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Example 2: Simplify and express in the form a + bi.

(𝑎) 6𝑖 9 + 2𝑖 11

3𝑖 100 + √−36 𝑖
(b)
√−16 + 12

𝑖 25 − √−27 𝑖
(𝑏)
√−9 + 12

−𝑖 + 2
Example 3: Determine the Re(Z), Im (Z)and 𝑍̅ for Z = .
3−𝑖

𝑧1 −3 − 𝑖
Example 4: Given 𝑧1 = 𝑎, 𝑧2 = 3 − i and = . Find the value of 𝑎.
𝑧2 5

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Example 5: If one of the solutions of 𝑥 3 − 𝑎 = 0 is − 1 + √3 𝑖, find the constant 𝑎.

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Example:
𝜋 𝜋 𝑧1
(𝑎) Given 𝑧1 = 2 − 2𝑖 7 and 𝑧2 = −2 [𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛 ] . Find and leave your answer
2 2 𝑧2

in 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖 form.

(𝑏) Convert (−3 − 4𝑖)9 into polar form.

(𝑧1 )3
(c) Find the polar form of 𝑧1 = −2 − i and 𝑧2 = 3 − i . Use them to find .
𝑧2

Example 1: Find all values of x for which x3 = -8, and (b) locate these values in the complex plane.

Example 2: Solve x4= 2i.

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Example 3: Find the square roots of -5+12i.

Example 4: Find all the roots of a5 = 7-5i.

Example 1: Show that

(a) 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 = 𝑒 𝑖(𝜃+2𝑘𝜋) , 𝑘 = 0, ±1, ±2, …

𝑒 𝑖𝜃 + 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
(b) cos 𝜃 =
2

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𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
(c) sin 𝜃 =
2𝑖

Example 2: Prove the identities:

3 1
(a) 𝑠𝑖𝑛3 𝜃 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛3𝜃
4 4

1 1 3
(𝑏) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠4𝜃 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + .
8 2 8

Example 3: Prove that 𝑒 𝑧1 . 𝑒 𝑧2 = 𝑒 𝑧1 +𝑧2 .

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Hyperbolic Functions are defined as follows:

The following properties hold:

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ2 𝑥 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ2 𝑥 = 1 , 1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ2 𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐ℎ2 𝑥, 𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ2 𝑥 − 1 = 𝑐𝑠𝑐ℎ2 𝑥

𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ (− 𝑥) = − 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑥 , 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ (− 𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 𝑥 , 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ (− 𝑥) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑥

𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( 𝑥 ± 𝑦) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑦 ± 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑦, 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ ( 𝑥 ± 𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑦 ± 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑦

𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑥 ± 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑦
𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ(𝑥 ± 𝑦) =
1 ± 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑥 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑦

The following relations exist between the trigonometric or circular functions and the hyperbolic
functions:

𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑥, 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑥, 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑖 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑥,

𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥, 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥, 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑖 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

Example 1: In each part, express the value of the given trigonometric function in the form a+ib.

(𝑎) cos 𝑖

(𝑏) sin(2 + 𝑖)

(𝑐) 𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝜋 − 2𝑖)

Example 2: Determine the imaginary part of cos(i7).

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Example 3: Prove:

a) 1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ2 𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐ℎ2 𝑥

b) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑥

c) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑖𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑥

Example 4: Show that 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑦 − 𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑦