence the customer's perception of the product along the four main
dimensions (price, quality, convenience and prestige), relative to the
competition's product.
Behavioral Analysis (Purchase Process and Patterns)
Occasionally, customer behavior analysis requires a more in-depth
understanding of the actual decision-making process of the customer
purchase. This may be especially true in an industrial marketing scenario.
Examples of purchase process questions to be answered here include:
* What steps are involved in the decision-making process?
* What sources of information are sought?
* What is a timeline for a purchase (e.g., impulse vs. extended decision-
making)?
* Will the customer consult others in their organization/family before
making a decision?
* Who has the authority to make the final decision?
* Will the customer seek multiple bids?
* Will the product/service require significant modifications?
Behavior profiles can also focus on actions, such as: which types of items
were purchased, how frequently items are purchased, the average transaction
value, or which items were purchased in conjunction with other items. To
understand the buying habits and patterns of your customers, answer the
following questions:
* Reason/occasion for purchase?
* Number of times they'll purchase?
* Timetable of purchase, every week, month, quarter, etc.?
* Amount of product/service purchased?
* How long to make a decision to purchase?
* Where does the customer purchase and/or use the product/service?
Customer Demographics
The second major component in customer analysis is identifying
target market segments that are predisposed to preferring your products over
those of your competitors. A market segment is a sub-set of a market made
up of people or organizations with one or more characteristics that cause
them to demand similar product and/or services based on qualities of those
products such as price or function. A marketing program aimed at individual
segments needs to understand and capitalize on the group's differences and
use them strategically in all advertising campaigns.
Gender, age, ethnicity, geography and income are all market-segmenting
criteria based on demographics.
Typical questions to ask when determining the demographics of the target
market include:
* what is the age range of the customer who wants my product or service?
* Which gender would be most interested in this product or service?
* What is the income level of my potential customers?
* What level of education do they have?
* What is their marital or family status: Are they married, single, divorced?

* Do they have kids, grandkids?


* What are the hobbies of my target customers?
The target market segments are specified by demographic factors: age,
income, education, ethnicity, geography, etc. Then by having a well defined
set of demographic factors, marketing will be able to identify the best
channels to reach these specific demographic segments.
Customer Analysis Example
There is an example of a customer analysis written through the
Yahoo! Contributor Network:
"Example of Customer Analysis for a Marketing Plan" by Chloe
Thorn, Yahoo! Contributor Network, January 12, 2009
This is not an exceptionally well written analysis; it has some
grammatical and spelling errors, and at least one illogical conclusion. But, it
covers most of the elements key to a customer analysis (e.g. buying criteria,
customer demographics, etc.)
CHAPTER- II

PROFILE OF THE STUDY

Industry Profile

The shopping mall is a global phenomenon that has its roots in ancient
outdoor bazaars where people would go to buy goods from local artisans,
farmers and craftsmen. The shopping malls that we know today were birthed
in the beginning of the 20th century and have since then grew to cover the
major cities of the world in a few different forms. Not only has the shopping
mall become a place to find and purchase goods, it is also known as a
cultural hot spot where people of all ages can come to interact. However,
there has been some criticism to shopping malls, specifically strip malls.
Shopping malls are typically known to be indoor shopping centers, though
some have outdoor areas with the shops having their own indoor space. The
idea came from old covered marketplaces that were popular between the
10th and 15th centuries, and are even still around today. In 1785, the first
purposely-built shopping center was created, but it was not until 1916 that a
shopping mall as we consider them today was built in the United States.
During the 1950s, large indoor shopping malls began to spring up in major
cities across the world, with famous ones being built in Paris and London.
As automobiles and suburbs sprung up, strip malls were created, which the
first shopping centers were built outside of downtown areas.

Types

There a few different types of shopping malls that should be noted. The
average shopping mall is less than 400,000 square feet, with those between
400,000 and 800,000 square feet being known as regional shopping malls.
Because they are larger, they can accommodate higher end stores that may
need more space for their stores. Super-regional malls are those that are over
800,000 square feet. These are the premier shopping mall for the surrounding
areas and suburbs. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com
to remove this watermark. Strip malls are strictly sub urban and usually
consist of large parking lots surrounded by single story shops. Outlet malls
are special shopping malls where manufacturers sell their products directly
through their own stores.

Features

The first shopping malls were composed mainly of independent shops with
some food vendors scattered throughout. It wasn't long before food courts
were added to give consumers a central place to eat. This also offered more
choices of food. Other additions that were made to shopping malls through
the 20th century included the addition of department stores. These were
added when large finances were needed to keep bigger shopping running.

Size

From 1986 to 2004, the West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada was
considered the largest shopping center in the world. In less than four years it
became the fourth largest, which shows the rapid growth of shopping malls
during recent years. The largest mall in the world is the recently opened Mall
of Arabia in Dubai, which will be 9, 29,000 square meters in size. The
second and third largest shopping malls are all located in China and
Malaysia respectfully.

Potential

The most recent history of shopping malls paints two very different pictures
of the future of the buildings. Strip malls have quickly fell out of popularity
and power shopping centers have taken their place. These feature big box
retailers that often supply goods at lower prices than smaller local shops. In
downtown districts, where land is expensive, vertical shopping malls are
popping up, which include the design of skyscrapers. In the future, it is
thought that most new malls will expand vertically rather than horizontally,
including parking spaces for the mall. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on
www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark. 44

Evolution of Shopping Mall

A shopping center, shopping mall, or shopping plaza, is the modern


adaptation of the historical marketplace. The mall is a collection of
independent retail stores, services, and a parking area, which is conceived,
constructed, and maintained by a separate management firm as a unit. They
may also contain restaurants, banks, theaters, professional offices, service
stations etc. The first shopping mall was the Country Club Plaza, founded by
the J.C. Nichols Company and opened near Kansas City, Mo., in 1922. The
first enclosed mall called Southdale opened in Edina, Minnesota (near
Minneapolis) in 1956. In the 1980s, giant mega malls were developed. The
West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada, opened in 1981 - with more than
800 stores and a hotel, amusement park, miniature-golf course, church,
"water park" for sunbathing and surfing, a zoo and a 438-foot-long lake.
Shopping Carts Sylvan Goldman invented the first shopping cart in 1936.
Sylvan owned a chain of Oklahoma City grocery stores called
Standard/Piggly-Wiggly. He invented the first shopping cart by adding two
wire basket and wheels to a folding chair. Goldman, together with mechanic
Fred Young, later designed a dedicated shopping cart in 1947 and formed the
Folding Carrier Co. to manufacture the carts. In 1946, Orla Watson, of
Kansas City, MO, invented the telescoping shopping cart. By using hinged
baskets, each shopping cart fitted into the shopping cart ahead for compact
storage. The telescoping shopping carts were first used at Floyd Day's Super
Market in 1947.

Company Profile

RESQ has a modern shopping mall at Chennai. RESQ products are Backed
by young, dynamic and fully equipped factory trained suppliers.

Ever since its inception in 1994, RESQ has been growing from Strength to
Strength, Crossing one milestone after another, RESQ meticulously has built
an image of a popular brand with its design, development, reliability and
after-Sales-Service. For over 24 years Res Q has been committed to quality
and customer satisfaction. We have established and are continuously
improving upon our quality management systems. Res Q’s history of quality
has earned an approved supplier status with many cities, Driven by an Urge
for utilizing the latest and up-to-date technology, Continuous R & D
Programmed and Product innovation backed by stringent Quality Control
and Customer responsiveness, RESQ is poised to play the role of true
leader.

The purpose of undertaking customer analysis as part of a business


plan is to examine the consumers most likely to purchase your product or
service in-depth. Brands can establish different groups of customers and the
needs of those customers. By understanding what motivates them to make a
purchase, brands can build their business around providing solutions to those
needs.

Customer analysis should move through three different stages.

You first need to identify who your current customers are. The more
detailed understanding you have of your customers the better. This one
group of customers should then be split into sub-groups that have similar
traits and motivations. You can also identify target customers you are not yet
reaching.

Customer analysis must then show what the needs of these different
customer groups are.

You then need to work out what bridges these two, identifying how
the company’s products meet the needs of each customer group. How do you
provide solutions to their pain points?

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Using the Voice of the Customer to Turn Threats Into Opportunities

In the age of the consumer, bringing the voice of the customer into the
heart of the business can improve customer experience to differentiate your
brand.

Who are your customers?

You can learn more about your customers in a variety of ways, and a
mix of research methods will give you the most accurate results. It is best to
gather as much information as possible, and to not fall into thinking details
are irrelevant. Details like age, gender, location, demographics and
psychographics are all important, but so are their interests, other brands they
like, publications they read and so on.

Talking to them and running a survey will be the best way of hearing
about them in their own words, although that does come with biases. Reduce
this by complementing that research with sales data, CRM data, and
speaking to customer-facing employees. Once you have identified these
groups, social data can elaborate your understanding by providing a more
holistic view of the groups.
Customer analysis involves identifying who your customer actually is

It’s also worth considering at this stage if the buyer and user are the
same person. In a B2B setting, the buyer might hold budget responsibility
but not actually use the service/software/product. In a B2C setting, there are
several situations when a buyer might not be the user; a toy water pistol or
diamond rings are unlikely to be used by the purchaser.

Segment these groups

You cannot undertake an accurate customer analysis without


segmenting your audience into groups whose members are homogenous
while being distinct from other groups. Your segmentation criteria should
be:

Measurable: Your analysis should identify the size of a market segment so


that you can decide to what extent efforts should be focused on the segment

Distinguishable: Observable differences that are clearly defined must exist in


order to characterize segments

Substantial: The market needs to be large enough to justify segmenting, with


each segment substantial enough to make it worthwhile

Financial: There will be additional costs when marketing to multiple,


separate groups, so the predicted income must exceed these costs

Accessible: Your marketing messages should be accessible to each market


segment. Different groups will respond better to different forms of
advertising segment your customers like they're sweets

Develop customer profiles


Take your data, your segmentation criteria, some educated guesswork,
and develop some buyer personas. It helps to have personas so you can
visualize a human rather than aiming for an abstract idea.

Elements to include in a buyer persona include:

Background and responsibilities: including job title, career path, and


their primary job responsibilities

Demographics: gender, age, income, family, and location

Communication: which channels do they prefer? What is their demeanor?


Do they have an assistant?

Media and influencers: which publications do they follow, and which


individuals are leading the conversation in their world?

Challenges vs proposition: The challenges they face in implementing their


primary job goals and how your product or service can help them overcome
those issues

Objections: common reasons why this persona wouldn’t choose your product

Common language: what language should you use to appeal to their needs?

Quotes: adding some qualitative data in the form of quotes can really help to
bring the personas to life and remind you there are real people behind these
aggregated models

Discover their needs

The next step in customer analysis is to get a good idea of what the
customer’s needs are. By understanding their needs, several departments can
gear their output towards answering these questions, rather than taking an “If
you build it, they will come” approach.

Maze

There are numerous ways to do discover what your customers’ pain


points are. The best way is to ask them. A survey is great if you can get
enough responses and online services like Survey Monkey can keep the cost
down

Consider the past actions of the group, such as the percentage that
have purchased a similar product at some time in the past

Look at questions asked on Quora

For B2B businesses, looking at job adverts for your target customers
can give you an insight into their day to day work and problems

Join LinkedIn professional groups to get an insight into questions and


discussions

Social intelligence can again help to understand the issues faced by


customers. You can begin by building an audience of your personas, and
then monitor that group for questions asked, relevant content shared (such as
How To guides), and discussions

How does your brand meet the needs of the customer?

Once you’ve done your research and outlined your different customer
groups and their needs, you should connect the dots to your brand and
identify how you meet those needs. This section of customer analysis should
just be a matter of discussing and brainstorming with internal partners.

Key in door
Solution based answers should come out of this process. Rather than
saying, “we have these features”, you should be focusing on how those
features deliver solutions to the problems faced by your customers and
prospects.

Solving the problems that customers face on a daily basis will resonate
with them much better than shouting about a shiny new feature. Focus on
how you can make their lives easier and more enjoyable.

This will obviously be reflected in marketing, but these insights can


help sales and product development as well, tightening your focus to better
match your customer’s needs.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Androulidakis ; G. Kandus (2011) correlated the brand of mobile


phone to users security practices,. Users show different behavior in an array
of characteristics, according to the brand of the mobile phone they are using.
As such, there is a categorization of areas, different for each brand, where
users are clearly lacking security mind, possibly due to lack of awareness.
Such a categorization can help phone manufacturers enhance their mobile
phones in regards to security, preferably transparently for the user.

