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Aims:

1. To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, facts,

concepts, definitions, and fundamental laws, principles and processes in the field of physics.

2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of physics to unfamiliar situations.

3. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of physical sciences.

4. To develop skills in -

(a) the practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and

(b) Drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.

5. To develop an appreciation of the contribution of physics towards scientific and technological

developments and towards human happiness.

6. To develop an interest in the world of physical sciences.

CLASS XI

There will be two papers in the subject.

Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks

Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks

Project Work … 10 marks

Practical File … 5 marks

PAPER I- THEORY: 70 Marks

There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal

choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three

questions of 5 marks each.

S. NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Physical World and Measurement

2. Kinematics 23 Marks

3. Laws of Motion

4. Work, Energy and Power 17 Marks

5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

6. Gravitation

7. Properties of Bulk Matter 20 Marks

8. Heat and Thermodynamics

9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

10. Oscillations and Waves 10 Marks

TOTAL 70 Marks

140

PAPER I -THEORY – 70 MARKS

Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. and symbols (strictly as per rule);

Units are to be used while teaching and learning, subunits and multiple units using

as well as for answering questions. prefixes for powers of 10 (from atto for

10-18 to tera for 1012); other common

(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and

units such as fermi, angstrom (now

when they are introduced along with their units and

outdated), light year, astronomical unit

dimensions.

and parsec. A new unit of mass used in

(iii) Numerical problems are included from all atomic physics is unified atomic mass

topics except where they are specifically excluded unit with symbol u (not amu); rules for

or where only qualitative treatment is required. writing the names of units and their

symbols in SI (upper case/lower case.)

1. Physical World and Measurement Derived units (with correct symbols);

(i) Physical World: special names wherever applicable;

expression in terms of base units (e.g.:

Scope of Physics and its application in N= kg m/s2).

everyday life. Nature of physical laws.

(b) Accuracy of measurement, errors in

Physics and its branches (only basic measurement: precision of measuring

knowledge required); fundamental laws instruments, instrumental errors,

and fundamental forces in nature systematic errors, random errors and

(gravitational force, electro-magnetic gross errors. Least count of an

force, strong and weak nuclear forces; instrument and its implication on

unification of forces). Application of errors in measurements; absolute

Physics in technology and society (major error, relative error and percentage

scientists, their discoveries, inventions and error; combination of errors in (a) sum

laws/principles to be discussed briefly). and difference, (b) product and

(ii) Units and Measurements quotient and (c) power of a measured

quantity.

Measurement: need for measurement;

units of measurement; systems of units: (c) Significant figures; their significance;

fundamental and derived units in SI; rules for counting the number of

measurement of length, mass and time; significant figures; rules for (a)

accuracy and precision of measuring addition and subtraction, (b)

instruments; errors in measurement; multiplication/ division; ‘rounding off’

significantfigures. the uncertain digits; order of

magnitude as statement of magnitudes

Dimensional formulae of physical in powers of 10; examples from

quantities and constants, dimensional magnitudes of common physical

analysis and its applications. quantities - size, mass, time, etc.

(a) Importance of measurement in

(d) Dimensions of physical quantities;

scientific studies; physics is a science

dimensional formula; express

of measurement. Unit as a reference derived units in terms of base units

standard of measurement; essential

(N = kg.m s-2); use symbol […] for

properties. Systems of units; CGS,

dimensions of or base unit of; e.g.:

FPS, MKS, MKSA, and SI; the seven

dimensional formula of force in terms of

base units of SI selected by the General

fundamental quantities written as

Conference of Weights and Measures

[F] = [MLT–2].Principle of

in 1971 and their definitions, list of

homogeneity of dimensions.

fundamental, supplementary and

Expressions in terms of SI base units

derived physical quantities; their units

and dimensional formula may be

141

obtained for all physical quantities as (ii) Motion in a Plane

and when new physical quantities are Scalar and Vector quantities with

introduced. examples. Position and displacement

(e) Use of dimensional analysis to (i) vectors, general vectors and their

check the dimensional correctness of a notations; equality of vectors, addition

formula/ equation; (ii) to obtain the and subtraction of vectors, relative

dimensional formula of any derived velocity, Unit vector; resolution of a

physical quantity including constants; vector in a plane, rectangular

(iii) to convert units from one system to components, Scalar and Vector product of

another; limitations of dimensional two vectors. Projectile motion and

analysis. uniform circular motion.

and displacement vector. Vectors

(i) Motion in a Straight Line explained using displacement as a

Frame of references, Motion in a straight prototype - along a straight line (one

line (one dimension): Position-time graph, dimensional), on a plane surface

speed and velocity. (two dimensional) and in an open

space not confined to a line or a plane

Elementary concepts of differentiation and

(three dimensional); symbol and

integration for describing motion, uniform

representation; a scalar quantity, its

and non- uniform motion, average speed,

representation and unit, equality of

velocity, average velocity, instantaneous

vectors. Unit vectors denoted

velocity and uniformly accelerated motion,

velocity - time and position - time graphs. by î , ĵ , kˆ orthogonal unit vectors

Relations for uniformly accelerated motion along x, y and z axes respectively.

(graphicaltreatment). Examples of one dimensional vector

Frame of reference, concept of point mass, V 1 =a î or b ĵ or c kˆ where a, b, c are

rest and motion; distance and

scalar quantities or numbers; V 2 =

displacement, speed and velocity, average

speed and average velocity, uniform a î + b ĵ is a two dimensional or

velocity, instantaneous speed and planar vector, V 3 = a î + b ĵ + c kˆ is

instantaneous velocity, acceleration,

a three dimensional or space vector.

instantaneous acceleration, s-t, v-t and a-t

Concept of null vector and co-planar

graphs for uniform acceleration and

vectors.

conclusions drawn from these graphs;

kinematic equations of motion for objects (b) Addition: use displacement as an

in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion example; obtain triangle law of

derived using graphical, calculus or addition; graphical and analytical

analytical method, motion of an object treatment; Discuss commutative and

under gravity, (one dimensional motion). associative properties of vector

addition (Proof not required).

Differentiation as rate of change; examples

Parallelogram Law; sum and

from physics – speed, acceleration, velocity

difference; derive expressions for

gradient, etc. Formulae for differentiation

magnitude and direction from

of simple functions: xn, sinx, cosx, ex and ln

parallelogram law; special cases;

x. Simple ideas about integration – mainly.

subtraction as special case of

∫xn.dx. Both definite and indefinite addition with direction reversed; use of

integrals to be mentioned (elementary Triangle Law for subtraction also; if

calculus not to be evaluated).

a +b =c ;c - a= b ; In a

parallelogram, if one diagonal is the

142

sum, the other diagonal is the Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Friction:

difference; addition and subtraction Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction,

with vectors expressed in terms of unit rolling friction, lubrication.

vectors î , ĵ , kˆ ; multiplication of a Dynamics of uniform circular motion:

vector by a real number. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion

(vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on a

(c) Use triangle law of addition to

banked road).

express a vector in terms of its

(a) Newton's first law: Statement and

components. If a + b = c is an

explanation; concept of inertia, mass,

addition fact, c = a + b is a force; law of inertia; mathematically, if

resolution; a and b are components of F=0, a=0.

c . Rectangular components, relation dp

between components, resultant and Newton's second law: p =m v ; F ;

angle between them. Dot (or scalar) dt

dp

product of vectors a . b =abcos; F =k . Define unit of force so that

dt

example W = F . S = FS Cos . Special

dp

case of = 0o, 90 o and 1800. Vector k=1; F= ; a vector equation. For

dt

(or cross) product a × b = [absin] n̂ ;

classical physics with v not large and mass

example: torque = r × F ; Special m remaining constant, obtain F =m a .

cases using unit vectors iˆ , ĵ , kˆ for For v c, m is not constant. Then

a . b and a x b . m = mo Note that F= ma is the

1 -v 2 c2

(d) Concept of relative velocity, start from

simple examples on relative velocity of special case for classical mechanics. It is a

one dimensional motion and then two

vector equation. a || F . Also, this can be

dimensional motion; consider resolved into three scalar equations

displacement first; relative Fx=max etc. Application to numerical

displacement (use Triangle Law or problems; introduce tension force, normal

parallelogram Law). reaction force. If a = 0 (body in

(e) Various terms related to projectile equilibrium), F= 0. Statement, derivation

motion; obtain equations of trajectory, and explanation of principle of

time of flight, maximum height, conservation of linear momentum. Impulse

horizontal range, instantaneous of a force: Ft =p.

velocity, [projectile motion on an Newton's third law. Obtain it using Law of

inclined plane not included]. Examples Conservation of linear momentum. Proof of

of projectile motion. Newton’s second law as real law.

