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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


WRITING 1. Expose Yourself to New Things

Through reading, you expose yourself to new things, new
information, new ways to solve a problem, and new ways to
achieve one thing. Who knows – you might find your new
hobbies within it. Exploration begins from reading and

R eading is the process of looking at a series of written

symbols and getting meaning from them. When we read,
we use our eyes to receive written symbols (letters,
punctuation marks and spaces) and we use our brain to convert
2. Self Improvement
Through reading, you begin understand the world more.
Through reading, you begin to have a greater understanding on
them into words, sentences and paragraphs that communicate a topic that interest you; for example: how to build self
something to us. confidence, how to make plan better before taking action, how
to memorize things better and more.
Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding
symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading 3. Improve Understanding
comprehension). Reading is a means of language acquisition, of The more you read, the more you understand one thing: the
communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all A to Z of a thing. Let me give an example here: reading allows
languages, it is a complex interaction between the text and the you learn more about crocodiles and their habits. That you need
to be aware of places it usually lurks for, the purpose of staying
reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge,
away from being harmed or bitten.
experiences, attitude, and language community which is
culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires 4. Preparation to Action
continuous practice, development, and refinement. In addition, Reading is an essential way which can help you out. In today’s
reading requires creativity and critical analysis. world, getting reviews and feedback from other people can
make a big impact on your next decision, and the pros and cons
Reading literacy is the ability to use the symbols of a of each choice. Read about how to cook a meal; how to play
writing system. It is the ability to interpret what the information chess; which place is nice for the holiday family trip; read the
symbols represent, and to be able to re-create those same menu before ordering food, read the manual before using a new
gadget. These all can help you become more prepared before
symbols so that others can derive the same meaning. Illiteracy is
you really get into it.
not having the ability to derive meaning from the symbols used
in a writing system.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

5. Gain Experience from Other People TECHNIQUES IN SELECTING AND

When you are reading, you are actually gaining the knowledge ORGANIZING INFORMATION
and experience of someone. It can hasten your success towards
a goal, as you don’t need to repeat the same mistake while
focusing on the right path in achieving one thing. It’s like a BRAINSTORMING
mountain of gems for you to discover in books, which contain – one of the better and more popular methods of discovering
people’s successes, failures and advice. your writing topic. All you need to do is begin at the top of a
sheet paper and list down everything that comes into your mind
6. Tools of Communicating as fast as you can for a certain amount of time (say, five
Through reading, you build a more solid foundation for minutes, for example). The aim of the brainstoring exercise is
communication. It is one of the most important tools we use not to produce a logical flow of ideas but to provide yourself
every day to connect with each other. Whereas if you don’t with as many choices for your topic as possible.
read, you can’t even connect with the world and what people Example of Brainstorming List:
are talking about out there, including understanding what this
article is all about. Reading connects you with the world.  Southeast Asia  Hatred of Science and
 Superheroes: Iron Man, Math
7. Connecting Your Brain Captain America, Hulk  Jose Rizal dying at Luneta
When reading, you’re in full silence  Eating halo-halo on April Park
because reading connects directly to Morning  Basketball is better than
your brain. In silence, you seek for  White Beaches in Boracay volleyball
more; in silence, your brain is clear  Taylor Swift, Demi  K to 12 Education in
and focuses. Thus, you learn and Lovato, Miley Cyrus Philippine High Schools
grow, and therefore you feel and see  Patintero  Defense of the Ancients II
from the point of view of the author about everything in life.  The Parable of the (DOTA II)
Hence you shape a better self. Prodigal Son  Life in Outer Space
 Buying my first ever  Grandparents who live in
8. Boost Imagination and Creativity cellphone Ilocos Norte
 Fear of cockroaches  Tikbalang
Reading exposes you to a world of imagination, showing you
nothing is impossible in this world. By reading, you are
exploring a different angle to see a thing you’ve known, on how After listing all your ideas, browse through them and
different action leads to different results. Books are beyond pick the one that best appeals to you, or the one you know best.
imagination. It’s like a huge spider web, where you keep linking You will be surprised at how broad your selection of topics can
to more and more to things you knew, and things you just learn, be, about how much you actually already knew. You can also
structuring new solutions and answers. try to connect your ideas, and see what meaning you can create.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


a tool that shows all possible
logical relations between a
A graphic organizer is a visual display that demonstrates finite collection of sets. From
relationships between facts, concepts or ideas. A graphic the classroom to the
organizer guides the learner’s thinking as they fill in and build boardroom, a venn diagram
upon a visual map or diagram. They are also informally used as graphic organizer is
a term to describe all visual learning strategies such as concept something that can be
mapping, webbing, mind mapping, and more. regarded as being a useful tool.
1. With STORYBOARD templates, you get a visual organizer 4. MIND MAP is a versatile tool which is widely used by
which helps students students for note taking,
work together on brainstorming, studying,
writing to understand memorizing, planning and
and remember the story structuring information.
better. It’s great for The truth is that, mind
discussing story maps help clarify students'
structures and exploring ideas in pretty much
the varied ways in anything.
which the author works
with time. 5. PERSUASION MAP is quite an effective tool which
assists students map out their arguments for a persuasive
2. KWL CHART (‘Know-Wonder-Learn’) – is divided into debate or essay.
three columns. The first column, 'K', is to note down the
points for what the students already know about a topic
before reading. The next
column, 'W', is for
students to list what
they want to learn about
the topic before reading.
The last column, 'L', is
for what the students
learned about the topic
from the reading.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

CHART, the students are
expected to write the topic in
Topic outline arranges your ideas hierarchically
discussion in the centre circle
(showing which are main and which are sub-points), in the
and the details in the smaller
sequence you want, and shows what you will talk about. As the
surrounding circles.
name implies, it identifies all the little mini-topics that your
paper will comprise, and shows how they relate.

7. ISP Chart (Information- Sources-Page) This chart would I. Family Problems

come in handy for students who are trying to compile the
list of references for any project or thesis they are working A. Custodial: Non-custodial Conflicts
B. Extended Family
C. Adolescent's Age
II. Economic Problems
A. Child Support
B. Women's Job Training
C. Lower Standard of Living
D. Possible Relocation
8. The FISHBONE DIAGRAM identifies many possible
causes for an effect or 1. Poorer Neighborhood
problem. It can be 2. New School
used to structure a
brainstorming session. III. Peer Problems
It immediately sorts
ideas into useful A. Loss of Friends
B. Relationships with Dates

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


A rhetorical mode is a strategy--a way or method of
A sentence outline does all of this, plus it shows exactly presenting a subject—through writing or speech. Some of the
what you will say about each mini-topic. Each sentence, instead better known rhetorical modes are, for example, "argument" and
of simply identifying a mini-topic, is like a mini-thesis "cause and effect." There are literally dozens, perhaps
statement about that mini-topic. It expresses the specific and hundreds, of strategies or methods for presenting subjects;
complete idea that that section of the paper will cover as part of however, the modes are among the most basic.
proving the overall thesis.

I. When family conflicts arise as a result of divorce, adolescents suffer.

A. During the first year, these young people may be depressed due to "Narration" or a "narrative" provides details of what
conflicts between the custodial and non-custodial parents. happened. It is almost like a list of events in the order that they
B. Grandparents, aunts, and uncles are often restricted by visitation happened, except that it is written in paragraph form. A
provisions. narration or narrative doesn't have to show any cause and effect;
C. Almost without exception, adolescents find divorce very painful, it only needs to show what happened in the order that it
but they react in differing degrees depending on their age. happened. History books are filled with narrations. For
II. Some of the most negative effects on adolescents may be associated example, if I were to describe the visit of the Pope to Denver in
with economic problems.
A. The family will most probably experience a lower standard of 1993, I would use his itinerary and give details of each major
living due to the cost of maintaining two households. event in that visit. If I were writing a book about it, I would give
B. Some female custodial parents have poor job skills and must train details of many of the more interesting minor events as well. I
before entering the job market. would do this in the order in which they occurred: first the Pope
C. The lower standard of living may result in misunderstanding and did this, then he did that, and then he did a third thing.
conflicts within the family. As with other rhetorical modes, narration often is used
D. The decreased standard of living, particularly for an untrained
female custodial parent, often causes relocation.
in a context shorter than an entire paper. More commonly, you
1. The family may have to move to a poorer neighborhood in may need to explain a sequence of events, event by event, in
order to cut costs. just a paragraph or two when you are writing a longer paper for
2. As a result, the adolescent may have to attend a different some other purpose: if you need to give a long example of one
school. or two paragraphs, this example might, perhaps, be in story
III. Adolescents from divorced families often experience peer problems. form--in the order in which events happened. This would be a
A. Due to relocation and prejudice, adolescents may short narration. Any other time as well that you write about
lose friends.
B. The lack of a solid relationship with both parents
events in the order in which they happened, you are using
affects an adolescent's attitude toward the opposite narration.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


