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PHYSICS (861)

Aims:
1. To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, facts,
concepts, definitions, and fundamental laws, principles and processes in the field of physics.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of physics to unfamiliar situations.
3. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of physical sciences.
4. To develop skills in -
(a) the practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and
(b) Drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.
5. To develop an appreciation of the contribution of physics towards scientific and technological
developments and towards human happiness.
6. To develop an interest in the world of physical sciences.

CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks
Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks
Project Work … 10 marks
Practical File … 5 marks
PAPER I- THEORY: 70 Marks
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.
S. NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE
1. Physical World and Measurement
2. Kinematics 23 Marks
3. Laws of Motion
4. Work, Energy and Power 17 Marks
5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
6. Gravitation
7. Properties of Bulk Matter 20 Marks
8. Heat and Thermodynamics
9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
10. Oscillations and Waves 10 Marks
TOTAL 70 Marks

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PAPER I -THEORY – 70 MARKS
Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. and symbols (strictly as per rule);
Units are to be used while teaching and learning, subunits and multiple units using
as well as for answering questions. prefixes for powers of 10 (from atto for
10-18 to tera for 1012); other common
(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and
units such as fermi, angstrom (now
when they are introduced along with their units and
outdated), light year, astronomical unit
dimensions.
and parsec. A new unit of mass used in
(iii) Numerical problems are included from all atomic physics is unified atomic mass
topics except where they are specifically excluded unit with symbol u (not amu); rules for
or where only qualitative treatment is required. writing the names of units and their
symbols in SI (upper case/lower case.)
1. Physical World and Measurement Derived units (with correct symbols);
(i) Physical World: special names wherever applicable;
expression in terms of base units (e.g.:
Scope of Physics and its application in N= kg m/s2).
everyday life. Nature of physical laws.
(b) Accuracy of measurement, errors in
Physics and its branches (only basic measurement: precision of measuring
knowledge required); fundamental laws instruments, instrumental errors,
and fundamental forces in nature systematic errors, random errors and
(gravitational force, electro-magnetic gross errors. Least count of an
force, strong and weak nuclear forces; instrument and its implication on
unification of forces). Application of errors in measurements; absolute
Physics in technology and society (major error, relative error and percentage
scientists, their discoveries, inventions and error; combination of errors in (a) sum
laws/principles to be discussed briefly). and difference, (b) product and
(ii) Units and Measurements quotient and (c) power of a measured
quantity.
Measurement: need for measurement;
units of measurement; systems of units: (c) Significant figures; their significance;
fundamental and derived units in SI; rules for counting the number of
measurement of length, mass and time; significant figures; rules for (a)
accuracy and precision of measuring addition and subtraction, (b)
instruments; errors in measurement; multiplication/ division; ‘rounding off’
significantfigures. the uncertain digits; order of
magnitude as statement of magnitudes
Dimensional formulae of physical in powers of 10; examples from
quantities and constants, dimensional magnitudes of common physical
analysis and its applications. quantities - size, mass, time, etc.
(a) Importance of measurement in
(d) Dimensions of physical quantities;
scientific studies; physics is a science
dimensional formula; express
of measurement. Unit as a reference derived units in terms of base units
standard of measurement; essential
(N = kg.m s-2); use symbol […] for
properties. Systems of units; CGS,
dimensions of or base unit of; e.g.:
FPS, MKS, MKSA, and SI; the seven
dimensional formula of force in terms of
base units of SI selected by the General
fundamental quantities written as
Conference of Weights and Measures
[F] = [MLT–2].Principle of
in 1971 and their definitions, list of
homogeneity of dimensions.
fundamental, supplementary and
Expressions in terms of SI base units
derived physical quantities; their units
and dimensional formula may be
141
obtained for all physical quantities as (ii) Motion in a Plane
and when new physical quantities are Scalar and Vector quantities with
introduced. examples. Position and displacement
(e) Use of dimensional analysis to (i) vectors, general vectors and their
check the dimensional correctness of a notations; equality of vectors, addition
formula/ equation; (ii) to obtain the and subtraction of vectors, relative
dimensional formula of any derived velocity, Unit vector; resolution of a
physical quantity including constants; vector in a plane, rectangular
(iii) to convert units from one system to components, Scalar and Vector product of
another; limitations of dimensional two vectors. Projectile motion and
analysis. uniform circular motion.

2. Kinematics (a) General Vectors and notation, position


and displacement vector. Vectors
(i) Motion in a Straight Line explained using displacement as a
Frame of references, Motion in a straight prototype - along a straight line (one
line (one dimension): Position-time graph, dimensional), on a plane surface
speed and velocity. (two dimensional) and in an open
space not confined to a line or a plane
Elementary concepts of differentiation and
(three dimensional); symbol and
integration for describing motion, uniform
representation; a scalar quantity, its
and non- uniform motion, average speed,
representation and unit, equality of
velocity, average velocity, instantaneous
vectors. Unit vectors denoted
velocity and uniformly accelerated motion,
velocity - time and position - time graphs. by î , ĵ , kˆ orthogonal unit vectors
Relations for uniformly accelerated motion along x, y and z axes respectively.
(graphicaltreatment). Examples of one dimensional vector

Frame of reference, concept of point mass, V 1 =a î or b ĵ or c kˆ where a, b, c are
rest and motion; distance and 
scalar quantities or numbers; V 2 =
displacement, speed and velocity, average
speed and average velocity, uniform a î + b ĵ is a two dimensional or

velocity, instantaneous speed and planar vector, V 3 = a î + b ĵ + c kˆ is
instantaneous velocity, acceleration,
a three dimensional or space vector.
instantaneous acceleration, s-t, v-t and a-t
Concept of null vector and co-planar
graphs for uniform acceleration and
vectors.
conclusions drawn from these graphs;
kinematic equations of motion for objects (b) Addition: use displacement as an
in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion example; obtain triangle law of
derived using graphical, calculus or addition; graphical and analytical
analytical method, motion of an object treatment; Discuss commutative and
under gravity, (one dimensional motion). associative properties of vector
addition (Proof not required).
Differentiation as rate of change; examples
Parallelogram Law; sum and
from physics – speed, acceleration, velocity
difference; derive expressions for
gradient, etc. Formulae for differentiation
magnitude and direction from
of simple functions: xn, sinx, cosx, ex and ln
parallelogram law; special cases;
x. Simple ideas about integration – mainly.
subtraction as special case of
∫xn.dx. Both definite and indefinite addition with direction reversed; use of
integrals to be mentioned (elementary Triangle Law for subtraction also; if
calculus not to be evaluated).      
a +b =c ;c - a= b ; In a
parallelogram, if one diagonal is the
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sum, the other diagonal is the Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Friction:
difference; addition and subtraction Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction,
with vectors expressed in terms of unit rolling friction, lubrication.
vectors î , ĵ , kˆ ; multiplication of a Dynamics of uniform circular motion:
vector by a real number. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion
(vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on a
(c) Use triangle law of addition to
banked road).
express a vector in terms of its
   (a) Newton's first law: Statement and
components. If a + b = c is an
   explanation; concept of inertia, mass,
addition fact, c = a + b is a force; law of inertia; mathematically, if
 
resolution; a and b are components of F=0, a=0.
 
c . Rectangular components, relation    dp
between components, resultant and Newton's second law: p =m v ; F  ;
angle between them. Dot (or scalar) dt

   dp
product of vectors a . b =abcos; F =k . Define unit of force so that
  dt
example W = F . S = FS Cos . Special  
dp
case of  = 0o, 90 o and 1800. Vector k=1; F= ; a vector equation. For
  dt
(or cross) product a × b = [absin] n̂ ;
   classical physics with v not large and mass

example: torque  = r × F ; Special m remaining constant, obtain F =m a .

cases using unit vectors iˆ , ĵ , kˆ for For v c, m is not constant. Then
   
a . b and a x b . m = mo Note that F= ma is the
1 -v 2 c2
(d) Concept of relative velocity, start from
simple examples on relative velocity of special case for classical mechanics. It is a
one dimensional motion and then two
 
vector equation. a || F . Also, this can be
dimensional motion; consider resolved into three scalar equations
displacement first; relative Fx=max etc. Application to numerical
displacement (use Triangle Law or problems; introduce tension force, normal
parallelogram Law). reaction force. If a = 0 (body in
(e) Various terms related to projectile equilibrium), F= 0. Statement, derivation
motion; obtain equations of trajectory, and explanation of principle of
time of flight, maximum height, conservation of linear momentum. Impulse
horizontal range, instantaneous of a force: Ft =p.
velocity, [projectile motion on an Newton's third law. Obtain it using Law of
inclined plane not included]. Examples Conservation of linear momentum. Proof of
of projectile motion. Newton’s second law as real law.
(f) Examples of uniform circular motion: Systematic solution of problems in
details to be covered in unit 3 (d). mechanics; isolate a part of a system,
identify all forces acting on it; draw a free
3. Laws of Motion body diagram representing the part as a
General concept of force, inertia, Newton's point and representing all forces by line
first law of motion; momentum and segments, solve for resultant force which is

Newton's second law of motion; impulse; equal to m a . Simple problems on
Newton's third law of motion. “Connected bodies” (not involving two
pulleys).
Law of conservation of linear momentum and
itsapplications. (b) Force diagrams; resultant or net force
from Triangle law of Forces,

143
     
parallelogram law or resolution of forces.
  W=dw=  F . dS , for F ║ dS F . dS =FdS
Apply net force  F = m a . Again for
therefore, W=FdS is the area under the F-
equilibrium a=0 and F=0. Conditions of S graph or if F can be expressed in terms of
equilibrium of a rigid body under three
S, FdS can be evaluated. Example, work
coplanar forces. Discuss ladder problem.
done in stretching a
 
(c) Friction; classical view and modern view
spring W  Fdx  kxdx  1 2
kx . This
of friction, static friction a self-adjusting 2
force; limiting value; kinetic friction or is also the potential energy stored in the
sliding friction; rolling friction, examples. stretched spring U=½ kx2.
Laws of friction: Two laws of static Kinetic energy and its expression,
friction; (similar) two laws of kinetic Work-Energy theorem E=W. Law of
friction; coefficient of friction s = Conservation of Energy; oscillating spring.
fs(max)/N and k = fk/N; graphs. U+K = E = Kmax = Umax (for U = 0 and K
Friction as a non-conservative force; = 0 respectively); graph different forms of
motion under friction, net force in energy and their transformations. E = mc2

Newton’s 2nd law is calculated including fk. (no derivation). Power P=W/t; P  F .v .
Motion along a rough inclined plane – both
up and down. Pulling and pushing of a (ii) Collision in one dimension; derivation of
roller. Angle of friction and angle of velocity equation for general case of m1 
repose. Lubrication, use of bearings, m2 and u1  u2=0; Special cases for
streamlining, etc. m1=m2=m; m1>>m2 or m1<<m2. Oblique
collisions i.e. collision in two dimensions.
(d) Angular displacement (), angular velocity
(), angular acceleration () and their 5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid
relations. Concept of centripetal Body
acceleration; obtain an expression for this

acceleration using v . Magnitude and Idea of centre of mass: centre of mass of a two-
 particle system, momentum conservation and
direction of a same as that of v ;
Centripetal acceleration; the cause of this centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a
acceleration is a force - also called rigid body; centre of mass of a uniformrod.
centripetal force; the name only indicates Moment of a force, torque, angular
its direction, it is not a new type of force, momentum, laws of conservation of angular
motion in a vertical circle; banking of road momentum and its applications.
and railway track (conical pendulum is
excluded). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body
rotation and equations of rotational motion,
4. Work, Power and Energy comparative study of linear and rotational
motions.
Work done by a constant force and a
variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy Moment of inertia, radius of gyration,
theorem, power. moments of inertia for simple geometrical
objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel
Potential energy, potential energy of a spring, and perpendicular axes theorems and their
conservative forces: conservation of applications.
mechanical energy (kinetic and potential
energies); Conservative and non-conservative (i) Definition of centre of mass (cm), centre of
forces. Concept of collision: elastic and mass (cm) for a two particle system
inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. m1x1+m2x2=Mxcm; differentiating, get the
  equation for vcm and acm; general equation
(i) Work done W= F . S =FScos. If F is
  for N particles- many particles system;
variable dW= F . dS and [need not go into more details];centre of
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gravity, principle of moment, discuss (ii) Relation between g and G. Derive the
ladder problem, concept of a rigid body; expression for variation of g above and
kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating below the surface of the earth; graph;
about a fixed axis in terms of that of the mention variation of g with latitude and
particles of the body; hence, define moment rotation, (without derivation).
of inertia and radius of gyration; physical
(iii) Gravitational field, intensity of
significance of moment of inertia; unit and
gravitational field and potential at a point
dimension; depends on mass and axis of
rotation; it is rotational inertia; equations in earth’s gravitational field. Vp = Wp/m.
of rotational motions. Applications: only Derive expression (by integration) for
expression for the moment of inertia, I the gravitational potential difference
(about the symmetry axis) of: (i) a ring; (ii) V = VB-VA = G.M(1/rA-1/rB); here
a solid and a hollow cylinder, (iii) a thin Vp = V(r) = -GM/r; negative sign for
rod (iv) a solid and a hollow sphere, (v) attractive force field; define gravitational
a disc - only formulae (no derivations potential energy of a mass m in the earth's
required). field; expression for gravitational potential
energy U(r) = Wp = m.V(r) = -G M
(a) Statements of the parallel and m/r; show that U = mgh, for h << R.
perpendicular axes theorems with Relation between intensity and acceleration
illustrations [derivation not required]. due to gravity.
Simple examples with change of axis.
  (iv) Derive expression for the escape velocity
(b) Definition of torque (vector);  = r x of earth using energy consideration; ve
  
F and angular momentum L = r x depends on mass of the earth; for moon ve
 is less as mass of moon is less;
p for a particle (no derivations);
  consequence - no atmosphere on the moon.
differentiate to obtain d L /dt=  ;
similar to Newton’s second law of (v) Satellites (both natural (moon) and
motion (linear);hence τ =I  and artificial) in uniform circular motion
L = I; (only scalar equation); Law around the earth; Derive the expression for
of conservation of angular orbital velocity and time period; note the
momentum; simple applications. centripetal acceleration is caused (or
Comparison of linear and rotational centripetal force is provided) by the force
motions. of gravity exerted by the earth on the
satellite; the acceleration of the satellite is
6. Gravitation the acceleration due to gravity
Kepler's laws of planetary motion, universal [g’= g(R/R+h)2; F’G = mg’].
law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity Weightlessness; geostationary satellites;
(g) and its variation with altitude, latitude and conditions for satellite to be geostationary;
depth. parking orbit, calculation of its radius and
height; basic concept of polar satellites and
Gravitational potential and gravitational their uses.
potential energy, escape velocity, orbital
velocity of a satellite, Geo-stationary (vi) Kepler's laws of planetary motion: explain
satellites. the three laws using diagrams. Proof of
third law (for circular orbits only).
(i) Newton's law of universal gravitation;
Statement; unit and dimensional formula of 7. Properties of Bulk Matter
universal gravitational constant, G (i) Mechanical Properties of Solids: Elastic
[Cavendish experiment not required]; behaviour of solids, Stress-strain
gravitational acceleration on surface of the relationship, Hooke's law, Young's
earth (g), weight of a body W= mg from modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of
F=ma. rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
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Elasticity in solids, Hooke’s law, Flow of fluids (liquids and gases),
Young modulus and its determination, laminar flow, internal friction between
bulk modulus and shear modulus of layers of fluid, between fluid and the
rigidity, work done in stretching a wire solid with which the fluid is in relative
and strain energy, Poisson’s ratio. motion; examples; viscous drag is a
force of friction; mobile and viscous
(ii) Mechanical Properties of Fluids
liquids.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's
Velocity gradient dv/dx (space rate
law and its applications (hydraulic lift
of change of velocity); viscous drag
and hydraulic brakes), effect of gravity on
F = A dv/dx; coefficient of viscosity
fluid pressure.
 = F/A (dv/dx) depends on the nature
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, of the liquid and its temperature; units:
streamline and turbulent flow, critical Ns/m2 and dyn.s/cm2= poise.1
velocity, Bernoulli's theorem and its poise=0.1 Ns/m2.
applications.
(e) Stoke's law, motion of a sphere falling
Surface energy and surface tension, angle through a fluid, hollow rigid sphere
of contact, excess of pressure across a rising to the surface of a liquid,
curved surface, application of surface parachute, obtain the expression of
tension ideas to drops, bubbles and terminal velocity; forces acting;
capillary rise. viscous drag, a force proportional to
velocity; Stoke’s law; -t graph.
(a) Pressure in a fluid, Pascal’s Law and
its applications, buoyancy (Archimedes (f) Surface tension (molecular theory),
Principle). drops and bubbles, angle of contact,
work done in stretching a surface and
(b) General characteristics of fluid flow;
surface energy, capillary rise,
equation of continuity v1a1= v2a2;
measurement of surface tension by
conditions; applications like use of
capillary (uniform bore) rise method.
nozzle at the end of a hose; Bernoulli’s
Excess pressure across a curved
principle (theorem); assumptions -
surface, application of surface tension
incompressible liquid, streamline
for drops and bubbles.
(steady) flow, non-viscous and
irrotational liquid - ideal liquid;
8. Heat and Thermodynamics
derivation of equation; applications of
Bernoulli’s theorem atomizer, dynamic (i) Thermal Properties of Matter: Heat,
uplift, Venturimeter, Magnus effect etc. temperature, thermal expansion; thermal
expansion of solids, liquids and gases,
(c) Streamline and turbulent flow -
anomalous expansion of water; specific
examples; streamlines do not intersect
heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state,
(like electric and magnetic lines of
specific latent heat capacity.
force); tubes of flow; number of
streamlines per unit area  velocity of Heat transfer-conduction, convection and
flow (from equation of continuity v1a1 = radiation, thermal conductivity, qualitative
v2a2); critical velocity; Reynold's ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's
number (significance only) Poiseuille’s displacement Law, Stefan's law, and
formula with numericals. Greenhouseeffect.
(d) Viscous drag; Newton's formula for (a) Temperature and Heat, measurement
viscosity, co-efficient of viscosity and of temperature (scales and inter
its units. conversion). Ideal gas equation and
absolute temperature, thermal
expansion in solids, liquids and gases.
146
Specific heat capacity, calorimetry, (a) Thermal equilibrium and zeroth law of
change of state, latent heat capacity, thermodynamics: Self explanatory
steady state and temperature gradient.
(b) First law of thermodynamics.
Thermal conductivity; co-efficient of
thermal conductivity, Use of good and Concept of heat (Q) as the energy that
poor conductors, Searle’s experiment, is transferred (due to temperature
(Lee’s Disc method is not required). difference only) and not stored; the
Convection with examples. energy that is stored in a body or
system as potential and kinetic energy
(b) Black body is now called ideal or
is called internal energy (U). Internal
cavity radiator and black body
energy is a state property (only
radiation is cavity radiation; Stefan’s
elementary ideas) whereas, heat is not;
law is now known as Stefan Boltzmann
first law is a statement of conservation
law as Boltzmann derived it
of energy, when, in general, heat (Q) is
theoretically. There is multiplicity of
transferred to a body (system), internal
technical terms related to thermal
energy (U) of the system changes and
radiation - radiant intensity I (T) for
some work W is done by the system;
total radiant power (energy
then Q=U+W; also W=pdV for
radiated/second) per unit area of the
working substance - an ideal gas;
surface, in W/m2, I (T) = T4;
explain the meaning of symbols (with
dimension and SI unit of . For examples) and sign convention
practical radiators I =.  T4 carefully (as used in physics: Q>0
where  (dimension less) is called when added to a system, U>0 when U
emissivity of the surface material; increases or temperature rises, and
=1 for ideal radiators. The Spectral W>0 when work is done by the system).