(f) Examples of uniform circular motion: Systematic solution of problems in

details to be covered in unit 3 (d). mechanics; isolate a part of a system,

identify all forces acting on it; draw a free

3. Laws of Motion body diagram representing the part as a

General concept of force, inertia, Newton's point and representing all forces by line

first law of motion; momentum and segments, solve for resultant force which is

Newton's second law of motion; impulse; equal to m a . Simple problems on

Newton's third law of motion. “Connected bodies” (not involving two

pulleys).

Law of conservation of linear momentum and

itsapplications. (b) Force diagrams; resultant or net force

from Triangle law of Forces,

143

parallelogram law or resolution of forces.

W=dw= F . dS , for F ║ dS F . dS =FdS

Apply net force F = m a . Again for

therefore, W=FdS is the area under the F-

equilibrium a=0 and F=0. Conditions of S graph or if F can be expressed in terms of

equilibrium of a rigid body under three

S, FdS can be evaluated. Example, work

coplanar forces. Discuss ladder problem.

done in stretching a

(c) Friction; classical view and modern view

spring W Fdx kxdx 1 2

kx . This

of friction, static friction a self-adjusting 2

force; limiting value; kinetic friction or is also the potential energy stored in the

sliding friction; rolling friction, examples. stretched spring U=½ kx2.

Laws of friction: Two laws of static Kinetic energy and its expression,

friction; (similar) two laws of kinetic Work-Energy theorem E=W. Law of

friction; coefficient of friction s = Conservation of Energy; oscillating spring.

fs(max)/N and k = fk/N; graphs. U+K = E = Kmax = Umax (for U = 0 and K

Friction as a non-conservative force; = 0 respectively); graph different forms of

motion under friction, net force in energy and their transformations. E = mc2

Newton’s 2nd law is calculated including fk. (no derivation). Power P=W/t; P F .v .

Motion along a rough inclined plane – both

up and down. Pulling and pushing of a (ii) Collision in one dimension; derivation of

roller. Angle of friction and angle of velocity equation for general case of m1

repose. Lubrication, use of bearings, m2 and u1 u2=0; Special cases for

streamlining, etc. m1=m2=m; m1>>m2 or m1<<m2. Oblique

collisions i.e. collision in two dimensions.

(d) Angular displacement (), angular velocity

(), angular acceleration () and their 5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid

relations. Concept of centripetal Body

acceleration; obtain an expression for this

acceleration using v . Magnitude and Idea of centre of mass: centre of mass of a two-

particle system, momentum conservation and

direction of a same as that of v ;

Centripetal acceleration; the cause of this centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a

acceleration is a force - also called rigid body; centre of mass of a uniformrod.

centripetal force; the name only indicates Moment of a force, torque, angular

its direction, it is not a new type of force, momentum, laws of conservation of angular

motion in a vertical circle; banking of road momentum and its applications.

and railway track (conical pendulum is

excluded). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body

rotation and equations of rotational motion,

4. Work, Power and Energy comparative study of linear and rotational

motions.

Work done by a constant force and a

variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy Moment of inertia, radius of gyration,

theorem, power. moments of inertia for simple geometrical

objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel

Potential energy, potential energy of a spring, and perpendicular axes theorems and their

conservative forces: conservation of applications.

mechanical energy (kinetic and potential

energies); Conservative and non-conservative (i) Definition of centre of mass (cm), centre of

forces. Concept of collision: elastic and mass (cm) for a two particle system

inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. m1x1+m2x2=Mxcm; differentiating, get the

equation for vcm and acm; general equation

(i) Work done W= F . S =FScos. If F is

for N particles- many particles system;

variable dW= F . dS and [need not go into more details];centre of

144

gravity, principle of moment, discuss (ii) Relation between g and G. Derive the

ladder problem, concept of a rigid body; expression for variation of g above and

kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating below the surface of the earth; graph;

about a fixed axis in terms of that of the mention variation of g with latitude and

particles of the body; hence, define moment rotation, (without derivation).

of inertia and radius of gyration; physical

(iii) Gravitational field, intensity of

significance of moment of inertia; unit and

gravitational field and potential at a point

dimension; depends on mass and axis of

rotation; it is rotational inertia; equations in earth’s gravitational field. Vp = Wp/m.

of rotational motions. Applications: only Derive expression (by integration) for

expression for the moment of inertia, I the gravitational potential difference

(about the symmetry axis) of: (i) a ring; (ii) V = VB-VA = G.M(1/rA-1/rB); here

a solid and a hollow cylinder, (iii) a thin Vp = V(r) = -GM/r; negative sign for

rod (iv) a solid and a hollow sphere, (v) attractive force field; define gravitational

a disc - only formulae (no derivations potential energy of a mass m in the earth's

required). field; expression for gravitational potential

energy U(r) = Wp = m.V(r) = -G M

(a) Statements of the parallel and m/r; show that U = mgh, for h << R.

perpendicular axes theorems with Relation between intensity and acceleration

illustrations [derivation not required]. due to gravity.

Simple examples with change of axis.

(iv) Derive expression for the escape velocity

(b) Definition of torque (vector); = r x of earth using energy consideration; ve

F and angular momentum L = r x depends on mass of the earth; for moon ve

is less as mass of moon is less;

p for a particle (no derivations);

consequence - no atmosphere on the moon.

differentiate to obtain d L /dt= ;

similar to Newton’s second law of (v) Satellites (both natural (moon) and

motion (linear);hence τ =I and artificial) in uniform circular motion

L = I; (only scalar equation); Law around the earth; Derive the expression for

of conservation of angular orbital velocity and time period; note the

momentum; simple applications. centripetal acceleration is caused (or

Comparison of linear and rotational centripetal force is provided) by the force

motions. of gravity exerted by the earth on the

satellite; the acceleration of the satellite is

6. Gravitation the acceleration due to gravity

Kepler's laws of planetary motion, universal [g’= g(R/R+h)2; F’G = mg’].

law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity Weightlessness; geostationary satellites;

(g) and its variation with altitude, latitude and conditions for satellite to be geostationary;

depth. parking orbit, calculation of its radius and

height; basic concept of polar satellites and

Gravitational potential and gravitational their uses.

potential energy, escape velocity, orbital

velocity of a satellite, Geo-stationary (vi) Kepler's laws of planetary motion: explain

satellites. the three laws using diagrams. Proof of

third law (for circular orbits only).

(i) Newton's law of universal gravitation;

Statement; unit and dimensional formula of 7. Properties of Bulk Matter

universal gravitational constant, G (i) Mechanical Properties of Solids: Elastic

[Cavendish experiment not required]; behaviour of solids, Stress-strain

gravitational acceleration on surface of the relationship, Hooke's law, Young's

earth (g), weight of a body W= mg from modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of

F=ma. rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.

145

Elasticity in solids, Hooke’s law, Flow of fluids (liquids and gases),

Young modulus and its determination, laminar flow, internal friction between

bulk modulus and shear modulus of layers of fluid, between fluid and the

rigidity, work done in stretching a wire solid with which the fluid is in relative

and strain energy, Poisson’s ratio. motion; examples; viscous drag is a

force of friction; mobile and viscous

(ii) Mechanical Properties of Fluids

liquids.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's

Velocity gradient dv/dx (space rate

law and its applications (hydraulic lift

of change of velocity); viscous drag

and hydraulic brakes), effect of gravity on

F = A dv/dx; coefficient of viscosity

fluid pressure.

= F/A (dv/dx) depends on the nature

Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, of the liquid and its temperature; units:

streamline and turbulent flow, critical Ns/m2 and dyn.s/cm2= poise.1

velocity, Bernoulli's theorem and its poise=0.1 Ns/m2.

applications.

(e) Stoke's law, motion of a sphere falling

Surface energy and surface tension, angle through a fluid, hollow rigid sphere

of contact, excess of pressure across a rising to the surface of a liquid,

curved surface, application of surface parachute, obtain the expression of

tension ideas to drops, bubbles and terminal velocity; forces acting;

capillary rise. viscous drag, a force proportional to

velocity; Stoke’s law; -t graph.

(a) Pressure in a fluid, Pascal’s Law and

its applications, buoyancy (Archimedes (f) Surface tension (molecular theory),

Principle). drops and bubbles, angle of contact,

work done in stretching a surface and

(b) General characteristics of fluid flow;

surface energy, capillary rise,

equation of continuity v1a1= v2a2;

measurement of surface tension by

conditions; applications like use of

capillary (uniform bore) rise method.

nozzle at the end of a hose; Bernoulli’s

Excess pressure across a curved

principle (theorem); assumptions -

surface, application of surface tension

incompressible liquid, streamline

for drops and bubbles.