"Description" means "illustrative detail." A description

paper often takes a person or object and then describes that This section describes how to start an "extended
person or thing in great illustrative detail. For example, a definition." An extended definition simply defines a subject in
description paper about a close friend might describe his or her a fuller or more extended--more thorough--way than does a
appearance, her actions, and her personality, both through direct dictionary. Typically an extended definition has a brief
descriptive words--like paintings of her in different situations-- introductory paragraph of a few sentences, a body of one or
and through stories or vignettes showing him in action. It is several paragraphs, and a brief concluding paragraph. Assume,
important to e thorough--to provide plenty of details. Often it is when you write an extended definition, that you are defining
helpful to use one or more plans or systems of description. One something for a student or perhaps a foreigner who never has
typical plan is to move in a specific direction: e.g., from head to heard the term before.
foot when describing a person, or perhaps clockwise when
describing a room or place. The exact direction or order does To write an extended definition, start with an
not matter as long as you are consistent. Another system is to introductory paragraph first. Write it in just two or three
use the five senses to describe; still another, is to use the five sentences as if it were a dictionary definition. A good
W's of journalism by answering the questions "Who, What, dictionary definition has the following parts:
Where, When, and Why or How?" When you describe a subject
that moves--a person or moving object--it is wise to describe 1. the exact term (the who or what) being defined,
not only its appearance when standing still, but also its 2. its classification--the class or group of people, events,
movement. In fact, whenever you write a description paper, it or things to which it belongs, and
is wise to include as much action as possible: to make your 3. a brief summarizing description of the term.
readers see a movie whenever possible, and not just a painting
or drawing.
Definition is a rhetorical mode that can be used in
This rhetorical mode is very common in shorter form, as something smaller or shorter than a full paper. You can use
well. When someone writes a story, for example, whether he or extended definition for several paragraphs only in a paper of
she is a famous story writer or a simple school child, he will use much greater length. You also can add to a paper a one-
two main rhetorical modes: narration (the giving of a series of paragraph definition--like a brief encyclopedia definition. And
events, as above) and description. Even business reports must you can use a short definition, dictionary style, in many types of
sometimes use description to provide an accurate and full writing situations that call for just a sentence or two of
account of the appearance of something. Description plays an definition.
especially important part in the teaching of writing, as writing
instructors usually want their students to learn to write in great
detail--the more specifics, the better.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


"Exemplification" means "the giving of an example." An "Comparison/contrast" means to show how subjects are
exemplification paper usually starts with a main idea, belief, or alike and/or different. A simple comparison/contrast paper often
opinion--something abstract--and then gives one extended has two subjects and describes how they are alike and then how
example or a series of shorter examples to illustrate that main they differ. For example, a comparison/contrast paper on two
idea. In fact, an exemplification paper is a paper that illustrates forms of weekend entertainment, camping and dancing, might
an abstract idea. For example, if I wished to write an first give details on how both can involve physical skills,
exemplification paper about "The Opposite Sex--Problems and friends, and enjoying sounds and sights; then the paper might
Pleasures" (as a man or as a woman), there might be two ways I give details of how camping and popular dancing differ in that
could go about this. One would be, after introducing my general one happens in nature and the other in the midst of civilization,
idea, to tell several little stories about--give examples of--how one usually is slow and quiet and the other often fast and loud,
the opposite sex can be both a problem to deal with and a and one peaceful while the other is rousing.
pleasure to be with. In academic writing, comparison/contrast writing
sometimes is used to show how two related viewpoints--two
A typical short exemplification paper is written like ideas or opinions--can be similar but different: for example, in
most of the other rhetorical-modes paper. It usually starts with the abortion controversy, some people believe that abortions are
a single introductory paragraph that briefly defines your subject wrong; others believe that artificial birth control is wrong.
and states what you will do in the paper--exemplify. Then there These two positions are similar, but they also are different--
are one or two to many paragraphs offering one or more leading to different arguments and different results at times.
extended examples of your subject. Finally, there is a brief Comparison/contrast also can be useful in analyzing an author's
closing paragraph restating what your subject is and offering argument by comparing it to someone else's argument (yours or
some kind of final brief, strong example or some other kind of another author's), showing points of similarity and points of
interesting ending. Your audience is anyone who might only difference.
have a partial understanding of the subject and to whom an
example would be helpful: in fact, you choose your examples Comparison and contrast both are commonly used in
partly by deciding what the audience will easily understand. short form in many other types of papers, too. For example,
you must use comparison and contrast to define something (see
Shorter versions of this rhetorical mode exist, as do the "Extended Definition": you show what the subject is like; then
others, within the space of a few paragraphs, one paragraph, or you show how it differs or contrasts from others like it). You
even as part of a larger paragraph. Exemplification simply also use comparison anytime you explain that something is
means to give an example of a subject, and it is possible to do "like" something else; likewise, you use contrast whenever you
this in as little as a sentence. want to show how something is different.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


"Cause and effect" simply means that you start with a An "argument" is, simply, an educated guess or opinion,
subject (an event, person, or object) and then show the causes not a simple fact. It is something debatable: "Men have walked
(reasons) for it, and/or the effects (results) of it. "Cause" means on the moon" is a fact, but "People will walk on Venus in the
the reasons why or for something, or the source of something. next ten years" is an opinion. Anything that reasonably can be
"Effects" simply are results or outcomes. Cause-and-effect debated is an argument. A simple argument paper usually
writing shows a chain of connected events, each the logical presents a debatable opinion and then offers supports in favor of
result of the one before it. A simple cause-and-effect paper it, or sometimes an argument paper will discuss both sides of an
discusses the chain of events related to a person, event, or issue and then give good reasons for choosing one side over the
object, showing what are the causes and what are the results. other. For example, a paper about space flight might argue that
For example, a paper about a solar car might describe how it humans should not spend large sums of money in sending
came to be built by an inventor and how he first became people into space. The paper might then argue that three good
interested in solar cars (the causes), and what the results of this reasons this is true is that there are many poor on our planet, on
solar car might be--how its existence might lead people to take whom our resources should be spent, that space flight is not as
energy efficiency and environmental concerns more seriously enlightening for humankind as increasing literacy or cultural
and even lead to mass-produced solar cars (effects or results). awareness, and that most of he money being spent on space is
for military purposes, which is useless. Another type of
Typically a cause-and-effect paper has an introductory argument paper might ask the main idea as a question: "Should
paragraph defining or clarifying the subject itself, and stating the human race spend large sums of money to send people into
the nature of the paper (i.e., that your paper is a cause-and- space?" Then it might argue both sides thoroughly and, finally,
effect paper); a body of several to many paragraphs; and a brief choose one side and give strong reasons why this side is best.
concluding paragraph. Assume, when you write a cause-and-
effect paper, that you are explaining events to someone who As with all the other modes, argument is a thinking
may know a little about them but never has heard the entire pattern or skill that is used in a number of types of college
story of how the events are linked by logical cause and effect. papers in shorter form. You will find it in any sentence,
paragraph, or section of a paper in which an opinion is
At the end of your cause-and-effect paper, add a final, expressed, especially when one or more supporting reasons are
concluding paragraph. It should summarize, very briefly, the given for the opinion. Argument is one of the most basic forms
most important cause and effect concerning your subject. And of human thinking. When you use argument, you rise above the
it might offer a final interesting thought or two about the mere offering of a personal opinion precisely because an
subject. argument requires supporting reasons, preferably with specific
supporting details, to justify the position you are taking.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


1. Clarity and focus: In good writing, everything makes Critical reading is a form of language analysis that does
sense and readers don’t get lost or have to reread passages not take the given text at face value, but involves a deeper
to figure out what’s going on. Focused writing sticks with examination of the claims put forth as well as the supporting
the plot or core idea without running off on too many points and possible counterarguments. The ability to reinterpret
tangents. and reconstruct for improved clarity and readability is also a
2. Organization: A well organized piece of writing is not component of critical reading. The identification of possible
only clear, it’s presented in a way that is logical and ambiguities and flaws in the author's reasoning, in addition to
aesthetically pleasing. You can tell non-linear stories or the ability to address them comprehensively, are essential to this
place your thesis at the end of an essay and get away with process. Critical reading, much like academic writing, requires
it as long as your scenes or ideas are well ordered. the linkage of evidential points to corresponding arguments.
3. Ideas and themes: For a piece of writing to be considered
well crafted, it has to contain clearly identifiable ideas and
4. Voice: This is what sets you apart from all other writers.
It’s your unique way of stringing words together, 1. Claims of Fact. (existence of something/definition or
formulating ideas, and relating scenes or images to the classification/facts -- inferences about past present or future)
reader.  Claims of fact must be specific as to time, place, people
5. Language (word choice): We writers can never involved, and situation.
underestimate or fail to appreciate our most valuable tools:  Can you investigate your claim of fact through original
words. Good writing includes precise and accurate word research such as interviews or field work? If it is a text,
choices and well crafted sentences. how thoroughly, closely and critically can you read it to
6. Grammar and style: Many writers would wish this one determine its flaws and strengths?
away, but for a piece of writing to be considered good (let  Using descriptive and analytical writing, explore every
alone great), it has to follow the rules of grammar (and angle of your problem, or claim of fact, to assess its level
break those rules only when there’s a good reason). Style is of truth.
also important in ensuring that a piece of writing is clear  By limiting the scope of your study through specific claims
and consistent. of fact, you may avoid logical fallacies.
7. Credibility or believability: Nothing says bad writing like  Write down at least one counterclaim to your claim of fact.
getting the facts wrong or misrepresenting oneself. In  Be aware of fallacies of relevance, presumption, and
fiction, the story must be believable (even if it’s ambiguity that may color your and your opponent’s
impossible), and in nonfiction, accurate research can make arguments.
or break a writer.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

Types of factual claims (generally "objective") 3. Claims of Policy (action / should or ought) - usually
a. Factual / historical involves sub-claims of fact and value.
b. Relational - causal connections
c. Predictive  Claims of policy typically provide a solution or another
PROOF REQUIRES: series of questions in response to the claims of fact.
 Claims of policy are often procedural, organized plans.
a. sufficient and appropriate grounds  A counterclaim of policy posits that the problem exists,
 reliable authority it’s good to solve it a certain way, but there is a better
 recent data solution than the one you have proposed.
 accurate, typical data  In medicine, claims of policy debate the best treatment
 clearly defined terms -no loaded language for a certain condition.
b. a clear distinction between fact and inference.
2. Claims of Value (taste & morals / good-bad) [make value
judgments/ resolve conflict between values/ quasi policy a. Making proposed action clear
(rightness of it; relative merit)] b. need (justification)
c. plan, (must be workable)
 Claims of value involve judgments, appraisals, and
d. benefit (advantages)
e. consider opposition / counter arguments
 Everyone has a bias of sorts, often embedded in social,
religious, and/or cultural values.
 When you “fight” with friends and colleagues over
intellectual issues, you are usually debating claims of CONTEXT OF TEXT DEVELOPMENT
 What are the competing values around this topic?
 Has the value been properly applied to the claim of fact?
It is a nonlinear way of showing information. It connects
PROOF REQUIRES: topics on a screen to related information, graphics, videos, and
a. Establishing standards of evaluation (i.e. a warrant music – information is not simply related to text. This
that defines what constitutes instances of the relevant information appears as links and usually accessed by clicking.
value) The reader can jump to more information about a topic, which
b. Note the priority of the value in this instance. in turn may have more links. This opens up the reader to wider
c. Establish the advantage (practical or moral) of your horizon of information or to a new direction.
standards. A reader can skim through sections of a text, freely jumping
d. Use examples to clarify abstract values from one part to another depending on what aspect of the text
e. Use credible authorities for support.

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interests him/her. Thus, in reading with hypertext, you are given Intertextuality does not require citing or referencing
more flexibility and personalization because you get to select punctuation (such as quotation marks) and is often mistaken for
the order in which you read the text and focus on plagiarism (Ivanic, 1998). Intertextuality can be produced in
informationtaht is relevant to your background and interests. texts using a variety of functions including allusion, quotation
Therefore, you create your own meaning out of material. and referencing (Hebel, 1989). However, intertextuality is not
always intentional and can be utilised inadvertently. As
For example, you are doing research about the philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term “has come to have
Philippine eagle. A quick Google search would lead you to a almost as many meanings as users, from those faithful to
Wikipedia article on it. While reading about the Philippin eagle, Kristeva’s original vision to those who simply use it as a stylish
you will also encounter links to its conservation status. This way of talking about allusion and influence.”
may lead you to more information about conservation efforts.
However, if you were interested in the appearance of the Intertexts need not be simply "literary"--historical and
Philippine eagle because you wantedto sketch it for your art social determinants are themselves signifying practices which
class, the same page would provide its physical description and transform and inflect literary practices. (Consider, for example,
even give you links to pictures and videos of the Philippine the influence of the capitalist mode of production upon the rise
eagle. of the novel.) Moreover, a text is constituted, strictly speaking,
only in the moment of its reading. Thus the reader's own
2. INTERTEXTUALITY previous readings, experiences and position within the cultural
formation also form crucial intertexts.
Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by
another text. Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, The concept of intertexuality thus dramatically blurs the
calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody. outlines of the book, dispersing its image of totality into an
Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an unbounded, illimitable tissue of connections and associations,
‘interrelationship between texts’ and generates related paraphrases and fragments, texts and con-texts. For many
understanding in separate works (“Intertextuality”, 2015). These hypertext authors and theorists, intertextuality provides an apt
references are made to influence that reader and add layers of description of the kind of textual space which they, like the
depth to a text, based on the readers’ prior knowledge and figures in Remedio Varo's famous "Bordando el Manto
understanding. Intertextuality is a literary discourse strategy Terrestre," find themselves weaving:
(Gadavanij, n.d.) utilised by writers in novels, poetry, theatre
and even in non-written texts (such as performances and digital a kind of tapestry which spilled out the slit windows and into a
media). void, seeking hopelessly to fill the void: for all the other
buildings and creatures, all the waves, ships, and forests of the
Examples of intertextuality are an author’s borrowing earth were contained in this tapestry, and the tapestry was the
and transformation of a prior text, and a reader’s referencing of world. (Pynchon 10)
one text in reading another.

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It conveys sympathy to someone, and usually has two parts;
IDENTIFYING ASSERTIONS first encompasses the recognition of the feelings or situations of
Assertion is a stylistic approach or technique involving a the other person, and the second follows a statement that shows
strong declaration, a forceful or confident and positive support for other person’s rights such as:
statement regarding a belief or an fact. Often, it is without a
a. “I understand you are busy, and me too, but it is difficult
proof or any support. Its purpose is to express ideas or feelings
for me to finish this project on my own. So, I want you
directly, for instance, “I have put my every effort to complete to help me completing this project.”
this task today.” b. “I know this is making you angry and frustrated because
you could not get response yet. But, I can help you by
Function of Assertion giving you an estimate of how long it might take.”
Its function is to let readers feel that they should not 3. Escalating Assertion
disagree or dispute what they read or hear; rather accept the idea
It occurs when someone is not able to give response to basic
or notion as an indisputable fact. It has proved to be one of the assertions of a person and therefore that person becomes firm
best approaches for writers to express their personal feelings, about him or her such as:
beliefs and ideas in a direct way. By using this technique, the
writers can defend others’ feelings and rights if violated. This a. “If you do not finish this work on 6:00 tonight, I would
rhetorical style also tells self-affirmation and rational thinking better take the services of another worker.”
of personal respect or worth. It is very common in various fields b. “I really want to finish this point before you start yours.”
of life, like literature, politics, advertisements, and legal affairs
4. Language Assertion
It involves “I” language and is useful for expressing
Types of Assertions negative feelings. Nevertheless, it constructively lays emphasis
on a person’s feelings of anger such as:
1. Basic Assertion
a. “When you speak harshly, I cannot work with you
It is a simple and straightforward statement for expressing because I feel annoyed. Therefore, I want you to speak
feelings, opinions and beliefs such as: gently and then assign me task.”
a. “I wish I could have expressed this idea earlier because b. “When I cannot take proper sleep, it affects my nerves
now someone else has taken the credit.” and I feel irritation. Therefore, I daily like to go to bed
b. “Excuse me, first I want to finish my work then shall go earlier.”
with you.

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To be an effective critical thinker, it is not enough just to
be able to identify claims and assertions. The ability to analyze Textual evidence is evidence from a text (fiction or nonfiction)
an argument is essential to understanding the text more deeply, that you can use to illustrate your ideas and support your
but understanding the claim is not the only facet of the arguments. All textual evidence should:
argument. You must also learn how to analyze the
counterclaims and evidence provided by the text.  Support a specific point

Being able to recognize and formulate countercalims in  Be cited with a page number at the end of the sentence –
reaction to an argument is a characteristic of a good critical He shouted “no more stone soup” (14).
reader. Counterclaims are claims made to rebut a previous  Be followed by an “connection” that explains the
claim. They provide a constrasting perspective to the main
relationship of the evidence to your main point.
The following are some questions to help you determine
By being able to locate and provide counterclaims to an
evidence from the text:
argument, you show a deep competence and familiarity with the
writer’s topic. It shows that you are examining different  What questions can you ask about the claims?
perspectives and not just passively accepting the writer’s claim.
It shows that you have thoroughly considered the topic, and are  Which details in the text answer your questions?
willing to engage different viewpoints from your own, thus  What are the most important details in the paragraph?
remaining objective. It also helps you clarify what your
personal position is on the topic.  What is each one’s relationship to the claim?
 How does the given detail reinforce the claim?
The following questions will help you formulate a counterclaim:
 What details do you find interesting? Why?
 What are the major points on which you and the author
can disagree? Characteristics of Good Evidence
 What is the strongest aregument? What did they say to
defend their position?  Unified
 What are the merits of their view?
 Relevant to the central point
 What are the weaknesses or shortcomings in their
argument?  Specific and concrete
 Are there any hidden assumptions?
 Accurate
 Which lines from the text best support the counterclaim
you have formulated?  Representative or typical

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

Types of Textual Evidence 3. Paraphrasing – is also putting someone else’s words into
your own words. It is useful when you need more detail than
1. Referencing – is mentioning a particular event or action in a summary but less than a direct quote. A paraphrase
the text. It’s useful when you want to point to point focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing
something out to support a point you’re tying to make but should be written in your own words, include a page
don’t feel a summary, paraphrase or direct quote is number, and be followed by a statement explaining its
necessary. importance and connection to the topic sentence.