radiancy R(). I (T)=  R () d. Special cases for Q=0 (adiabatic),
U=0
0
(isothermal) and W=0
Graph of R() vs  for different (isochoric).
temperatures. Area under the graph is (c) Isothermal and adiabatic changes in a
I (T). The  corresponding to perfect gas described in terms of PV
maximum value of R is called max; graphs; PV = constant (Isothermal)
decreases with increase in and PV = constant (adiabatic); joule
temperature. and calorie relation (derivation of
Wien’s displacement law; Stefan’s law PV = constant not required).
and Newton’s law of cooling. Note that 1 cal = 4186 J exactly and J
[Deductions from Stefan’s law not (so-called mechanical equivalent of
necessary]. Greenhouse effect – self- heat) should not be used in equations.
explanatory. In equations, it is understood that each
(ii) Thermodynamics term as well as the LHS and RHS are
in the same units; it could be all joules
Thermal equilibrium and definition of
or all calories.
temperature (zeroth law of
thermodynamics), heat, work and internal (d) Derive an expression for work done in
energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes;
isothermal and adiabatic processes. principal and molar heat capacities;
Cp and Cv; relation between Cp and
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible
Cv (Cp - Cv = R). Work done as area
and irreversible processes, Heat engine and
bounded by PV graph.
refrigerator.

147
(e) Second law of thermodynamics, (b) From kinetic theory for an
Carnot's cycle. Some practical ideal gas (obeying all the assumptions
applications. especially no intermolecular attraction
and negligibly small size of molecules,
Only one statement each in terms of
Kelvin’s impossible steam engine and we get p = (1/3) c 2 or pV =
Clausius’ impossible refrigerator. (1/3)M c 2 . (No further, as temperature
Brief explanation of the law. Reversible is not a concept of kinetic theory).
and irreversible processes, Heat From experimentally obtained gas
engine; Carnot’s cycle - describe laws, we have the ideal gas equation
realisation from source and sink of (obeyed by some gases at low pressure
infinite thermal capacity, thermal and high temperature) pV = RT for one
insulation, etc. Explain using pV graph mole. Combining these two results
(isothermal process and adiabatic (assuming they can be combined),
process) expression and numericals
(without derivation) for efficiency =1- RT=(1/3)M c 2 =(2/3).½M c 2 =(2/3)K;
T2/T1., Refrigerator and heat pumps. Hence, kinetic energy of 1 mole of an
ideal gas K=(3/2)RT. Average K for 1
9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic molecule = K/N = (3/2) RT/N = (3/2)
Theory of Gases kT where k is Boltzmann’s constant.
So, temperature T can be interpreted as
(i) Kinetic Theory: Equation of state of a a measure of the average kinetic
perfect gas, work done in compressing a energy of the molecules of a gas.
gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions,
concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation (c) Degrees of freedom and calculation of
of temperature; rms speed of gas specific heat capacities for all types of
molecules; degrees of freedom, law of gases. Concept of the law of
equi-partition of energy (statement only) equipartition of energy (derivation not
and application to specific heat capacities required). Concept of mean free path
of gases; concept of mean free path, and Avogadro’s number NA.
Avogadro's number.
10. Oscillations and Waves
(a) Kinetic Theory of gases; derive p=1/3
(i) Oscillations: Periodic motion, time period,
 c2 from the assumptions and frequency, displacement as a function of
applying Newton’s laws of motion. The time, periodic functions. Simple harmonic
average thermal velocity (rms value) motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase;
crms=3p/; calculations for air, oscillations of a spring, restoring force and
hydrogen and their comparison with force constant; energy in S.H.M., Kinetic
common speeds. Effect of temperature and potential energies; simple pendulum
and pressure on rms speed of gas and derivation of expression for its time
molecules. period.
[Note that pV=nRT the ideal gas Free, forced and damped oscillations
equation cannot be derived from (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
kinetic theory of ideal gas. Hence,
neither can other gas laws; pV=nRT is (a) Simple harmonic motion. Periodic
an experimental result. Comparing motion, time period T and frequency f,
f=1/T; uniform circular motion and its
this with p = ⅓ ρ c 2 , from kinetic projection on a diameter defines SHM;
theory of gases, a kinetic interpretation displacement, amplitude, phase and
of temperature can be obtained as epoch, velocity, acceleration, time
explained in the next subunit]. period; characteristics of SHM;
Relation between linear simple
148
harmonic motion and uniform circular (a) Transverse and longitudinal waves;
motion. Differential equation of SHM, characteristics of a harmonic wave;
d2y/dt2+ω2y=0 from the nature of force graphical representation of a harmonic
acting F=-k y; solution y=A sin wave. Distinction between transverse
(t+0) where 2 = k/m; and longitudinal waves; examples;
obtain expressions for velocity, displacement, amplitude, time period,
acceleration, time period T and frequency, wavelength, derive v=f;
frequency f. Graphical representation graph of displacement with
of displacement, velocity and time/position, label time
acceleration. Examples, simple period/wavelength and amplitude,
pendulum, a mass m attached to a equation of a progressive harmonic
spring of spring constant k. Derivation (sinusoidal) wave, y = A sin (kx±t)
of time period of simple harmonic where k is a propagation factor and
motion of a simple pendulum, mass on equivalent equations.
a spring (horizontal and vertical
oscillations) Kinetic and potential (b) Production and propagation of sound
energy at a point in simple harmonic as a wave motion; mechanical wave
motion. Total energy E = U+K requires a medium; general formula
(potential +kinetic) is conserved. Draw for speed of sound (no derivation).
graphs of U, K and E Verses y. Newton’s formula for speed of sound in
air; experimental value; Laplace’s
(b) Free, forced and damped oscillations correction; variation of speed v with
(qualitative treatment only).
changes in pressure, density, humidity
Resonance. Examples of damped
and temperature. Speed of sound in
oscillations (all oscillations are
liquids and solids - brief introduction
damped); graph of amplitude vs time
only. Concept of supersonic and
for undamped and damped
oscillations; damping force in addition ultrasonic waves.
to restoring force (-ky); forced (c) Principle of superposition of waves;
oscillations, examples; action of an interference (simple ideas only);
external periodic force, in addition to dependence of combined wave form, on
restoring force. Time period is the relative phase of the interfering
changed to that of the external applied waves; qualitative only - illustrate with
force, amplitude (A) varies with wave representations. Beats
frequency (f) of the applied force and it (qualitative explanation only); number
is maximum when the frequency of the of beats produced per second =
external applied force is equal to the difference in the frequencies of the
natural frequency of the vibrating interfering waves. Standing waves or
body. This is resonance; maximum stationary waves; formation by two
energy transfer from one body to the identical progressive waves travelling
other; bell graph of amplitude vs in opposite directions (e.g.,: along a
frequency of the applied force.
string, in an air column - incident and
Examples from mechanics, electricity
reflected waves); obtain
and electronics (radio).
y= y1+y2= [2 ym sin (kx)] cos (t) using
(ii) Waves: Wave motion, Transverse and
equations of the travelling waves;
longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion,
variation of the amplitude A=2 ymsin
displacement relation for a progressive
wave, principle of superposition of waves, (kx) with location (x) of the particle;
reflection of waves, standing waves in nodes and antinodes; compare
strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode standing waves with progressive
and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. waves.