(steady) flow, non-viscous and

irrotational liquid - ideal liquid;

8. Heat and Thermodynamics

derivation of equation; applications of

Bernoulli’s theorem atomizer, dynamic (i) Thermal Properties of Matter: Heat,

uplift, Venturimeter, Magnus effect etc. temperature, thermal expansion; thermal

expansion of solids, liquids and gases,

(c) Streamline and turbulent flow -

anomalous expansion of water; specific

examples; streamlines do not intersect

heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state,

(like electric and magnetic lines of

specific latent heat capacity.

force); tubes of flow; number of

streamlines per unit area velocity of Heat transfer-conduction, convection and

flow (from equation of continuity v1a1 = radiation, thermal conductivity, qualitative

v2a2); critical velocity; Reynold's ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's

number (significance only) Poiseuille’s displacement Law, Stefan's law, and

formula with numericals. Greenhouseeffect.

(d) Viscous drag; Newton's formula for (a) Temperature and Heat, measurement

viscosity, co-efficient of viscosity and of temperature (scales and inter

its units. conversion). Ideal gas equation and

absolute temperature, thermal

expansion in solids, liquids and gases.

146

Specific heat capacity, calorimetry, (a) Thermal equilibrium and zeroth law of

change of state, latent heat capacity, thermodynamics: Self explanatory

steady state and temperature gradient.

(b) First law of thermodynamics.

Thermal conductivity; co-efficient of

thermal conductivity, Use of good and Concept of heat (Q) as the energy that

poor conductors, Searle’s experiment, is transferred (due to temperature

(Lee’s Disc method is not required). difference only) and not stored; the

Convection with examples. energy that is stored in a body or

system as potential and kinetic energy

(b) Black body is now called ideal or

is called internal energy (U). Internal

cavity radiator and black body

energy is a state property (only

radiation is cavity radiation; Stefan’s

elementary ideas) whereas, heat is not;

law is now known as Stefan Boltzmann

first law is a statement of conservation

law as Boltzmann derived it

of energy, when, in general, heat (Q) is

theoretically. There is multiplicity of

transferred to a body (system), internal

technical terms related to thermal

energy (U) of the system changes and

radiation - radiant intensity I (T) for

some work W is done by the system;

total radiant power (energy

then Q=U+W; also W=pdV for

radiated/second) per unit area of the

working substance - an ideal gas;

surface, in W/m2, I (T) = T4;

explain the meaning of symbols (with

dimension and SI unit of . For examples) and sign convention

practical radiators I =. T4 carefully (as used in physics: Q>0

where (dimension less) is called when added to a system, U>0 when U

emissivity of the surface material; increases or temperature rises, and

=1 for ideal radiators. The Spectral W>0 when work is done by the system).

radiancy R(). I (T)= R () d. Special cases for Q=0 (adiabatic),

U=0

0

(isothermal) and W=0

Graph of R() vs for different (isochoric).

temperatures. Area under the graph is (c) Isothermal and adiabatic changes in a

I (T). The corresponding to perfect gas described in terms of PV

maximum value of R is called max; graphs; PV = constant (Isothermal)

decreases with increase in and PV = constant (adiabatic); joule

temperature. and calorie relation (derivation of

Wien’s displacement law; Stefan’s law PV = constant not required).

and Newton’s law of cooling. Note that 1 cal = 4186 J exactly and J

[Deductions from Stefan’s law not (so-called mechanical equivalent of

necessary]. Greenhouse effect – self- heat) should not be used in equations.

explanatory. In equations, it is understood that each

(ii) Thermodynamics term as well as the LHS and RHS are

in the same units; it could be all joules

Thermal equilibrium and definition of

or all calories.

temperature (zeroth law of

thermodynamics), heat, work and internal (d) Derive an expression for work done in

energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes;

isothermal and adiabatic processes. principal and molar heat capacities;

Cp and Cv; relation between Cp and

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible

Cv (Cp - Cv = R). Work done as area

and irreversible processes, Heat engine and

bounded by PV graph.

refrigerator.

147

(e) Second law of thermodynamics, (b) From kinetic theory for an

Carnot's cycle. Some practical ideal gas (obeying all the assumptions

applications. especially no intermolecular attraction

and negligibly small size of molecules,

Only one statement each in terms of

Kelvin’s impossible steam engine and we get p = (1/3) c 2 or pV =

Clausius’ impossible refrigerator. (1/3)M c 2 . (No further, as temperature

Brief explanation of the law. Reversible is not a concept of kinetic theory).

and irreversible processes, Heat From experimentally obtained gas

engine; Carnot’s cycle - describe laws, we have the ideal gas equation

realisation from source and sink of (obeyed by some gases at low pressure

infinite thermal capacity, thermal and high temperature) pV = RT for one

insulation, etc. Explain using pV graph mole. Combining these two results

(isothermal process and adiabatic (assuming they can be combined),

process) expression and numericals

(without derivation) for efficiency =1- RT=(1/3)M c 2 =(2/3).½M c 2 =(2/3)K;

T2/T1., Refrigerator and heat pumps. Hence, kinetic energy of 1 mole of an

ideal gas K=(3/2)RT. Average K for 1

9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic molecule = K/N = (3/2) RT/N = (3/2)

Theory of Gases kT where k is Boltzmann’s constant.

So, temperature T can be interpreted as

(i) Kinetic Theory: Equation of state of a a measure of the average kinetic

perfect gas, work done in compressing a energy of the molecules of a gas.

gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions,

concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation (c) Degrees of freedom and calculation of

of temperature; rms speed of gas specific heat capacities for all types of

molecules; degrees of freedom, law of gases. Concept of the law of

equi-partition of energy (statement only) equipartition of energy (derivation not

and application to specific heat capacities required). Concept of mean free path

of gases; concept of mean free path, and Avogadro’s number NA.

Avogadro's number.

10. Oscillations and Waves

(a) Kinetic Theory of gases; derive p=1/3

(i) Oscillations: Periodic motion, time period,

c2 from the assumptions and frequency, displacement as a function of

applying Newton’s laws of motion. The time, periodic functions. Simple harmonic

average thermal velocity (rms value) motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase;

crms=3p/; calculations for air, oscillations of a spring, restoring force and

hydrogen and their comparison with force constant; energy in S.H.M., Kinetic

common speeds. Effect of temperature and potential energies; simple pendulum

and pressure on rms speed of gas and derivation of expression for its time

molecules. period.

[Note that pV=nRT the ideal gas Free, forced and damped oscillations

equation cannot be derived from (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

kinetic theory of ideal gas. Hence,

neither can other gas laws; pV=nRT is (a) Simple harmonic motion. Periodic

an experimental result. Comparing motion, time period T and frequency f,

f=1/T; uniform circular motion and its

this with p = ⅓ ρ c 2 , from kinetic projection on a diameter defines SHM;

theory of gases, a kinetic interpretation displacement, amplitude, phase and

of temperature can be obtained as epoch, velocity, acceleration, time

explained in the next subunit]. period; characteristics of SHM;

Relation between linear simple

148

harmonic motion and uniform circular (a) Transverse and longitudinal waves;

motion. Differential equation of SHM, characteristics of a harmonic wave;

d2y/dt2+ω2y=0 from the nature of force graphical representation of a harmonic

acting F=-k y; solution y=A sin wave. Distinction between transverse

(t+0) where 2 = k/m; and longitudinal waves; examples;

obtain expressions for velocity, displacement, amplitude, time period,

acceleration, time period T and frequency, wavelength, derive v=f;

frequency f. Graphical representation graph of displacement with

of displacement, velocity and time/position, label time

acceleration. Examples, simple period/wavelength and amplitude,

pendulum, a mass m attached to a equation of a progressive harmonic

spring of spring constant k. Derivation (sinusoidal) wave, y = A sin (kx±t)

of time period of simple harmonic where k is a propagation factor and

motion of a simple pendulum, mass on equivalent equations.

a spring (horizontal and vertical

oscillations) Kinetic and potential (b) Production and propagation of sound

energy at a point in simple harmonic as a wave motion; mechanical wave

motion. Total energy E = U+K requires a medium; general formula

(potential +kinetic) is conserved. Draw for speed of sound (no derivation).

graphs of U, K and E Verses y. Newton’s formula for speed of sound in

air; experimental value; Laplace’s

(b) Free, forced and damped oscillations correction; variation of speed v with

(qualitative treatment only).

changes in pressure, density, humidity

Resonance. Examples of damped

and temperature. Speed of sound in

oscillations (all oscillations are

liquids and solids - brief introduction

damped); graph of amplitude vs time

only. Concept of supersonic and

for undamped and damped

oscillations; damping force in addition ultrasonic waves.

to restoring force (-ky); forced (c) Principle of superposition of waves;

oscillations, examples; action of an interference (simple ideas only);

external periodic force, in addition to dependence of combined wave form, on

restoring force. Time period is the relative phase of the interfering

changed to that of the external applied waves; qualitative only - illustrate with

force, amplitude (A) varies with wave representations. Beats

frequency (f) of the applied force and it (qualitative explanation only); number

is maximum when the frequency of the of beats produced per second =

external applied force is equal to the difference in the frequencies of the

natural frequency of the vibrating interfering waves. Standing waves or

body. This is resonance; maximum stationary waves; formation by two

energy transfer from one body to the identical progressive waves travelling

other; bell graph of amplitude vs in opposite directions (e.g.,: along a

frequency of the applied force.

string, in an air column - incident and

Examples from mechanics, electricity

reflected waves); obtain

and electronics (radio).

y= y1+y2= [2 ym sin (kx)] cos (t) using

(ii) Waves: Wave motion, Transverse and

equations of the travelling waves;

longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion,

variation of the amplitude A=2 ymsin

displacement relation for a progressive

wave, principle of superposition of waves, (kx) with location (x) of the particle;

reflection of waves, standing waves in nodes and antinodes; compare

strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode standing waves with progressive

and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. waves.

