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Fluid Power Systems

PNEUMATICS UNIT 5 3/23/2019 NVR 1
PNEUMATICS
UNIT 5
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Fluid Power Systems

SYLLABUS Unit-5: Directional Control Valves: Symbolic representation as per IS 1219 and IS 5599. Design
SYLLABUS
Unit-5:
Directional Control Valves: Symbolic representation as per IS
1219 and IS 5599. Design and constructional aspects, poppet
valves, slide valves –spool valve.
Simple Pneumatic control: direct and indirect actuation of
pneumatic cylinder, Use of memory valve. Flow control valves and
Speed control of cylinders- supply air throttling and Exhaust air
throttling use of Quick exhaust valve.
Signal processing elements: Use of Logic gates – OR and AND
gates in pneumatic applications. Practical examples involving the
use of logic gates. Pressure dependent controls-types-
construction-practical applications. Time dependent controls-
principle, construction, practical applications. 10 Hrs
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Fluid Power Systems

Directional Control Valves  Directional Control valves are mainly used to change the direction of
Directional Control Valves
 Directional Control valves are mainly used to change the direction of
flow path of working medium or signal medium.
 Directional
control
valves
are
designated
as
per
the
following
functions:
Number of ports on the valves
Number of switching positions
Method of actuation
Method of reset
Design and constructional features
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Fluid Power Systems

Construction of 3/2 directional valve Distributing Outlet Spring spool port Housing Exhaust Pressure inlet port
Construction of 3/2 directional valve
Distributing
Outlet
Spring
spool
port
Housing
Exhaust
Pressure inlet
port
port
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Fluid Power Systems

Port Marking of Direction Control Valve As per IS-1219 As per IS 5599 Supply Port
Port Marking of Direction Control Valve
As per IS-1219
As per IS 5599
Supply Port P Supply Port 1
Exhaust Ports R & S
Exhaust Port 3 & 5
Out put Ports A & B
Out put Ports2 & 4
Pilot Port [Set ] Z
Pilot Port [Reset]Y
Pilot Port [Set] 14
Pilot Port [Reset]12
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Fluid Power Systems

Pneumatically operated directional control valve The 5/2 directional control valves, operated by pneumatic impulse is
Pneumatically operated directional
control valve
The 5/2 directional control valves, operated by
pneumatic impulse is applied in various practical
solutions such as: pushing of loads; applying tools for
performing operations, opening/closing doors and
windows, stretch/bend of robot/manipulator arms.
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Fluid Power Systems

Pneumatically operated directional control valve Valve Outlet Control Control spool ports input input Exhaust
Pneumatically operated directional
control valve
Valve
Outlet
Control
Control
spool
ports
input
input
Exhaust
Housing
Pressure
Exhaust
port
inlet port
port
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Fluid Power Systems

Symbolic Representation 3/23/2019 NVR 8
Symbolic Representation
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Fluid Power Systems

Methods of Actuation 3/23/2019 NVR 9
Methods of Actuation
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Fluid Power Systems Quick Exhaust Valve  In many applications especially with single acting cylinders,
Fluid Power
Systems
Quick Exhaust Valve
 In many applications especially with single acting cylinders,
it is a common practice to increase the piston speed during
retraction of the cylinder to save the cycle time
 This is carried out by incorporating a Quick exhaust valve.
 The Quick exhaust valve has essentially three ports
Supply port 1, is connected to the out put of the final control element
(Directional control valve). The Output port, 2 of this valve is directly
fitted on to the working port of cylinder. The exhaust port, 3 is left
open to the atmosphere
2
1
3
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Fluid Power Systems

Quick Exhaust Valve Use of Quick Exhaust Valve 3/23/2019 NVR 11
Quick Exhaust Valve
Use of Quick Exhaust Valve
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Fluid Power Systems

Controlling of Pneumatic Cylinders Pneumatic cylinders can be controlled by the following methods: 1. Direct
Controlling of Pneumatic Cylinders
Pneumatic cylinders can be controlled by the following
methods:
1. Direct control of Single or Double acting cylinder
2. Indirect Control of Cylinder with Single Piloted Final Control
Valve
3. Indirect Control of Cylinder with Double Piloted Final
Control Valve
In the indirect control actuation, a pilot signal from a 3/2
N.C. valve is used to activate pilot ports of final control
valve.
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Fluid Power Systems

Direct Control of Single Acting Cylinder Pneumatic cylinders can be directly actuated by actuation of
Direct Control of Single Acting Cylinder
Pneumatic cylinders can be directly actuated by actuation
of final control valve, manually or electrically
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Fluid Power Systems

