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COAL

HANDLING
SYSTEM
By: Shaikh Saif

Shaikh Saif
NECESSITY OF COAL HANDLING SYSTEM
 A 600MW Power Plant handles about 7200 tons of coals per
day.
 Coal handlings are to be flexible, reliable & capable of
handling large quantities in less time than even before.
 Coal plays a vital role in electricity generation worldwide.
Coal-fired power plants currently fuel 41% of global
electricity.

Shaikh Saif
REQUIREMENT OF GOOD COAL HANDLING
PLANT
 It should have minimum maintenance
 It should be simple.

 It should be reliable

Shaikh Saif
COAL HANDLING SYSTEM
Coal Delivery

Unloading

Weighing

Outdoor Storage

Covered Storage

Inplant Handling

Preparation / Weighing

Transfer

Furnace Firing
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OUT-PLANT HANDLING.(COAL DELIVERY)
 Out plant handling means transfer of Coal from mine or
port to storage of coal at plant site.
1. Transportation by Rail: 4000 to 13000 tons/trip.
2. Transportation by Ships: 45 million tons/year.
3. Transportation by Roads: Trucks etc.
4. Transportation by belt & conveyors.
5. Transportation of Coal by Pipe line.

Shaikh Saif
FACTS
 Daqin Railway coal trains—20,000 t, 3.2 km, 210
wagons(China).
 The longest train there was recorded in 1986, carrying
Kuzbass coal in 439 cars, for the train length of 6500
meters and total weight of 43,500 tonnes (Russia).
 one litre of fuel moves 24 ton/km on road, 85 ton/km on
rail and 105 ton/km on water.

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UNLOAD OF COAL AT SITE

 Unload from Rail cars


 Unloading from Ships
1. Unloading equipment.
2. Self unloading ship.
o Unloading from trucks (lifting trucks)

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RAIL CAR UNLOADING
 Rail car unloading featuring
bottom dump by unloading
bridge.

 Rail car unloading


by means of Rotary
Drum

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SHIP UNLOADING SYSTEM
 Unloading Equipment's.

 Self Unloading Ships

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TRANSPORTATION BY PIPELINE

Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

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TRANSPORTATION THROUGH ROPE & BELT
CONVEYORS

 Transfer of coal by rope, belt & conveyor is also used if


the distance between the mines & power station is less
than 10 km
 Conveying capacity was 600 tonnes per hour. The line
was 270 meters long, with a vertical rise of 23 meters. It
eliminated 115,000 truck journeys.

Shaikh Saif
COAL WEIGHING
 All of our train weighing systems involves "Load Cell"
technology which is the only genuinely recognized
method of long term accurate & reliable train weighing &
uses the exact principal as weighbridges, truck scales &
every other general scale is based upon.(onboard coal
weighing)

Shaikh Saif
COAL STORAGE
 Storage of coal is undesirable because it costs more as
there is,
 Risk of spontaneous combustion.

 Weathering.

 Possibility of loss deterioration during storage.

 Interest on capital cost of coal lying dormant.

 Cost of protecting the stored coal from deteriorating & so


on.

Shaikh Saif
PURPOSE OF STORAGE OF COAL
 To store the coal for a period of 30 – 80 days so that
plant is never required to be shut-down.
 Storage of coal allows the purchaser to take the
advantage of seasonal market fluctuation in prices of
coal.

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OUTDOOR STORAGE (DEAD STORAGE)
 The coal is usually kept on ground in the form of pile
exposed to outside weather.
 The coal is required to be protected from deterioration &
weathering
 This is a long term storage i.e. 10% of annual
consumption.

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CLOSED OR LIVE STORAGE
 In the closed or live storage the coal is stored for one or
two days requirement of the power plant.
 This storage is used for the purpose of supplying the coal
to the combustion equipment with negligible handling
 The coal is usually stored in the vertical cylinder bunkers
or coal bins.

Shaikh Saif
INPLANT COAL HANDLING
 The In-Plant coal handling
system deals with feeding of
coal from live storage to the
furnace.
 It includes various equipment's
for transfer of coal like belt
conveyor, screw conveyor etc.
& the equipment needed to
weigh the quantity of coal for
feed.
 In case of pulverized coal firing
system, it requires large no. of
equipment’s like chutes,
pulverized mills, feeders,
weighing machine, hoppers &
automatic scales.
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POINTS TO REMEMBER.
 Simple & sound, requiring minimum operations &
transportation.
 No double handling of coal in plant.
 Handling unit should be centralized to facilitate inspection
& maintenance.
 Electric motors can be used as driver of mechanism.
 Working parts should be enclosed to avoid abrasion &
corrosion.
 System should be able to supply required quantity of coal
as per demand.

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COAL PREPARATION

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CRUSHING OF COAL
 Crushers are used to reduce the coal to optimum size.
 It is crushed into pieces of 25-30mm for stoker firing and
10-20mm for pulverized coal firing.

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VIBRATING SEPARATOR
 Size of vibrating separator is fitted after crusher to
screen the coal crushed below set size.
 Oversized coal is returned to crusher for further proper
crushing.

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TRANSFER OF COAL.
Different equipment’s of coal transfer.
1. Belt conveyors.

2. Screw conveyors.

3. Bucket elevators.

4. Grab bucket elevators.

5. Flight conveyors or scrapers.

6. Skip hoist.

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BELT CONVEYORS
 It consist of endless belt of suitable material running over
pair of end drums supported at regular interval by series
of rollers(idler).
 Max Inclination: 20degree.
 Running Speed: 400-500 RPM.
 Transport Capacity: 50-100ton/hour over long distance

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BELT CONVEYORS (CONT.)

Advantages
1. Low cost & power consumption.

2. Smooth & clean operation.

3. Cheap maintenance.

4. Controlled rate of coal transfer.

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SCREW CONVEYORS
 It is used for shorter distance(30m).
 Totally enclosed from atmosphere.
 Coal dust can also be transferred easily.
 Diameter: 15-50cm.
 Speed: 70-120 rpm.
 Transfer Capacity: 100tons/hour.

Shaikh Saif
SCREW CONVEYORS
 Advantages
1. Cheap
2. Requires small space, simple & tight.
3. Dust tight.
 Disadvantages
1. High power consumption per ton of coal transfer
2. Wear and tear of screw is high. Shorter life

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BUCKET ELEVATOR
 Coal is lifted vertical or
near vertical direction.
 It carries the buckets
fixed to a chain.
 Buckets are loaded
with coal at bottom &
discharges at the top.

Limitation:
 The lift of coal is limited to about 30m.
 Inclination is limited to 60 degree with horizontal
 Transfer Capacity: 60 tons/hour.
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GRAB BUCKET ELEVATOR
 It lifts & transfer coal on a single rail or track from
one point to the other.
 It can be used with crane or tower.
 Transfer Capacity: 50 tons/hour

Advantages:
1. Requires less power for operation and minimum
maintenance.
2. Used when other arrangements are not possible.
3. Lesser operating cost.

Disadvantages:
1. Initial cost is high.

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FLIGHT CONVEYOR OR SCRAPERS
 It is generally used for transfer of coal when filling of no.
of storage bin under the conveyor is required.
 The coal is discharged in the bottom of trough.

 Transfer Capacity: 10-100 tons/hour.

 Advantage:
1. Low capital cost.
2. It can transfer both coal & ash.
3. It can vary easily the rate of coal discharge.

o Disadvantages:
1. High energy consumption & maintenance cost.
2. High wear and tear due to dragging action.
Shaikh Saif
Shaikh Saif