Tajzadeh Namin A. A. ; Rahmani Vahid ; Tajzadeh Namin Aidin


(2012) analysed that the process of deciding over (choosing) a brand may be
influenced by situation and content. The findings suggest a significant
relationship between the variables “brand attitude”, “corporate attitude”, and
“product (cell phone) choice”. In addition, no significant relationship was
found between individual decision making processes (independent or
mediated) and product choice. Serkan Aydin,
Gökhan Özer, Ömer Arasil, (2005) had focused on to measure the
effects of customer satisfaction and trust on customer loyalty, and the direct
and indirect effect of “switching cost” on customer loyalty. The findings of
this study show that the switching cost factor directly affects loyalty, and has
a moderator effect on both customer satisfaction and trust Jonathan, Lee
,Janghyuk, Lee and Lawrence,

Feick, (2001) analysed that moderating role of switching costs in the


customer satisfaction-loyalty link; and to identify customer segments and to
retain them. Thus the purposes of this paper are: to examine the moderating
role of switching costs in the customer satisfaction-loyalty link; and to
identify customer segments and then analyze the heterogeneity in the
satisfaction-loyalty link among the different segments. An empirical example
based on the mobile phone service market in France indicates support for the
moderating role of switching costs. Managerial implications of the results are
discussed.

The Dream Catchers Group (2008) investigated if demographic


variables or if telephone features included on phones students already owned
were predictive of young consumers' perceptions of bundled features. In
addition, this study set out to determine if there were any significant
differences in students' perceptions of bundled features across demographic
variables (rural vis-a-vis HBCU, gender, grade level, cellular telephone
brand, major, and age).

Oyeniyi, Omotayo Joseph - Abioudun, Abolaji Joachim (2010)


emphasis on customer loyalty and customer switching cost. Switching cost is
one of the most discussed contemporary issues in marketing in attempt to
explain consumer behaviour. The present research studied switching cost and
its relationships with customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction in the
Nigerian telecommunication market. The study finds that customer
satisfaction positively affects customer retention and that switching cost
affects significantly the level of customer retention.

Rodolfo Martínez Gras ; Eva Espinar Ruiz (2012) highlight a new


dimension in information and technology with respect to teenagers in spain.
The main objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between
Information and Communication Technologies and Spanish adolescents.
Specifically, researchers have studied, through qualitative methodology, the
characteristics of teenagers’ access and uses of technological devices. and
analyzed the purposes that motivate the utilization of Information and
Communication Technologies, highlighting a close relationship between
technologies and peer communication and entertainment. On the contrary,
there is an under-utilization of all these devices for teaching and learning
purposes.

Wafa' N. Muhanna ; Awatif M. Abu-Al-Sha'r (2009) aims at


investigating Jordanian university undergraduate and graduate students'
attitudes towards the learning environment where cell phones are used as
learning tools in classroom. The study comprised two independent variables,
level and gender, as covariates. The findings indicate that undergraduates are
more favorable to cell phone environment than graduate students. The study
also reveals that cell phone has more influence on male students than on
female students.

Nasr Azad; Ozhan Karimi; Maryam Safaei (2012) had presented an


empirical study to investigate the effects of different marketing efforts on
brand equity in mobile industry. The results show that there is a positive and
meaningful relationship between marketing mix efforts and brand equity. In
other words, more advertisements could help better market exposure, which
means customers will have more awareness on market characteristics.
Among all mixed efforts, guarantee influences more on brand equity, which
means consumers care more on product services than other features. Finally,
among different characteristics of brand equity, product exclusiveness plays
an important role. In other words, people are interested in having exclusive
product, which is different from others.

Nasr Azad; Maryam Safaei (2012) states that there are many
evidences to believe that customers select their products based on brand
name. Products also maintain their own characteristics, which make them
differentiable from others. In this paper, researchers have present an
empirical study to determine important factors influencing customers'
purchasing intend for cellular phones in capital city of Iran, Tehran. The
results of the study show that there are some positive relationships between
exclusive name and quality perception, between exclusive name and word of
mouth advertisement, between quality perception and fidelity, between word
of mouth advertisement and brand name and between brand name image and
brand name.

Mehran Rezvani; Seyed Hamid Khodadad Hoseini; Mohammad


Mehdi Samadzadeh (2012) investigates the impact of Word of Mouth
(WOM) on Consumer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) creation. WOM
characteristics such as, volume, valence, and source quality are studied to
find how intensely they each affect brand awareness, perceived quality, and
brand association. The results suggested that volume and valence, two
elements of WOM, affect CBBE and no significant relationship between
source type and brand equity was seen.

Sany Sanuri Mohd. Mokhtar; Ahmed Audu Maiyaki ; Norzaini bt


Mohd Noor (2011) explores the relationship between service quality and
customer satisfaction on customer loyalty with regards to mobile phone
usage among the postgraduate students of a university in Northern Malaysia.
The results show that both service quality and customer satisfaction
significantly affect the level of customer loyalty of mobile phone users in
Malaysia. It was therefore, recommended that mobile service providers
should pay special attention to their service quality and the factors that drive
customer satisfaction.

Shakir Hafeez; SAF Hasnu (2010) states that Customer satisfaction is


a crucial element for the success of all businesses. One of the biggest
challenges for a market is how to satisfy and retain the customers. This study
is based on Mobilink’s prepaid customers. The findings suggest that overall
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is comparatively low among the
customers of Mobilink. The Customer loyalty in Pakistan’s mobile sector is
relatively low because it is an emerging industry, new players are entering in
this market and customers are more fascinated to try the new service
providers. However it is expected that when the industry will be well
established, the results will be more comparable to other studies.

Shibashish, Chakraborty and Kalyan Sengupta (2008) endeavors to


make a detailed study on important demographic variables of customers
affecting brand switching of customers. This study will highlight pertinent
aspects of prediction of switching proclivity of customers from one service
provider to another.

Harsha de Silva, (2011), generally shows that adoption of (primarily)


mobile telephones has significant benefits not just to the adopter, but to the
community at large. In this context, the objective of the current article is to
examine, from a user perspective, the influences (as well as the interplay of
these influences) on mobile phone adoption by the poor in a selected set of
countries in the emerging Asian region.

Brenda, Mak, Robert Nickerson and Henri Isaac (2009),investigates


the factors affecting the attitudes towards the social acceptance of mobile
phones in public places and how this attitude affects its usage Results of the
analysis indicate that the attitudes about mobile phone use in public places
depend on country, and age factors. This attitude in turn significantly affects
the usage frequency of mobile phones. In addition, usage frequency also is
affected by gender and work status.

Arvind Sahay and Nivedita Sharma (2010) focused on brand


relationships are indeed important for different categories of young
consumers; second, to investigate the effect of peer influence, family
influence, and brand relationships on switching intentions amongst young
consumers; and third, to look at the impact of price changes on switching
intentions in the context of brand relationships. Researcher’s results suggest
that young consumers develop relationships on all brand relationship
dimensions.

Ramakrishnan Venkatesakumar, D. Ramkumar and P. Thillai Rajan,


(2008), confirm that Brand loyalty and brand switching behaviour of the
consumers are evergreen issues of research and strategic importance to the
marketers and academic researchers. The current research aims to address
the significance of product attributes in brand switching behaviour through
multi-dimensional scaling and results suggest that a set of product attributes
trigger the intention to switch the current brand.

Heikki Karjaluoto, Jari Karvonen et al, (2005), had analyzed that


Mobile phone markets are one of the most turbulent market environments
today due to increased competition and change. Thus, it is of growing
concern to look at consumer buying decision process and cast light on the
factors that finally determine consumer choices between different mobile
phone brands. On this basis, this research deals with consumers’ choice
criteria in mobile phone markets by studying factors that influence intention
to acquire new mobile phones on one hand and factors that influence on
mobile phone change on the other are some general factors that seem to
guide the choices. The two studies show that while technical problems are
the basic reason to change mobile phone among students; price, brand,
interface, and properties are the most influential factors affecting the actual
choice between brands.

Luca Petruzzellis (2010), referred and concluded that technology


nowadays is overcome by customer preferences and needs. In particular, the
role of the brand is to be analysed with respect to its influence in shifting
customer preferences from the technical performances (tangible elements) to
the emotional/symbolic ones (intangible elements). The researchers had
provided an analysis of the brand attitude and perception tested and viewed
through user eyes. Chu-Mei Liu (2002), inferred that Branding is important
to manufacturers, retailers and consumers. Brands with higher brand equity
have higher sales. The growth of mobile phone subscriptions is considerably
faster in the Philippines. Advertising and promotion are undertaken through
cooperation between the service providers and mobile phone manufacturers.
The study tries to find out the effects of the different activities on consumer
choice of mobile phone brands. Hans Kasper,

Josée Bloemer, Paul H. Driessen, (2010), has thrown light on how


consumers cope with confusion caused by overload in information and/or
choice. The paper investigates whether consumers who face different
degrees of confusion use different coping strategies depending upon their
decision-making styles. The researchers found that consumers of mobile
phones can be characterized by combinations of decision-making styles and
find three clusters based on decision-making styles: “price conscious and
cautious” consumers, “brand-loyal and quality-driven” consumers, and
“functionalist” consumers. Results show significant main effects of the
degree of confusion and the decision-making styles on the use of coping
strategies as well as a significant interaction effect of these two.

Anne Martensen, (2007), examine tweens' (8-12 year-olds)


satisfaction with and loyalty to their mobile phones and the relationship
between these. The results indicate that tweens are far more satisfied with
their mobile phones than adults are and that the mobile phones fulfill
children's expectations to a much higher degree. Still, brands are not able to
turn tweens into loyal customers who will recommend their mobile phones
to friends. Tweens' loyalty is lower than what is experienced for adults and
the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is very weak.

Pratompong Srinuan, Mohammad Tsani Annafari, Erik Bohlin,


(2011), states that subscriber characteristics, including age, government
officer, self-employed, internet use, central region, and southern region, are
significant in explaining the switching behavior of Thai mobile subscribers.
This study also shows that the largest mobile operators will gain more
switching subscribers than smaller operators. The study shows that the
expected impact of implementing MNP without national mobile roaming
regulations would be worse for smaller mobile operators. The smaller
operators need to compete on both price and quality improvement. In the
short run, it would not be possible for the smaller operators to compete with
the larger operators due to the inequality in the quality of network coverage.

Ajax Persaud, Irfan Azhar, (2012) concludes that consumers' shopping


style, brand trust, and value are key motivations for engaging in mobile
marketing through their smartphones. Further research should focus on
specific tactics marketers use to engage customers beyond marketing
messages, that is, how they engage customers in dialogue to build
relationships, encourage purchases and build loyalty. This could reveal how
customers really want to engage in mobile marketing.

Ahmed Alamro, Jennifer Rowley, (2011) explored that there are 11


antecedents of brand preference; these can be theoretically clustered into
three groups: awareness antecedents (controlled communication
(advertising), and uncontrolled communication (publicity, word of mouth));
image antecedents (service value attributes (price, quality), provider
attributes (brand personality, country of origin, service (employee +
location)), and corporate status (corporate image, corporate reputation)); and,
customer attribute antecedents (satisfaction, perceived risk, and reference
group). Multiple regression showed the contribution of each of these
antecedents to brand preference.

Hande Kimiloglu, V. Aslihan Nasir, Süphan Nasir, (2010), aims to


discover consumer segments with different behavioral profiles in the mobile
phone market. Pragmatic consumers are found to give high importance to the
functional, physical and convenience-based attributes of the product. The
abstemious group also gives importance to functionality along with design.
While value-conscious consumers focus strongly on price, the charismatic
segment represents the want-it-all group valuing many attributes such as
technological superiority, practicality, durability, functionality, and design.
The study also includes findings and discussions about the differences these
clusters display in terms of their involvement and loyalty styles.

Lynda Andrews, Judy Drennan, Rebekah Russell-Bennett, (2012)


examine the nature of consumers' perceptions of the value they derive from
the everyday experiential consumption of mobile phones and how mobile
marketing (m-marketing) can potentially enhance these value perceptions.
The findings highlight ways to tailor m-marketing strategies to complement
consumers' perceptions of the value offered through their mobile phones.