149
(d) Laws of vibrations of a stretched 4. Equilibrium of three concurrent coplanar
string. Obtain equation for forces. To verify the parallelogram law of
fundamental frequency f0=(½l) T/m ; forces and to determine weight of a body.
sonometer. 5. (i) Inclined plane: To find the downward force
(e) Modes of vibration of strings and air acting along the inclined plane on a roller
columns (closed and open pipes); due to gravitational pull of earth and to
standing waves with nodes and study its relationship with angle of
antinodes; also in resonance with the inclination by plotting graph between force
periodic force exerted usually by a and sin .
tuning fork; sketches of various modes (ii) Friction: To find the force of limiting
of vibration; obtain expressions for friction for a wooden block placed on
fundamental frequency and various horizontal surface and to study its
harmonics and overtones; mutual relationship with normal reaction. To
relations. determine the coefficient of friction.
(f) Doppler effect for sound; obtain general 6. To find the acceleration due to gravity by
expression for apparent frequency when measuring the variation in time period (T) with
both the source and listener are moving, effective length (L) of a simple pendulum; plot
 v  vL  graphs of T s L and T2 s L. Determine
given as f L  f r   which can be
 v  vr 
effective length of the seconds pendulum from
T2 s L graph.
reduced to any one of the four special
cases, by using proper sign. 7. To find the force constant of a spring and to
study variation in time period of oscillation
PAPER II with mass m of a body suspended by the
PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks spring. To find acceleration due to gravity by
plotting a graph of T against m.
Given below is a list of required experiments.
Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind 8. Boyle's Law: To study the variation in volume
the general pattern of questions asked in the with pressure for a sample of air at constant
annual examinations. temperature by plotting graphs between p and
1 and between p and V.
In each experiment, students are expected to record V
their observations in a tabular form with units at the 9. Cooling curve: To study the fall in temperature
column head. Students should plot an appropriate of a body (like hot water or liquid in
graph, work out the necessary calculations and calorimeter) with time. Find the slope of the
arrive at the result. curve at four different temperatures of the hot
body and hence, deduce Newton's law of
Students are required to have completed all cooling.
experiments from the given list (excluding
demonstration experiments): 10. To study the variation in frequency of air
column with length using resonance column
1. To measure the diameter of a spherical body apparatus or a long cylindrical vessel and a set
using Vernier calipers. Calculate its volume of tuning forks. Hence, determine velocity of
with appropriate significant figures. Also sound in air at room temperature.
measure its volume using a graduated cylinder
and compare the two. 11. To determine frequency of a tuning fork using
a sonometer.
2. Find the diameter of a wire using a micrometer
screw gauge and determine percentage error in 12. To determine specific heat capacity of a solid
cross sectional area. using a calorimeter.
3. Determine radius of curvature of a spherical
surface like watch glass by a spherometer.
150
Demonstration Experiments (The following Suggested Evaluation criteria:
experiments are to be demonstrated by the
teacher):  Title and Abstract (summary)
1. Searle's method to determine Young modulus  Introduction / purpose
of elasticity.
 Contents/Presentation
2. Capillary rise method to determine surface
tension of water.  Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure,
3. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of a pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.)
given viscous liquid by terminal velocity  Originality of work
method.
 Conclusion/comments
PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
15 Marks Practical File – 5 Marks
Project Work – 10 Marks Teachers are required to assess students on the
All candidates will be required to do one project basis of the Physics practical file maintained by
involving some Physics related topic/s, under the them during the academic year.
guidance and regular supervision of the Physics
teacher. Candidates are to prepare a technical
report formally written including an abstract, some NOTE: For guidelines regarding Project Work,
theoretical discussion, experimental setup, please refer to Class XII.
observations with tables of data collected, analysis
and discussion of results, deductions, conclusion,
etc. (after the draft has been approved by the
teacher). The report should be kept simple, but
neat and elegant. No extra credit shall be given for
type-written material/decorative cover, etc.
Teachers may assign or students may choose any
one project of their choice.

151
CLASS XII

There will be two papers in the subject.


Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks
Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks
Project Work ... 10 marks
Practical File ... 5 marks

PAPER I- THEORY: 70 Marks


There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.

S. NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Electrostatics 14 Marks

2. Current Electricity

3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 16 Marks

4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

5. Electromagnetic Waves

6. Optics 18 Marks

7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 12 Marks

8. Atoms and Nuclei

9. Electronic Devices 8 Marks

10. Communication Systems 2 Marks

TOTAL 70 Marks

152
  
PAPER I -THEORY- 70 Marks E  F / qo (q0 is a test charge); E for
Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. a group of charges (superposition
Units are to be used while teaching and learning, principle); a point charge q in an
as well as for answering questions.  field E experiences an electric
electric
(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and force FE  qE . Intensity due to a
when they are introduced along with their units and continuous distribution of charge i.e.
dimensions. linear, surface and volume.
(iii) Numerical problems are included from all (c) Electric lines of force: A convenient
topics except where they are specifically excluded way to visualize the electric field;
or where only qualitative treatment is required. properties of lines of force; examples
of the lines of force due to (i) an
1. Electrostatics isolated point charge (+ve and - ve);
(i) Electric Charges and Fields (ii) dipole, (iii) two similar charges at
Electric charges; conservation and a small distance;(iv) uniform field
quantisation of charge, Coulomb's law; between two oppositely charged
superposition principle and continuous parallel plates.
charge distribution. (d) Electric dipole and dipole moment;
Electric field, electric field due to a point derivation of the E at a point, (1) on
charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, the axis (end on position) (2) on the
electric field due to a dipole, torque on a perpendicular bisector (equatorial i.e.
dipole in uniform electric field. broad side on position) of a dipole,
Electric flux, Gauss’s theorem in also for r>> 2l (short dipole); dipole in
Electrostatics and its applications to find a uniform electric field; net force zero,
field due to infinitely long straight wire, torque on an electric dipole:
 
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and   p  E and its derivation.
uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
(e) Gauss’ theorem: the flux of a vector  
(a) Coulomb's law, S.I. unit of
field;
 Q=vA for velocity vector v A,
charge; permittivity of free space
A is area vector. Similarly, for electric
 
and of dielectric medium.
Frictional electricity, electric charges   flux E = EA for E A
field E , electric
and E  E  A for uniform E . For 
(two types); repulsion and
non-uniform field E = d = E .dA .
attraction; simple atomic structure -
Special cases for  = 00, 900 and 1800.
electrons and ions; conductors
Gauss’ theorem,
  statement: E =q/0
q

and insulators; quantization and
or E  E  dA 
 where E is for
conservation of electric charge; 0
Coulomb's law in vector form; a closed surface; q is the net charge
(position coordinates r1, r2 not enclosed, o is the permittivity of free
necessary). Comparison with Newton’s space. Essential properties of a
law of gravitation; Gaussian surface.

Superposition
    principle Applications: Obtain expression for E
 
F 1  F 12  F 13  F 14   . due to 1. an infinite line of charge, 2. a
uniformly charged infinite plane thin
(b) Concept of electric field and its sheet, 3. a thin hollow spherical shell
intensity; examples of different fields; (inside, on the surface and outside).
gravitational, electric and magnetic; Graphical variation of E vs r for a thin
Electric field due to a point charge spherical shell.
153
(ii) Electrostatic Potential, Potential Energy (b) Capacitance of a conductor C = Q/V;
and Capacitance obtain the capacitance of a parallel-
Electric potential, potential difference, plate capacitor (C = 0A/d) and
electric potential due to a point charge, a equivalent capacitance for capacitors in
dipole and system of charges; series and parallel combinations. Obtain
equipotential surfaces, electrical potential an expression for energy stored (U =
energy of a system of two point charges 1 2 1 1 Q2
CV = QV  ) and energy
and of electric dipole in an electrostatic 2 2 2 C
field. density.
Conductors and insulators, free charges (c) Dielectric constant K = C'/C; this is also
and bound charges inside a conductor. called relative permittivity K = r =
Dielectrics and electric polarisation, /o; elementary ideas of polarization of
capacitors and capacitance, combination matter in a uniform electric field
of capacitors in series and in parallel. qualitative discussion; induced surface
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, charges weaken the original field; results
energy stored in a capacitor. 
in reduction in E and hence, in pd, (V);
(a) Concept of potential, potential for charge remaining the same Q = CV
difference and potential energy. = C' V' = K. CV'; V' = V/K;
Equipotential surface and its
and E   E ; if the Capacitor is kept
properties. Obtain an expression for K
electric potential at a point due to a connected with the source of emf, V is
point charge; graphical variation of E kept constant V = Q/C = Q'/C' ; Q'=C'V
and V vs r, VP=W/q0; hence VA -VB = = K. CV= K. Q
WBA/ q0 (taking q0 from B to A) = increases; For a parallel plate capacitor
(q/40)(1/rA - 1/rB); derive this with a dielectric in between,
equation; also VA = q/40 .1/rA ; for C' = KC = K.o . A/d = r .o .A/d.
q>0, VA>0 and for q<0, VA < 0. For a 0 A
collection of charges V = algebraic Then C   ; for a capacitor
d 
sum of the potentials due to each   
 r 
charge; potential due to a dipole on its
partially filled dielectric, capacitance,
axial line and equatorial line; also at
any point for r>>2l (short dipole). C' =oA/(d-t + t/r).
Potential energy of a point charge (q)
 2. Current Electricity
in an electric field E , placed at a point
P where potential is V, is given by U Mechanism of flow of current in conductors.
=qV and U =q (VA-VB) . The Mobility, drift velocity and its relation with
electrostatic potential energy of a electric current; Ohm's law and its proof,
system of two charges = work done resistance and resistivity and their relation to
W21=W12 in assembling the system; U12 drift velocity of electrons; V-I characteristics
or U21 = (1/40 ) q1q2/r12. For a (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and
system of 3 charges U123 = U12 + U13 + power, electrical resistivity and
qq qq q q conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code
1
U23 = ( 1 2  1 3  2 3 ). for carbon resistors; series and parallel
4 0 r12 r13 r23 combinations of resistors; temperature
For a dipole in a uniform electric field, dependence of resistance and resistivity.
derive an expression of the electric Internal resistance of a cell, potential
 
potential energy UE = - p . E , special difference and emf of a cell, combination of
cases for  =00, 900 and 1800. cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws
and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge,
154
metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its parallel and mixed grouping. Parallel
applications to measure potential difference, combination of two cells of unequal emf.
to compare emf of two cells; to measure Series combination of n cells of unequal
internal resistance of a cell. emf.
(a) Free electron theory of conduction; (d) Statement and explanation of Kirchhoff's
acceleration of free electrons, relaxation laws with simple examples. The first is a
time τ ; electric current I = Q/t; concept of conservation law for charge and the 2nd is
drift velocity and electron mobility. Ohm's law of conservation of energy. Note change
law, current density J = I/A; experimental in potential across a resistor V=IR<0
verification, graphs and slope, ohmic when we go ‘down’ with the current
and non-ohmic conductors; obtain the (compare with flow of water down a river),
relation I=vdenA. Derive  = ne2/m and and V=IR>0 if we go up against the
 = m/ne2 τ ; effect of temperature on current across the resistor. When we go
resistivity and resistance of conductors through a cell, the -ve terminal is at a
and semiconductors and graphs. lower level and the +ve terminal at a
Resistance R= V/I; resistivity , given by R higher level, so going from -ve to +ve
= .l/A; conductivity and conductance; through the cell, we are going up and
  V=+ and going from +ve to -ve terminal
Ohm’s law as J =  E ; colour coding of
resistance. through the cell, we are going down, so V
= -. Application to simple circuits.
(b) Electrical energy consumed in time Wheatstone bridge; right in the beginning
t is E=Pt= VIt; using Ohm’s law take Ig=0 as we consider a balanced
E = V R  t = I Rt. Potential difference
2
2 bridge, derivation of R1/R2 = R3/R4
[Kirchhoff’s law not necessary]. Metre
V = P/ I; P = V I; Electric power consumed bridge is a modified form of Wheatstone
P = VI = V2 /R = I2 R; commercial units; bridge, its use to measure unknown
electricity consumption and billing. resistance. Here R3 = l1 and R4=l2;
Derivation of equivalent resistance for R3/R4=l1/l2. Principle of Potentiometer: fall
combination of resistors in series and in potential V  l; auxiliary emf 1 is
parallel; special case of n identical balanced against the fall in potential V1
resistors; Rs = nR and Rp = R/n. across length l1. 1 = V1 =Kl1 ; 1/2 = l1/l2;
Calculation of equivalent resistance of potentiometer as a voltmeter. Potential
mixed grouping of resistors (circuits). gradient and sensitivity of potentiometer.
(c) The source of energy of a seat of emf (such Use of potentiometer: to compare emfs of
as a cell) may be electrical, mechanical, two cells, to determine internal resistance
thermal or radiant energy. The emf of a of a cell.
source is defined as the work done per unit
charge to force them to go to the higher 3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
point of potential (from -ve terminal to +ve (i) Moving charges and magnetism
terminal inside the cell) so,  = dW /dq; but
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's
dq = Idt; dW = dq = Idt . Equating total experiment. Biot - Savart law and its
work done to the work done across the
application. Ampere's Circuital law and its
external resistor R plus the work done
applications to infinitely long straight wire,
across the internal resistance r; Idt=I2R dt straight and toroidal solenoids (only
+ I2rdt;  =I (R + r); I=/( R + r ); also qualitative treatment). Force on a moving
IR +Ir =  or V=- Ir where Ir is called the charge in uniform magnetic and electric
back emf as it acts against the emf ; V is fields, cyclotron. Force on a current-
the terminal pd. Derivation of formulae for carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic
combination for identical cells in series, field, force between two parallel
155
current-carrying conductors-definition of Lorentz force, Simple ideas about
ampere, torque experienced by a current principle, working, and limitations of a
loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil cyclotron.
galvanometer - its sensitivity. Conversion
(c) Derive the expression for torque on a
of galvanometer into an ammeter and a
current carrying loop placed in a
voltmeter.     
uniform B , using F = I l  B and  =
(ii) Magnetism and Matter:   
r  F ;  = NIAB sin  for N turns 
A current loop as a magnetic dipole, its  
magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole = m × B , where the dipole moment
 
moment of a revolving electron, magnetic m = NI A , unit: A.m2. A current
field intensity due to a magnetic dipole carrying loop is a magnetic dipole;
(bar magnet) on the axial line and  
directions of current and B and m
equatorial line, torque on a magnetic dipole using right hand rule only; no other
(bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; rule necessary. Mention orbital
bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic moment of an electron in
magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field Bohr model of H atom. Concept of
and magnetic elements. radial magnetic field. Moving coil
Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and galvanometer; construction, principle,
ferromagnetic substances, with examples. working, theory I= k  , current and
Electromagnets and factors affecting their
strengths, permanent magnets. voltage sensitivity. Shunt. Conversion
of galvanometer into ammeter and
(a) Only historical introduction through voltmeter of given range.
Oersted’s experiment. [Ampere’s
swimming rule not included]. Biot- (d) Magnetic field represented by the
Savart law and its vector form; symbol B is now defined by the
 
equation F  qo  v  B  ; B is not to be
 
application; derive the expression for B
(i) at the centre of a circular loop defined in terms of force acting on a
carrying current; (ii) at any point on unit pole, etc.; note the distinction of
its axis. Current carrying loop as a   
magnetic dipole. Ampere’s Circuital B from E is that B forms closed
loops as there are no magnetic
law: statement and brief explanation.
 