Indirect Control of Single Acting Cylinder Large cylinders as well as cylinders operating at high
Indirect Control of Single Acting Cylinder
Large cylinders as well as cylinders operating at high speed are
generally actuated indirectly as the final control valve is required
to handle large quantity of air.
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Fluid Power Systems

Use of Double Piloted Valve Double piloted valve is also called as the Memory valve
Use of Double Piloted Valve
Double piloted valve is also called as the Memory valve
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Fluid Power Systems

Use of Limit Switches S1 S2 F=0 4 2 14 12 5 3 1 2
Use of Limit Switches
S1
S2
F=0
4 2
14
12
5 3
1
2
2
S1
S2
1
3
1
3
Use of Mechanically operated Roller lever Limit Switches
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Fluid Power Systems

Speed Control Of Cylinders  It is always necessary to reduce the speed of cylinder
Speed Control Of Cylinders
 It is always necessary to reduce the speed of cylinder from
maximum speed based on selected size of final control valve to
the nominal speed depending on the application
 Speed control of Pneumatic Cylinders can be conveniently
achieved by regulating the flow rate supply or exhaust air.
 The volume flow rate of air can be controlled by using flow
control valves which can be either Two way flow control valve or
One way flow control valve
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Fluid Power Systems

One-way flow control valve  The pneumatic one-way flow control valve is also referred to
One-way flow control valve
 The pneumatic one-way flow control valve is also referred to as a
pneumatic throttle valve. Throttle valves are used in many
pneumatic systems to control air flow.
 There are two basic types of throttles - adjustable and non-
adjustable, the adjustable version is the most commonly used.
When using adjustable flow-control valves the user can adjust
the effective throttling area to best suit the air flow needs of the
individual application.
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Fluid Power Systems

Construction of flow control valve Regulating Spring Housing screw Port 1 Port 2 Check valve
Construction of flow control valve
Regulating
Spring
Housing
screw
Port 1
Port 2
Check valve
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Use of Flow Control Valve for

Fluid Power Systems

Speed Control of Cylinder Parts List Sl. No. Component Symbol Quantity 1 Double acting cylinder
Speed Control of Cylinder
Parts List
Sl. No.
Component
Symbol
Quantity
1
Double acting
cylinder
1
2
5/2 DCV –
1
Manually
operated, spring
return
3
Throttle check
2
valve
4
FRL Unit
1
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Use of Flow Control Valve for

Fluid Power Systems

Speed Control of Cylinder Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling 3/23/2019 NVR 21
Speed Control of Cylinder
Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling
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Fluid Power Systems

Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling Supply Air Throttling • Supply air entering the
Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling
Supply Air Throttling
• Supply air entering the cylinder through either of the working ports, undergoes throttling as the non
return valve is closed in the direction of flow.
• During exhaust , the compressed air leaving the cylinder is by passed through the non return valve
and escapes freely as it does not under go throttling
• Supply air throttling is used for single acting cylinder and small volume cylinder
Exhaust Air Throttling
• Supply air flows freely to the cylinder through the bypass passage of the non return valve. The
supply air does not under go any throttling
• Exhaust air leaving the cylinder has to under go throttling as the non return valve is closed in the
return direction
• The piston is loaded between two cushions of air
• Exhaust throttling should always be used for double acting cylinder
• Not suitable for small volume cylinders and cylinders with short strokes as effective pressure cannot
build up sufficiently.
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements To meet the requirement of various conditions in pneumatic applications, signal processing
Signal processing elements
To meet the requirement of various conditions in pneumatic applications,
signal processing devices are often used. The following gates or valves are
used, depending on the required conditions.
• OR Gate – Shuttle Valve – Used to select one of the two input signals
• AND Gate - Two Pressure Valve - To combine two input signals i . e
to
satisfy two
conditions at the same time
• NOT Gate- 3/2 way, normally open, pilot operated Directional Control
Valve- used to negate the function
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements Shuttle Valve as ‘OR’ gate An Input Signal [1] can be applied
Signal processing elements
Shuttle Valve as ‘OR’ gate
An Input Signal [1] can be applied on either side of the valve to
obtain an out put signal at port 2. A small aluminum or plastic
ball or spool is used as the shuttle which blocks the port
opposite to the input signal.
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Fluid Power Systems Signal processing elements Selection of Parts Sl. No. Component Numbers 1 Double
Fluid Power
Systems
Signal processing elements
Selection of Parts
Sl. No.
Component
Numbers
1
Double acting cylinder
1
2
5/2 Way Directional Control Valve
1
(Single Piloted)
3/2 way Push button valve (NC)
3
2
4
Shuttle valve
1
5
Air Service unit (Filter Regulator
assembly)
1
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements 3/23/2019 NVR 26
Signal processing elements
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements Twin Pressure Valve as ‘AND’ Gate Input signal applied on any one
Signal processing elements
Twin Pressure Valve as ‘AND’ Gate
Input signal applied on any one side of the valve will block the signal
passage on the same side of the port.
If a second signal is applied on the opposite side at the same time,
it will be communicated to the out put port.
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Fluid Power Systems Signal processing elements Selection of Parts Sl. No. Component Numbers 1 Double
Fluid Power
Systems
Signal processing elements
Selection of Parts
Sl. No.
Component
Numbers
1
Double acting cylinder
1
2
5/2 Way Directional Control Valve
(Single Piloted)
1
3/2 way Push button valve (NC)
3
2
4
Twin pressure valve
1
5
Air Service unit (Filter Regulator
assembly)
1
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements Circuit Diagram 3/23/2019 NVR 29
Signal processing elements
Circuit Diagram
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Fluid Power Systems