Examples: Examples:

 Original: “that it was one of those things that was bound

 This is clear when Meursault attends his mother’s
to happen sooner or later” (33).
funeral. The Stranger by Albert Camus
Paraphrase: As an absurdist, Meursault doesn’t put
 This is clear when he flies over the sea. Song of meaning towards any object or being. Therefore, he
Solomon by Toni Morrison doesn’t mourn over his mother’s death and acts
indifferently towards his loss(33).The Stranger by
2. Summarizing – is putting someone else’s words into your Albert Camus
own words. It’s useful when you want to point to a larger
 Original: “Part of his flight was over the dark sea, but it
section of text but do not need the details of the original
didn’t frighten him because he knew he could not fall”
text. Summarizing literary fiction usually occurs in the
introduction of a literary analysis essay. It is rarely used in
Paraphrase: He wasn’t afrad of falling when he flew
the body of a literary analysis essay other than to provide
over the sea (298). Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison
some context when it is needed. Summaries should be
written in your own words, include a page number, and be
followed by a statement explaining its importance and
4. Quoting – illuminates your ideas and support your
connection to the topic sentence.
argument using the exact words from the original text. It’s
Examples: useful when you want to capture the particular language an
 When Meursault’s mother dies he claims that it was author uses. It is the most convincing evidence of the four
inevitable, explaining the absurdist idea that life has no types as they add credibility to the point you are trying to
meaning (33). The Stranger by Albert Camus make.. As with all the textual evidence, make sure you
explain how the quote is connected to your point — let the
 He did not worry abotu falling as he flew over the sea reader know the significance of the quotations you use.
(298). Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

There are three levels of direct quoting: PURPOSEFUL WRITING

a. Specific details – use words or phrases from the text to

support your argument. Details should be short—a word
Writing is simultaneously the most
or phrase–and they should be incorporated into your own
sentences. revealing and mystifying method
of communication. The bigger
Jack was “bent double” with his “nose only a few inches
one’s vocabulary, the more they
from the humid earth” tracking the trail of the pig “dog-
like…on all fours” (Golding 48) can expose, yet the more they are
able to hide their intentions with
b. Brief quotations – are fewer than three lines and should pretense. Writing about serious
be carefully introduced and integrated into your writing. matters requires confidence,
Put quotation marks around all briefly quoted material. because you’re not only putting
On the wall of his room is a “large tinted photograph of his out an expression, but what ultimately becomes a gestalt
dead wife, who, if Masses willed and paid for out of her own platform and position that you must answer for.
estate could do it, was in Heaven” (99).
When we censor ourselves or stay in the safe box of
c. Lengthy quotations (also called block quotes) are used
when you want to quote more than three lines of text. trivial matters, it can be out of fear of judgement, or of being
Think carefully before using this type of quotation and wrong, but most scary is when it is out of fear of annihilation.
make sure the entire section you want to quote directly With the internet, if you express something that is disagreed
supports your argument. Block quotes should be single- with by the right people, it may not be forgotten, and more
spaced and indented four spaces from the left margin, and importantly might not be forgiven. It can cost you not just a job,
should not use quote marks. but future prospects for employment. Writing purposefully is
always a calculated risk. There are some risks in writing that are
Steinbeck writes:
too great to be taken, with marginal benefits to be gained
When the servant come in bearing the message that Juana and despite being truthful. While there is a continuum between
Kino have arrived, the doctor sat up in his high bed. He had on safety and danger in writing, in order to truly connect with an
his dressing gown of red watered silk that had come from Paris, audience, one must push the boundary of comfort to some
a little tight over the chest now if it was buttoned. On his lap degree in order to chisel away at a larger truth.
was a silver tray with a silver chocolate pot and a tiny cup of
eggshell china, so delicate that it looked silly when he lifted it
with his big hands (701).

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

BOOK REVIEW o Preface/Introduction/Table of Contents: Does the author

provide any revealing information about the text in the

B ook review is a form of literary criticism in which a

book is analyzed based on content, style, and merit.A
book review can be a primary source opinion piece,
summary review or scholarly
review.Books can be reviewed
As You Read
As you read, determine how you will structure the summary
portion or background structure of your review. Be ready to
for printed periodicals, take notes on the book’s key points, characters, and/or themes.
magazines and newspapers, as o Characters: Are there characters in the work? Who are the
school work, or for book we b principal characters? How do they affect the story? Do you
sites on the Internet. A book empathize with them?
review's length may vary from
a single paragraph to o Themes/Motifs/Style: What themes or motifs stand out?
substantial essays. Such a review may evaluate the book on the How do they contribute to the work? Are they effective or
basis of personal taste. Reviewers may use the occasion of a not? How would you describe this author’s particular style?
book review for a display of learning or to promulgate their own Is it accessible to all readers or just some?
ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work. o Argument: How is the work’s argument set up? What
support does the author give for her/findings? Does the
Before You Read
work fulfill its purpose/support its argument?
Before you begin to read, consider the elements you will need o Key Ideas: What is the main idea of the work? What makes
to include in your review. The following items may help: it good, different, or groundbreaking?
o Quotes: What quotes stand out? How can you demonstrate
o Author: Who is the author? What else has s/he written? Has the author’s talent or the feel of the book through a quote?
this author won any awards? What is the author’s typical
When You Are Ready to Write
o Genre: What type of book is this: fiction, nonfiction,
romance, poetry, youth fiction, etc.? Who is the intended The final portion of your review will detail your opinion of the
audience for this work? What is the purpose of the work? work. When you are ready to begin your review, consider the
o Title: Where does the title fit in? How is it applied in the following:
work? Does it adequately encapsulate the message of the o Establish a Background, Remember your
text? Is it interesting? Uninteresting? Audience: Remember that your audience has not read the

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

work; with this in mind, be sure to introduce characters and BOOK REVIEW Sample
principals carefully and deliberately.
o Minor principals/characters: Deal only with the most THE LITTLE PRINCE
pressing issues in the book. You will not be able to cover by Antoine de Saint Exupéry
every character or idea. What principals/characters did you
Published 1943
agree or disagree with? What other things might the author Review by Jenn
have researched or considered?
o Organize: Determine what kind of balance to strike I'm somewhat surprised at myself for not writing a review of
between your summary information and your evaluation. If this, one of my all-time favorite books, before now. If I had to venture
a guess as to why this is so, I'd have to say that it's probably because
you are writing your review for a class, ask your instructor.
this beautiful little fable means too much to me personally; I've been
Often the ratio is half and half. afraid to write about it for fear of not doing it justice. Now I'll give it
o Your Evaluation: Choose one or a few points to discuss my best shot, and ask anyone who should happen to read this review,
about the book. What worked well for you? How does this if you find my essay wanting in some way, please still give the book a
work compare with others by the same author or other read and judge for yourself as to the quality of the story.
books in the same genre?
Most bookstores carry this French novella in their children's
o Publisher/Price: Most book reviews include the publisher section. I can understand why this is the case: the book is less than
and price of the book at the end of the article. Some reviews one hundred pages, the sentences are simple and flow with an easy,
also include the year published and ISBN. poetic grace, and interspersed with the clear text are more than forty
watercolor pen-and-ink pictures drawn with a childlike gravity that is
yet meticulously detailed - as fine a masquerade of children's
Revising literature as was ever created. But make no mistake - it is a
masquerade; for, while a proper reading of this book requires a child's
When making the final touches to your review, carefully verify faith, acceptance, and willingness to make a complete suspension of
the following: disbelief, this story, difficult to define, comes closer to philosophy
o Double-check the spelling of the author name(s), character than to anything else.
names, special terms, and publisher.
Translated by Katherine Woods, the author is Antoine de
o Try to read from the vantage point of your audience. Is there Saint Exupéry, a French pilot and author of a number of books on the
too much/enough summary? Does your argument about the subject of aviation, many of which are considered classics of French
text make sense? and World literature in their own right. The Little Prince, however,
stands in a class by itself, and expresses the world-weary and cynical
o Should you include direct quotes from the reading? Do they author's yearning for a freer and more sincere and introspective world.
help support your arguments? Double-check your quotes for Exupéry tells his story in a semi-autobiographical fashion, beginning
accuracy. the tale with an anecdote describing how, as a child, he was urged by
sensible adults to put down his paints and colored pencils that he

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

might concentrate on "matters of consequence" - thereby, declares LITERATURE REVIEW