Apply it to obtain B near a long wire monopoles, whereas E lines start from
carrying current and for a solenoid +ve charge and end on -ve charge.
(straight as well as torroidal). Only Magnetic field lines due to a magnetic
 dipole (bar magnet). Magnetic field in
formula of B due to a finitely long end-on and broadside-on positions (No
conductor.  
derivations). Magnetic flux  = B . A =
(b) Force on a moving charged particle in  
   BA for B uniform and B A ; i.e.
 
magnetic field FB  q v  B ; special
area held perpendicular to For  =
cases, modify this equation substituting  
 BA( B A ), B=/A is the flux density
dl / dt for v and I for q/dt to yield F =
  [SI unit of flux is weber (Wb)]; but note
I dl  B for the force acting on a that this is not correct as a defining
current carrying conductor placed in a 
equation as B is vector and  and /A
magnetic field. Derive the expression are scalars, unit of B is tesla (T) equal
for force between two long and parallel 
to 10-4 gauss. For non-uniform B field,
wires carrying current, hence, define  
ampere (the base SI unit of current)  = d= B . dA . Earth's magnetic

and hence, coulomb; from Q = It. field B E is uniform over a limited area
156
like that of a lab; the component of this selection of magnetic material for
field in the horizontal direction BH is temporary and permanent magnets and
the one effectively acting on a magnet core of the transformer on the basis of
suspended or pivoted horizontally. retentivity and coercive force (B-H
Elements of earth’s magnetic field, i.e. loop and its significance, retentivity
BH,  and  - their definitions and and coercive force not to be evaluated).
relations.
4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating
(e) Properties of diamagnetic, Currents
paramagnetic and ferromagnetic
substances; their susceptibility and (i) Electromagnetic Induction
relative permeability. Faraday's laws, induced emf and current;
It is better to explain the main Lenz's Law, eddy currents. Self-induction
distinction, the cause of magnetization and mutual induction. Transformer.
(M) is due to magnetic dipole moment (ii) Alternating Current
(m) of atoms, ions or molecules being 0 Peak value, mean value and RMS value of
for dia, >0 but very small for para and alternating current/voltage; their relation
> 0 and large for ferromagnetic in sinusoidal case; reactance
materials; few examples; placed in and impedance; LC oscillations

external B , very small (induced) (qualitative treatment only), LCR series
magnetization in a direction opposite circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,
 wattless current. AC generator.
to B in dia, small magnetization
 (a) Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic
parallel to B for para, and large
 flux, change in flux, rate of change of
magnetization parallel to B for flux and induced emf; Faraday’s laws.
ferromagnetic materials; this leads to Lenz's law, conservation of energy;

lines of B becoming less dense, more motional emf  = Blv, and power P =
dense and much more dense in dia, (Blv)2/R; eddy currents (qualitative);
para and ferro, respectively; hence, a
weak repulsion for dia, weak attraction (b) Self-Induction, coefficient of self-
for para and strong attraction for ferro inductance,  = LI and L   ;
dI dt
magnetic material. Also, a small bar
suspended in the horizontal plane henry = volt. Second/ampere,
 expression for coefficient of self-
becomes perpendicular to the B field
 inductance of a solenoid
for dia and parallel to B for para and 0 N 2 A
ferro. Defining equation H = (B/0)-M; L  0 n 2 A  l .
the magnetic properties, susceptibility l
m = (M/H) < 0 for dia (as M is Mutual induction and mutual
opposite H) and >0 for para, both very inductance (M), flux linked 2 = MI1;
small, but very large for ferro; hence d2 dI
relative permeability r =(1+ m) < 1 induced emf 2  =M 1 .
dt dt
for dia, > 1 for para and >>1 (very
Definition of M as
large) for ferro; further, m1/T
2
(Curie’s law) for para, independent of M = or M   2 . SI unit
temperature (T) for dia and depends dI 1 I1
on T in a complicated manner for dt
ferro; on heating ferro becomes para henry. Expression for coefficient of
at Curie temperature. Electromagnet: mutual inductance of two coaxial
its definition, properties and factors solenoids.
affecting the strength of electromagnet;
157
 NN A Z2 = R2+(XL-Xc) 2
and
M  0 1 2   0 n1 N 2 A Induced tan = (VL m -VCm)/VRm = (XL-Xc)/R
l
emf opposes changes, back emf is set giving I = I m sin (wt-) where I m
up, eddy currents. =Vm/Z etc. Special cases for RL and
Transformer (ideal coupling): RC circuits. [May use Kirchoff’s law
principle, working and uses; step up and obtain the differential equation]
and step down; efficiency and Graph of Z vs f and I vs f.
applications including transmission of (f) Power P associated with LCR circuit =
1
power, energy losses and their /2VoIo cos =VrmsIrms cos = Irms2 R;
minimisation. power absorbed and power dissipated;
(c) Sinusoidal variation of V and I with electrical resonance; bandwidth of
time, for the output from an signals and Q factor (no derivation);
ac generator; time period, frequency oscillations in an LC circuit (0 =
and phase changes; obtain mean 1/ LC ). Average power consumed
values of current and voltage, obtain
averaged over a full cycle P=
relation between RMS value of V and I
(1/2) VoIo cos, Power factor
with peak values in sinusoidal cases
only. cos = R/Z. Special case for pure R, L
and C; choke coil (analytical only), XL
(d) Variation of voltage and current in a.c. controls current but cos = 0, hence
circuits consisting of only a resistor, P =0, wattless current; LC circuit; at
only an inductor and only a capacitor resonance with XL=Xc , Z=Zmin= R,
(phasor representation), phase lag and power delivered to circuit by the
phase lead. May apply Kirchhoff’s law source is maximum, resonant frequency
and obtain simple differential equation
1
(SHM type), V = Vo sin t, solution I = f0  .
I0 sin t, I0sin (t + /2) and I0 sin (t 2 LC
- /2) for pure R, C and L circuits (g) Simple a.c. generators: Principle,
respectively. Draw phase (or phasor) description, theory, working and use.
diagrams showing voltage and current Variation in current and voltage with
and phase lag or lead, also showing time for a.c. and d.c. Basic differences
resistance R, inductive reactance XL; between a.c. and d.c.
(XL=L) and capacitive reactance XC,
(XC = 1/C). Graph of XL and XC vs f. 5. Electromagnetic Waves
(e) The LCR series circuit: Use phasor Basic idea of displacement current.
diagram method to obtain expression Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics,
for I and V, the pd across R, L and C; their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
and the net phase lag/lead; use the Complete electromagnetic spectrum starting
results of 4(e), V lags I by /2 in a from radio waves to gamma rays: elementary
capacitor, V leads I by /2 in an facts of electromagnetic waves and their uses.
inductor, V and I are in phase in a Concept of displacement current, qualitative
resistor, I is the same in all three; descriptions only of electromagnetic spectrum;
hence draw phase diagram, combine common features of all regions of em 
VL and Vc (in opposite phase; spectrum includingtransverse nature ( E and B
phasors add like vectors) perpendicular to c ); special features of the
to give V=VR+VL+VC (phasor addition) common classification (gamma rays, X rays,
and the max. values are related by UV rays, visible light, IR, microwaves, radio
V2m=V2Rm+(VLm-VCm)2 when VL>VC and TV waves) in their production (source),
Substituting pd=current x detection and other properties; uses;
resistance or reactance, we get approximate range of  or f or at least proper
order of increasing f or ..
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6. Optics (d) Refraction at a single spherical
surface; detailed discussion of one case
(i) Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
only - convex towards rarer medium,
Ray Optics: Reflection of light by for spherical surface and real image.
spherical mirrors, mirror formula, Derive the relation between n1, n2, u, v
refraction of light at plane surfaces, total and R. Refraction through thin lenses:
internal reflection and its applications, derive lens maker's formula and lens
optical fibres, refraction at spherical formula; derivation of combined focal
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens length of two thin lenses in contact.
maker's formula, magnification, power Combination of lenses and mirrors
of a lens, combination of thin lenses in (silvering of lens excluded) and
contact, combination of a lens and a magnification for lens, derivation for
mirror, refraction and dispersion of light biconvex lens only; extend the results
through a prism. Scattering of light. to biconcave lens, plano convex lens
and lens immersed in a liquid; power
Optical instruments: Microscopes and
of a lens P=1/f with SI unit dioptre.
astronomical telescopes (reflecting and
For lenses in contact 1/F= 1/f1+1/f2
refracting) and their magnifying powers
and P=P1+P2. Lens formula, formation
and their resolving powers.
of image with combination of thin
(a) Reflection of light by spherical mirrors. lenses and mirrors.
Mirror formula: its derivation; R=2f
[Any one sign convention may be used
for spherical mirrors. Magnification.
in solving numericals].
(b) Refraction of light at a plane interface,
(e) Ray diagram and derivation of
Snell's law; total internal reflection
magnifying power of a simple
and critical angle; total reflecting
microscope with image at D (least
prisms and optical fibers. Total
distance of distinct vision) and infinity;
reflecting prisms: application to
Ray diagram and derivation of
triangular prisms with angle of the
magnifying power of a compound
prism 300, 450, 600 and 900
microscope with image at D. Only
respectively; ray diagrams for
expression for magnifying power of
Refraction through a combination of
compound microscope for final image
media, 1 n2  2 n3  3 n1  1 , real depth at infinity.
and apparent depth. Simple
Ray diagrams of refracting telescope
applications.
with image at infinity as well as at D;
(c) Refraction through a prism, minimum simple explanation; derivation of
deviation and derivation of magnifying power; Ray diagram of
relation between n, A and min. Include reflecting telescope with image at
explanation of i- graph, i1 = i2 = i infinity. Advantages, disadvantages
(say) for m; from symmetry r1 = r2; and uses. Resolving power of
refracted ray inside the prism is compound microscope and telescope.
parallel to the base of the equilateral (ii) Wave Optics
prism. Thin prism. Dispersion; Angular
dispersion; dispersive power, rainbow Wave front and Huygen's principle. Proof
- ray diagram (no derivation). Simple of laws of reflection and refraction
explanation. Rayleigh’s theory of using Huygen's principle. Interference,
scattering of light: blue colour of sky Young's double slit experiment and
and reddish appearance of the sun at expression for fringe width(β), coherent
sunrise and sunset clouds appear
sources and sustained interference of light,
white.
Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit,
159
width of central maximum; polarisation, of an electromagnetic wave as
plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses transmission of energy by periodic
 
of plane polarised light and Polaroids. changes in E and B along the path;
 
