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At the Forefront of Green

Engine Technology
The MAN B&W ME-GI and ME-LGI dual fuel concepts

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5
A quick tour of the technological differences between
the GI and LGI concept.............................................................................. 5
The fuel supply systems................................................................................ 6
The fuel injection systems.............................................................................. 6
Conclusion.................................................................................................... 8
List of definitions/abbreviations...................................................................... 9
References................................................................................................... 9

At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology 3

At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology

Today the choice of engine technology the fuels for the GI/GIE and LGI engine the important common denomina-
is most often based on estimated fuel types contain sulphur, simply because tor for the GI and LGI engines also
cost, the availability of the fuel and the it is not present or it is only present in when running on natural gas (NG) and
implementation of still more strict SOX small amounts which are removed in LFL. Both engine types are based on
and NOx emission regulations world- order to avoid corrosion. This makes principles from the two-stroke engine
wide. The demand for optimisation the fuel suitable for voyages passing operated on MDO or HFO, where the
of the energy efficiency design index through SECA areas, and it also lowers fuel is injected and burned directly
(EEDI) in order to limit CO2 emission is the emission of CO2 since burning of as opposed to the premixed or Otto
also an important factor [1,2]. low carbon fuels generates less CO2. type combustion. In the latter air and
fuel are premixed at a lower tempera-
In response to this MAN Diesel & A quick tour of the technological ture and pressure and subsequently
Turbo (MDT) has added another green differences between the GI and LGI compressed in the cylinder and ignited
engine to their engine portfolio, the concept by a spark or pilot fuel oil injection. The
ME-LGI (liquid gas injection) engine. major challenge is premature ignition
The engine is based on decades of The MAN B&W ME-LGI engine is the or engine knocking and the restrictions
research and experience from the ME- dual fuel solution for low flashpoint it has on the engine design (e.g. gas
GI (gas injection) and the well-proven liquid fuels (LFL) as opposed to the quality, strict control with the air/fuel
ME-engine. The first commercial two- ME-GI engine where the fuel is injected ratio and limitations on compression
stroke dual fuel ME-GI marine engine in the gaseous state, see Table 1. ratio).
was ordered in 2013, but the research
that eventually led to this engine The GI and LGI engines can be deliv- The ME-GI and ME-LGI engines are
began in the 1990s at the MDT Diesel ered in different versions depending able to run 100% maximum continu-
Research Centre in Copenhagen. At on the desired fuel type. Although, ous rating (MCR) on NG and LFL/HFO/
the time of writing, 142 ME-GI and the state and type of the fuel dictates MDO, respectively, and also burn any
eight GIE (gas injection ethane) en- some differences in technology, the GI ratio of NG or LFL and fuel. The mini-
gines are either in the MDT order book and LGI engine principles rest on the mum pilot oil percentage is 5% when
or installed onboard. Tests on the first shoulders of the ME engine. Another the engine is running on methanol. The
commercial LGI engine on methanol option is that it is possible to retrofit ME-GI engine is started on diesel and
which demonstrated the liquid gas existing two-stroke engines to GI or at 10% engine load a changeover to
injection concept took place in 2015 in LGI service. gas operation can take place. Thus,
Japan. At the time of writing the MDT the GI and LGI versions of the marine
order book counts nine of these en- The principle of non-premixed com- engines offer the ship owners a high
gines, where two are options. None of bustion or diesel type combustion is degree of fuel flexibility [3].

GI-engine The GI engine runs on metha- Methane/ethane stored as

versions and ne (CH4) and the GIE engine a supercooled (cryogenic)
designations on ethane (C2H6). The gas is liquid, i.e. liquefied natural gas
delivered in pipeline or stored (LNG).
as compressed natural gas
(CNG) in high-pressure tanks.

LGI-engine The LGIM engine runs on Ethanol (C2H5OH) Dimethylether (DME, C2H6O) The LGIP engine runs on
versions and methanol (CH3OH). liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
designations or volatile organic compounds
(VOC) from crude oil. LPG is
a mixture of propane, butane
and isobutane.

Table 1: An overview of the GI/LGI engines, designations and fuel types

At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology 5

Besides, both engine series are Tier III 2) A fuel chain supply pipe arrange- 3) A combination of the above.
NOx compliant, with the internal engine ment and a fuel injection system. The
process EGR (exhaust gas recircula- main valve train also provides the One of the options for a fuel sup-
tion) or the SCR (selective catalytic possibility to purge the system with an ply system for the LGI engine is the
reduction) after-treatment method, and inert gas, often N2. low flashpoint liquid supply system
Tier III SOx compliant in combination (LFLSS). This is a conventional circula-
with an exhaust gas cleaning system The detailed layout of the fuel supply tion fuel oil system as it is known
(EGCS) or operation on low-sulphur system depends on the type of ship from the ME engine, where the fuel
fuels (0.1 % or less) as main or pilot and the type of storage system. oil is supplied from a service tank and
oil [1]. subsequently boosted to the engine
The first major difference between supply pressure, e.g. up to 50 bar
The fuel supply systems the GI and LGI fuel system is found when running on methanol.
In principle the overall fuel system de- in the fuel supply systems, which
sign of GI and LGI engines have many deliver fuel to the engine within the The fuel injection systems
similarities, but differences exist when requirements to temperature, flow The high-pressure gas is supplied to
it comes to differences in fuel proper- and pressure. The GI engine requires the GI engine through the main valve
ties, see Table 2, for example gas a supply pressure of 300 bar or train or gas valve train and double-
versus liquid and the different specific higher, as opposed to the LGI engine, walled and ventilated fuel gas pipes in
chemical properties of the various which only requires up to 50 bar the engine room. The double-walled
types of fuel. Compared to diesel, the supply pressure. The exact numbers pipes are ventilated by continuously
viscosity of LFL and NG fuel is much depend on the type of fuel and the exchanging and monitoring the air in
lower, hence lubrication of the moving specific operation point of the engine. the space between the inner and outer
parts is necessary. The highly pressurised gas for the GI pipe. A gas leakage test is performed
engine may be supplied in different on the ventilated air by checking for
The GI and LGI dual fuel systems can ways, two of which are: hydrocarbons. In the event that a
be divided into: leakage is detected, a fuel switch to
1) A compressor solution if the natural heavy fuel oil takes place. Thanks to
1) An auxiliary system consisting of gas is available as gas (CNG) or a the double-wall design and con-
bunker tanks, the fuel gas/LFL sup- pipeline solution. stant monitoring of the fuel pipes,
ply system and the main valve train, the GI and LGI engine rooms can be
where the latter provides a separation 2) A cryogenic pump and vaporizer designed as ordinary engine rooms
of the fuel supply and fuel injection solution if the gas is available as LNG according to the IMO regulation
system on the engine. [3]. “Gas safe machinery” [3]. The safety