149

(d) Laws of vibrations of a stretched 4. Equilibrium of three concurrent coplanar

string. Obtain equation for forces. To verify the parallelogram law of

fundamental frequency f0=(½l) T/m ; forces and to determine weight of a body.

sonometer. 5. (i) Inclined plane: To find the downward force

(e) Modes of vibration of strings and air acting along the inclined plane on a roller

columns (closed and open pipes); due to gravitational pull of earth and to

standing waves with nodes and study its relationship with angle of

antinodes; also in resonance with the inclination by plotting graph between force

periodic force exerted usually by a and sin .

tuning fork; sketches of various modes (ii) Friction: To find the force of limiting

of vibration; obtain expressions for friction for a wooden block placed on

fundamental frequency and various horizontal surface and to study its

harmonics and overtones; mutual relationship with normal reaction. To

relations. determine the coefficient of friction.

(f) Doppler effect for sound; obtain general 6. To find the acceleration due to gravity by

expression for apparent frequency when measuring the variation in time period (T) with

both the source and listener are moving, effective length (L) of a simple pendulum; plot

v vL graphs of T s L and T2 s L. Determine

given as f L f r which can be

v vr

effective length of the seconds pendulum from

T2 s L graph.

reduced to any one of the four special

cases, by using proper sign. 7. To find the force constant of a spring and to

study variation in time period of oscillation

PAPER II with mass m of a body suspended by the

PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks spring. To find acceleration due to gravity by

plotting a graph of T against m.

Given below is a list of required experiments.

Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind 8. Boyle's Law: To study the variation in volume

the general pattern of questions asked in the with pressure for a sample of air at constant

annual examinations. temperature by plotting graphs between p and

1 and between p and V.

In each experiment, students are expected to record V

their observations in a tabular form with units at the 9. Cooling curve: To study the fall in temperature

column head. Students should plot an appropriate of a body (like hot water or liquid in

graph, work out the necessary calculations and calorimeter) with time. Find the slope of the

arrive at the result. curve at four different temperatures of the hot

body and hence, deduce Newton's law of

Students are required to have completed all cooling.

experiments from the given list (excluding

demonstration experiments): 10. To study the variation in frequency of air

column with length using resonance column

1. To measure the diameter of a spherical body apparatus or a long cylindrical vessel and a set

using Vernier calipers. Calculate its volume of tuning forks. Hence, determine velocity of

with appropriate significant figures. Also sound in air at room temperature.

measure its volume using a graduated cylinder

and compare the two. 11. To determine frequency of a tuning fork using

a sonometer.

2. Find the diameter of a wire using a micrometer

screw gauge and determine percentage error in 12. To determine specific heat capacity of a solid

cross sectional area. using a calorimeter.

3. Determine radius of curvature of a spherical

surface like watch glass by a spherometer.

150

Demonstration Experiments (The following Suggested Evaluation criteria:

experiments are to be demonstrated by the

teacher): Title and Abstract (summary)

1. Searle's method to determine Young modulus Introduction / purpose

of elasticity.

Contents/Presentation

2. Capillary rise method to determine surface

tension of water. Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure,

3. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of a pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.)

given viscous liquid by terminal velocity Originality of work

method.

Conclusion/comments

PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –

15 Marks Practical File – 5 Marks

Project Work – 10 Marks Teachers are required to assess students on the

All candidates will be required to do one project basis of the Physics practical file maintained by

involving some Physics related topic/s, under the them during the academic year.

guidance and regular supervision of the Physics

teacher. Candidates are to prepare a technical

report formally written including an abstract, some NOTE: For guidelines regarding Project Work,

theoretical discussion, experimental setup, please refer to Class XII.

observations with tables of data collected, analysis

and discussion of results, deductions, conclusion,

etc. (after the draft has been approved by the

teacher). The report should be kept simple, but

neat and elegant. No extra credit shall be given for

type-written material/decorative cover, etc.

Teachers may assign or students may choose any

one project of their choice.

151

CLASS XII

Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks

Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks

Project Work ... 10 marks

Practical File ... 5 marks

There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal

choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three

questions of 5 marks each.

1. Electrostatics 14 Marks

2. Current Electricity

5. Electromagnetic Waves

6. Optics 18 Marks

TOTAL 70 Marks

152

PAPER I -THEORY- 70 Marks E F / qo (q0 is a test charge); E for

Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. a group of charges (superposition

Units are to be used while teaching and learning, principle); a point charge q in an

as well as for answering questions. field E experiences an electric

electric

(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and force FE qE . Intensity due to a

when they are introduced along with their units and continuous distribution of charge i.e.

dimensions. linear, surface and volume.

(iii) Numerical problems are included from all (c) Electric lines of force: A convenient

topics except where they are specifically excluded way to visualize the electric field;

or where only qualitative treatment is required. properties of lines of force; examples

of the lines of force due to (i) an

1. Electrostatics isolated point charge (+ve and - ve);

(i) Electric Charges and Fields (ii) dipole, (iii) two similar charges at

Electric charges; conservation and a small distance;(iv) uniform field

quantisation of charge, Coulomb's law; between two oppositely charged

superposition principle and continuous parallel plates.

charge distribution. (d) Electric dipole and dipole moment;

Electric field, electric field due to a point derivation of the E at a point, (1) on

charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, the axis (end on position) (2) on the

electric field due to a dipole, torque on a perpendicular bisector (equatorial i.e.

dipole in uniform electric field. broad side on position) of a dipole,

Electric flux, Gauss’s theorem in also for r>> 2l (short dipole); dipole in

Electrostatics and its applications to find a uniform electric field; net force zero,

field due to infinitely long straight wire, torque on an electric dipole:

uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and p E and its derivation.

uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

(e) Gauss’ theorem: the flux of a vector

(a) Coulomb's law, S.I. unit of

field;

Q=vA for velocity vector v A,

charge; permittivity of free space

A is area vector. Similarly, for electric

and of dielectric medium.

Frictional electricity, electric charges flux E = EA for E A

field E , electric

and E E A for uniform E . For

(two types); repulsion and

non-uniform field E = d = E .dA .

attraction; simple atomic structure -

Special cases for = 00, 900 and 1800.

electrons and ions; conductors

Gauss’ theorem,

statement: E =q/0

q

and insulators; quantization and

or E E dA

where E is for

conservation of electric charge; 0

Coulomb's law in vector form; a closed surface; q is the net charge

(position coordinates r1, r2 not enclosed, o is the permittivity of free

necessary). Comparison with Newton’s space. Essential properties of a

law of gravitation; Gaussian surface.

Superposition

principle Applications: Obtain expression for E

F 1 F 12 F 13 F 14 . due to 1. an infinite line of charge, 2. a

uniformly charged infinite plane thin

(b) Concept of electric field and its sheet, 3. a thin hollow spherical shell

intensity; examples of different fields; (inside, on the surface and outside).

gravitational, electric and magnetic; Graphical variation of E vs r for a thin

Electric field due to a point charge spherical shell.

153

(ii) Electrostatic Potential, Potential Energy (b) Capacitance of a conductor C = Q/V;

and Capacitance obtain the capacitance of a parallel-

Electric potential, potential difference, plate capacitor (C = 0A/d) and

electric potential due to a point charge, a equivalent capacitance for capacitors in

dipole and system of charges; series and parallel combinations. Obtain

equipotential surfaces, electrical potential an expression for energy stored (U =

energy of a system of two point charges 1 2 1 1 Q2

CV = QV ) and energy

and of electric dipole in an electrostatic 2 2 2 C

field. density.