Asta Salmi, Elmira Sharafutdinova, (2008) signifies that the general


features (high power distance, femininity, high uncertainty avoidance)
characterizing Russian culture affect preferred mobile phone design. Long-
term values are seen, for example, in family orientation, which affects the
use of mobile phones. Changing cultural and socioeconomic features are
seen in the strict division of consumers into distinct segments. Current
aspects of society, such as high level of street crime, are apparent in the
desired features of products. The emerging Russian markets seem to consist
of very different consumer groups and simultaneously represent both old and
new cultural features and norms. Design has become a central tool for
affecting product marketing, and an influential community of designers and a
design industry are emerging.

Kurt Matzler, Sonja Bidmon, Sonja Grabner-Kräuter, (2006) explore


the relationship among two personality traits (extraversion and openness),
hedonic value, brand affect and loyalty. It argues that individual differences
account for differences in the values sought by the consumer and in the
formation of brand affect and loyalty. It was found that extraversion and
openness are positively related to hedonic product value and that the
personality traits directly (openness) and indirectly (extraversion, via
hedonic value) influence brand affect which in turn drives attitudinal and
purchase loyalty.

Fred Robins, (2003) analyzed that the marketing of the next


generation of mobile phones. It begins with comments on the state of the
telecom industry and draws attention to elements of technological and
product convergence, highlighting the point that while industry convergence
on digital technology is a fact, today’s mobile telephony marketplace is
nonetheless characterized by three generations of technology and the latest
generation, 3G, embraces three related but competing standards. The
research examines 2G, 2 and a half G and 3G developments around the
world and identifies factors relevant to the marketing of 3G, including
recognition of geographical and user diversity and the consequent need for
marketers to keep these various user perspectives in mind. However,
customer desire for personalisation, including personalised 3G services, are
important features of the marketplace, as will be the availability of simple,
secure payment systems.

Jaakko Sinisalo, Jari Salo, Heikki Karjaluoto, Matti Leppäniemi,


(2007) states that the purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to
guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship
management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM
delineating its unique characteristics. Second, the authors develop the
empirically grounded framework of the underlying issues in the initiation of
mCRM. Researchers have identifies issues that can be divided into three
categories (exogenous, endogenous and mCRM-specific) the company has to
take into account when moving towards mCRM.
CHAPTER III

CONCEPT OF CONSUMER ANALYSIS

Definition: Consumer Analysis

Consumer analysis is the process where information about the consumer is


found out from market research like the needs of the consumer, the target
market and the relevant demographics so that this information can be used in
market segmentation for further steps of market research. It is very useful in
predicting consumer behaviour.

Objectives of consumer analysis are to find out information about:

• Profile of the consumers: This includes demographic, economic, social,


geographical characteristics of the consumer and any other special interests
of the consumer that are relevant. It also includes the buying process of the
consumer i.e. factors like the decision making unit, time and frequency of
purchase, how the consumer makes the purchase and the method of payment.
The former is called demographic analysis and the latter is called
behavioural analysis.

• Benefit gained by the consumers: These include functional benefits,


psychological benefits, high and low involvement benefits depending on the
products, and user & purchaser benefit depending on whether it is a B2B or
B2C customer.

• Market customer: A market is the group of customers who gain the same
benefit from a product. Market can be undifferentiated or differentiated. In
case of differentiated markets, market segmentation can be based on
geographic, demographic or psychological segmentation. Whichever the
market is, it has to be homogeneous, consistent, executable and profitable.
Steps in consumer analysis:

Step1: Overview of the industry

Step2: Identifying and describing demographics of the customers

Step3: Project future changes

Step4: Determine and describe consumer buying behaviour

Step5: Competitive analysis

Step6: Use information about industry, customer and competitors determined


above to identify gaps in the market

Wheel of consumer analysis: It is a model describing the key factors in


understanding consumer behavior and hence developing a marketing
strategy.

Definition: Consumer Buyer

Consumer buyer is the buyer who is also the consumer of the product or the
service being bought. The opposite of this can be the industrial buyer who,
buys the raw material, converts it to some good which is then sold to the
consumer.
Example

A person buying soap or going to a restaurant is a consumer buyer. On the


other hand, a garment manufacturing industry, buying cotton cloth from
market would be an industrial buyer.

Browse the definition and meaning of more terms similar to Consumer


Buyer. The Management Dictionary covers over 7000 business concepts
from 6 categories.

Definition: Consumer Product

It is a product that is bought directly by the consumers. Marketing of such


products is called B2C marketing. The opposite of this is an industrial
product, which is in turn used to make a consumer product.

These can be classified into the following categories:

- Convenience goods

- Shopping goods

- Specialty goods

- Unsought goods

Example: A chemical factory produces chemicals which are brought by


soap manufacturer to produce luxury soap. Hence, chemical is the industrial
product and soap is the consumer product in this case.
Definition: Consumerism

It is a social phenomenon that empowers the buyers and consumers. Its


effects are visible in the laws, regulations and also the marketing practices.

It keeps a check on the companies and ensures that the consumers get quality
products which are safe for them at the correct price. It also ensures that the
consumers are provided with the correct information about the products.
Also Consumerism forces the companies to operate and produce goods and
services according to the consumer’s needs. It plays a very important role in
every stage of marketing starting from new product design to communication
through advertisements.

Example: of this is the detailed composition/ingredient description available


on all products etc.

Definition: Consumer Oriented Marketing

As today the market is characterised by a number of products, a variety of


diverse customers and stiff competition. In such a scenario, marketing with
consumer in mind has become a necessity. Marketing managers are shifting
their focus from selling a product to creating something that is needed.
Starting from product creation to selling and servicing, consumer focus is
given the utmost priority. The focus group discussions, Surveys and
feedbacks done by companies to understand consumers are some examples
to show how much importance is given to consumers.

Definition: Consumer price Index (CPI)

It is metric used to measure the changes in the purchase value of a fixed


basket of goods (like housing, food and other items) or services for a country
or a region. It is usually calculate don a monthly basis and is an
inflation/deflation indicator. A rising CPI indicates inflation. It therefore also
provides a fair idea about the cost of living in the region.
CHAPTER- IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Each consumer behavior research project may have its own challenges and
approach. However, in the design of any research project researchers follow
the same general steps: research objectives; research design; sampling plan;
data collection; data analysis; and reporting

• Research objectives: Prior to conducting any research project, the


researcher needs to carefully consider the objectives. This step also includes
the development of research questions and hypotheses, supported by theory
and earlier research in the field.

• Research design: In the research design phase the researcher is required to


make considerations on which research method will be more appropriate to
answer the research questions and hypotheses set.

• Sampling: In this step the researcher makes considerations on the


participants and how they will be approached. It is essential in this process to
define the population from which the sample is drawn.

• Data collection: During data collection the researcher enters the field and
collects the data. This is the most exciting step for the researcher, but also
time consuming.

• Data analysis: Once the data have been collected, the researcher analyses
the data in order to test the hypotheses and answer the research questions.
The nature of the data (i.e. text, numerical) defines the analytical approach
that the research can follow.
• Reporting: The final step in this process is to prepare a report and present
the research findings to the research community and the interested
stakeholders. An important consideration in the overall process of the
research design is ethical issues that may arise. Such ethical issues may
relate to data collection (e.g. protect participants and respecting their privacy,
acquiring an informed

Consent from participants), data analysis (e.g. avoid deliberate


misinterpretation of the results or misuse of a data analysis method), or even
when reporting the results (e.g. authorship and proper acknowledgement).
Several organizations provide standards and codes of conduct (e.g.
ESOMAR or American Marketing Association). Nevertheless, such ethical
issues are best resolved by all involved the stakeholders behaving honorably.
2.1 Primary Versus Secondary Consumer Behavior Research Data is the
backbone of consumer behavior research. Any phenomenon studied within
the field of consumer behavior requires researchers to analyze data.
Depending on their source, data can be either primary or secondary
(Malhotra et al. 2012).
• Primary data are collected directly from researchers for the purposes of
their research objectives and have full control of what the data measure.
• Secondary data are data previously collected for other purposes and
researchers use them for the purpose of their research objective. Secondary
data can be distinguished into internal and external (Malhotra et al. 2012).
Internal data include information that has been collected within firms, such
as customer and sales databases. External data are data generated outside the
firm, such as from government sources, non-governmental organizations,
syndicated services and social media. Sources of secondary data are Eurostat
(http://ec. europa.eu/eurostat), Euromonitor (www.euromonitor.com), and
national census data and statistics services. One useful website that provides
links and sources to useful secondary data is SecondaryData.com
(www.secondarydata.com). The source of data is what distinguishes to a
large extend consumer behavior research into primary and secondary
research.
• Primary research is research that uses mainly primary data, and requires
researchers to use research methods, such as focus groups, surveys and
observations, that are specifically developed to answer the objectives of their
study.
• Secondary research is research that has been conducted previously by
others. In other words, any research that uses sources and data that are
already available is called secondary research. Conducting “original”
research is not necessary connected with the use of primary data. Instead it is
often recommended to search for and use secondary data prior to conducing
any primary research (Malhotra et al. 2012).
Primary research has the advantage of researchers tailoring to their own
needs, while secondary research may not be able to answer all questions
posed by researchers. The need to conduct primary research may also arise
by the need to have more upto-date data, and also data that come from the
desired population. On the other hand, secondary research may use data that
are outdated and come from samples that do not belong to the desired
population.
This overall, brings in another challenge to researchers when using
secondary data since the overall reliability may be questioned. Thus, primary
research has the advantage that the researcher can ensure the reliability of the
data used. Primary research requires also more time and resources, and thus
secondary research may be preferred if no time or limited resources are
available.
3 Primary Research Methods The choice of a primary research method
mainly depends on whether the study attempts to measure behavior or
explore opinions (e.g. attitudes, perceptions, beliefs). If the study attempts to
measure opinions and the aim is to get a deep understanding of the
phenomenon, methods such as focus groups and in-depth interviews could
be used. If the aim is more to get an overview and not explore in-depth the
phenomenon, then survey methods should be preferred. If the study attempts
to measure behavior and the behavior can be assessed in its natural
environment, then appropriate methods are observations, ethnography and
panel data. If the behavior cannot be assessed in its natural environment then
experiments and physiological measures could be used instead. Primary
research methods can be qualitative or quantitative in nature. Qualitative
research aims to provide insight and in-depth understanding of the problem,
while quantitative research aims to quantify the data by applying some form
of statistical analysis (Malhotra et al. 2012).
The qualitative methods discussed in this contribution are: focus groups, in-
depth interviews, observations, ethnography, and projective techniques. The
quantitative methods are: surveys, experiments, physiological measures, and
panel and scanner data. Qualitative and quantitative methods have several
differences, thus serving different purposes and research needs. provides a
summary of these differences.
In relation to the purpose of research, qualitative methods aim to explore and
gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon under investigation, whereas
quantitative methods aim to test hypotheses, make predictions and generalize
results to the population of interest. In qualitative methods the sample is
small and data are generally unstructured, whereas in quantitative methods
the sample is rather big and can be representative of the population, and data
are mainly structured. Finally, qualitative methods do not aim to generalize
to the population, whereas quantitative methods are more proper when
generalizability is a necessity of the research objective.
3.1 Qualitative Methods
3.1.1 Focus Groups
A focus group is a popular qualitative method in which a group of
participants discusses on a topic of interest to the researcher (Krueger and
Casey 2009). Participants can be asked about their perceptions, feelings,
beliefs, and ideas about a brand, product or service. A focus group is usually
used when the objective is to explore consumer views on new product
concepts (e.g. new forms of packaging, product variants, new brands), and
explore ways to increase consumer acceptance. A focus group is preferred
when the objective is to get a deeper understand of the phenomenon under
investigation. What makes this method unique is that it allows participants to
interact and be influenced with each other, which results in generation of rich
data and provides a more natural environment to participants. Below are
issues that should be considered in preparation of a focus group (Krueger
and Casey 2009; Bryman 2012):
• Participants: Participants should be recruited with the objective that they
can provide rich information about the topic. Participants should be
comfortable to talk to each other, and power differentials should be avoided.
If the topic of interest requires participation of consumers with diverse
background it is preferable to have separate focus groups (e.g. men versus
women), unless to objective of the study requires such interaction.
• Number: Three to four focus groups are usually recommended for each
type of participant.
• Size: The group should be large enough to generate discussion, but not
large enough as it may make some participants to be left out.
• Length: The ideal time that a focus group should last is between 60 and 90
min. If a focus group lasts more participants get fatigued and the group
productivity is reduced.
• Environment: A focus group should take place in a comfortable
environment where participants feel safe and free to talk. Participants should
be seated in a way that they can see each other and are not distracted.
• Moderator: The moderator should be skillful and have experience in
conducting a focus group. The moderator should make participants feel
comfortable, control the dominant participants, make sure that the discussion
does not go off-track, and manage the flow of the discussion.
• Equipment: A focus group is usually audio-recorded. However, it can also
be video-taped when emotional reactions and body movements are the focus
of the analysis. A focus group may also be conducted in a room with a one-
way mirror in order to allow external observers follow the discussion
without any interruption.
• Discussion guide: An essential element in the planning of a focus group is
the discussion guide. A discussion guide contains questions and the time that
the moderator needs to assign in each one. The development of the questions
is challenging and should be made carefully so that they address the topic,
are easy to answer, elicit information and generate discussion. The above
issues are essential in the preparation of a focus group and the researcher
should make these considerations and write them down in a research
protocol, together with required resources and budget estimates. It should be
mentioned that focus groups is not a cheap research method, especially when
considering the costs per participant. After conducting the focus groups the
hard task of analysis takes place. Different types of analysis are used, such as
memory-based, note-based, tape-based and transcript-based (Krueger and
Casey 2009), with the latter type being the most common. Overall, the
analysis of the transcripts should be systematic, sequential, verifiable and
continuous. Plenty of software options are available (e.g. NVivo,
MAXQDA, ATLAS.ti) that can assist the researcher in the analysis of the
transcripts, with some allowing the analysis of audio or video as well.
Overall, a focus group can be a powerful research method. When well
executed, a focus group can provide the researcher with very rich data, as
long as participants are engaged fully. However, the researcher should be
aware that focus groups should not be used as a process to getting people
reach a consensus or as a test of knowledge. Finally, focus groups do not
provide statistical data and should not be used as a method to project to the
population.
CHAPTER- V