Signal processing elements Not Gate 2 10 1 3 Not Gate is generally used to
Signal processing elements
Not Gate
2
10
1
3
Not Gate is generally used to invert the signal status i. e to negate the
signal. For example a normally closed timer or counter can be converted to
normally open and vice versa
It is essentially a normally open 3/2 way, pilot operated directional control
valve. Input signal is applied at pilot port 10 and out put is taken from port 2.
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Fluid Power Systems

Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves Task: The Piston of double acting cylinder of
Logical Control With Shuttle
And Twin-pressure Valves
Task:
The Piston of double acting cylinder of a supply station supplies work pieces under
the following logical conditions:
The start button (S0) or an auxiliary button (S1) is actuated and parts are available in
the work piece magazine (B2)
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Fluid Power Systems

Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves An optical display shows whether there are still
Logical Control With Shuttle
And Twin-pressure Valves
An optical display shows whether there are still
parts available in the magazine
enough
The cylinder should only retract into its back end position
if it has actuation reached the front end position and an
acknowledgement button (S4) is actuated.
A 5/2 impulse valve is used as an actuator.
Additionally: for scanning work pieces in the magazine (B2) it is not possible lto use a
mechanically operated signaler.
The scanning should therefore occur in a non-contact manner through a reflex sensor.
The working speed of the cylinder should be infinitely adjustable in both directions
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Fluid Power Systems

Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves Pneumatic circuit 3/23/2019 NVR 33
Logical Control With Shuttle
And Twin-pressure Valves
Pneumatic circuit
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Fluid Power Systems

Position Dependent Control TASK: • A Double acting cylinder is required to perform continuous reciprocating
Position Dependent Control
TASK:
• A Double acting cylinder is required to perform continuous
reciprocating motions on actuation of a detente manual push
button.
• The piston should extend and retract over the complete stroke
length as dictated by mechanical limit switches.
• The speed of travel of the piston should be adjustable both
during the forward and return motions.
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Fluid Power Systems

Position Dependent Control Parts List 1 Double acting Cylinder 1 2 Double Piloted 5/2 way
Position Dependent Control
Parts List
1
Double acting Cylinder
1
2
Double Piloted 5/2 way Valve
1
3
One way flow control valves
2
4
3/2 way Push button valve (NC) with
1
detent
5
3/2 way roller lever N.C. valve [Limit
2
switches]
6
Distributor manifold ( 6 fold)
1
7
Air Service unit (Filter Regulator
assembly)
1
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Fluid Power Systems

Position Dependent Control 3/23/2019 NVR 36
Position Dependent Control
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Fluid Power Systems

Pneumatic Timers Figure : Pneumatic Timers- Normally closed and Normally Open A Pneumatic Timer is
Pneumatic Timers
Figure : Pneumatic Timers- Normally closed and Normally Open
A Pneumatic Timer is a combination valve which consists of three parts
1. 3/2 way pilot operated directional control valve [NC or NO],
2. A one way flow control valve and
3. An accumulator
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Fluid Power Systems

Pneumatic Timers e represents the signal status of input signal a represents the signal status
Pneumatic Timers
e represents the signal status of input signal
a represents the signal status of output signal
Output signal appears after lapse of time t after input signal is Introduced in ON delay
timer while in OFF delay timer the out put signal disappears after a time lag after input
signal is introduced
0 state corresponds to no signal while 1 state corresponds to presence of signal
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Fluid Power Systems