Conductors and insulators, free charges (c) Dielectric constant K = C'/C; this is also

and bound charges inside a conductor. called relative permittivity K = r =

Dielectrics and electric polarisation, /o; elementary ideas of polarization of

capacitors and capacitance, combination matter in a uniform electric field

of capacitors in series and in parallel. qualitative discussion; induced surface

Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, charges weaken the original field; results

energy stored in a capacitor.

in reduction in E and hence, in pd, (V);

(a) Concept of potential, potential for charge remaining the same Q = CV

difference and potential energy. = C' V' = K. CV'; V' = V/K;

Equipotential surface and its

and E E ; if the Capacitor is kept

properties. Obtain an expression for K

electric potential at a point due to a connected with the source of emf, V is

point charge; graphical variation of E kept constant V = Q/C = Q'/C' ; Q'=C'V

and V vs r, VP=W/q0; hence VA -VB = = K. CV= K. Q

WBA/ q0 (taking q0 from B to A) = increases; For a parallel plate capacitor

(q/40)(1/rA - 1/rB); derive this with a dielectric in between,

equation; also VA = q/40 .1/rA ; for C' = KC = K.o . A/d = r .o .A/d.

q>0, VA>0 and for q<0, VA < 0. For a 0 A

collection of charges V = algebraic Then C ; for a capacitor

d

sum of the potentials due to each

r

charge; potential due to a dipole on its

partially filled dielectric, capacitance,

axial line and equatorial line; also at

any point for r>>2l (short dipole). C' =oA/(d-t + t/r).

Potential energy of a point charge (q)

2. Current Electricity

in an electric field E , placed at a point

P where potential is V, is given by U Mechanism of flow of current in conductors.

=qV and U =q (VA-VB) . The Mobility, drift velocity and its relation with

electrostatic potential energy of a electric current; Ohm's law and its proof,

system of two charges = work done resistance and resistivity and their relation to

W21=W12 in assembling the system; U12 drift velocity of electrons; V-I characteristics

or U21 = (1/40 ) q1q2/r12. For a (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and

system of 3 charges U123 = U12 + U13 + power, electrical resistivity and

qq qq q q conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code

1

U23 = ( 1 2 1 3 2 3 ). for carbon resistors; series and parallel

4 0 r12 r13 r23 combinations of resistors; temperature

For a dipole in a uniform electric field, dependence of resistance and resistivity.

derive an expression of the electric Internal resistance of a cell, potential

potential energy UE = - p . E , special difference and emf of a cell, combination of

cases for =00, 900 and 1800. cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws

and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge,

154

metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its parallel and mixed grouping. Parallel

applications to measure potential difference, combination of two cells of unequal emf.

to compare emf of two cells; to measure Series combination of n cells of unequal

internal resistance of a cell. emf.

(a) Free electron theory of conduction; (d) Statement and explanation of Kirchhoff's

acceleration of free electrons, relaxation laws with simple examples. The first is a

time τ ; electric current I = Q/t; concept of conservation law for charge and the 2nd is

drift velocity and electron mobility. Ohm's law of conservation of energy. Note change

law, current density J = I/A; experimental in potential across a resistor V=IR<0

verification, graphs and slope, ohmic when we go ‘down’ with the current

and non-ohmic conductors; obtain the (compare with flow of water down a river),

relation I=vdenA. Derive = ne2/m and and V=IR>0 if we go up against the

= m/ne2 τ ; effect of temperature on current across the resistor. When we go

resistivity and resistance of conductors through a cell, the -ve terminal is at a

and semiconductors and graphs. lower level and the +ve terminal at a

Resistance R= V/I; resistivity , given by R higher level, so going from -ve to +ve

= .l/A; conductivity and conductance; through the cell, we are going up and

V=+ and going from +ve to -ve terminal

Ohm’s law as J = E ; colour coding of

resistance. through the cell, we are going down, so V

= -. Application to simple circuits.

(b) Electrical energy consumed in time Wheatstone bridge; right in the beginning

t is E=Pt= VIt; using Ohm’s law take Ig=0 as we consider a balanced

E = V R t = I Rt. Potential difference

2

2 bridge, derivation of R1/R2 = R3/R4

[Kirchhoff’s law not necessary]. Metre

V = P/ I; P = V I; Electric power consumed bridge is a modified form of Wheatstone

P = VI = V2 /R = I2 R; commercial units; bridge, its use to measure unknown

electricity consumption and billing. resistance. Here R3 = l1 and R4=l2;

Derivation of equivalent resistance for R3/R4=l1/l2. Principle of Potentiometer: fall

combination of resistors in series and in potential V l; auxiliary emf 1 is

parallel; special case of n identical balanced against the fall in potential V1

resistors; Rs = nR and Rp = R/n. across length l1. 1 = V1 =Kl1 ; 1/2 = l1/l2;

Calculation of equivalent resistance of potentiometer as a voltmeter. Potential

mixed grouping of resistors (circuits). gradient and sensitivity of potentiometer.

(c) The source of energy of a seat of emf (such Use of potentiometer: to compare emfs of

as a cell) may be electrical, mechanical, two cells, to determine internal resistance

thermal or radiant energy. The emf of a of a cell.

source is defined as the work done per unit

charge to force them to go to the higher 3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

point of potential (from -ve terminal to +ve (i) Moving charges and magnetism

terminal inside the cell) so, = dW /dq; but

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's

dq = Idt; dW = dq = Idt . Equating total experiment. Biot - Savart law and its

work done to the work done across the

application. Ampere's Circuital law and its

external resistor R plus the work done

applications to infinitely long straight wire,

across the internal resistance r; Idt=I2R dt straight and toroidal solenoids (only

+ I2rdt; =I (R + r); I=/( R + r ); also qualitative treatment). Force on a moving

IR +Ir = or V=- Ir where Ir is called the charge in uniform magnetic and electric

back emf as it acts against the emf ; V is fields, cyclotron. Force on a current-

the terminal pd. Derivation of formulae for carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic

combination for identical cells in series, field, force between two parallel

155

current-carrying conductors-definition of Lorentz force, Simple ideas about

ampere, torque experienced by a current principle, working, and limitations of a

loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil cyclotron.

galvanometer - its sensitivity. Conversion

(c) Derive the expression for torque on a

of galvanometer into an ammeter and a

current carrying loop placed in a

voltmeter.

uniform B , using F = I l B and =

(ii) Magnetism and Matter:

r F ; = NIAB sin for N turns

A current loop as a magnetic dipole, its

magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole = m × B , where the dipole moment

moment of a revolving electron, magnetic m = NI A , unit: A.m2. A current

field intensity due to a magnetic dipole carrying loop is a magnetic dipole;

(bar magnet) on the axial line and

directions of current and B and m

equatorial line, torque on a magnetic dipole using right hand rule only; no other

(bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; rule necessary. Mention orbital

bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic moment of an electron in

magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field Bohr model of H atom. Concept of

and magnetic elements. radial magnetic field. Moving coil

Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and galvanometer; construction, principle,

ferromagnetic substances, with examples. working, theory I= k , current and

Electromagnets and factors affecting their

strengths, permanent magnets. voltage sensitivity. Shunt. Conversion

of galvanometer into ammeter and

(a) Only historical introduction through voltmeter of given range.

Oersted’s experiment. [Ampere’s

swimming rule not included]. Biot- (d) Magnetic field represented by the

Savart law and its vector form; symbol B is now defined by the

equation F qo v B ; B is not to be

application; derive the expression for B

(i) at the centre of a circular loop defined in terms of force acting on a

carrying current; (ii) at any point on unit pole, etc.; note the distinction of

its axis. Current carrying loop as a

magnetic dipole. Ampere’s Circuital B from E is that B forms closed

loops as there are no magnetic

law: statement and brief explanation.

Apply it to obtain B near a long wire monopoles, whereas E lines start from

carrying current and for a solenoid +ve charge and end on -ve charge.

(straight as well as torroidal). Only Magnetic field lines due to a magnetic

dipole (bar magnet). Magnetic field in

formula of B due to a finitely long end-on and broadside-on positions (No

conductor.

derivations). Magnetic flux = B . A =

(b) Force on a moving charged particle in

BA for B uniform and B A ; i.e.

magnetic field FB q v B ; special

area held perpendicular to For =

cases, modify this equation substituting

BA( B A ), B=/A is the flux density

dl / dt for v and I for q/dt to yield F =

[SI unit of flux is weber (Wb)]; but note

I dl B for the force acting on a that this is not correct as a defining

current carrying conductor placed in a

equation as B is vector and and /A

magnetic field. Derive the expression are scalars, unit of B is tesla (T) equal

for force between two long and parallel

to 10-4 gauss. For non-uniform B field,

wires carrying current, hence, define

ampere (the base SI unit of current) = d= B . dA . Earth's magnetic

and hence, coulomb; from Q = It. field B E is uniform over a limited area

156

like that of a lab; the component of this selection of magnetic material for

field in the horizontal direction BH is temporary and permanent magnets and

the one effectively acting on a magnet core of the transformer on the basis of

suspended or pivoted horizontally. retentivity and coercive force (B-H

Elements of earth’s magnetic field, i.e. loop and its significance, retentivity

BH, and - their definitions and and coercive force not to be evaluated).

relations.