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents the data analysis and research findings. It describes the
analysis of the data, the statistical results, and acceptance or rejection of the
hypotheses. The second section includes the discussion of the results. Any
research based on measurements must be concerned with the dependability,
or, as it is usually called, reliability of measurements. This particular study
was designed to examine cognitive processes involved in consumer buying
process.
Advertisements influence consumers‟ purchase decision and more
importantly, their marginal willingness-to-pay for the advertised brand. Of
course, for this effect to be of any significance to the producer, consumers
must believe that advertisements reveal the true quality and characteristics of
the product. Thus, for a consumer who believes that advertisements are
intended to make people think that competing brands are differentiated,
though they are not, there will be no positive demand effect. Further,
advertisements change the relative evaluation of competing brands and thus
result in a consumer switch. Advertisements are often used by the incumbent
firms as an entry-deterring strategy. On the one hand, the potential entrants
must match the advertisement expenditure incurred by the incumbent firm to
gain a positive market share.
It is also apparent that there is a strong correlation between the
perceived importance of advertising as an entry-deterring tool and the
intensity of advertising spending. Multivariate modelling provides
confirmation that the existence of a sheltered market position and the
profitability that typically accompanies this provides a statistically

Significant determinant of the decision to use advertising as a strategic


entry-deterring weapon. Moreover, since advertisement expenditure is a
sunk cost which cannot be recovered even after stopping production, the
entrant expects the incumbent to engage in cut-throat post-entry competition
and tolerate short-run losses to the extent of such expenditure.
At a fundamental level, the consumer behaviour discipline is concerned with
understanding how and why consumers purchase products and services. The
goal of consumer behavior research is to describe and predict how
consumers will behave when faced with alternative product choices (Hauser
& Urban, 19791); in line with this goal, this study seeks to describe how
consumers behave when making wine purchasing decisions. Consumer
behaviour has been broadly defined as “those actions directly involved in
obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the
decision processes that precede and follow these actions” (Engel, Blackwell,
& Miniard, 19932).
An abundance of theoretical models have been developed to depict how
consumers make purchase decisions, from the 1940‟s through to today. The
development of these models has coincided with the maturing consumer
behaviour discipline; the models have moved from those which were deeply
rooted in rational and conscious economic thought, through to those which
have a greater basis in psychology and sociology.
One of the most well known consumer decision making models is that of
Howard and Sheth; this model suggested that consumers apply certain
choice criteria to alternative brands, even for the most simple and habitual
choices (Olshavsky & Granbois, 19793).

Traditional consumer decision making models, such as the Howard and


Sheth and the Engel, Blackwell and Kollat models, have been dominated by
a cognitive approach. Cognitive models make an assumption that consumers
know what they want and that they are capable of obtaining and processing
the information required in order to make sensible choices (Foxall, 2003 4).
Consumers search their memory for information they already possess and if
this is insufficient they will engage in external search for information. Early
models tended to argue that consumers comprehensively considered the
implications of their actions before they engaged in purchase behaviour
(Derbaix & Abeele, 19985) and that consumers acted as problem-solving
decision makers (Hansen, 20056).
In more recent times, the domination of the cognitive paradigm has been
questioned.
The major issue with cognitive models is that human beings are not
perfect processors of information (Derbaix & Abeele, 1998; Pinson &
Jolibert, 19987). Consumers do not strictly obey the principles of economic
rationality, but neither do they behave in a random manner, thus making it
difficult to adequately describe their actual behaviour in a model (Pinson &
Jolibert, 1998). Evidence suggests that consumers do not use rational rules
or deliberate reasoning to identify the best possible solution, but are often
guided by subjective reactions, impulses, personal impressions or mental
images induced by stimuli (Pinson & Jolibert, 1998; Zaltman, 2003 8).
Olshavsky and Granbois (1979) reported evidence to suggest that consumers
in many instances do not engage in extended search or evaluation steps; the
choice process was found to involve the evaluation of only a few
alternatives, little extensive search, and few evaluative criteria. Zaltman
(2003) suggested that the choice process is often

relatively automatic, stems from habit and other unconscious forces, and is
greatly influenced by the consumer‟s social and physical situation. Further
issues with the cognitive-dominant view of consumer decision making arise
from consumers having less time for shopping, being faced with an
increasing number of choices, and feeling overloaded with information
(Zaichkowsky 19919). „Rules of thumb‟ and heuristics are often utilised by
consumers to simplify purchase decisions in today‟s complex world.
The data after collection are to be processed and analyzed in accordance
with the requirement and purpose at the time of the development of the
scale. It is essential for such a scientific study that only the relevant data
should be used from the collection of such a voluminous data and processed
through the proper statistical tools. Data were thoroughly evaluated before
analysis. Data were analysed with the help of Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS package) and the MS-EXCEL tool.
The data has been analysed as per the objectives of the study.
1. Relationship between shopping pattern and frequency of being
influenced by advertisements.
The main objective is to extract the cognitive effects of advertisements on
consumers, how they think, feel, reason, and select between different
alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers); the behaviour of
consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions after
watching an advertisements; how consumer motivation and decision
strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or
interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and
improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more
effectively reach the consumer. What may appear to be harmless to one
person or a group may be

misleading to the other. When an advertisement is introduced into the


perceptual process of the audience it brings certain cognitive changes in their
buying behaviour. The experts, who follow the cognitive response model,
believe that people actively relate information contained in persuasive
messages to their existing feelings and beliefs about the message topic. Pre-
existing thoughts generated by the consumer may be positive, negative or
neutral to the message. It is more likely that people agree with persuasions
that already follow their own beliefs and disagree with persuasions that are
not consistent to their preconceived opinions.
To check whether advertisements influenced the shopping pattern of
consumers and if yes then at what frequency was the first dimension to be
analysed and interpretation? Chi-square test was applied to check whether
these two dimensions were dependent or not. For this the following
hypothesis has been developed.
H1: Advertisements influence shopping pattern of consumers with varying
degree of frequency
Table-4.1

Influence of Advertisements on Shopping Pattern of

Consumers: Degree of Frequency

Yes No Total

Always 96 42 138

Often 124 30 154

Sometimes 173 44 217

Total 393 116 509

Chi-square value=0.276211 at 5% significance level

The results of Table-4.1 show that 509 individuals were asked whether their
shopping pattern gets influenced by advertisements, out of which 393
consumers said they are influenced but 116 were not influenced. This
response was then related with frequency of advertisements i.e. always, often
and sometimes. Out of 393 consumers, 96 were always influenced; 124 often
influenced and 173 were sometimes influenced by advertisements. The
responses were related with frequency of advertisements also. The chi-square
value at 5% significance level is insignificant. The results shown in the above
table indicate the non-acceptance of hypothesis H1 implying that there is no
relationship between frequency of watching advertisements and shopping
pattern of the individuals.
2. Role of different means of media in influencing the purchase behaviour of the
consumer. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed
via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspapers,
magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising
or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Since
information technologies were developed, the spread of information has been
much faster than before. Traditional advertisements, such as television
advertisements, radio advertisements and newspaper advertisements, are not
sufficient for companies to promote their products and services. However,
due to the overload information of advertisements, consumers do not have
enough time to review by themselves and are compelled to ignore most of

the advertisements. Instead, they usually prefer to gain opinions and


experiences about products or services which they want to purchase from
their friends, colleagues or families. It is easier for people to search
information about all kinds of products on the Internet. Therefore, Word-of-
mouth plays a very important role in consumer behaviour and it has the effect
on consumers‟ decisions of long-term and short-term procurements (Dolen et
al., 2007)10. Furthermore, internet offers the fastest and most convenient
channel for consumers to exchange information, so more and more people
exchange their opinions and experiences about products and services on the
Internet. Such exchanging behaviour is regarded as the electronic word-of-
mouth (Hennig- Thurau et al., 200411; Litvin et al., 200812; Casalo et al.,
200813). The focus of this objective is to study the media usage by the
consumers, i.e. assess the role of different means of media like television,
newspapers, radio, magazines, word of mouth and internet in influencing the
purchase behaviour of consumers regarding food products, beverages,
apparels and accessories. For this the following hypothesis has been
extracted. H2: The purchase behaviour of consumers is influenced by
different types of media. Different means of media are used to communicate
commercials to the consumers. The reliability of these means is perceived
differently by the consumers.
Table-4.2 Purchase Behaviour of Consumers: Influence of Different Types
of Media.

Mean values F-value

Radio Word TV Newspape Magazin Interne


of r e t
mouth

1 (S2.5) 4.59 3.85 3.57 3.91 3.8 3.88 7.01

2 (S2.6) 3.86 3.8 3.79 4.32 4.47 3.67 9.59

3 (S2.7) 4.27 3.18 3.08 3.62 2.47 2.96 10.03

4 (S2.8) 3.96 3.08 3.42 3.65 3.60 3.42 4.03

5 (S2.9) 4.14 3.38 3.56 3.96 3.4 3.75 6.66

6 (S2.10) 4.27 3.48 3.54 3.80 3.87 3.75 3.69

7 (S2.11) 4.36 3.25 3.35 3.64 3.00 3.17 5.60

8 (S2.12) 4.27 3.43 3.56 3.70 3.53 3.46 2.63


In order to evaluate the hypothesis that different means of media influence
the purchase behaviour of consumers, one way ANOVA has been applied.
The mean value of S2.1 was obtained that was related to the ranking of
different media according to the attention they get the most so far as
advertisements are concerned. Thereafter, with help of these mean values F-
value for S2.5 to S2.12 was calculated. In Table-4.2 F-value is to judge
whether the difference among several sample mean is significant or is just
matter of sampling fluctuations for every statement. For this purpose, we
look into the table giving the value of F for given degree of freedom at
different levels of significance. If the worked out value of F as stated above
is less than the table value of F, the difference is taken as insignificant. If the
calculated value of F happens to be either equal or more than its table value,
the difference is considered as significant and accordingly the conclusion
may be drawn.
The results shown in Table-4.2 indicate the acceptance of hypothesis H2 as
F value = 7.01was found to be significant at 5% Significance level for S2.5.
This implies that individuals purchase behaviour gets influenced differently
when they are exposed to advertisements of different types of media. Results
of mean values depicted in Table-
4.2 also show that individuals purchasing behaviour gets influenced by radio
more than other means of media (Television, Magazines, News Paper,
Internet and Word of Mouth) when they tend to compare information
regarding a particular product.
The results of Table-4.2 show that F value = 9.59 is found to be significant
at 5% Significance level for S2.6. This implies that when consumers are
exposed to advertisements on different types of media, purchase behaviour
of the consumers gets
influenced and results of mean values also depict that when they see an
advertisement in magazines they don‟t even inquire about the quality of
products.
Further, the results of Table-4.2 show that F value = 10.03 is found to be
significant at 5% Significance level for S2.7. The result of mean value for
Radio is 4.27 and it depicts that the consumers purchasing behaviour gets
influenced more by this channel and they straightaway purchase products.
In regard to results of Table-4.2 shows that F value = 4.03 is found to be
significant at 5% Significance level for S2.8. After watching advertisements
from different means of media, consumers are under influence especially
Newspaper and Radio because Table-4.2 shows that mean values of News
paper and Radio are more than other means of media. Thus, consumers have
more faith in these media while making purchase decisions.
Then, regarding S2.9 the results of above Table-4.2 show that F value = 6.66
is found to be significant at 5% Significance level. According to results in
Table-4.2 mean value of radio is 4.14 which is higher than other means of
media. So, it may be inferred that customers pay maximum attention to
commercials aired on radio.
For S2.10, the results of above table show that F value =3.69 found to be
significant at 5% Significance level. The results in Table-4.2 show that mean
values of radio is
4.27 which is higher than other means of media. This implies that customers
try to gather information from different types of media for a particular
product but they have strong faith in Radio and the purchasing behaviour is
influenced by Radio advertisements more than any other means of media.