Exupéry, checking "what might have been a magnificent career as a

The book then skips ahead many years later. Exupéry,

himself now a "sensible" adult who has resolutely put away childish
things, has crashed his plane in the harshly beautiful but harshly
unforgiving Sahara desert, is desperately working against time to fix
L iterature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which
includes the current knowledge including substantive
findings, as well as theoretical and methodological
contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are
secondary sources, and do not report new or original
his engine before his water supply runs out when he hears a child's
voice address him thus: "If you please - draw me a sheep!" The experimental work. Most often associated with academic-
astounded pilot turns to encounter the owner of the voice, a small boy oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals,
with yellow curls, prince of distant asteroid. and are not to be confused with book reviews that may also
appear in the same publication. Literature reviews are a basis
Says the author, "I should have liked to begin this story in the for research in nearly every academic field.
fashion of the fairy-tales... 'Once upon a time there was a little prince
who lived on a planet that was scarcely bigger than himself, and who Steps in Writing a Literature Review
had need of a sheep...' To those who understand life, that would have
given a much greater air of truth to my story." 1. Writing the introduction
In the introduction, you should:
Understanding life is what this story is about, for both the
author and his subject. The Little Prince lived happily alone on his o Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of
small planet until the wind planted for him a new seed, from which concern, thus providing an appropriate context for
sprang the loveliest flower he had ever seen. He lavished his love and reviewing the literature.
attention upon the flower, which in turn tormented him with her o Point out overall trends in what has been published about
vanity and her pride, ultimately driving him to abandon his home and the topic; or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and
venture forth into the galaxy in search of the secret of what is really conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship; or a single
important in life. He learns this secret, finally, from a creature of the
problem or new perspective of immediate interest.
Earth - a fox. With his new level of understanding, the Little Prince is
at last ready to return home, but not before he passes on his new o Establish the writer's reason (point of view) for reviewing
knowledge to the author - knowledge of the healing power of love the literature; explain the criteria to be used in analyzing and
which makes all things unique, and how the pain of saying goodbye is comparing literature and the organization of the review
worth it if it changes how we look at the world. (sequence); and, when necessary, state why certain literature
is or is not included (scope).
I'd like to close with a quote from the book's own jacket copy:
"There are a few stories which in some way, in some degree, change
2. Writing the body
the world forever for their readers. This is one." In the body, you should:
o Group research studies and other types of literature
(reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc.) according to

35 36
Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

common denominators such as qualitative versus LITERATURE REVIEW Sample

quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific
purpose or objective, chronology, etc. ENGLISH PROFICIENCY
o Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as (Review of Literature)
little detail as each merits according to its comparative
To confirm the validity of this study, past researches and other
importance in the literature, remembering that space
works onEnglish proficiency were consulted.
(length) denotes significance. As cited by (Haber 2009) according to Cook, language is at the
center of human life. It is one of the most important ways of expressing
3. Writing the conclusion love or hatred forpeople; it is vital in achieving many of man’s goals and
In the conclusion, you should: career; it is the source of artistic satisfaction or simple pleasure.
Furthermore, Cook emphasized that language is used for
o Summarize major contributions of significant studies and planning one’s lives and remembering ones past; people exchange ideas
and experiences through language, they likewise identifythemselves with
articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining
people who speak the same language. Some people are able todo this in
the focus established in the introduction. more than one language. Knowing another language may mean: getting
o Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of job, a chance to get educated; the ability to take a fuller part in the life of
knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological one’s own country or the opportunity to migrate to another, an expansion
flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and of one’s literacy and cultural horizons; the expressions of one’s political
findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study. opinions or religious belief. It affects people careers and possible futures
their lives and veryidentities. In a world where probably more people
speak two languages thanspeak one language learning and teaching are
The literature review should:
vital to everyday lives of millions.
o compare and contrast different authors' views on an issue Chomsky argued that children learn languages that are governed
o group authors who draw similar conclusions byhighly subtle and abstract principles, and they do so without explicit
o criticise aspects of methodology instructionor any other environmental clues to the nature of such
principles. Hencelanguage acquisition depends on an innate, species-
o note areas in which authors are in disagreement
specific module that isdistinct from general intelligence.
o show how your study relates to previous studies According to Steven Pinker, all normal human brains come
primed forlanguage acquisition. They have an innate ability to memorize
The purposes of the review are: vocabulary, internalize rules regarding their native language's grammar
and syntax, andremember irregular forms. Children are constantly
o to define and limit the problem you are working on hearing and processingspeech, so their brains are able to analyze the
o to place your study in an historical perspective grammatical structure of thesentences and parse it into basic rules about
the language. As a result, childrenlearn the basic vocabulary of their
o to avoid unnecessary duplication
language, as well as grammatical details.Children's mental dictionaries
o to evaluate promising research methods expand rapidly as they acquire new vocabulary andlearn new idioms and
o to relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest expressions. Likewise, their grammar modules quickly learnand apply
further research the proper rules of the language.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

RESEARCH REPORT (vii) List of tables and figures used

(viii) Preface/forwarding/introduction
(ix) Summary report

R esearch report is a written document containing key

aspects of research project. It is a medium to
communicate research work with relevant people. It is
also a good source of preservation of research work for the
future reference. Many times, re search findings are not
II. Main Report (Central Part of Report):

(i) Statement of objectives

followed because of improper presentation. Preparation of (ii) Methodology and research design
research report is not an easy task. It is an art. It requires a good (iii) Types of data and its sources
deal of knowledge, imagination, experience, and expertise. It (iv) Sampling decisions
demands a considerable time and money.
(v) Data collection methods
o Research report is the systematic, articulate, and orderly (vi) Data collection tools
presentation of research work in a written form. (vii) Fieldwork
o Research report is a research (viii) Analysis and interpretation (including tables, charts,
document that contains basic aspects figures, etc.)
of the research project. (ix) Findings
o Research report involves relevant
(x) Limitations
information on the research work
carried out. It may be in form of (xi) Conclusions and recommendations
hand-written, typed, or computerized. (xii) Any other relevant detail

III. Appendix (Additional Details):

Parts of a Research Report
(i) Copies of forms used
I. First Part (Formality Part): (ii) Tables not included in findings
(i) Cover page (iii) A copy of questionnaire
(ii) Title page (iv) Detail of sampling and rate of response
(iii) Certificate or statement (v) Statement of expenses
(iv) Index (brief contents) (vi) Bibliography – list of books, magazines, journals, and other
(v) Table of contents (detailed index) reports
(vi) Acknowledgement (vii) Any other relevant information

39 40
Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


b. Headings
A research report can be based on practical work, Use headings and suitable sub headings to clearly show the
research by reading or a study of an organisation or different sections. In longer reports the sections should be
industrial/workplace situation. numbered.
4. Writing the report
1. Preparing
 Identify the purpose/the aims of the research/research a. Draft the report from your detailed plan.
question. b. Do not worry too much about the final form and
 Identify the audience.–lecturer/ supervisor/ company/ language, but rather on presenting the ideas coherently
organization management/staff. The amount of and logically.
background included will vary depending on the c. Redraft and edit. Check that sections contain the required
knowledge of the “audience”. information and use suitable headings, check ideas flow
in a logical order and remove any unnecessary
2. Collecting and organizing information information.
There are two main sources of information depending on the d. Write in an academic style and tone.
research task:  Use a formal objective style.
 Reading — theory and other research  Generally avoid personal pronouns; however, some
 Research — experiments, data collection‐questionnaires, reports based on your own field experience or work
surveys, observation, interviews. placement can be reflective the first person can be used.
 Organise and collate the information in a logical order. For example, “I observed..”. If in doubt about this,
Make sure you record the bibliographic information of check with the lecturer.
your reading as you go along.
3. Planning
Consider the following:
a. Logical organization
Information in a report must be organized logically.
Communicate the main ideas followed by supporting details and
examples. Start with the more important or significant
information and move on to the least important information.

41 42
Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


By creating a project proposal, you can help gain grant

P roject proposals are documents that are written for

problem solving, service provision, event planning, or
equipment selling. Generally, proposals are used to
convince the reader to do what the proposal suggests, such as
buying goods or services, funding a project, or implementing a
money, investor money, and loan money for large projects. In
addition, constructing a project proposal can help demonstrate
to stakeholders that you are serious about the undertaking your
team wishes to carry out. It serves as a guideline that you will
come back to when writing the project plan and where you will
program. define the project scope.
Proposals in the professional world are used for internal Proposals are prepared to apply for external funds for
(within an organization) and external (from one organization to the implementation of a project. Most grant applications ask for
another) purposes. They are the way of generating income for the same information, but they often have different formats.
companies or seeking funding for projects. Some will have a list of questions. Others will ask for a
“narrative” — the story of your project.
Proposals are usually written in response to Request for
Proposal (RFP), which funding agencies send out. Interested ADVANTAGES
organizations send proposals following the requirements
stipulated in the RFP. Requesting parties are thus able to  A proposal is an essential marketing document that helps
compare different responses to a problem. Thus, it is clear that a cultivate an initial professional relationship between an
proposal provides a plan to satisfy a need. organisation and a donor over a project to be implemented
A proposal stands out depending on its ability to clearly  A proposal facilitates appropriate words for the conception
answer questions about what is being proposed, how the plan of an idea
will be carried out, when it will be implemented, and how much  The proposal has a framework that establishes ideas
money will be needed or spent. In other words, proposals are formally for a clear understanding of the project for the
persuasive documents that need to do the following: highlight donor
reader benefits, prove your credibility in carrying out the  Successful proposals mean financial aid for the organisation
project, and allow the reader to respond easily. to grow for the replication of project and ideas
Even in your lives as students, you have been DISADVANTAGES
familiarized with writing proposals – maybe without even
knowing it. Whenever you envision, plan, and complete a  Planning problems: Although a good idea exists, yet when
project for your science class or your club outreach, you are we try to plan it out extensively, we face many unexpected
thinking about fulfilling a need for something. This process may challenges
involve writing a paper or doing a presentation in front of an  There are often tight deadlines, and proposals may be
audience to get their approval. rejected