(a) Huygen’s principle: wavefronts - transverse nature as E and B are

different types/shapes of wavefronts; perpendicular to c . These three
proof of laws of reflection and vectors form a right handed system, so
refraction using Huygen’s theory.   
that E x B is along c , they are
[Refraction through a prism and lens mutually perpendicular to each other.
on the basis of Huygen’s theory not  
required]. For ordinary light, E and B are in all
directions in a plane perpendicular to
(b) Interference of light, interference of 
the c vector - unpolarised waves. If
monochromatic light by double slit.  
Phase of wave motion; superposition of E and (hence B also) isconfined to a
identical waves at a point, path single plane only ( c , we have
difference and phase difference; linearly polarized light. The plane
coherent and incoherent sources;   
containing E (or B ) and c remains
interference: constructive and
fixed. Hence, a linearly polarised light
destructive, conditions for sustained
is also called plane polarised
interference of light waves
light. Plane of polarisation
[mathematical deduction of  
interference from the equations of two (contains E and c ); polarisation by
progressive waves with a phase reflection; Brewster’s law: tan ip=n;
difference is not required]. Young's refracted ray is perpendicular to
double slit experiment: set up, reflected ray for i= ip; ip+rp = 90 ;
diagram, geometrical deduction of path polaroids; use in the production and
difference x = dsin, between waves detection/analysis of polarised light,
from the two slits; using x=n for other uses. Law of Malus.
bright fringe and x= (n+½) for dark
fringe and sin  = tan  =yn /D as y 7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
and  are small, obtain yn=(D/d)n Wave particle duality; photoelectric effect,
and fringe width =(D/d). Graph of Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
distribution of intensity with angular photoelectric equation - particle nature of
distance. light. Matter waves - wave nature of particles,
de-Broglie relation; conclusion from
(c) Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
Davisson-Germer experiment. X-rays.
(elementary explanation only).
Diffraction at a single slit: (a) Photo electric effect, quantization of
experimental setup, diagram, radiation; Einstein's equation
diffraction pattern, obtain expression Emax = h - W0; threshold frequency; work
for position of minima, a sinn= n, function; experimental facts of Hertz and
where n = 1,2,3… and conditions for Lenard and their conclusions; Einstein
secondary maxima, asinn =(n+½).; used Planck’s ideas and extended it to
distribution of intensity with angular apply for radiation (light); photoelectric
distance; angular width of central effect can be explained only assuming
bright fringe. quantum (particle) nature of
radiation. Determination of Planck’s
(d) Polarisation of light, plane polarised constant (from the graph of stopping
electromagnetic wave (elementary idea potential Vs versus frequency f of the
only), methods of polarisation of light. incident light). Momentum of photon
Brewster's law; polaroids. Description
p=E/c=h/c=h/.
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(b) De Broglie hypothesis, phenomenon of including atomic number Z, Neutron
electron diffraction (qualitative only). number N and mass number A. A brief
Wave nature of radiation is exhibited in account of historical background leading
interference, diffraction and polarisation; to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen spectrum;
particle nature is exhibited in photoelectric formulae for wavelength in Lyman, Balmer,
effect. Dual nature of matter: particle Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series.
nature common in that it possesses Rydberg constant. Bohr’s model of H
momentum p and kinetic energy KE. The atom, postulates (Z=1); expressions for
wave nature of matter was orbital velocity, kinetic energy, potential
proposed by Louis de Broglie, energy, radius of orbit and total energy of
=h/p= h/mv. Davisson and Germer electron. Energy level diagram, calculation
experiment; qualitative description of the of E, frequency and wavelength of
experiment and conclusion. different lines of emission spectra;
agreement with experimentally observed
(c) A simple modern X-ray tube (Coolidge
tube) – main parts: hot cathode, heavy values. [Use nm and not Å for unit of].
element anode (target) kept cool, all (ii) Nuclei
enclosed in a vacuum tube; elementary Composition and size of nucleus,
theory of X-ray production; effect of Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma
increasing filament current- temperature particles/rays and their properties;
increases rate of emission of electrons radioactive decay law. Mass-energy
(from the cathode), rate of production of X relation, mass defect; binding energy
rays and hence, intensity of X rays per nucleon and its variation with mass
increases (not its frequency); increase in number; Nuclear reactions, nuclear fission
anode potential increases energy of each and nuclear fusion.
electron, each X-ray photon and hence, X-
(a) Atomic masses and nuclear density;
ray frequency (E=h); maximum frequency
Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones –
hmax =eV; continuous spectrum of X rays definitions with examples of each.
has minimum wavelength min= Unified atomic mass unit, symbol u,
c/max=hc/eV. Moseley’s law. 1u=1/12 of the mass of 12C atom =
Characteristic and continuous X rays, their 1.66x10-27kg). Composition of nucleus;
origin.(This topic is not to be evaluated) mass defect and binding energy, BE=
(m) c2. Graph of BE/nucleon versus
8. Atoms and Nuclei mass number A, special features - less
(i) Atoms BE/nucleon for light as well as heavy
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; elements. Middle order more stable
Rutherford's atomic model; Bohr’s atomic [see fission and fusion] Einstein’s
model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. equation E=mc2. Calculations related
to this equation; mass defect/binding
Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom
energy, mutual annihilation and pair
(mathematical theory of scattering
production as examples.
excluded), based on Geiger - Marsden
experiment on -scattering; (b) Radioactivity: discovery; spontaneous
nuclear radius r in terms of closest disintegration of an atomic nucleus
approach of  particle to the nucleus, with the emission of  or  particles
obtained by equating K=½ mv2 of the  and  radiation, unaffected by
particle to the change in electrostatic physical and chemical changes.
potential energy U of the system Radioactive decay law; derivation of
N = Noe-t; half-life
[ U  2e  Ze r010-15m = 1 fermi; atomic
period T; graph
4 0 r0 of N versus t, with T marked on
structure; only general qualitative ideas, the X axis. Relation between
161
half-life (T) and disintegration (ii) Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in
constant ( ); mean life ( ) and its forward and reverse bias, diode as a
relation with λ. Value of T of some rectifier; Special types of junction diodes:
common radioactive elements. LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener
Examples of a few nuclear reactions
diode and its characteristics, zener diode as
with conservation of mass number and
a voltage regulator.
charge, concept of a neutrino.
Changes taking place within the (iii) Junction transistor, npn and pnp transistor,
nucleus included. [Mathematical transistor action, characteristics of a
theory of  and  decay not included]. transistor and transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration).
(c) Nuclear Energy
(iv) Elementary idea of analogue and digital
Theoretical (qualitative) prediction of
exothermic (with release of energy) signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT,
nuclear reaction, in fusing together two NAND and NOR). Combination of gates.
light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus (a) Energy bands in solids; energy band
and in splitting heavy nucleus to form
diagrams for distinction between
middle order (lower mass number)
conductors, insulators and semi-
nuclei, is evident from the shape of BE
per nucleon versus mass number conductors - intrinsic and extrinsic;
graph. Also calculate the electrons and holes in semiconductors.
disintegration energy Q for a heavy Elementary ideas about electrical
nucleus (A=240) with BE/A  7.6 MeV conduction in metals [crystal structure
per nucleon split into two equal halves not included]. Energy levels (as for
with A=120 each and BE/A  8.5 hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of
MeV/nucleon; Q  200 MeV. Nuclear an isolated atom such as that of
fission: Any one equation of fission copper; these split, eventually forming
reaction. Chain reaction- controlled ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we
and uncontrolled; nuclear reactor and consider solid copper made up of a
nuclear bomb. Main parts of a nuclear large number of isolated atoms,
reactor including their functions - fuel brought together to form a lattice;
elements, moderator, control rods, definition of energy bands - groups of
coolant, casing; criticality; utilization closely spaced energy levels separated
of energy output - all qualitative only. by band gaps called forbidden bands.
Fusion, simple example of 4 1H4He An idealized representation of the
and its nuclear reaction equation; energy bands for a conductor,
requires very high temperature  106 insulator and semiconductor;
degrees; difficult to achieve; hydrogen characteristics, differences; distinction
bomb; thermonuclear energy
between conductors, insulators and
production in the sun and stars.
semiconductors on the basis of energy
[Details of chain reaction not
bands, with examples; qualitative
required].
discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in
9. Electronic Devices typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si);
(i) Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, some electrical properties of
Devices and Simple Circuits. Energy bands semiconductors. Majority and minority
in conductors, semiconductors and charge carriers - electrons and holes;
insulators (qualitative ideas only). Intrinsic intrinsic and extrinsic, doping, p-type,
and extrinsic semiconductors. n-type; donor and acceptor impurities.