The results of Table-4.2 show that F value = 5.60 found to be significant at


5% Significance level for S2.11. This implies that individuals purchase
behaviour gets influenced when they watch advertisements of different types
of media. This implies that customers don‟t have faith in the products
exhibited in magazines because the mean value attained for magazine in this
statement is the lowest i.e. 3.00.
The results of Table-4.2 show that F value = 2.63 found to be significant at
5% Significance level for S2.12. Again the results in Table-4.2 show that the
advertisements of radio are more reliable than other type of media because
consumers find same type of products as described in the advertisements on
radio as the mean value of radio is 4.36 for S2.12.
Hence, from the results of Table-4.2 it can be concluded that hypothesis H2
is accepted because different types of media influence the purchase
behaviour of consumers.
3 Role of advertisements in forming and preventing cognitive dissonance
of the consumers about particular products.
Why and how does dissonance ever arise? How does it happens that
consumers some time find themselves doing things that do not fit with what
they know, or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold?
There is a fairly wide variety of situations in which dissonance is nearly
unavoidable. But it remains for us to examine the circumstances under
which dissonance, once arisen, persists and how it may be avoided.

After purchasing the product, the buyer will experience some level of
satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The marketers‟ job does not end when the
product is bought but continues into the post purchase period. Marketers
must monitor post purchase
satisfaction, post purchase actions and cognitive dissonance. The buyer’s
satisfaction or dissatisfaction will influence future behaviour. A satisfied
buyer will purchase the product again and recommend it to others.
Dissatisfied buyers will
respond differently. They may stop using the product, return it, or take some
form of public action. (Strydom et al. 2000)14.
The consumers‟ decision process does not end with the purchase. Rather, the
experience of buying and using the product provides information that the
consumer will use in future decision making. In some cases, the consumer
will be pleased with the experience and will buy the same product from the
same supplier again. In other cases, the consumer will be disappointed and
may even return or exchange the product. In general, the post purchase
process includes four steps: decision confirmation, experience evaluation,
satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and future response. Czinkota et al. (2000)15.
In markets in which first-time purchases are rare, advertising helps either
switching or retaining customers who otherwise might switch. There are
three possible consequences advertising exposure can have on a consumer‟s
brand choice. It can increase the probability that the consumer will change
brands (brand switching), it can induce the consumer to stay with the brand
last purchased (repeat purchasing) or it can have no effect on choice
probabilities. Each of these effects is possible and presents a number of
different mechanisms. Brand switching effects can result from

Advertising building, brand awareness or altering beliefs about brands.


Repeat purchasing effects can result directly from advertising or,
alternatively, from an interaction between advertising and brand usage.
The present investigation was conducted to study advertisements in relation
to cognitive dissonance of consumers regarding food products, beverages,
apparels and accessories. To examine the impact of advertisements in
forming and in preventing of cognitive dissonance objective was divided in
two parts. S3.6, S3.11, S3.12, and S3.14 were selected to examine the
impact of advertisement in forming cognitive dissonance. Further, S3.7,
S3.8, S3.9, S3.10, S3.13, and S3.15 were selected to analyse the role of
advertisements in preventing cognitive dissonance.
The obtained data were analysed by applying descriptive statistics i.e. mean
and standard deviation. The responses were recorded on a 5- point Likert
scale where „1‟ means strongly disagree and „5‟ means strongly agree. So if
a response is greater than 3 that would imply either agree or strongly agree
with a particular statement. In order to find out formation of the cognitive
dissonance among consumers, one tailed t-test was applied. For this, the
following hypothesis has been developed:
H3a The advertisement of different media results in formation of Cognitive
Dissonance if sample mean is greater than 3
Whether advertisements attempt to create imaginary difference between
products that are actually identical or very similar in composition and that
may result in forming cognitive dissonance, is examined here.

Table-4.3a

Role of Advertisement in Formation of Cognitive Dissonance

Forming cognitive Mean value SD t- Values


dissonance

1 (S3.6) 3.65 0.98 16.41*

2 (S3.11) 3.84 0.85 24.73*

3 (S3.12) 3.46 1.03 11.15*

4 (S3.14) 3.63 0.93 17.00*

*Significant at 5% significance level


Table-4.3a presented the mean and SD and t-value of the observed variable.
The mean and SD for S3.6 is 3.65 and 0.98 respectively. The t-value is 16.41
which is significant at .05 level. The results show that advertisements
attempt to create imaginary difference between products that are actually
identical or very similar in composition and that may result in forming
cognitive dissonance.
The mean and SD for S3.11 is 3.84 and 0.85 respectively. The t-value is
24.73 which is again significant at .05 level. The health foods like
Bournvita, Complain, Dabur Chyawanprash etc. are of almost same
characteristics and quality. The results show that when consumer is exposed
to advertisements of similar type of health foods, they

easily switch over from one brand to another. So the advertisements can
easily change the purchasing decision of the consumer if the products are of
almost same quality.
The mean and SD for S3.12 is 3.46 and 1.03 respectively. The t-value is
11.15 which is significant at .05 level. The results show that when a
promotion is over consumers go back to regular brand. So, when consumers
change the products due to any promotional offer, they go to the brand they
generally use. Thus dissonance may be formed due to any promotional offer
but dissonance for such product is not permanent.
The mean and SD for S3.14 is 3.63 and 0.93 respectively. The t-value is
17.00 which
is significant at .05 level. The result shows that the advertisements influence
the purchase decision of consumers who enjoy trying something different;
even if they like their brand, by watching advertisements they switch to
other brands.
The above results indicate that there is enough evidence at 5% significance
level for non rejection of hypothesis H3a. In case of almost similar products,
advertisements play significant role in forming cognitive dissonance.
Promotional offers may also contribute in forming cognitive dissonance.
Advertisements work for such segment of consumers also who enjoy trying
something new.
H3b The advertisement of different media results in preventing cognitive
dissonance if sample mean is greater than 3.
When and how advertisement play a role in preventing cognitive dissonance
is examined here.

Table-4.3b

Role of Advertisement in Preventing Cognitive Dissonance

Preventing
Mean value SD t-Values
cognitive
dissonance

1 (S3.7) 3.65 0.95 17.12*

2 (S3.8) 3.61 0.91 16.63*

3 (S3.9) 3.62 1.02 15.31*

4 (S3.10) 3.49 1.06 11.54*

4 (S3.13) 3.56 1.03 13.65*

5 (S3.15) 3.64 0.99 16.14*

*Significant at 5% significance level

The obtained data were analysed by applying descriptive statistics i.e. mean
and SD. The responses were recorded on a 5- point Likert scale where
„1‟ means strongly disagree and „5‟ means strongly agree. So if a response
is greater than 3 that would imply either agree or strongly agree with a
particular statement.
Table-4.3b presents the mean and SD and t-value of the observed variable.
The mean and SD for S3.7 is 3.65 and 0.95 respectively. The t-value is 17.12
which is significant at .05 level.
The mean and SD for S3.8 is 3.61 and 0.93 respectively. The t-value is 16.63
which is significant at .05 level. The results show that Branded shoes (e.g.
Hush Puppies, D &

G, Jimmy Choo, Liberty etc.) are strong enough to keep consumers coming
back for more and there is no need to watch the advertisements of other
brands. The quality of these brands is so high that prevents the consumer
from shifting to other brand.
The mean and SD for S3.9 is 3.62 and 1.02 respectively. The t-value is 15.31
which is significant at .05 level. So, it may be inferred that use of
International brands of Health foods (Amway, Herb life, etc.) give the
consumer satisfaction for quality and dissonance is prevented in this
category of goods also.
The mean and SD for S3.10 is 3.65 and 1.06 respectively. The t-value is
11.58 which is significant at .05 level. The result shows that the quality of
international brands of frozen foods is so good that advertisements of Indian
foods do not have any effect on consumers even if the advertisements are
there. So, in that case also advertisements cannot form cognitive dissonance.
The mean and SD for S3.13 is 3.56 and 1.03 respectively. The t-value is
13.65 which is significant at .05 level. The results show that consumers
don‟t like sampling different brands for the sake of comparison only.
The mean and SD for S3.15 is 3.64 and 0.99 respectively. The t-value is
16.14 which is significant at .05 level. It shows that even if consumers see
the advertisement of new brand, they refer to friends/family before making
purchasing decision.
Hence, Hypothesis H3b is accepted that the advertisements cannot form
cognitive dissonance among consumers about a product especially when the
quality of the product they are using is so high like in case of branded shoes
or health foods and frozen foods.

Relationship of advertisements and spontaneous/non-spontaneous


purchase decision of consumers.
Consumers may be very careful with the amount of money that they spend
on any given day. They may also however, make the occasional impulse
purchase. The intent behind advertising is to persuade consumers to
purchase the product, but does the consumer respond to all communications
sent by the advertisers? Advertisers use different types of appeals and
demonstrations to attract and retain customers. Another dimension is
whether the consumers considered the purchase to have been “spur of the
moment.”
A number of researchers have made important contributions to our
understanding of impulse purchasing behaviour (Rook and Hoch 1985; Rook
1987; Rook and Gardner 1993; Rook and Fisher 1987; Puri 1996; Weun and
Beatty 1998; Beatty and Ferrell 1998; Hausman 200016). Stern (1962)17
identified four distinct types of impulse purchasing: planned, pure, reminder,
and suggestion. Our understanding of impulse purchasing was enhanced
when
Rook and Hoch (1985)18 offered a psychological model of consumer
impulse buying episodes. Beatty and Ferrell (1998)19 extended research by
exploring the precursors of impulse purchasing and examining how in-store
browsing, for recreational and informational purposes, influences impulse
purchasing behaviour. Recently, Hausman (2000) established that impulse
buying is a common method of product selection, in part, because it provides
hedonic rewards. Though, this research has made significant

contributions to our understanding of impulse purchasing, researchers have


not come to a consensus on the conceptualization of impulse purchasing.
Thus, unresolved issues exist in the literature preventing a clear
understanding and resulting in inconsistent operationalisation of the
construct.
To examine the relationship of advertisement and spontaneous/non-
spontaneous purchase decision of consumers the objective was divided in
two parts. S4.1, S4.2, S4.3, S4.8, S4.9, S4.11, S4.12 and S4.13 were selected
to examine the spontaneous purchase decision of consumers Further, S4.4,
S4.5, S4.6, S4.7, and S4.10, were selected to analyze non-spontaneous
purchase decision of consumers. The obtained data were analyzed by
applying descriptive statistics i.e. mean and SD. The responses were
recorded on a 5- point Likert scale where „1‟ means strongly disagree and „5‟
means strongly agree. So if a response is greater than 3 that would imply
either agree or strongly agree with a particular statement. In order to find out
whether there is relationship between advertisements and spontaneous/non-
spontaneous purchase decision of consumers‟ one tailed t-test was applied.
For this, the following hypothesis has been developed:
H4a: Advertisements result in spontaneous purchase decisions if sample
mean is greater than 3
To examine this hypothesis, mean, SD and t-values has been has been
calculated for all the statements which are selected for spontaneous.
Purchase decision of consumers.
Table-4.4a
Advertisements and Spontaneous Purchase Decisions

Spontaneous
Mean SD t-value
Purchase decision

1 (S4.1) 3.31 1.05 7.28*

2 (S4.2) 3.40 1.05 9.56*

3 (S4.3) 3.66 0.97 16.77*

4 (S4.8) 3.58 1.02 14.31*

5 (S4.9) 3.45 0.98 11.44*

6 (S4.11) 3.25 1.17 5.42*

7 (S4.12) 3.23 1.21 4.80*

8 (S4.13) 3.60 1.02 14.53*

*Significant at 5% significance level

Table-4.4a presented the mean and SD and t-value of the observed variable.