Fuel LPG Methanol Ethanol DME Ethane Methane Diesel

Lower heating value (MJ/kg) 46 19.9 27 28.7 47 50 42.7

Boiling temperature (°C at 1 bar) -43-(-1) 65 78 -24.9 -89.0 -162 180-360

Kinematic viscosity (cSt at 20°C) 0.17-0.24 0.74 1.2 0.2 0.18 0.12 2.5-3.0

447 @ T=60°C, 189 @T=50°C,

Liquid density (kg/m3) 455-550 796 794 670 P=510 bar P=300 bar 840

Vapour pressure (bar @ 20°C) 2.2-8.5 0.13 0.059 5.3 37.6 Not defined <1

Critical temperature (°C) 97-152 239.4 241 127 32.2 -82.6 435

Table 2: Fuel properties for LFLs, gaseous fuels and diesel

6 At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology

Three gas injection
valves and three
pilot fuel valves
system makes it possible to purge
the fuel system with N2 before and
after operating the engine on gas and
in the event of gas operation failures.
Besides, the fuel gas and LFL supply
system can be pressurised with N2 to
test for leakages. control
The LFLSS for the ME-LGI engine has
been designed in a similar way with a
fuel valve train, a chain pipe LFL sup-
ply system, double-walled and venti-
lated pipes with HC sensors and also
a safety level switch to indicate a LFL
leakage. A feature has been added to
the LFL drain system; the drain piping
in the engine room has been arranged
in a manner that enables gravitational
purging to the service tank. This first
draining of the system is always fol- Supply chain pipe
lowed by purging with N2.
Figure 1: Shows the cylinder cover of the ME-GI engine with supply chain pipe, gas control block, three
For the ME-GI engine the high-pressure gas injection valves and three pilot fuel valves.

gas is distributed via the chain pipe gas

supply system to the gas control blocks of the maximum combustion pressure hydraulic oil to the gas injection valves
on each cylinder (common rail injection has shown, so far, that the timing of to cause these to open.
type). To minimise the effect of pres- pilot oil injection should be identical
sure surges, the gas control blocks are for the engines as well. For safety reasons the window/shut-
equipped with an accumulator volume. down valve is placed in series with
The injection principle constitutes the A vital part of the injection system is the gas injection valves; this ensures
second major difference between the the gas control block, which communi- that the ELGI valve does not supply
GI and the LGI engine which will be cates a safe administration and correct gas to the engine outside the proper
explained in more detail later in the timing of gas to the engine from the timing window. In the event of a gas
paper. Depending on the engine type engine control system. The control shutdown, the ELWI will block the
the cylinder cover of the GI engine block contains two hydraulically actu- gas supply to the injector valves. The
(see Fig. 1) is equipped with two or ated valves: two hydraulic valves are electronically
three gas injection valves and two or controlled by the gas injection engine
three pilot fuel valves. Internal bores in 1) an electronic window/shut-down control system (GI-ECS).
the cylinder cover leads the gas from valve (ELWI – electronic window) which
the gas control block to the gas injec- sets up a timing window in which the When the ELGI valve causes the gas
tion valves. GI and LGI engines use highly pressurised gas is allowed to injectors to open, a gas jet is injected
the conventional ME fuel system and flow to the gas injectors into the combustion chamber at a
fuel injection valves for both the main high pressure (methane 300 bar and
fuel injection and also the pilot oil in- 2) an electronic gas injection valve ethane 400 bar). The gas jet is ignited
jection. Research involving evaluation (ELGI), which admits high-pressure by injecting a small amount of fuel oil

At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology 7

Two FBIVs and two
pilot fuel valves

GI control block

oil before LFL injection. To summarise

(see Table 3): The GI engine is of the
common rail injection type where the
pressure in the supply system and ac-
cumulators are constantly equal to the
injection pressure. The gas injection
valves are opened with hydraulic oil,
whereas in the LGI engine the injection
pressure is generated in the fuel oil
booster injection valves.

Supply chain pipe

The GI-ECS and LGI-ECS systems are
add-ons integrated with the standard
Figure 2: Shows the cylinder cover of the ME-LGI engine with supply chain pipe, LGI control block,
electronic engine control system (ECS)
two FBIVs and two pilot fuel valves. of the ME engine. The GI-ECS controls
the gas injection and the handling of
(pilot oil) before the gas injection. This provides sealing oil to the window gas on the engine and in the machine
pilot oil is used to control the ignition of valve and the fuel gas injection room, and similarly with the LGI-ECS.
fuel oil and gas. valves.
The technological differences between
The timing of gas and LFL injection is The cylinder cover of the LGI engine the LGI and GI engine are summarised
identical for the GI and the LGI engine, (see Fig. 2) is equipped with the LGI in Table 3.
whereas the nozzle design and injection control block, two or three fuel boost-
profiles differ for the two fuel types. The er injector valves (FBIV), mounted in Conclusion
optimised gas/LFL injection profiles and bushings, and two or three pilot oil The ME-GI engine, the GI-ECS system
injection directions are determined by injectors depending on the engine and related auxiliary systems have
running tests and simulations where the size. The LFL control block contains been approved by the classifica-
temperature of the piston, cylinder liner the pilot control valves for the win- tion societies. Besides, the ME-GI
and exhaust valve are monitored and dow/shutdown valve similar to the GI has proven its green value and the
evaluated. The aim is to keep vital indi- system and the pilot control valve for combustion optimisation results show
cators of the combustion process (i.e. LFL injection (ELFI-L – electronic fuel a NOx emission level comparable to
the maximum pressure and heat release injection - liquid). The ELBI valve sets that of an engine running on diesel,
rate) the same for the ME, ME-GI and up the timing window and the ELFI-L however, with a lower specific gas fuel
LGI engine. controls the supply of hydraulic oil to consumption (SGFC) on gas.
the fuel oil pressure booster, where
Another vital system, the sealing oil sys- the hydraulic oil via a piston generates Since the SOx emission level depends
tem, prevents pollution of the hydraulic the injection pressure. The LFL is also on the fuel oil quality and pilot oil con-
oil with fuel gas. The sealing oil system ignited by injecting pilot sumption, the difference in emissions