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

FORMAT OF THE PROJECT PROPOSAL c. Budget – This presents an analysis of all the costs
anticipated in the project, which can be itemized or
Proposals are primarily categorized according to their shown as a whole, depending on the needs of the
length. An informal proposal is about 2-4 pages long. A formal project.
proposal, meanwhile, has 5 or more pages. Regardless of their
purpose and audience, they have standard parts such as the

1. Introduction 1. Plan ahead. Allow plenty of time for those involved to

meet, discuss, and review progress in the grant writing
This part provides the background necessary for process. Also, allow enough time to get the required
understanding the project, which is done by discussing the signatures and to get the proposal to the funder.
a. Rationale – This identifies the problem to be addressed 2. Make it a team effort. Assign specific roles and
and show the need to solve it. responsibilities to people in terms of developing the
b. Objectives - These reveal what the project intends to proposal.
achieve in terms of results. It also gives the reader an 3. Be realistic in what you are proposing. What can
idea of an intended solution. Good objectives are reasonably be accomplished in the scope time and resources
SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result of this grant?
oriented, and bound within a realistic Time frame).
c. Benefits – These show what the reader or the target 4. Be factual and specific. Don't talk in generalities or in
audience can gain from the proposal, which may be emotional terms. Be sure to substantiate all statements in
improvements in processes or systems, an increase in your proposal, otherwise don't make them.
revenue, or a change in behavior of the beneficiaries of 5. Consider collaborating with other organizations. At a
the proposal. minimum, find out what other proposals are being submitted
to the same donor at the same time.
2. Project Description
This section gives specific information about the project 6. Choose a format that is clear and easy to read. Readers
itself. It indicates how the project will address the identified are overloaded with proposals and appreciate legible,
problem through the fllowing parts: attractive proposals. Make sure tables are legible and easy to
figure out.
a. Methodology – This details the different activities the
project will take on, including the manpower and 7. Be aware of donor priorities. Carefully match your project
resources to be utilized, and the expected output. with an appropriate funding source. The primary difference
b. Schedule – This discusses the task duration and between successful grant writing and inefficient proposal
expected start and end days of each activity in the submission is the amount of time invested in the strategic
project. identification of appropriate funders.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


NAME OF THE PROJECT Gulayan sa Paaralan Project

Department of Education (DepED)
(In cooperation with other concerned
government agencies)
P osition paper is an essay that presents an opinion about an
issue , typically that of the author or another specified
entity; such as a political party. Position papers are
published in academia, in politics, in law and other domains.
Position papers range from the simplest format of a letter to the
editor through to the most complex in the form of an academic
To improve and increase vegetable
production and consumption by position paper. Position papers are also used by large
teaching the learners the methods of organizations to make public the official beliefs and
sustainable production of food which recommendations of the group.
are applicable to their homes and
important for household security. It
also aims to establish school gardens Write a position paper to:
to serve as main source of food to
sustain supplementary feeding. It also  Organize and outline your viewpoint on an issue
showcase small-scale production  Formally inform others of your position as a foundation to
models in schools to be replicated in build resolution to difficult problems
the household.
 Present a unique, though biased, solution or a unique
School Garden, Gardening Tools, Data approach to solving a problem
/Records on Health & Nutritional  Frame the discussion in order to define the "playing field."
Status of the Learners This can put you in an advantageous position with those
In ALL barangays and sitios within the who may not be so well prepared as regards the issues
municipality of Tagbina behind their positions
Tagbina I District - 24 Public
 Establish your credibility. Here you are demonstrating that
Elementary Schools Tagbina II - 15 you have a command of the issues and the research behind
TARGET BENEFICIARIES Public Elementary Schools Cluster VII them, and can present them clearly
Secondary School – 7 Public  Let your passion be demonstrated in the force of your
Secondary Schools argument rather than in the use of emotional terms
 Guide you in being consistent in maintaining your position
in negotiation
Requested from National Php 391, 000. 00
Government LGU Counterpart 69, 000. 00 The better prepared you are the more disadvantaged are your
TOTAL Php 460, 000. 00 opponents and more likely they will defer to you.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

Guidelines: Development:
 Format should be consistent with guidelines determined by a. Focus on three main points to develop
the sponsoring organization or committee b. Each topic is developed with
 Include topic, date, purpose, etc., and should readily identify  a general statement of the position
you as the author  an elaboration that references documents and source data
 If the paper represents a group, organization, committee, do  past experiences and authoritative testimony
not write in the first person (not I, my, mine, etc. but rather  conclusion restating the position
we, our, etc.)
 Limit yourself to two pages following the format established Establish flow from paragraph to paragraph
by previous successful position papers
 Keep your voice active
Research:  Quote sources to establish authority
 Stay focused on your point of view throughout the essay
 Develop supporting evidence for both sides including
 Focus on logical arguments
factual knowledge, statistical evidence, authoritative
 Don't lapse into summary
in the development--wait for the conclusion
 Identify the issues and prejudices keeping in mind your
audience. List these as appropriate and anticipate
 Assume familiarity with basic concepts but define  Summarize, then conclude, your argument
unfamiliar terms/concepts or state meanings that define your  Refer to the first paragraph/opening statements
point of departure as well as the main points
 Refer to those who agree with your position to assist you in  does the conclusion restate the main ideas?
developing your argument  reflect the succession and importance of the
 Familiarize yourself with those who disagree with you to arguments
prepare your defense. Summarize their argument and  logically conclude their development?
evidence, then refute
Share a draft with others to better develop the paper and
Introduction: ensure that your argument is clear
 Consider your audience: start with a topic sentence or two
Revise, spell-check, and succeed in building your case.
that attracts attention and summarizes the issue
Inform the reader of your point of view

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

POSITION PAPER Sample Commission on Human Rights annually regarding human rights
developments in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has no
Committee: Commission on Human Rights record of committing major human rights violations, most importantly
Topic: Violence against Women any targeted at women. In its 2003 Annual Report, Amnesty
Country: The Kingdom of Denmark International also found no human rights violations against Danish
Delegate: William Hayward Wilson, Shea University women.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, “no one shall be Women are invaluable to Denmark’s society and have achieved
subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or significant economic and social gains in the 20th century. Currently,
punishment.” Although this doctrine was adopted in 1948, the world 75 percent of medical students in Denmark are women.
has fallen quite short of this goal. Violence against women pervades Denmark is confident that this Commission can bring about an end to
all states and it is the duty of the international community to ensure violence against women without compromising the sovereignty of
that all persons are afforded equality and respect. Despite cooperative member states. Education remains perhaps the most useful tool in
efforts at combating gross human rights abuses, such as the adoption protecting victims of gender-based violence. Governments, UN
of the Declarationon the Elimination of Violence against Women, the agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can plan a
United Nations has not been able to alleviate the injustice women coordinated campaign that educates national populations on the
worldwide experience daily. various ways women are violently targeted. Similarly, harmful
traditions, such as honor killings and female genital mutilation, must
The Kingdom of Denmark believes that in order to end violence be stopped by reforming traditional views of women in society.
against women, nations must look to empower women in all aspects Children of both sexes need to be taught at an early age to value the
of society. This includes promoting equal gender roles in government, rights of women in order to prevent such violence in their generation.
civil society, education and business. However, Denmark also
recognizes the need to combat human rights abuses against women as Another way to stop gender violence would be to reproach member
they occur, and no nation is immune to gender violence. states that consistently violate treaties such as the Convention on
Political Rights of Women (1952), the Convention on the Elimination
In 2002, the Danish Government launched an extensive action plan to of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979), and the
combat domestic violence against women. The plan includes Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993).
measures to help treat abused women, identify and prosecute the Although this Committee cannot impose sanctions, it can pass
perpetrators, and incorporate professional medical and psychological resolutions verbally condemning states that commit human rights
staff into the rehabilitation process. The action plan currently reaches violations. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights can also
out to both governmental and nongovernmental groups on the local meet with representatives of governments that violate the above
level throughout the nation. treaties to discuss possible solutions.
The Danish Centre for Human Rights in Copenhagen, Denmark’s In order to prevent gender violence, nations must work together to
foremost national human rights institution, also promotes and protects build a culture of support, equality and community. As such, the
human rights. Based on the Centre’s research, Denmark’s parliament Kingdom of Denmark looks forward to offering its support, in
can promote human rights-based legislation and education/awareness whatever form possible, to nations firmly committed to ending
programs throughout the nation. The Centre also addresses the UN violence against women in all its forms.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

WRITING A RESUME A chronological resume works best when you have an

extensive work history that is in the same line of work as the
job for which you are applying. By displaying your work

R esume is a document that contains a brief account of a

person’s education, skills, work expe rience, and other
qualifications. It is usually sent along with job
applications, and sometimes with school applications as well. It
history front and center, you immediately show the employer
that you have related experience.