The mean and SD for S 4.1 is 3.31 and 1.05 respectively. The t-value is 7.28
which is significant at .05 level. It shows that when consumers come in
contact of an advertisement, they get excited and immediately buy
something new.
The mean and SD for S 4.2 is 3.40 and 1.05 respectively. The t-value is 9.56
which is significant at .05 level. It is depicted from the results that the
consumers who don‟t do planned shopping, they spontaneously decide to
purchase looking around an advertisement in a store.

The mean and SD for S 4.3 is 3.66 and 0.97 respectively. The t-value is16.77
which is significant at .05 level. It shows that the consumers who never
make a list for shopping they spontaneously shop for the products on seeing
an advertisement.
The mean and SD for S4.8 is 3.58 and 1.02 respectively. The t-value is 14.31
which is significant at .05 level. It is depicted from results that consumers,
who shop in order to reduce stress and to feel better by shopping, always
keep an eye on advertisements. The mean and SD for S4.9 is 3.45 and 0.98
respectively. The t-value is 11.44 which is significant at .05 level. It is
depicted from results that the consumers who feel pleasure in shopping
itself, they make their purchase decision impulsively after watching an
advertisement.
The mean and SD for S4.11 is 3.25 and 1.17 respectively. The t-value is 5.42
which is significant at .05 level. It shows that consumers generally buy
things without thinking rationally when they see some celebrity using them
in an advertisement.
The mean and SD for S4.12 is 3.23 and 1.21 respectively. The t-value is 4.80
which is significant at .05 level. It shows that consumers purchase trendy
products promoted in an advertisement even though they are not of much
use for them. So, in case of trendy products the purchase decision are
spontaneous and consumers follow their impulse.
The mean and SD for S4.13 is 3.60 and 1.02 respectively. The t-value is
14.53 which is significant at .05 level. The result shows that advertising
often persuades people to buy things that they really don't require in life.
Hence, Hypothesis H4a is accepted as there is a relationship between
advertisement and impulsive purchase decision of consumers.
H4b: Advertisements result in non-spontaneous purchase decision if sample
mean is greater than 3
Table-4.4b

Advertisements and Non-Spontaneous Purchase Decisions

Non-
Mean SD t-value
spontaneous
Purchase
decision

1 (S4.4) 3.71 0.85 20.62*

2 (S4.5) 3.78 0.89 21.86*

3 (S4.6) 3.98 0.83 29.49*

4 (S4.7) 3.76 1.00 18.92*

5 (S4.10) 3.51 0.96 13.21*

*Significant at 5% significance level


The results of Table-4.4b show mean and SD for S4.4 is 3.71 and 0.85
respectively. The t-value is 20.62 which is significant at .05 level. The
results show that those consumers who always take time to consider and
weigh all aspects, including price before making a purchase don‟t go for
impulsive purchase.
The mean and SD for S4.5 is 3.78 and 0.89 respectively. The t-value is 21.86
which is significant at .05 level. The result shows when consumers are to
weigh the economic conditions also, don‟t follow the advertisements and
they don‟t make impulsive decision while shopping.
The mean and SD for S4.6 is 3.98 and 0.83 respectively. The t-value is 29.49
which is significant at .05 level. The results show that those consumers who
always buy goods that are useful and are of reasonable price can not be
persuaded by advertisements to make impulsive purchases.

The mean and SD for S4.7 is 3.76 and 1.00 respectively. The t-value is 18.92
it is significant at .05 level. It may be inferred that the consumers who buy
those goods which are worth buying don‟t buy impulsively even if
advertisements are too good.
The mean and SD for S4.10 is 3.51 and 0.96 respectively. The t-value is
13.21it is significant at .05 level. The results shown in the above table reveal
that there is no effect on the people who don‟t buy things only on looking at
an advertisement in the store.
Hence, Hypothesis H4b is accepted and therefore there is a no relationship
between advertisement and impulsive purchase decision of consumers when
the question is regarding quality or when the consumer weighs economic
conditions also
4 Role of advertisements in influencing the purchasing decisions of
children as perceived by parents.
No one approach is far-reaching enough to capture the true nature of a
child‟s understanding of television advertisements. However, because the
majority of children continue to grow up with the television set on for most
of the day, they are processing the information being sent to them through
advertisements. Today‟s cultural focus on the commercialization of goods
and the proliferation of a consumer- based lifestyle means that children
cannot avoid the messages being sent to them via television.
Children can develop into responsible and informed consumers if their
cognitive interpretation of television advertisements is guided through their
interactions. Therefore, parents should interact with their children while they
watch television, instead of turning on the television set and leaving the
room. Parents should model
consumer behaviours and discuss the reality of television advertisements
with their children.
Berey and Pollay (1968)20 were the first to understand the role of
children. They measured the assertiveness of the child (in favour of a brand
preferred by the child) and the child-centeredness of the mother in the case
of purchase of a brand of breakfast cereal. They found that high child-
centered mothers purchased the child‟s favourite brand less frequently,
implying that when a mother is child centered, she would purchase a brand
that is good for the child and not necessarily one that is preferred by the
child. Berey and Pollay also found that the assertiveness of the child
enhanced the recall of the child‟s favourite brand among mothers.
Examining shifts in such influence across age, Ward and Wackman (1972)21
found that attempts by children at influencing purchase were negatively
related to the age of the child; however the tendency of mothers to yield to
such influence rose with the age of the child but varied across product
categories. Mehrotra and Torges (1977)22 and Williams and Veeck (1998)23
suggested that no particular attitude or set of attitudes uniquely determines
for all products whether a mother would be influenced by her child or not.
Child-centered mothers were more likely to be influenced by their children
and family-oriented mothers or women with close knit families were more
sensitive to children’s influence. Mothers co-viewing television programmes
with their children were more likely to yield to children’s influencing
attempt for products advertised on those shows.
To analyse this objective firstly parents i.e. respondents were asked whether
the exposure to advertisements has resulted in increasing trend of unreasoned
shopping among children. Then the results to this were related with
parent‟s perception about
role of their children in shopping was recorded. This response of the trend in
unreasoned shopping was recorded on the scale „yes‟ and „no‟ and the
responses were measured on the statements 5.7 to 5.12. The statements are
related to the parent‟s perception that whether they respect their children
expertise and preferences on products and brands. Whether they take opinion
of their children while shopping? This was recorded on Likert scale of 1 to 5
where „1‟ meant strongly disagree „5‟ means strongly agree. So the
prepared hypothesis was:
H5a Parents perception about role of children in purchasing decision is
different with respect to trend in unseasoned shopping.

Table-4.5aParents Perception about Children’s Purchasing Decisions


Regarding Unseasoned Shopping. t-value

Yes No

Mean SD Mean SD

1 (S5.7) 3.29 1.14 3.27 1.26 0.21

2 (S5.8) 3.75 0.83 3.67 0.87 1.04

3 (S5.9) 3.65 0.80 3.55 0.82 1.29

4 (S5.10) 3.69 0.92 3.51 1.05 1.91

5 (S5.11) 3.77 0.94 3.59 1.05 1.91

6 (S5.12) 3.44 1.01 3.19 1.09 2.46*


* Significant at 5% significance level

To evaluate whether there is significant difference among parents perception


that advertisements has increased the trend of unseasoned shopping among
children, 2 tailed t-test was applied at 5% significance level.
The results of Table-4.5a for S5.7, S5.8, S5.9, S5.10, and S5.11 show that
there is insignificant difference between two groups of parents who agree
and who disagree to the fact that advertisements have increased the trend of
unseasoned shopping among children. However, for S5.7 there is slight
difference in mean values show that a few parents agree that their children
immediately want that product which is shown in advertisements some don‟t
agree upon this point.
However, as from the result mean values of S5.8 shows that parents respect
their child opinion. Children can give their suggestion in purchasing
decisions.
The mean value of S5.9 shows that the parents consider advertisements are
influencing their children behaviour towards unseasoned shopping and they
agree to respect the expertise over products while making purchase decision.
The mean value S5.10 shows that parents care about the preferences of their
children in purchasing decision. However we may infer from the mean value
of S5.11that parents consider the decision of their children while making
family purchase.
The results of Table-4.5a for S5.12 show that there is significant difference
between two groups of parents who agree and who disagree to the fact that
advertisements have increased the trend of unseasoned shopping among
children. Parents are of opinion that their children are mature enough mature
and they can take their own purchase decision.
To analyse this objective parents were subject to the question asking how
frequently they spend time with their children in watching TV. Three types
of responses have
been taken i.e. all the time, sometime and never. On the basis of these
responses parents‟ perception about impact of advertisements on children
was measured on the statements 5.13 to 5.19. These responses were then
related with parent‟s opinion as to the advertisements influence on the
children in terms of inducing materialism in them; their being comfortable
with portrayal of women in advertisements related to men‟s stuff;
harmfulness of some of the advertised products for children. For this the
following hypothesis has been developed:
H5b Parents perception about impact of advertisements on children differs
with respect to time spent in watching TV with children.

Table-4.5b

Parents Perception about Impact of Advertisements on Children

Mean values

All the times Some times Never F- value

1 (S5.13) 3.15 3.53 3.77 12.57

2 (S5.14) 3.52 3.72 3.73 3.04

3 (S5.15) 3.49 3.68 3.82 4.11

4 (S5.16) 3.49 3.35 3.57 1.71*

5 (S5.17) 3.39 3.53 2.59 18.95

6 (S5.18) 3.59 3.58 2.96 7.58

7 (S5.19) 3.27 3.20 2.88 2.64*

*Insignificant at 5% significance
In order to find out Parents perception one way ANOVA has been applied to
evaluate the hypothesis.
The results from Table-4.5b show a significant difference amongst three
groups of parents as depicted in F value that different groups of parents have
different response towards role of advertisements in inducing materialism
amongst children. It was found that parents who never watch TV with their
children agree more to S5.13 and they don‟t consider advertisements to be
fro inducing up materialism and arrogance in children as compared to
parents who spend all the time or sometime with their children.
The results of above table show that F value = 3.04 found to be slightly
significant at 5% Significance level for S5.14. This implies that parents who
never watch TV and sometime watch TV with their children agree to S5.14
that they are comfortable with the advertisements of men‟s stuff in which
portrayal of women is there, as compared to parents who spend all the time
with their children, while watching TV.
Further, the results of Table-4.5b show a significant difference among three
groups of parents as depicted in F value. So, different groups of parents have
different responses towards the contribution of advertisements in bringing
change in the role of women from a subordinate to a decision maker in
family purchase decision making process. It was found that parents who
never watch TV with their children strongly agree to S5.15and they believe
that advertisements are resulting in bringing this type of change

in the role of women as compared to the parents who spend all the time or
sometime with their children.
The results from Table-4.5b show insignificant difference among three
groups of
parents as depicted in F value regarding their opinion as to the fact that
advertisements depict products as better than they really are. It was found
that parents who never watch TV with their children agree more to S5.16 as
compared to the parents who spend all the time or sometime with their
children.
The results of above table further show that F value = 18.95 found to be
slightly significant at 5% significance level for S5.17. This implies that
parents who sometimes watch TV agree to S5.17that advertisements do not
always tell the truth than the other two groups.
The results of Table-4.5b show a significant difference among three groups
of parents as depicted in F value that different groups of parents have
different response towards S5.18. It was found that parents who all the time
and sometimes watch TV with their children agree more to S5.18 that the
purpose of advertising is to sell products only as compared to parents who
never spend time to watch TV with their children.
The results of above table regarding S5.19 show that F value = 2.64 found to
be insignificant at 5% Significance level. It was found that parents who all
the time and sometimes watch TV with their children agree to S5.19 that
some of the advertised products are not good for children, as compared to
parents who never spend time for watching TV with their children.

5 Opinion about how different tools/methods of sales promotion influence


the purchase decisions of the consumer.
Sales promotion refers to short term incentives, which are designed to
encourage the buyers to make immediate purchase of a product or service.
This includes all promotional efforts other than advertising, personal selling
and publicity used by a company to boost its sales. Sales promotion activities
include offering cash discounts, sales contests, free gift offers, Rs. off and
Coupons,
“A coupon is a promotional device that provides cent-offs savings to
consumers upon
redeeming the coupon” Shimp and Samiee, S. (1993)24. Coupons can be
disseminated to consumers through newspapers and magazines, direct mail
and packages. Price-off is a reduction in a brand‟s regular price. According to
Blair and London (1981)25, the major reason for marketers to use the price-
off reductions is that this type of deal usually presents a readily apparent
value to shoppers, especially when they have a reference price point for the
brand, therefore they can recognize the value of the discount. Pride and
Ferrel (1989) states that sales promotion methods fall into one of two groups.
Consumer sales promotion methods are directed toward consumers and
include coupons, contests, bonuses, vacations, gifts, tie-ins and free samples
(Lamb et al, 1992). Trade sales promotion methods focus wholesalers,
retailers and salespersons. Examples include sales contests, free
merchandise, demonstrations, point-of purchase, and display Anderson,
(1986)26; Pride and Ferrel, (1989). Blattberg and Neslin, (1990)27 summarize
the various definitions offered by several authors and develop the following
definition of sales promotion: “sales promotion is an action-

focused consumers the chance to win cash, merchandise or travel prizes.


However, there are some differences between the two practices. A contest is
a promotion where consumers compete for prizes or money on the basis of
skills or ability. In a sweepstakes, winners are determined purely by chance
The impact of different methods of sales promotion on spontaneous/non-
spontaneous behaviour of individual has been noted. Purchasing decision of
the consumers has been measured on scale of spontaneous/non-spontaneous
purchase behaviour. The objective tends to measure the relationship between
sales promotion schemes and spontaneous/non-spontaneous purchase
behaviour. The four sales promotion schemes were mentioned in the
questionnaire i.e. Coupons, Free Gifts, Rs. off and Contests. For this the
following hypothesis has been developed:
H6 Relationship between spontaneous/non spontaneous purchase decision of
consumers and promotion schemes like (Coupons, Free Gifts, Rs. off,
Contests). To analyse this objective multiple regression has been
implemented. To judge the relationship between spontaneous/non
spontaneous purchase decision of consumers and promotion schemes i.e.
Coupons, Free Gifts, Rs. off and Contests. The promotion schemes have
been taken as independent variable and spontaneous/non spontaneous
purchase decision has been taken as dependent variable. The regression
analysis provides an opportunity, with little ambiguity, to assess the
importance of each of the predictors to the overall relationship. But the more
complicated and important goal might be to investigate the relationship
between dependent measure and non predictors with the effect of other
predictors statistically eliminated.

Table-4.6

Relationship between Spontaneous/Non Spontaneous Purchase Decision


of Consumers and Promotion Schemes

Spontaneous Non- spontaneous

Regression t-value Regression t-value


coefficient coefficient

Coupons 0.058 1.16 -0.085 -1.70

Free Gift -0.119 -1.77 0.136 2.03*

Rs. off 0.114 1.840 -0.049 -0.78

Contest -0.004 -0.091 0.020 0.41

*t-values at 5% significance level


As per this study if any company will provide different schemes to the
consumers i.e. coupons or Rs. off consumers will go for Rs. off as compared
to coupons because from the results shown in above table reveal that
regression coefficient of Rs. off is
0.114 and for coupons is 0.058 and it is higher. After watching an
advertisement there is no spontaneous purchase decisions of the consumers
for all the schemes as the t-values i.e. -1.70 for coupons and -0.78 for Rs. off
are insignificant at 5% significance level.
Consumers don‟t enjoy buying a brand spontaneously that comes with a
free gift. They also assess the value of the free gift. Even the completion of
a promotional gift set cannot result in spontaneous purchase. Similar is the
case with „buy one get one‟ promotion. Nobody enjoys buying a brand
that offers a „buy-one-get-one-free‟

promotion. They don‟t tend to buy brands that come with free gift as
compare to the brands that do not make such offers. They think that the
products which are available in the market with free gift or with a contest are
not of good quality.
Another result shows that the products which are available in the market
with contests, they don‟t return the money‟s worth. So, again such offers
don‟t result in spontaneous purchase of Rs. off schemes.
From the results it is also shown that the regression coefficients of Rs. Off
schemes is positive. It means that apart from saving money consumers enjoy
Rs. Off promotional scheme. But when consumers are concerned about low
price, they are also concerned about quality of product.
Out of the two schemes free gifts and contests, people will go for contest as
compared to free gift. From the above table it is evident that the t-value -.119
of free gift is much more in negative side as compared to t-value -0.004 of
contests. As the table shows that the t-values are insignificant at 5%
significance level.
If a company will provide four types of schemes to the consumers, they will
go for free gifts as compared to contests because the table shows that
regression coefficient
0.136 of free gifts are higher as compared to regression coefficient 0.020
of contest.
After watching an advertisements there is relationship between non
spontaneous purchase decisions of the consumers and the free gift scheme as
the t-value 2.03 is significant at 5% significance level. But results show that
there is no relationship between non spontaneous purchase decision and
other schemes like coupons, Rs. Off and contests because t-values are
insignificant at 5% level.

The results show that the t-values of free gift in of Table-4.6 is -1.77 for
spontaneous which is insignificant and it is 2.03 for non-spontaneous which
is significant indicate there is no relationship between spontaneous consumer
behaviour and free gifts. Consumers don‟t immediately go for shopping
when they are exposed to advertisements on different media.
The t-values for other schemes are insignificant. So there is no relationship
between non spontaneous consumer behaviour and other scheme like
coupon, contests and low price.
6 Impact of different media channels on customers’ perception about
deceptive advertisements.
One continuing manifestation of consumerism is the increase in legislative
and regulatory requirements for disclosure of product information. Such
disclosures range from nutrition labelling on foods to energy-efficiency
indices on appliances. The impact of this trend has been to complicate the act
of purchase (i.e., adding new dimensions of social and personal importance)
and to raise a major public policy question: To what extent will the
consumer actually use and thereby benefit from this information? Before it
can have any tangible and direct impact on consumer choice behaviour,
information must be acquired, perceived, comprehended and, in many cases,
placed into memory and successfully retrieved at some later point in time.
Thus, disclosure may have little, if any, impact if consumers fail to become
aware of and acquire this information.
Deception is involved when due to advertising (a) a consumer perceives a
claim (being explicitly or implicitly made by the advertiser) differently from
what it actually

is; (b) they buy the product under the influence of mistaken impression and
then suffer a loss as a consequence. Thus, either the claim itself could be
false or at least the impression being created is false.
In this objective an attempt was made to identify which media channel was
perceived as the major source of deceptive advertisements by the customers.
Whether Internet, TV, Newspaper or Radio. To anaylse this objective mean
values of customers perception was calculated for every respondent for the
statement 7.1 to 7.4 and then these mean values has been related with the
responses given by the respondents regarding Internet, TV, Newspaper and
Radio. Haefner (1972)28 focuses on consumer judgments of the
deceptiveness of the advertisement. Armstrong and Russ criticized this
approach as insufficient and logically deficient to detect the presence of
deception. Haefner, et al. (1974)29 examined what are the effects of the
variables like regular or reduced price, prominent or non prominent display
of product in an advertisement, frequent or infrequent advertising of the
product and type of product on price perception of advertised food items. A
total of 226 interviews were conducted as a basis for the research. The
results of this study showed that the respondents did not assume that
advertised items were reduced in price. It was alleged that ultimately the
consumers learnt how to read an advertisement as a result of this research. In
this Study deception was unrelated to other factors, a point not previously
acknowledged in the literature. It was cleared that subjects are perfectly able
to evaluate an ad in terms of a deceptive dimension and the researcher
suggest the term “perceived deception” when examined from this
perspective. An important limitation

of the study is that it required respondents to make a summary judgment of


the deceptiveness or non-deceptiveness of all advertisement. To analyse this
objective following hypothesis has been developed.
H7 Relationship between type of media i.e. TV, Internet, Newspaper, Radio
and deception communicated in advertisement.
To judge the impact of different types of media customers perception about
deceptive advertisements indicated in statements 7.1 to 7.4 was taken as
dependent variable and the type of media channels as independent variable.
The mean value of customers‟ perception about deceptive advertisements
was measured for these four statements to judge which media channel out of
TV, Internet, Newspaper and Radio is major source of deceptive
advertisements. For this multiple regression has been implemented.

Table-4.7

Relationship Between Type of Media and Deception Communicated in


Advertisement.

Regression t-value
coefficient

Internet .044 1.087

.075 1.751
TV
-.085 -2.003*
Newspaper

-.033 -0.778
Radio

*t-values at 5% significance level

According to the results shown in the table the t-values 1.751, -0.778
and1.087 of TV, Radio and Internet respectively are insignificant It depicts
the there is no relationship between deceptive advertisement on these media
and their reliability as well. Advertisements shown on TV and Internet are
generally deceptive, misleading, exaggerated and false as compared to the
advertisements communicated through Radio or in Newspaper. Further, the
products shown on TV and internet don‟t include what advertisements
claim. But such is not the case with advertisements aired on Radio or
published in Newspaper.
The table shows that t-value -2.003 of Newspaper is significant at 5%
significance level. It depicts the relationship between deceptive
advertisement on Newspaper and their reliability as well. So, it may be
inferred that Newspapers have no contents of deception in advertisements.
7 Perception of the Consumer about Price & Quality of the product as
shown in advertisements.
Though consumer perception of price, quality, and value are considered
pivotal determinants of shopping behaviour and product choice (Bishop
198430; Doyle 198431; Sawyer and Dickson 198432, Schlechter 198433),
research on these concepts and their linkages has provided few conclusive
findings. The negative relationship is a function of how advertising affects
demand for each firm‟s product. Increase in advertising have a first order
effect on the potential demand for each firm. The more consumers who have
seen a firm‟s advertising, the higher the potential demand for that firm. But
advertising affects the composition as well as the extent of demand. When
advertising levels are low, the vast majority of demand comes from partially

informed consumers. That is, consumers who have seen one firm's
advertising are unlikely to have seen advertising from the other. Each firm is
a de facto monopolist for the majority of consumers informed about its
product. As advertising levels increase, however, a greater fraction of
demand comes from consumers who are fully informed. At high advertising
levels, the majority of consumers have seen advertising from both firms. In
contrast to partially informed consumers, fully informed consumers compare
the attractiveness of each product (which is a function of each product‟s
location and price) and make decisions. As a result, the optimal price for this
group of consumers is different than the optimal price for consumers who are
partially informed. Research efforts have been criticized for inadequate
definition and conceptualization Zeithaml (1983)34, Inconsistent
measurement procedures Monroe and Krishnan (1985)35. One fundamental
problem limiting work in the area involves the meaning of the concept s:
quality and value are indistinct and elusive constructs that often are mistaken
for imprecise adjectives like “goodness, or luxury, or shininess, or weight”
Crosby (1979)36. Quality and value are not well differentiated from each
other and from similar constructs such as perceived worth and utility.
This objective tends to measures whether customers can perceive price and
quality of Product separately or not when exposed to advertisements which
depict both the attributes of products.
Two sample t-test was applied to examine whether individuals when exposed
to different advertisements showing price and quality of the product evaluate
it on these two attributes differently or considers them similar. For this the
following hypothesis has been developed:
Table-4.8

Customers’ Perception about Price and Quality of the Product as Shown


in Advertisements

Mean values Mean values

Statements Price Statements Quality

8.1 3.71 8.6 3.62

8.2 3.64 8.8 3.58

8.3 3.26 8.12 3.81

8.4 3.79 8.13 3.78

8.5 3.62 8.14 3.62

8.7 3.40 8.15 3.55

8.9 3.44 8.17 3.69

8.10 3.75 8.19 3.31

8.11 3.43

8.16 3.52

8.18 3.64

t-value = 0.461 at 5% significance level


As t-value 0.461was found to be insignificant so it can be concluded that at 5%
significant level enough evidence was not found to accept the formulated
hypothesis. Thus, results suggest that individuals do not comprehend difference
between price and quality of the product while evaluating them through
advertisements.
The results shows that the mean value of S8.1 is 3.71, so, the consumers are
willing to pay higher prices to buy better quality products. They do not
compromise on the price of product whether they are high or low. According to
the results of S8.4 the consumers are willing to pay higher prices for health
product. They do not in a state to compromise on the issue of their health. As
from the results of S8.10, we can interpret that at the time of shopping they
compare the prices so that they get the best value of money. The mean value of
S8.18 is 3.64 states that consumers search different stores to take the advantage
of low prices. The result of S8.5 shows that the consumers are aware about their
time and they want to save it by paying higher prices.
As from the results of S8.13 we can infer that consumers have high standards
and expectations on the quality of health food and beverages. According to the
results of S8.14 and S8.12 the consumers spend enough time and they are very
careful about the quality of Apparels and accessories.

