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Activities to develop

Each student in the group has to answer the following questions

using academic references to support the research:

1. In the propagation of electromagnetic waves, what are the

"transmission lines"?

Lines of transmission. Its length is large compared to the

wavelength of the signals it transmits. A transmission line can
compose two parallel conductors that connect the generator with
the load. From a certain frequency, the lines formed by two
parallel conductors are a large amount of energy and are usable
by their high losses. At high frequencies it is convenient to use
coaxial lines, formed by a central conductor of a tubular metal
mesh that has a near constant blind potential and forms "the
return of the earth" of very low impedance. The two conductors
(central and mesh) are separated by an appropriate dielectric. The
Constants distributed one Line (per Unit length) son along the:

 Ohmic resistance in series: R

 Serial autoinduction: L
 Distributed parallel capacity: C
 Parallel behavior: G
 Complex impedance in series: Z
 Complex admittance in series: Y

2. In a transmission system, what are the appropriate values

for the reflection coefficient and the VSWR?

the reflection coefficient relates the amplitude of the reflected

wave with the amplitude of the incident wave. It is usually
represented with a (uppercase gamma).

The reflection coefficient is given by:

The coefficient of reflection is the probability that the particle is
reflected by the barrier in a potential step or potential barrier is
given by the relationship:

Where A corresponds to the amplitude of the reflected wave, A *

is its conjugate and B corresponds to the amplitude of the incident
wave, and B * its conjugate


The standing wave ratio (VSWR) is defined as the ratio of the

maximum voltage to the minimum voltage of a standing wave in a
transmission line, therefore, it has no units. In terms of voltage, it
is the division of the sum of the incident voltage plus the reflected
voltage between the difference of the incident voltage minus the
reflected voltage. Essentially, the VSWR is a measure of the
decoupling of all charges in the radiant system (feeders, jumpers,
connectors, antennas, and other devices that are part of the
radiant system).

The variation of the VSWR depends very much on the variation of

the waves existing in a transmission line, but mainly, of the
reflected wave. In practical terms, a hit feeder, a badly made
connector, a bad fit on the junction of two connectors or an
oxidized antenna port cause the impedance of the transmission
line to vary along its entire length and in turn will make the
reflected wave increase, so that, consequently, the value of VSWR
will rise.

3. What happens to the coefficient of transmission and

reflection when: the line ends in short circuit and when the
line ends in open circuit?
Since the impedance at each point is the quotient between the
voltage and the current, the points at which the voltage for the
short-terminated line is canceled are: the short circuit itself, that
is, the end of the line (x = 0) and the multiples of half wavelength.
On the contrary, the maximums are located in the intermediate
points to the minimums, that is, in the odd multiples of a quarter
wavelength, where the intensity is canceled and, therefore, the
impedance becomes infinite

Reflection in lines in open circuit and short circuit. There can be no

voltage in a short circuit or circulate current through an open

A. Line terminated in short circuit ( Z L=0 )

All the power of the line is reflected in the opposite direction. No
power is delivered to the load because it is a short circuit.
Undesirable situation The impedance seen is:

Z L ( x )= j·Z 0 ·tan ( βx )
4. What characteristics should be found in a transmission line
system to be considered well coupled?

A transmission line is a material structure of uniform geometry

used to efficiently transport radio frequency energy from one point
to another; as it can be from one transmission equipment to
another, from a transmitter to the antenna, among other
applications. A parameter that defines it commonly is its
characteristic impedance, the most common values being 50 and
75 ohms when we refer to a particular type of known transmission
lines, in this case, as coaxial cables. A typical example of 75 ohms
is the RG-6 cable which is used for the residential cable service

For there to be energy propagation in TEM mode, it is necessary

that there are at least two electrical conductors and a dielectric
medium between them (which can even be air or vacuum).
Examples of transmission lines are the bifilar cable, the coaxial
cable, and planar lines such as the stripline, the microstrip.

5. In the Smith chart, identify a Z_L = α, a Z_L = 0, two

resistive loads and two complex loads. assume the
characteristic impedance.

Choose one of the following problems, solve it and share the

solution in the forum. Perform a critical analysis on the group
members’ contributions and reply this in the forum.

1. A transmission line has the following parameters:, L=30 mH /km ,

C=55 nF /km , G=4 μS/km and R=100 Ω/km . It has a generator
supplying 120 V rms at ω=3 x 10 rad /s and in series with a

resistance of 300 Ω . The load has an impedance of 80 Ω . Find

the input voltage and current.

5 rad
ω=3 x 1 0
Volt=120 V rms

√ R+ jωL
G+ jωC
V ¿ =V g
Zg+ Z0

Ω rad mH
100 + j 3 x 1 05 ∗30
km s km
μS rad nF
4 + j3 x 1 05 ∗5
km s km
Z 0 =340− j250

340− j250
V ¿ =200
200+340− j 250
V ¿ =139− j28.24

139− j 28.24
340− j250
I =0.304+ j 0.141