4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating

(e) Properties of diamagnetic, Currents

paramagnetic and ferromagnetic

substances; their susceptibility and (i) Electromagnetic Induction

relative permeability. Faraday's laws, induced emf and current;

It is better to explain the main Lenz's Law, eddy currents. Self-induction

distinction, the cause of magnetization and mutual induction. Transformer.

(M) is due to magnetic dipole moment (ii) Alternating Current

(m) of atoms, ions or molecules being 0 Peak value, mean value and RMS value of

for dia, >0 but very small for para and alternating current/voltage; their relation

> 0 and large for ferromagnetic in sinusoidal case; reactance

materials; few examples; placed in and impedance; LC oscillations

external B , very small (induced) (qualitative treatment only), LCR series

magnetization in a direction opposite circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,

wattless current. AC generator.

to B in dia, small magnetization

(a) Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic

parallel to B for para, and large

flux, change in flux, rate of change of

magnetization parallel to B for flux and induced emf; Faraday’s laws.

ferromagnetic materials; this leads to Lenz's law, conservation of energy;

lines of B becoming less dense, more motional emf = Blv, and power P =

dense and much more dense in dia, (Blv)2/R; eddy currents (qualitative);

para and ferro, respectively; hence, a

weak repulsion for dia, weak attraction (b) Self-Induction, coefficient of self-

for para and strong attraction for ferro inductance, = LI and L ;

dI dt

magnetic material. Also, a small bar

suspended in the horizontal plane henry = volt. Second/ampere,

expression for coefficient of self-

becomes perpendicular to the B field

inductance of a solenoid

for dia and parallel to B for para and 0 N 2 A

ferro. Defining equation H = (B/0)-M; L 0 n 2 A l .

the magnetic properties, susceptibility l

m = (M/H) < 0 for dia (as M is Mutual induction and mutual

opposite H) and >0 for para, both very inductance (M), flux linked 2 = MI1;

small, but very large for ferro; hence d2 dI

relative permeability r =(1+ m) < 1 induced emf 2 =M 1 .

dt dt

for dia, > 1 for para and >>1 (very

Definition of M as

large) for ferro; further, m1/T

2

(Curie’s law) for para, independent of M = or M 2 . SI unit

temperature (T) for dia and depends dI 1 I1

on T in a complicated manner for dt

ferro; on heating ferro becomes para henry. Expression for coefficient of

at Curie temperature. Electromagnet: mutual inductance of two coaxial

its definition, properties and factors solenoids.

affecting the strength of electromagnet;

157

NN A Z2 = R2+(XL-Xc) 2

and

M 0 1 2 0 n1 N 2 A Induced tan = (VL m -VCm)/VRm = (XL-Xc)/R

l

emf opposes changes, back emf is set giving I = I m sin (wt-) where I m

up, eddy currents. =Vm/Z etc. Special cases for RL and

Transformer (ideal coupling): RC circuits. [May use Kirchoff’s law

principle, working and uses; step up and obtain the differential equation]

and step down; efficiency and Graph of Z vs f and I vs f.

applications including transmission of (f) Power P associated with LCR circuit =

1

power, energy losses and their /2VoIo cos =VrmsIrms cos = Irms2 R;

minimisation. power absorbed and power dissipated;

(c) Sinusoidal variation of V and I with electrical resonance; bandwidth of

time, for the output from an signals and Q factor (no derivation);

ac generator; time period, frequency oscillations in an LC circuit (0 =

and phase changes; obtain mean 1/ LC ). Average power consumed

values of current and voltage, obtain

averaged over a full cycle P=

relation between RMS value of V and I

(1/2) VoIo cos, Power factor

with peak values in sinusoidal cases

only. cos = R/Z. Special case for pure R, L

and C; choke coil (analytical only), XL

(d) Variation of voltage and current in a.c. controls current but cos = 0, hence

circuits consisting of only a resistor, P =0, wattless current; LC circuit; at

only an inductor and only a capacitor resonance with XL=Xc , Z=Zmin= R,

(phasor representation), phase lag and power delivered to circuit by the

phase lead. May apply Kirchhoff’s law source is maximum, resonant frequency

and obtain simple differential equation

1

(SHM type), V = Vo sin t, solution I = f0 .

I0 sin t, I0sin (t + /2) and I0 sin (t 2 LC

- /2) for pure R, C and L circuits (g) Simple a.c. generators: Principle,

respectively. Draw phase (or phasor) description, theory, working and use.

diagrams showing voltage and current Variation in current and voltage with

and phase lag or lead, also showing time for a.c. and d.c. Basic differences

resistance R, inductive reactance XL; between a.c. and d.c.

(XL=L) and capacitive reactance XC,

(XC = 1/C). Graph of XL and XC vs f. 5. Electromagnetic Waves

(e) The LCR series circuit: Use phasor Basic idea of displacement current.

diagram method to obtain expression Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics,

for I and V, the pd across R, L and C; their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

and the net phase lag/lead; use the Complete electromagnetic spectrum starting

results of 4(e), V lags I by /2 in a from radio waves to gamma rays: elementary

capacitor, V leads I by /2 in an facts of electromagnetic waves and their uses.

inductor, V and I are in phase in a Concept of displacement current, qualitative

resistor, I is the same in all three; descriptions only of electromagnetic spectrum;

hence draw phase diagram, combine common features of all regions of em

VL and Vc (in opposite phase; spectrum includingtransverse nature ( E and B

phasors add like vectors) perpendicular to c ); special features of the

to give V=VR+VL+VC (phasor addition) common classification (gamma rays, X rays,

and the max. values are related by UV rays, visible light, IR, microwaves, radio

V2m=V2Rm+(VLm-VCm)2 when VL>VC and TV waves) in their production (source),

Substituting pd=current x detection and other properties; uses;

resistance or reactance, we get approximate range of or f or at least proper

order of increasing f or ..

158

6. Optics (d) Refraction at a single spherical

surface; detailed discussion of one case

(i) Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

only - convex towards rarer medium,

Ray Optics: Reflection of light by for spherical surface and real image.

spherical mirrors, mirror formula, Derive the relation between n1, n2, u, v

refraction of light at plane surfaces, total and R. Refraction through thin lenses:

internal reflection and its applications, derive lens maker's formula and lens

optical fibres, refraction at spherical formula; derivation of combined focal

surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens length of two thin lenses in contact.

maker's formula, magnification, power Combination of lenses and mirrors

of a lens, combination of thin lenses in (silvering of lens excluded) and

contact, combination of a lens and a magnification for lens, derivation for

mirror, refraction and dispersion of light biconvex lens only; extend the results

through a prism. Scattering of light. to biconcave lens, plano convex lens

and lens immersed in a liquid; power

Optical instruments: Microscopes and

of a lens P=1/f with SI unit dioptre.

astronomical telescopes (reflecting and

For lenses in contact 1/F= 1/f1+1/f2

refracting) and their magnifying powers

and P=P1+P2. Lens formula, formation

and their resolving powers.

of image with combination of thin

(a) Reflection of light by spherical mirrors. lenses and mirrors.

Mirror formula: its derivation; R=2f

[Any one sign convention may be used

for spherical mirrors. Magnification.

in solving numericals].

(b) Refraction of light at a plane interface,

(e) Ray diagram and derivation of

Snell's law; total internal reflection

magnifying power of a simple

and critical angle; total reflecting

microscope with image at D (least

prisms and optical fibers. Total

distance of distinct vision) and infinity;

reflecting prisms: application to

Ray diagram and derivation of

triangular prisms with angle of the

magnifying power of a compound

prism 300, 450, 600 and 900

microscope with image at D. Only

respectively; ray diagrams for

expression for magnifying power of

Refraction through a combination of

compound microscope for final image

media, 1 n2 2 n3 3 n1 1 , real depth at infinity.

and apparent depth. Simple

Ray diagrams of refracting telescope

applications.

with image at infinity as well as at D;

(c) Refraction through a prism, minimum simple explanation; derivation of

deviation and derivation of magnifying power; Ray diagram of

relation between n, A and min. Include reflecting telescope with image at

explanation of i- graph, i1 = i2 = i infinity. Advantages, disadvantages

(say) for m; from symmetry r1 = r2; and uses. Resolving power of

refracted ray inside the prism is compound microscope and telescope.

parallel to the base of the equilateral (ii) Wave Optics

prism. Thin prism. Dispersion; Angular

dispersion; dispersive power, rainbow Wave front and Huygen's principle. Proof

- ray diagram (no derivation). Simple of laws of reflection and refraction

explanation. Rayleigh’s theory of using Huygen's principle. Interference,

scattering of light: blue colour of sky Young's double slit experiment and

and reddish appearance of the sun at expression for fringe width(β), coherent

sunrise and sunset clouds appear

sources and sustained interference of light,

white.

Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit,

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width of central maximum; polarisation, of an electromagnetic wave as

plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses transmission of energy by periodic

of plane polarised light and Polaroids. changes in E and B along the path;

(a) Huygen’s principle: wavefronts - transverse nature as E and B are

different types/shapes of wavefronts; perpendicular to c . These three

proof of laws of reflection and vectors form a right handed system, so

refraction using Huygen’s theory.

that E x B is along c , they are

[Refraction through a prism and lens mutually perpendicular to each other.

on the basis of Huygen’s theory not

required]. For ordinary light, E and B are in all

directions in a plane perpendicular to

(b) Interference of light, interference of

the c vector - unpolarised waves. If

monochromatic light by double slit.

Phase of wave motion; superposition of E and (hence B also) isconfined to a

identical waves at a point, path single plane only ( c , we have

difference and phase difference; linearly polarized light. The plane

coherent and incoherent sources;

containing E (or B ) and c remains

interference: constructive and

fixed. Hence, a linearly polarised light

destructive, conditions for sustained

is also called plane polarised

interference of light waves

light. Plane of polarisation

[mathematical deduction of

interference from the equations of two (contains E and c ); polarisation by

progressive waves with a phase reflection; Brewster’s law: tan ip=n;

difference is not required]. Young's refracted ray is perpendicular to

double slit experiment: set up, reflected ray for i= ip; ip+rp = 90 ;

diagram, geometrical deduction of path polaroids; use in the production and

difference x = dsin, between waves detection/analysis of polarised light,

from the two slits; using x=n for other uses. Law of Malus.

bright fringe and x= (n+½) for dark

fringe and sin = tan =yn /D as y 7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

and are small, obtain yn=(D/d)n Wave particle duality; photoelectric effect,

and fringe width =(D/d). Graph of Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's

distribution of intensity with angular photoelectric equation - particle nature of

distance. light. Matter waves - wave nature of particles,

de-Broglie relation; conclusion from

(c) Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction

Davisson-Germer experiment. X-rays.

(elementary explanation only).

Diffraction at a single slit: (a) Photo electric effect, quantization of

experimental setup, diagram, radiation; Einstein's equation

diffraction pattern, obtain expression Emax = h - W0; threshold frequency; work

for position of minima, a sinn= n, function; experimental facts of Hertz and

where n = 1,2,3… and conditions for Lenard and their conclusions; Einstein

secondary maxima, asinn =(n+½).; used Planck’s ideas and extended it to

distribution of intensity with angular apply for radiation (light); photoelectric

distance; angular width of central effect can be explained only assuming

bright fringe. quantum (particle) nature of

radiation. Determination of Planck’s

(d) Polarisation of light, plane polarised constant (from the graph of stopping

electromagnetic wave (elementary idea potential Vs versus frequency f of the

only), methods of polarisation of light. incident light). Momentum of photon

Brewster's law; polaroids. Description

p=E/c=h/c=h/.

160

(b) De Broglie hypothesis, phenomenon of including atomic number Z, Neutron

electron diffraction (qualitative only). number N and mass number A. A brief

Wave nature of radiation is exhibited in account of historical background leading

interference, diffraction and polarisation; to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen spectrum;

particle nature is exhibited in photoelectric formulae for wavelength in Lyman, Balmer,

effect. Dual nature of matter: particle Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series.

nature common in that it possesses Rydberg constant. Bohr’s model of H

momentum p and kinetic energy KE. The atom, postulates (Z=1); expressions for

wave nature of matter was orbital velocity, kinetic energy, potential

proposed by Louis de Broglie, energy, radius of orbit and total energy of

=h/p= h/mv. Davisson and Germer electron. Energy level diagram, calculation

experiment; qualitative description of the of E, frequency and wavelength of

experiment and conclusion. different lines of emission spectra;

agreement with experimentally observed

(c) A simple modern X-ray tube (Coolidge

tube) – main parts: hot cathode, heavy values. [Use nm and not Å for unit of].

element anode (target) kept cool, all (ii) Nuclei

enclosed in a vacuum tube; elementary Composition and size of nucleus,

theory of X-ray production; effect of Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma

increasing filament current- temperature particles/rays and their properties;

increases rate of emission of electrons radioactive decay law. Mass-energy

(from the cathode), rate of production of X relation, mass defect; binding energy

rays and hence, intensity of X rays per nucleon and its variation with mass

increases (not its frequency); increase in number; Nuclear reactions, nuclear fission

anode potential increases energy of each and nuclear fusion.

electron, each X-ray photon and hence, X-

(a) Atomic masses and nuclear density;

ray frequency (E=h); maximum frequency

Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones –

hmax =eV; continuous spectrum of X rays definitions with examples of each.

has minimum wavelength min= Unified atomic mass unit, symbol u,

c/max=hc/eV. Moseley’s law. 1u=1/12 of the mass of 12C atom =

Characteristic and continuous X rays, their 1.66x10-27kg). Composition of nucleus;

origin.(This topic is not to be evaluated) mass defect and binding energy, BE=

(m) c2. Graph of BE/nucleon versus

8. Atoms and Nuclei mass number A, special features - less

(i) Atoms BE/nucleon for light as well as heavy

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; elements. Middle order more stable

Rutherford's atomic model; Bohr’s atomic [see fission and fusion] Einstein’s

model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. equation E=mc2. Calculations related

to this equation; mass defect/binding

Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom

energy, mutual annihilation and pair

(mathematical theory of scattering

production as examples.

excluded), based on Geiger - Marsden

experiment on -scattering; (b) Radioactivity: discovery; spontaneous

nuclear radius r in terms of closest disintegration of an atomic nucleus

approach of particle to the nucleus, with the emission of or particles

obtained by equating K=½ mv2 of the and radiation, unaffected by

particle to the change in electrostatic physical and chemical changes.

potential energy U of the system Radioactive decay law; derivation of

N = Noe-t; half-life

[ U 2e Ze r010-15m = 1 fermi; atomic

period T; graph

4 0 r0 of N versus t, with T marked on

structure; only general qualitative ideas, the X axis. Relation between

161

half-life (T) and disintegration (ii) Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in

constant ( ); mean life ( ) and its forward and reverse bias, diode as a

relation with λ. Value of T of some rectifier; Special types of junction diodes:

common radioactive elements. LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener

Examples of a few nuclear reactions

diode and its characteristics, zener diode as

with conservation of mass number and

a voltage regulator.

charge, concept of a neutrino.

Changes taking place within the (iii) Junction transistor, npn and pnp transistor,

nucleus included. [Mathematical transistor action, characteristics of a

theory of and decay not included]. transistor and transistor as an amplifier

(common emitter configuration).

(c) Nuclear Energy

(iv) Elementary idea of analogue and digital

Theoretical (qualitative) prediction of

exothermic (with release of energy) signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT,

nuclear reaction, in fusing together two NAND and NOR). Combination of gates.

light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus (a) Energy bands in solids; energy band

and in splitting heavy nucleus to form

diagrams for distinction between

middle order (lower mass number)

conductors, insulators and semi-

nuclei, is evident from the shape of BE

per nucleon versus mass number conductors - intrinsic and extrinsic;

graph. Also calculate the electrons and holes in semiconductors.

disintegration energy Q for a heavy Elementary ideas about electrical

nucleus (A=240) with BE/A 7.6 MeV conduction in metals [crystal structure

per nucleon split into two equal halves not included]. Energy levels (as for

with A=120 each and BE/A 8.5 hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of

MeV/nucleon; Q 200 MeV. Nuclear an isolated atom such as that of

fission: Any one equation of fission copper; these split, eventually forming

reaction. Chain reaction- controlled ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we

and uncontrolled; nuclear reactor and consider solid copper made up of a

nuclear bomb. Main parts of a nuclear large number of isolated atoms,

reactor including their functions - fuel brought together to form a lattice;

elements, moderator, control rods, definition of energy bands - groups of

coolant, casing; criticality; utilization closely spaced energy levels separated

of energy output - all qualitative only. by band gaps called forbidden bands.

Fusion, simple example of 4 1H4He An idealized representation of the

and its nuclear reaction equation; energy bands for a conductor,

requires very high temperature 106 insulator and semiconductor;

degrees; difficult to achieve; hydrogen characteristics, differences; distinction

bomb; thermonuclear energy

between conductors, insulators and

production in the sun and stars.

semiconductors on the basis of energy

[Details of chain reaction not

bands, with examples; qualitative

required].

discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in

9. Electronic Devices typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si);

(i) Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, some electrical properties of

Devices and Simple Circuits. Energy bands semiconductors. Majority and minority

in conductors, semiconductors and charge carriers - electrons and holes;

insulators (qualitative ideas only). Intrinsic intrinsic and extrinsic, doping, p-type,

and extrinsic semiconductors. n-type; donor and acceptor impurities.