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CHAPTER- VI

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS &


CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
The study was aimed at measuring the Customers’ Perception and Shopping
Behavior in Mega Retail Malls, the data is collected, analyzed and interpreted
used by some statistical tools like percentages, charts, two way table, Chi-
square table, multiple regression, factor analysis, Simple ANOVA, one-way
ANOVA.
5.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
According to the research analysis it has found that, majority (59.2%) of the
respondents’ age is below 30. It indicates more than half of the respondents are
young people. It is found that the fact of majority (50.6%) of the respondents is
male. It is observed that the fact of majority (51.6%) of the respondent’s
belongs to Karnataka. This indicates the participation more from Karnataka
people. From the marital status of the respondents it is observed equal
participation from married and single respondents. Out of 500 respondents 255
were married and 245 are single. It is observed that most of respondents are
268(53.6%) belongs to Post Graduate qualification It is evident that statuses of
167(33.4%) respondents are salaried people. It is observed from the analysis
that, the majority of respondents drown salary in between10,001 to 30,000
rupees. It is noted that the nearly half of the respondents 212 (42.4%) residence
were away from the mall is more than 5 km. 167 It is noted that the large
number of respondents were travel to malls by bike is 168(33.6%). The
majority of the respondents 214 (42.8%) visited the shopping malls once in a

203
month and their minimum purchase is 1001 to 2000.It is found that63.8% of the
respondents shopping time have1-3 hours. It has observed minimum two
people visited the shopping mall from same family (30.2%). It is evident that
29.8% of the respondents were expecting “quick service” and they preferred
low price for their shopping. It is concluded the people are “price conscious”. It
is concluded that there is a close relationship between the age of the
respondents and their level of satisfaction perceived in utilizing mega retail
malls It evident that the percentage of high level of customer satisfaction was
the highest (50.2%) among the male respondents also there is no close
relationship between the gender of the respondents and their level of
satisfaction perceived in utilizing mega retail malls. It is found from the out of
51.6% respondents are from Karnataka and out of it 53.7% are highly satisfied,
also there is a close relationship between the ethnic group of the respondents
and their level of satisfaction perceived in utilizing mega retail malls. The
study elucidates most of the respondents are 184 (59.2%) post graduate, they
are salaried and highly satisfied of mall services. It is concluded that there is a
close relationship between the minimum purchase amount of the respondents
and their level of satisfaction perceived in utilizing mega retail malls
It could be concluded from the above table that the percentage of high level of
satisfaction was the highest (73.3%) among the respondents spend the shopping
time is 1-3 hours. It is concluded that there is a close relationship between the
inducing factors of the respondents and their level of satisfaction perceived in
utilizing mega retail malls. The analysis indicates that the co efficient of
Customer satisfaction towards Quality Of Products, Shopping Offers, Post
Purchase Coupons, Funs And Games, Warranty And Guaranty ,Post Purchase
Coupons, All Products Available At One Roof. Factors in selecting the

204
particular factors fixing the influence on customer satisfaction towards their
shopping preference characteristics.
Customer satisfaction towards their shopping malls buying preferences. About
25.5% of the variation in the customer satisfaction is Quality Of Products,
Shopping Offers, Post Purchase Coupons, Funs And Games, Warranty And
Guaranty, Post Purchase Coupons, All Products Available At One Roof by of
the respondents. The multiple regression equation appears to be may be useful
for making predictions. At the 0.05 level of significance, there exists enough
evidence to conclude that at least one of the predictors is useful for predicting
profit margin; therefore the model us useful it shows that there is a significant
influence on customer satisfaction towards their shopping malls by the
respondents’ shopping preference characteristics About 68.2% of the variations
in the customer are satisfied using this customer satisfaction factors.
At the 0.05 level of significance, there exists enough evidence to conclude that
at least one of the predictors is useful for predicting profit margin; therefore the
model is useful. This concludes there is a close relationship between the Mall
attractiveness towards their shopping malls and the respondents’ shopping
preference characteristics. At the 0.05 level of significance, there exists enough
evidence to conclude that at least one of the predictors is useful for predicting
profit margin; therefore the model is useful. So There is a significant influence
on shopping behavior towards their shopping malls by the respondents’
shopping preference characteristics At the 0.05 level of significance, there
exists enough evidence to conclude that at least one of the predictors is useful
for predicting profit margin; therefore the model us useful. There is a significant
influence on visiting behavior towards their shopping malls by the respondents’
shopping preference characteristics Bartlett’s test is highly significant (p =
0.000 > 0.001), and therefore factor analysis is appropriate For these data,
205
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy value is 0.778, which falls
into the range of good adequacy; so, we should be confident that factor analysis
is appropriate for these data. From the analysis, it is inferred that the factor
analysis has been supported up to 51.629% in this study.
This is a good result and made the study reliable to the analysis. Also price is
the most important factor which explained 18.329% of the variation. Hence, the
researcher names this segment respondents are “Price Conscious Consumers”.
The researcher named “Entertainment Conscious Consumers”. In this segment
the researches took the four important variables such as Brand availability
(0.634), 170 Entertainment (0.685), funs and games (0.724), and products
available (0.701). These statements are embossed the entertainment oriented
The researches took the three important variables such as Mall(0.597), quality
product availability (0.837) and Offers (0.672). These statements show the
consumer’s product oriented issues.
Hence the researcher named as “Product Conscious Consumers”. The present
study has divided the consumer satisfaction into three categories. The
consumers were named the first factor as “Price Conscious Consumers”.,
second kind of consumers has been named as “Entertainment Conscious
Consumers”. The last category comes under “Product Conscious Consumers”.
Which is essential for every retailer to understand the buying behavior of the
consumer? There are 16 factors coming under this category; The factors are get
everything, international brands, no of national brands, good quality products,
service quality, reasonable prices, sales personnel behavior, stock availability,
safety measures, symbol of status, visit to mall, ATM, Banking facilities,
quality of multiplex theatre, children play area, purchase timing and emergency
gates. Are highly correlated with each other. This statement clearly shows the
customers expectation on “Mall image and convenience shopping”. Hence, the
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researcher names this segment respondents are “Mall Image &Convenience
Shopping Conscious Consumers”. The researches took the four important
variables such as feel lonely, stressed, get relaxation, avoid traffic, to escape
job. These statements are embossed the customers “relaxation” oriented. Hence
the researcher named as “Relaxation Conscious Consumers”.
In this segment the researches took the four important variables such as Crowd
less shopping, amusement center, relaxation place, movie theatre, restaurants,
and stores inside. These statements may be taken as amusement related
category. Hence these consumers may be taken as “Amusement Conscious
Consumers” In this segment the researches took the three important variables
such as pleasant music, pleasure fragrance, lighting arrangements. These
consumers come under artistic design related consumers. Hence these
consumers may be taken as “artistic design Conscious Consumers “The
researches took the three important variables such as Nearer to home, parking
area and shopping hours.. These statements are embossed the customers
“convenience” oriented. Hence the researcher named as “convenience
Conscious Consumers”. The researches took the three important variables such
as Pleasant music, pleasure fragrance, lighting arrangements. These consumers
come under artistic design related consumers. Hence these consumers may be
taken as “artistic design Conscious Consumers” The researches took the three
important variables such as Design of mall, internal color, and quality of
structure. These factors come under mall attractiveness. Hence these consumers
may be taken as “mall attractiveness Conscious Consumers” The researches
took the three important variables such as Discount offers, hunting for bargains,
and low price for price of good. This consumer comes under economy shopping
consumers. Hence these consumers may be taken as “economy shopping
Conscious Consumers”.
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5.2 SHOPPING BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS INSIGHTS
Although most of what we do is confidential to our clients, the contents of this
page may make you reconsider how much you can benefit from our shopping
behavior analysis. More than 70% of purchasing decisions are made in-store
Most shopping is significantly influenced by habits, conditioning and culture
Many aspects of shopping become grouped as single scripted behavior’s:
activities that are as automatic as shaking hands or folding your arms Without
any emotional influence, the working memory discards and forgets
information in less than 18 seconds Shoppers use multi-sensory cues with
which to evaluate and select or reject products We have developed a unique
range of research methodologies including filming based shopping behavior
analysis, unique interviewing techniques and Unaccompanied shops.
Our objectives are to provide the best research solutions through more
meaningful analysis. This in part comes from making sure we get the best raw
data from shoppers with which to carry out our specialist in-depth analysis.
Contact us for more information.
5.3 SUGGESTIONS
Based on the analysis and interpretations, the research offers the suitable
suggestions to improve the performance of mega retail malls among the urban
customers. They are The mall are expecting the heavy purchase and
concentrating only highly salaried persons, they should also give equal priority
to all shoppers. Most of the shoppers are student’s spicily teen age people, so
they should give importance to all age group people by using some attraction
methods, so they can improve the sales. It is observed that most of the malls in
Bangalore are having inadequate space for parking. This makes the four
wheeler riders to think about the competitor store. Most of the malls are issues

208
the loyalty card to their customers. But surprisingly they fail in attracting and
retaining their customers. it is found that CRM program is not executed
properly also lacing of attraction factors. Mega Retailing mall shoppers want to
shop convenient place, but the mall peoples only concentrate branded products
they can also give equal priority to get all local food and grocery products.
Hence, malls are advised to have more number of local formats.
Today the mall shoppers are waiting in long queue in the counters. Hence, it is
suggested can built more number of counters especially in holidays. This is
perceived that Shoppers need more number of entertainment games for all time
with different age groups people. Supply chain and customer relations followed
by merchandising, facilities management, and vendor development are areas
which have significant gaps and proactive training is a key imperative for out
coming these. Based on the wages, the mall employees are moving one to
another shopping place ,it is suggested that the employer should follow the
standard time and wage scheme for that the regular customer can satisfy the
practiced employees. To improve the sales It is suggest that all the offers should
include in the advertisement time then it is easy for the shoppers while doing
shopping. it is very important one to satisfy the customer.

5.4 CONCLUSION
The study has been a rewarding, in the sense that it has assessed the customer’s
perception and shopping behavior of mall shoppers. Today, shopping is an
integral part of life for every individual. Mall retailing is retrievably of recent in
India and therefore the result of the present study is very relevant to the present
day developments happening in the mall retailing sector. A mall shopping
Centre succeeds because enclosed within a large structure using a slogan “all
under one roof”. The findings and suggestions have been written after analyzing
209
the customer’s perception and behavior of mall shoppers. Most of the
middleclass peoples are economically growing the next level this is the base for
increasing the shopper’s behavior. Based on the expectations of the mall
shoppers the mall managers can offer various entertainment aspects to their
customers. The concept of mall shopping emerged from western countries and
it is well established in developing countries. It is the one of the fastest growing
sector also helps it boost the economic growth of our country India. In such a
situation the retail industry is the next booming industry of the Indian economy.
Therefore to achieve more success the retiling companies need to invest more
money, they improve infrastructural facilities it should be vigilant of the
fluctuations market operations. This study is highly relevant to the mall
managers to serve better to frequent mall shoppers, the researcher shall fell that
the work she has undertaken has not been in vain.

5.5. FUTURE LINE OF RESEARCH


The study can be conducted among rural consumer to understand their behavior
through big departmental stores. The same study can be conduct in various
cities of our nations. The present study can be made under various retail
segments to know the perception and level of satisfaction among the consumer.

210
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