Components of a Chronological Resume

allows school admissions officers and hiring officers to assess
your experience and determine how will you contribute to their
1. Personal details: Your name and contact information,
including mailing address, telephone number, and email
The purpose of a resume is to provide a summary of address.
your skills, abilities and accomplishments. It is a quick
advertisement of who you are. It is 2. Objective: This is an optional section where you can briefly
a "snapshot" of you with the intent define your career objectives.
of capturing and emphasizing
interests and secures you an 3. Work experience: Start with your most recent position.
interview. It is not an List all of your work experience, even if it wasn't
autobiography. Since your resume employment based. Use bullet points to describe your duties
is a primary tool in your job and responsibilities; provide the most information about
search, it needs to be carefully written and critiqued. your current position and less for each remaining one. Try to
begin each bullet point with an action word (e.g., consulted,
TYPES OF RESUME organized, or built).

4. Education: Begin with your highest degree and work
This kind of resume starts by listing your work history, with backwards. Include all schools you have attended and list
the most recent position listed first. Your jobs are listed in any diplomas, degrees (including majors and minors), and
reverse chronological order with your current or most recent awards you've received.
job, first. Employers typically prefer this type of resume
because it's easy to see what jobs you have held and when you 5. References: It is best to simply state that references are
have worked at them. This type of resume works well for job available upon request, unless they have been specifically
seekers with a strong, solid work history. requested.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

This kind of resume highlights your abilities, such as hiring,
managing or coaching, rather than your chronological work
history. You'll still need to summarize your work history, but
this is usually done at the bottom of your resume. Don't panic.
By the time the reader has gotten to that point, he is usually sold
on bringing you in for an interview.
A functional resume is particularly useful for people who:
o Have gaps in their work history.
o Are reentering the workforce.
o Have frequently changed jobs.
o Are looking to transition into new careers.
o Don't exactly fit the mold of what recruiters are looking
for in the positions they want.

The reason functional resumes work well in these situations

is that many of us have acquired skills while working that are
very transferable. For example, if you have worked as a retail
manager, chances are you were responsible for hiring, training,
coaching, evaluating and handling employee relations issues.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


over letter is a document sent with your resume to
provide additional information on your skills and
experience. The letter typically provides detailed
information on why you are qualified for the job you are
applying for. A cover letter typically accompanies each resume
you send out.
Outline of the Cover Letter
1. Header
A cover letter should begin with both you and the employer's
contact information (name, address, phone number, email)
followed by the date.
2. Salutation
Begin your cover letter salutation with "Dr./Mr./Ms. Last
Name." If you are unsure if your contact is male or female, you
can write out their full name.
3. Introduction
Begin your introduction by stating what job you are applying
for. Explain where you heard about the job, particularly if you
heard about it from a contact associated with the company.
Briefly mention how your skills and experience match the
company and/or position; this will give the employer a preview
of the rest of your letter.
4. Body
In a paragraph or two, explain why you are interested in the job
and why you make an excellent candidate for the position.
Mention specific qualifications listed in the job posting, and
explain how you meet those qualifications. Do not simply
restate your resume, but provide specific examples that
demonstrate your abilities.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

5. Closing COVER LETTER Sample

In the closing section of your cover letter, restate how your
skills make you a strong fit for the company and/or position.
Ms. Marella Tiongson
State that you would like the opportunity to interview or discuss Human Resources Manager
employment opportunities. Explain what you will do to follow The United Philippine Bank
up, and when you will do it. Thank the employer for his/her Makati Avenue, Quezon City
Dear Ms. Tiongson:
6. Signature
Use a complimentary close, and then end your cover letter with Good day!
your signature, handwritten, followed by your typed name. If
this is an email, simply include your typed name, followed by My former colleague, Maria Aquino, recently informed me about the Human
Resources Associate vacancy at The United Philippine Bank. As someone
your contact information, after the complimentary close. with experience in working with sourcing, I would like to apply for the
I have recently earned my Bachelor degree of Broadcast Communication,
cum laude, at the University of the Philippines. Currently, I am working with
1. Address the cover letter directly to the hiring manager or The Cosmopolitan Bank as a Junior Sourcing Associate. Taking initiave has
recruiter. If this person's name isn't in the job listing, take always been my academic and career strength, along with:

the extra effort to call or email the company and find out.  Understanding reponsibility
 Holding an intense work ethic
2. Don't reiterate your resume. The purpose of having a cover  Possessing social skills that build and maintain relations across and
letter is to zero in on why you should be the one considered beyond
for the position. Otherwise, there's no point in having one.  Striving to do my best in any situation to meet corporate objectives

3. It's a professional document, so don't go too over-the-top. I believe my strengths, abilities and skills make me excellent candidate for
this job. I am extremely reliable, considerate, personable, and I am
Yes, trying to figure out ways to be creative may be comfortable working with all personality types.
difficult, but don't go overboard out of desperation.
Thank you for taking the time to review my credentials. I would welcome
4. Make sure the reader knows you've done your research. the opportunity to discuss how my education, practical skills and background
Convey that you understand the company and its goals, and qualify me to be a member of your company. Please give me a call at 0917-
123-4567 or email me at
explain how you'd help it reach those goals.
5. Always close your cover letter with an action statement. Sincerely,
Tell the reader what you're planning on doing next — for
example, calling in a week or two to follow up.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


With this type of question, admission officers want to find out
This essay is often seen as an important part of a college about your goals. They also want to know how serious you are
application. This is an esaay that is response to a prompt that about attending their school. Questions in this category include:
allows admissions committees to get to know you more  “Why is this college a good choice for you?”
personally. Also, this essay is proof that you are a competent at  “Tell us about your career goals and any plans you may
writing and thinking. Here, you can showcase your best have for graduate study.”
qualities. This essay is used by committees to assess how you How to answer it?
can contribute to their school’s community. Applications to
universities can be competitive, so a well-written essay isa a The focus here is why you chose a certain college or path. It’s a
golden opportunity to show how you stand out from other pretty straightforward question, but be sure you know your
applicants. subject well. For example, if you say you want to attend this
college because of a specific academic department, make sure
you’re clear on what that department offers.
The question you see in the essay section of your college application will most likely be one of
three types. Here are a few sample questions and suggestions for answering each type. 3. The “CREATIVE” Question

1. The “YOU” question Admission officers look at both how intelligent and how
creative your answer to this type question is. They want to see
With this type of question, the college is looking to get to your ability to think outside the box. Here’s an example from
know you better and to see how you present yourself. Here’s the Denison University: “Do you believe there's a generation gap?
most common example: “Please complete a one-page personal Describe the differences between your generation and others.”
statement and submit it with your application.”
How to answer it? How to answer it?
The key is to look at it as a chance to show who you are and Here you are asked to write about your views on a topic. Even
what’s important to you. Try to keep your answer focused and though this is a creative piece, make sure to back up all your
avoid the urge to spill everything. Instead, discuss one or two points with facts and intelligent explanations. And don’t take
subjects that reveal your best qualities. the creativity too far. Inventiveness is good, but wacky may not
be the best choice.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