162

(b) Junction diode and its symbol; 10. Communication Systems

depletion region and potential barrier;

forward and reverse biasing, V-I Elements of a communication system (block

characteristics and numericals; half diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech,

wave and a full wave rectifier. Simple TV and digital data); bandwidth of

circuit diagrams and graphs, function transmission medium. Modes of propagation

of each component in the electric of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere

circuits, qualitative only. [Bridge t hr ough sky and space waves, satellite

rectifier of 4 diodes not included]; communication. Modulation, types

elementary ideas on solar cell, (frequency and amplitude), n eed for

photodiode and light emitting diode modulation and demodulation, advantages of

(LED) as semi conducting diodes. frequency modulation over amplitude

Importance of LED’s as they save modulation. Elementary ideas about internet,

energy without causing atmospheric

mobile network and global positioning system

pollution and global warming. Zener

(GPS).

diode, V-I characteristics, circuit

diagram and working of zener diode as Self-explanatory- qualitative only.

a voltage regulator.

(c) Junction transistor; simple qualitative

PAPER II

description of construction - emitter,

base and collector; npn and pnp type; PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks

symbols showing direction of current in The experiments for laboratory work and practical

emitter-base region (one arrow only)- examinations are mostly from two groups:

base is narrow; current gains in a (i) experiments based on ray optics and

transistor, relation between , and (ii) experiments based on current electricity.

numericals related to current gain,

voltage gain, power gain and The main skill required in group (i) is to remove

transconductance; common emitter parallax between a needle and the real image of

configuration only, characteristics; IB another needle.

vs VBE and IC vs VCE with circuit In group (ii), understanding circuit diagram and

diagram and numericals; common making connections strictly following the given

emitter transistor amplifier - circuit diagram is very important. Polarity of cells and

diagram; qualitative explanation meters, their range, zero error, least count, etc.

including amplification, wave form should be taken care of.

and phase reversal. A graph is a convenient and effective way of

(d) Elementary idea of discreet and representing results of measurement. It is an

integrated circuits, analogue and important part of the experiment.

digital signals. Logic gates as given; There will be one graph in the Practical question

symbols, input and output, Boolean paper.

equations (Y=A+B etc.), truth table,

qualitative explanation. NOT, OR, Candidates are advised to read the question paper

AND, NOR, NAND. Combination of carefully and do the work according to the

gates [Realization of gates not instructions given in the question paper. Generally

included]. Advantages of Integrated they are not expected to write the procedure of the

Circuits. experiment, formulae, precautions, or draw the

figures, circuit diagrams, etc.

163

Observations should be recorded in a tabular form. Deductions

Record of observations (i) The slope ‘S’ of the best fit line must be found

taking two distant points (using more than

All observations recorded should be consistent

50% of the line drawn), which are not the

with the least count of the instrument used (e.g.

y y1 y

focal length of the lens is 10.0 cm or 15.1cm plotted points, using S 2 .

but 10 cm is a wrong record.) x2 x1 x

All observations should be recorded with Slope S must be calculated upto proper decimal

correct units. place or significant figures as specified in the

question paper.

Graph work

(ii) All calculations should be rounded off upto

Students should learn to draw graphs correctly proper decimal place or significant figures, as

noting all important steps such as: specified in the question papers.

(i) Title

NOTE:

(ii) Selection of origin (should be marked by two

coordinates, example 0,0 or 5,0, or 0,10 or 30,5; Short answer type questions may be set from each

experiment to test understanding of theory and

Kink is not accepted).

logic of steps involved.

(i) The axes should be labelled according to the

question Given below is a list of required experiments.

Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind

(ii) Uniform and convenient scale should be taken the general pattern of questions asked in the

and the units given along each axis (one small annual examinations.

division = 0.33, 0.67, 0.66, etc. should not to

be taken) Students are required to have completed all

experiments from the given list (excluding

(iii) Maximum area of graph paper (at least 60% demonstration experiments):

of the graph paper along both the axes)

should be used. 1. To find focal length of a convex lens by using

u-v method (no parallax method)

(iv) Points should be plotted with great care,

marking the points plotted with (should be a Using a convex lens, optical bench/metre scales

and two pins, obtain the positions of the images

circle with a dot) or . A blob ( ) is a

for various positions of the object; f<u<2f,

misplot.

u~2f, and u>2f.

(v) The best fit straight line should be drawn. The

Draw the following set of graphs using data

best fit line does not necessarily have to pass

from the experiments -

through all the plotted points and the origin.

While drawing the best fit line, all (i) against u. It will be a curve.

experimental points must be kept on the

v

line or symmetrically placed on the left and (ii) Magnification m against which is

right side of the line. The line should be u

continuous, thin, uniform and extended a straight line and to find focal length by

beyond the extreme plots. intercept.

(vi) The intercepts must be read carefully. (iii) y = (100/v) against x = (100/u) which is a

Y intercept i.e. y0 is that value of y when x = straight line and find f by intercepts.

0. Similarly, X intercept i.e. x0 is that value of

2. To find f of a convex lens by displacement

x when y=0. When x0 and y0 are to be read,

method.

origin should be at (0, 0).

164

3. To determine the focal length of a given Demonstration Experiments (The following

convex lens with the help of an auxiliary experiments are to be demonstrated by the

convex lens. teacher):

4. To determine the focal length of a concave 1. To convert a given galvanometer into (a) an

lens, using an auxiliary convex lens, not in ammeter of range, say 2A and (b) a voltmeter

contact and plotting appropriate graph. of range 4V.

5. To determine focal length of concave mirror by 2. To study I-V characteristics of a semi-

using two pins (by u-v method). conductor diode in forward and reverse bias.

6. To determine the refractive index of a liquid by 3. To study characteristics of a Zener diode and to

using a convex lens and a plane mirror. determine its reverse breakdown voltage.

7. To determine the focal length of a convex 4. To study the characteristics of pnp/npn

mirror using convex lens. transistor in common emitter configuration.

8. Using a metre bridge, determine the resistance 5. To determine refractive index of a glass slab

of about 100 cm of (constantan) wire. Measure using a traveling microscope.

its length and radius and hence, calculate the

6. To observe polarization of light using two

specific resistance of the material.

polaroids

9. Verify Ohm’s law for the given unknown

7. Identification of diode, LED, transistor, IC,

resistance (a 60 cm constantan wire), plotting a

resistor, capacitor from mixed collection of

graph of potential difference versus current.

such items.

Also calculate the resistance per cm of the wire

from the slope of the graph and the length of 8. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of

the wire. transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp

type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow

10. To compare emfs of two cells using a

of current in case of diode and an LED,

potentiometer.

(iv) check whether a given electronic

11. To determine the internal resistance of a cell by component (e.g. diode, transistors, IC) is in

a potentiometer. working order.

12. From a potentiometer set up, measure the fall in 9. Charging and discharging of a capacitor.

potential (i.e. pd) for increasing lengths of a

constantan wire, through which a steady current PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –

is flowing; plot a graph of pd (V) versus length 15 marks

(l). Calculate the potential gradient of the wire

and specific resistance of its material. Q (i) Project Work – 10 marks

Why is the current kept constant in this The Project work is to be assessed by a Visiting

experiment? Q (ii) How can you increase the Examiner appointed locally and approved by the

sensitivity of the potentiometer? Q (iii) How Council.

can you use the above results and measure the

emf of a cell? All candidates will be required to do one project

involving some physics related topic/s under the

13. To verify the laws of combination of guidance and regular supervision of the Physics

resistances (series and parallel) using metre teacher.

bridge.

165

Candidates should undertake any one of the Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Model Based

following types of projects: Projects:

Theoretical project Title of the Project

Working Model Model construction

Investigatory project (by performing an Concise Project report

experiment under supervision of a teacher)

The Project report should be approximately 5-10

Candidates are to prepare a technical report pages

formally written including title, abstract, some

theoretical discussion, experimental setup,

observations with tables of data collected, Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Investigative

graph/chart (if any), analysis and discussion of Projects:

results, deductions, conclusion, etc. The teacher

Title of the Project

should approve the draft, before it is finalised. The

report should be kept simple, but neat and elegant. Theory/principle involved

No extra credit shall be given for typewritten

Experimental setup

material/decorative cover, etc. Teachers may assign

or students may choose any one project of their Observations calculations/deduction and graph

choice. work

Projects: The Project report should be of approximately

Title of the Project 5-10 pages

Introduction

Practical File – 5 marks

Contents

The Visiting Examiner is required to assess the

Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure, candidates on the basis of the Physics practical file

pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.) maintained by them during the academic year.

Originality of work (the work should be the

candidates’ original work,)

Conclusion/comments

The Project report should be of approximately

15-20 pages.

166