8 At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology

GI-engine LGI-engine
FGSS, a high pressure supply system LFLSS, a lower pressure supply system

High pressure common rail gas supply system (CR) Lower pressure chain pipe supply system

On-off control oil valves Proportional control oil valves

Additional drain pipe arrangement

ELWI, timing window valve
ELBI, timing window valve

ELGI, electronic gas injection ELFI, electronic fuel injection (timing and admission of hydraulic oil to FBIV,
(timing and opening of the gas injection valve) injection pressure is generated inside the FBIV)

Sealing oil system Sealing oil system

Slide type pilot oil injectors and regular gas injectors Slide type FBIV and pilot oil valves

Start-up on gas and pilot oil Start-up on LFL and pilot oil

Table 3: The technological differences between the LGI and GI engine

between the GI and LGI engine are by Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. This ship References
negligible. The PM emissions of the GI together with sister vessels with LGI 1. Emission Project Guide, MAN Two-
engine are lower than when running on engines will enter service April 2015. stroke Marine Engines, MDT 7020-
diesel. The PM emissions of the LGI 145-04
engine have not been measured yet, List of definitions/abbrevations
but a similar reduction is expected. CNG: compressed natural gas 2. Reduction of SO2, NOx and Par-
EEDI: energy efficiency design index ticulate Matter from Ships with Diesel
The first container ship in the world EGCS: exhaust gas cleaning system Engines, The Danish Environmental
with an engine running on LNG is EGR: exhaust gas recirculation Protection Agency
powered by an MAN B&W ME-GI dual ELBI: electronic block injection
fuel engine. The ship, the MV Isla Bella ELFI-L: electronic fuel injection - liquid
(owned by Totem Ocean Trailer Ex- ELGI: electronic gas injection mst/94630/MAN_AlfaLaval_Projektrap-
press (TOTE)), was launched in 2015. ELWI: electronic window port_260813.pdf
FBIV: fuel booster injection valve
Recently, the two MAN B&W S70ME- FGSS: fuel gas supply system 3. Lars R. Juliussen, Michael Kryger
C HFO-burning engines of the LNG LFL: low flashpoint liquid and Stefan Mayer, The MAN ME-GI
carrier the MV Rasheeda (owned by LFLSS: low flashpoint liquid supply engine: From initial system considera-
the company Nakilat of Qatar) have system tion to implementation and perfor-
been converted to the dual-fuel ME-GI LNG: liquefied natural gas mance optimization, CIMAC Congress
concept. SCR: selective catalytic reduction 2013, paper no. 424

The first commercial ME-LGI engine

(7S50ME-B9.3-LGI) was running on
methanol during a demonstration in
Japan. During the demonstration, a
changeover from DO to methanol was
carried out and the load was increased
to 50-75 % followed by load variations
and finally a changeover to DO. The
engine is bound for a vessel owned

At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology 9

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. Copyright © MAN Diesel & Turbo.
5510-0178-00ppr Apr 2016 Printed in Denmark

MAN Diesel & Turbo

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