Time Delay Valve [N.C] Signal input is supplied at port 12 and delayed signal out
Time Delay Valve [N.C]
Signal
input is supplied at port 12 and delayed signal out put is taken at 2.
A signal source is connected at port 1
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Fluid Power Systems

Pneumatic Timers 3/23/2019 NVR 40
Pneumatic Timers
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Pressure Decay Circuit

Fluid Power Systems

 Manual remote start of a - + a1 double acting cylinder A  Uses
 Manual remote start of a
-
+
a1
double acting cylinder
A
 Uses
a
low
pressure
operated valve connected
normally open
 When the back pressure in
4
2
the front of the cylinder
14
12
falls below 0.1 bar the
return signal is given
5
1
3
 Connection taken between
the cylinder and flow
regulator
2
2
12
10
10
12
 Useful for pressing work
pieces of variable size
3
1
1
3 0.1bar
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Fluid Power Systems

Electrical Relays The term Relay generally refers to a device that provides an electrical connection
Electrical Relays
The term Relay generally refers to a device that provides an electrical
connection between two or more points in response to the application of a
control signal. The most common and widely used type of relay is the
Electromechanical Relay or EMR.
As their name implies, Electromechanical Relays are Electro-Magnetic
devices that convert a magnetic flux generated by the application of an
electrical control signal either AC or DC current, into a pulling mechanical
force which operates the electrical contacts within the relay.
The most common form of electromechanical relay consist of an energizing
coil called the "Primary Circuit" wound around a permeable iron core. It has
both a fixed portion called the Yoke, and a moveable spring loaded part
called the Armature, that completes the magnetic field circuit by closing the
air gap between the fixed electrical coil and the moveable armature.
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Fluid Power Systems

Electrical Relays This armature is hinged or pivoted and is free to move within the
Electrical Relays
This armature is hinged or pivoted and is free to move within the
generated magnetic field closing the electrical contacts that are
attached to it. Connected between the yoke and armature is normally
a spring (or springs) for the return stroke to "Reset" the contacts back
to their initial rest position when the relay coil is in the "de-energized"
condition, ie. turned "OFF".
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Fluid Power Systems

Relay Contacts The relays contacts are electrically conductive pieces of metal which touch together complete
Relay Contacts
The relays contacts are electrically conductive
pieces of metal which touch together complete a
circuit and allows the circuit current to flow, just
like a switch.
When the contacts are open the resistance
between the contacts is very high in the Mega-
Ohms, producing an open circuit and no circuit
current flows.
When the contacts are closed the contact
resistance should be zero a short circuit, but this is
not the case. All relay contacts have a certain
amount of "contact resistance" when they are
closed and this is called the "On-Resistance". With
a new relay and contacts this on-resistance will be
very small, generally less than 0.2Ω's because the
tips are new and clean.
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Fluid Power Systems

Electro-pneumatic Logic AND Logic The relay circuit controlling the valve provides an AND logic function.
Electro-pneumatic Logic
AND Logic
The relay circuit controlling the valve provides an AND logic function.
To operate the solenoid Y, and extend the cylinder, it is necessary to push
buttons S1 AND S2 simultaneously
If any of these two buttons is released, the cylinder will retract
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Fluid Power Systems

Electro-pneumatic Logic OR Logic The relay circuit controlling the valve provides an OR logic function.
Electro-pneumatic Logic
OR Logic
The relay circuit controlling the valve provides an OR logic function.
To operate solenoid Y and extend the cylinder, it is necessary to push
button S1 OR S2 or both
However, both must be released for the cylinder to retract
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Fluid Power Systems

Electro-pneumatic Logic MEMORY Logic The push button A+ is operated to turn on the relay
Electro-pneumatic Logic
MEMORY Logic
The push button A+ is operated to turn on the relay RR1, which closes both
contacts R1 and R2.
The push button A+ can be released as the first contact (R1) is providing
continuity to hold the relay on.
At the same time, the second contact (R2) operates the solenoid Y to extend
the cylinder.
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Fluid Power Systems

Electro-pneumatic Logic MEMORY Logic This state will continue until the normally closed push button contact
Electro-pneumatic Logic
MEMORY Logic
This state will continue until the normally closed push button contact A− is
opened, whereupon the relay will de-energize and both contacts R1 and
R2 will open.
The push button A− can now be released and the relay remains off. At the
same time, the solenoid is de-energized, causing the cylinder to retract
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Electrical Control for Double

Fluid Power Systems

Solenoid Valve 3/23/2019 NVR 49
Solenoid Valve
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