For as long as I can remember, I have dreamed of science.
Where others see the engineering, experimentation, and presentation of
science as a chore, I only see excitement. Even as a child I constantly Many well-established professionals will tell you that
sought it out, first on television with Bill Nye and The Mythbusters, then hard work and good decision-making, among other things, are
later in person in every museum exhibit I could find. Science in all its key in building up a successful career. But you will probably
forms fascinated me, but science projects in particular were a category all hear them emphasize a lot on building up a professional image
to themselves. To me, science projects were a special joy that only grew as well. There is actually a lot of sense in that. Your
with time. In fact, it was this continued fascination for hands-on science
that brought me years later to the sauna that is the University of Alabama
professional image is how you communicate yourself, in all
in mid-June. Participating in the Student Science Training Program and aspects, to the people around you in your workplace. From the
working in their lab made me feel like a kid in a candy store. Just the way you dress to your manner of handling clients, your
thought of participating in a project at this level of scientific rigor made employer’s opinion of how you do your job is critical. A well-
me forget that this was supposed to be my summer break and I spent the formed professional image is what employers look for, and is
first day eagerly examining every piece of equipment. one of the many factors they consider in recommending an
Even at first, when the whole research group sat there doing rote individual for hiring, regularization, or promotion.
calculations and others felt like they were staring down the barrel of Part of developing a professional image is developing
defeated purpose, I remained enthusiastic. Time and time again I your communication skills in the workplace. Whether you are
reminded myself of that famous phrase "great effort leads to great facing your subordinates, colleagues, superiors, or outside
rewards," and sure enough, soon my aspirations began to be met. This parties, you should be able to talk or write to them in such a
shift in attitude also coincided with a shift in location: from the computer
way that work is done efficiently and harmonious work
desk to the laser lab. It was finally time to get my hands dirty.
Now things began to get really interesting. During the experimentation relationships are fortered.
phase of the project, I spent the majority of my waking hours in the lab –
and I enjoyed every minute of it. From debriefing with my coordinator in BUSINESS LETTER WRITING
the morning to checking and rechecking results well into the afternoon, I
was on cloud nine all day, every day. I even loved the electric feeling of Business letters can be written
anxiety as I waited for the results. Most of all, though, I loved the pursuit
to employees or managers, as
of science itself. Before I knew it, I was well into the seventh week and
had completed my first long-term research experiment. well as clients and prospective
customers. The business letter
In the end, although the days were long and hard, my work that is a formal type of
summer filled me with pride. That pride has confirmed and reinvigorated communication that is usually
my love for science. I felt more alive, more engaged, in that lab than I
typed on 8 1/2 by 11-inch white
have anywhere else, and I am committed to returning. I have always
dreamed of science but since that summer, since my experiment, I have stationery paper. Business letters must be targeted to a specific
dreamed only of the future. To me, medical science is the future and individual or group, have a clear and concise purpose, be
through it I seek another, permanent, opportunity to follow my passion. convincing and end with a specific objective, like a meeting
After all, to follow your passion is, literally, a dream come true. date.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 7. The Complimentary Close – This short, polite closing ends
always with a comma. It is either at the left margin or its left edge
1. The Heading (Letterhead) – Companies usually use printed is in the center, depending on the Business Letter Style that you
paper where heading or letterhead is specially designed at the top use. It begins at the same column the heading does.
of the sheet. It bears all the necessary information about the
organisation’s identity. 8. Signature and Writer’s identification - The signature is the last
part of the letter. You should sign your first and last names. The
2. Date - The month should be fully spelled out and the year written signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate.
with all four digits October 12, 2005. The date is aligned with the The signature should start directly above the first letter of the
return address. In the body of the letter, however, the article is signature line in the space between the close and the signature
written when the name of the month is not mentioned with the line. Use blue or black ink.
9. Initials, Enclosures, Copies - Initials are to be included if
3. The Inside Address – In a business or formal letter you should someone other than the writer types the letter. If you include other
give the address of the recipient after your own address. Include material in the letter, put 'Enclosure', 'Enc.', or ' Encs. ', as
the recipient's name, company, address and postal code. Add job appropriate, two lines below the last entry. cc means a copy or
title if appropriate. Separate the recipient's name and title with a copies are sent to someone else.
4. The Greeting - Also called the salutation. The type of salutation FORMAT OF BUSINESS LETTER
depends on your relationship with the recipient. It normally
begins with the word "Dear" and always includes the person's last
name. Use every resource possible to address your letter to an Letter Format Features
actual person. If you do not know the name or the sex of of your
reciever address it to Dear Madam/Sir (or Dear Sales Manager or Full Block All letter parts begin at the left margin.
Dear Human Resources Director).
Date, signature, and closing begin at the
5. The Subject Line (optional) - Its inclusion can help the recipient horizontal center of the page. All body
in dealing successfully with the aims of your letter. Normally the paragraphs are indented.
subject sentence is preceded with the word Subject: or Re: Block
Subject line may be emphasized by underlining, using bold font, Date, signature, and closing begin at the
or all captial letters. horizontal center of the page. All body
paragraphs begin at the left margin.
6. The Body Paragraphs - The body is where you explain why
you’re writing. It’s the main part of the business letter. Make sure All letter parts begin at the left margin. This
the receiver knows who you are and why you are writing but try Simplified format includes a subject line but omits the
to avoid starting with "I". Use a new paragraph when you wish to salutation and signature.
introduce a new idea or element into your letter. Depending on
the letter style you choose, paragraphs may be indented.
Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs.

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills

Block Format Modified Block Format

(Tab to center, begin typing) 123 Winner's Road

123 Winner's Road New Employee Town, PA 12345
New Employee Town, PA 12345
March 16, 2001
March 16, 2001
Ernie English
Ernie English 1234 Writing Lab Lane
1234 Writing Lab Lane Write City, IN 12345
Write City, IN 12345
Dear Mr. English:
Dear Mr. English:
The first paragraph of a typical business letter is used to state the
The first paragraph of a typical business letter is used to state the main point of the letter. Begin with a friendly opening; then quickly
main point of the letter. Begin with a friendly opening; then quickly transition into the purpose of your letter. Use a couple of sentences to
transition into the purpose of your letter. Use a couple of sentences to explain the purpose, but do not go in to detail until the next
explain the purpose, but do not go in to detail until the next paragraph.
Beginning with the second paragraph, state the supporting details to
Beginning with the second paragraph, state the supporting details to justify your purpose. These may take the form of background
justify your purpose. These may take the form of background information, statistics or first-hand accounts. A few short paragraphs
information, statistics or first-hand accounts. A few short paragraphs within the body of the letter should be enough to support your
within the body of the letter should be enough to support your reasoning.
Finally, in the closing paragraph, briefly restate your purpose and
Finally, in the closing paragraph, briefly restate your purpose and why it is important. If the purpose of your letter is employment
why it is important. If the purpose of your letter is employment related, consider ending your letter with your contact information.
related, consider ending your letter with your contact information. However, if the purpose is informational, think about closing with
However, if the purpose is informational, think about closing with gratitude for the reader's time.
gratitude for the reader's time.
(Tab to center, begin typing) Sincerely,

(Tab to center, begin typing) Lucy Letter

Lucy Letter

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


123 Winner's Road

New Employee Town, PA 12345

March 16, 2001

M emorandum or memo is
occasionally used as a
business letter format. At
the top of the memo is date, name,
name of the sender, name of the
Ernie English
1234 Writing Lab Lane recipient, and the subject. The
Write City, IN 12345 abbreviation RE is sometimes used
instead of SUBJECT. This information is place at the left
Dear Mr. English: margin. The body of the memo is in block form.

(Indent) The first paragraph of a typical business letter is used Memos have a twofold purpose: they bring attention to
to state the main point of the letter. Begin with a friendly opening; problems and they solve problems. They accomplish their
then quickly transition into the purpose of your letter. Use a couple of goals by informing the reader about new information like policy
sentences to explain the purpose, but do not go in to detail until the
changes, price increases, or by persuading the reader to take an
next paragraph.
action, such as attend a meeting, or change a current production
(Indent) Beginning with the second paragraph, state the procedure.
supporting details to justify your purpose. These may take the form of
background information, statistics or first-hand accounts. A few short Tips for Writing Effective Memorandums:
paragraphs within the body of the letter should be enough to support
your reasoning. o Check for stylistic requirements with your job. Does the
company that you work for have a standard form when it
(Indent) Finally, in the closing paragraph, briefly restate your comes to writing memos? If so, is it downloadable?
purpose and why it is important. If the purpose of your letter is o Make sure that the body of the text is written in clear,
employment related, consider ending your letter with your contact concise and grammatically right language.
information. However, if the purpose is informational, think about
o Do not use long and overly wordy sentences. Keep it
closing with gratitude for the reader's time.
o Do not use a greeting or a salutation. You should simply go
right into the subject of the memo.
Sincerely, o Conclude the memo with any closing statements that may
inspire the recipient to take action.
Lucy Letter o Mention any and all attachments at the end of the memo
using the single word “Attachment.”

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Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills



To: Miss Rebecca Anonuevo Tiongson, Marella Theresa A., Reading and Writing Skills, Rex
Professor Language Area Book Store Inc., 2016.

From: Miss Marites Z. Pacia Internet

Coordinator of Student Organization
Date: November 6, 2009 tools/overview/fishbone.html

RE: MC-Acedemic Quiz Bee Meeting
As per arrangement with your Area Chairperson, you have been
recommended coach of the CHS contestans in the incoming
Mendiola Consortium Acedemic Quiz Bee Literature and
Grammar Area on November 25, 2009 at the Librada Avelino
Hall, Centro Escolar University. The following students are the tips/tips-for-writing-memorandums.html
CHS representatives in the above-mentioned subject:
1. Miss Mildred Ablanque
2. Miss Joyce Fudotan
3. Miss Sheryl Ramos lresume.htm
4. Miss Roan Tobias
In line with this, there will be an orientation/meeting of all the
contestants, coaches, and judges on November 11, 2009
(Tuesday) 1:00 PM at the Audio Visual Room of San Beda
Your presence will be greatly appreciated. God bless!

Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills
letter-that-will-actually-get-you-an-interview-2012-2 approach-common-college-essay-questions
direct-quotations/ site/pp.asp?c=fvKRI8MPJpF&b=457147
Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing Skills


Types of Claim 18
Context of Text Development 20
Importance of Reading 2
Critical Reading as Reasoning 23
Formulating Counterclaims 25
Determining Textual Evidence \ 26
Brainstorming 4
Graphic Organizer 5
Book Review 31
Topic Outline 8
Literature Review 36
Topic Outline 9
Research Report 39
Project Proposals 43
Narration 10
Position Paper 48
Description 11
Writing a Resume 53
Definition 12
Cover Letter 58
Exemplification 13
College Application Essay 61
Comparison/Contrast 14
Cause and Effect 15
Business Letter Writing 64
Argument 16
Writing Memorandum 70
Properties of Well-Written Text 17