162
(b) Junction diode and its symbol; 10. Communication Systems
depletion region and potential barrier;
forward and reverse biasing, V-I Elements of a communication system (block
characteristics and numericals; half diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech,
wave and a full wave rectifier. Simple TV and digital data); bandwidth of
circuit diagrams and graphs, function transmission medium. Modes of propagation
of each component in the electric of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere
circuits, qualitative only. [Bridge t hr ough sky and space waves, satellite
rectifier of 4 diodes not included]; communication. Modulation, types
elementary ideas on solar cell, (frequency and amplitude), n eed for
photodiode and light emitting diode modulation and demodulation, advantages of
(LED) as semi conducting diodes. frequency modulation over amplitude
Importance of LED’s as they save modulation. Elementary ideas about internet,
energy without causing atmospheric
mobile network and global positioning system
pollution and global warming. Zener
(GPS).
diode, V-I characteristics, circuit
diagram and working of zener diode as Self-explanatory- qualitative only.
a voltage regulator.
(c) Junction transistor; simple qualitative
PAPER II
description of construction - emitter,
base and collector; npn and pnp type; PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks
symbols showing direction of current in The experiments for laboratory work and practical
emitter-base region (one arrow only)- examinations are mostly from two groups:
base is narrow; current gains in a (i) experiments based on ray optics and
transistor, relation between ,  and (ii) experiments based on current electricity.
numericals related to current gain,
voltage gain, power gain and The main skill required in group (i) is to remove
transconductance; common emitter parallax between a needle and the real image of
configuration only, characteristics; IB another needle.
vs VBE and IC vs VCE with circuit In group (ii), understanding circuit diagram and
diagram and numericals; common making connections strictly following the given
emitter transistor amplifier - circuit diagram is very important. Polarity of cells and
diagram; qualitative explanation meters, their range, zero error, least count, etc.
including amplification, wave form should be taken care of.
and phase reversal. A graph is a convenient and effective way of
(d) Elementary idea of discreet and representing results of measurement. It is an
integrated circuits, analogue and important part of the experiment.
digital signals. Logic gates as given; There will be one graph in the Practical question
symbols, input and output, Boolean paper.
equations (Y=A+B etc.), truth table,
qualitative explanation. NOT, OR, Candidates are advised to read the question paper
AND, NOR, NAND. Combination of carefully and do the work according to the
gates [Realization of gates not instructions given in the question paper. Generally
included]. Advantages of Integrated they are not expected to write the procedure of the
Circuits. experiment, formulae, precautions, or draw the
figures, circuit diagrams, etc.

163
Observations should be recorded in a tabular form. Deductions
Record of observations (i) The slope ‘S’ of the best fit line must be found
taking two distant points (using more than
 All observations recorded should be consistent
50% of the line drawn), which are not the
with the least count of the instrument used (e.g.
y  y1 y
focal length of the lens is 10.0 cm or 15.1cm plotted points, using S  2  .
but 10 cm is a wrong record.) x2  x1 x
 All observations should be recorded with Slope S must be calculated upto proper decimal
correct units. place or significant figures as specified in the
question paper.
Graph work
(ii) All calculations should be rounded off upto
Students should learn to draw graphs correctly proper decimal place or significant figures, as
noting all important steps such as: specified in the question papers.
(i) Title
NOTE:
(ii) Selection of origin (should be marked by two
coordinates, example 0,0 or 5,0, or 0,10 or 30,5; Short answer type questions may be set from each
experiment to test understanding of theory and
Kink is not accepted).
logic of steps involved.
(i) The axes should be labelled according to the
question Given below is a list of required experiments.
Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind
(ii) Uniform and convenient scale should be taken the general pattern of questions asked in the
and the units given along each axis (one small annual examinations.
division = 0.33, 0.67, 0.66, etc. should not to
be taken) Students are required to have completed all
experiments from the given list (excluding
(iii) Maximum area of graph paper (at least 60% demonstration experiments):
of the graph paper along both the axes)
should be used. 1. To find focal length of a convex lens by using
u-v method (no parallax method)
(iv) Points should be plotted with great care,
marking the points plotted with (should be a Using a convex lens, optical bench/metre scales
and two pins, obtain the positions of the images
circle with a dot)  or  . A blob ( ) is a
for various positions of the object; f<u<2f,
misplot.
u~2f, and u>2f.
(v) The best fit straight line should be drawn. The
Draw the following set of graphs using data
best fit line does not necessarily have to pass
from the experiments -
through all the plotted points and the origin.
While drawing the best fit line, all (i)  against u. It will be a curve.
experimental points must be kept on the
 v
line or symmetrically placed on the left and (ii) Magnification  m   against  which is
right side of the line. The line should be  u
continuous, thin, uniform and extended a straight line and to find focal length by
beyond the extreme plots. intercept.
(vi) The intercepts must be read carefully. (iii) y = (100/v) against x = (100/u) which is a
Y intercept i.e. y0 is that value of y when x = straight line and find f by intercepts.
0. Similarly, X intercept i.e. x0 is that value of
2. To find f of a convex lens by displacement
x when y=0. When x0 and y0 are to be read,
method.
origin should be at (0, 0).

164
3. To determine the focal length of a given Demonstration Experiments (The following
convex lens with the help of an auxiliary experiments are to be demonstrated by the
convex lens. teacher):
4. To determine the focal length of a concave 1. To convert a given galvanometer into (a) an
lens, using an auxiliary convex lens, not in ammeter of range, say 2A and (b) a voltmeter
contact and plotting appropriate graph. of range 4V.
5. To determine focal length of concave mirror by 2. To study I-V characteristics of a semi-
using two pins (by u-v method). conductor diode in forward and reverse bias.
6. To determine the refractive index of a liquid by 3. To study characteristics of a Zener diode and to
using a convex lens and a plane mirror. determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
7. To determine the focal length of a convex 4. To study the characteristics of pnp/npn
mirror using convex lens. transistor in common emitter configuration.
8. Using a metre bridge, determine the resistance 5. To determine refractive index of a glass slab
of about 100 cm of (constantan) wire. Measure using a traveling microscope.
its length and radius and hence, calculate the
6. To observe polarization of light using two
specific resistance of the material.
polaroids
9. Verify Ohm’s law for the given unknown
7. Identification of diode, LED, transistor, IC,
resistance (a 60 cm constantan wire), plotting a
resistor, capacitor from mixed collection of
graph of potential difference versus current.
such items.
Also calculate the resistance per cm of the wire
from the slope of the graph and the length of 8. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of
the wire. transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp
type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow
10. To compare emfs of two cells using a
of current in case of diode and an LED,
potentiometer.
(iv) check whether a given electronic
11. To determine the internal resistance of a cell by component (e.g. diode, transistors, IC) is in
a potentiometer. working order.
12. From a potentiometer set up, measure the fall in 9. Charging and discharging of a capacitor.
potential (i.e. pd) for increasing lengths of a
constantan wire, through which a steady current PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
is flowing; plot a graph of pd (V) versus length 15 marks
(l). Calculate the potential gradient of the wire
and specific resistance of its material. Q (i) Project Work – 10 marks
Why is the current kept constant in this The Project work is to be assessed by a Visiting
experiment? Q (ii) How can you increase the Examiner appointed locally and approved by the
sensitivity of the potentiometer? Q (iii) How Council.
can you use the above results and measure the
emf of a cell? All candidates will be required to do one project
involving some physics related topic/s under the
13. To verify the laws of combination of guidance and regular supervision of the Physics
resistances (series and parallel) using metre teacher.
bridge.

165
Candidates should undertake any one of the Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Model Based
following types of projects: Projects:
 Theoretical project  Title of the Project
 Working Model  Model construction
 Investigatory project (by performing an  Concise Project report
experiment under supervision of a teacher)
The Project report should be approximately 5-10
Candidates are to prepare a technical report pages
formally written including title, abstract, some
theoretical discussion, experimental setup,
observations with tables of data collected, Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Investigative
graph/chart (if any), analysis and discussion of Projects:
results, deductions, conclusion, etc. The teacher
 Title of the Project
should approve the draft, before it is finalised. The
report should be kept simple, but neat and elegant.  Theory/principle involved
No extra credit shall be given for typewritten
 Experimental setup
material/decorative cover, etc. Teachers may assign
or students may choose any one project of their  Observations calculations/deduction and graph
choice. work

Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Theory Based  Result/ Conclusions


Projects: The Project report should be of approximately
 Title of the Project 5-10 pages

 Introduction
Practical File – 5 marks
 Contents
The Visiting Examiner is required to assess the
 Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure, candidates on the basis of the Physics practical file
pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.) maintained by them during the academic year.
 Originality of work (the work should be the
candidates’ original work,)
 Conclusion/comments
The Project report should be of approximately
15-20 pages.

166