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Diagnostic Tests

SERUM LIPID PANEL


DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
 Total Cholesterol NR: <200mg/dL
(ROUTINE LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS)
 Triglycerides NR: 100-200mg/dL
 HDL good cholesterol
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)
 LDL bad cholesterol
o Keep patient on NPO for 12 hours prior to lab
Normal Values extraction.
o Ideal to do NPO at night when the patient
 White Blood Cells (WBC) 4,000-10,000/mm3 sleeps to prevent hypoglycemia attacks in the
 Red Blood Cells (RBC) 4.2-5.9 million/mm3 morning when the patient is actively doing
activities.
 Hemoglobin (Hgb) Males 14-18 g/dL o Specimen collection will be in the morning,
Females 12-16 g/dL before breakfast.
 Hematocrit (Hct) Males 40-54%
Signs & Symptoms of Hypoglycemia
Females 37-47%  Wet (cold sweat)
 Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 86-98 um3/cell  Wild (restless)
 Weak
 Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) 27-32 uug/RBC  White
 Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) 11.5-14.5  Headache/Light-Headedness
 Tremors
 Platelet Count 150,000-400,000/mm3
 WBC Differential COAGULATION TESTS
 To check patient’s risk for bleeding especially before
o Neutrophils 40-75% surgery.
o Lymphocytes 15-45%  Prothrombin time (PT or Protime)
 APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time)
o Monocytes 1-10%  Other Blood test to check for risk of bleeding:
o Eosinophils 1-6%  Bleeding Time
 Clotting Time
o Basophils 0-2%
 Other Tests
 Blood Typing (A,B,AB,O) – reflected antigens
present in the RBC surface (A & B)
 RBC/Erythrocytes; Hemoglobin, Hematocrit – reflects
 Cross-Matching (+,-) – reflects D antigen –
oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
Rhesus factor (Rh factor)
 Rh(+) – has D antigen
 Platelets/Thrombocytes – blood clotting, control of
 Rh(-) – has no D antigen
bleeding.

 WBC’s/Leukocytes – protect the body from bacterial


GLUCOSE TESTS
and foreign body invasion.
 Capillary Blood Glucose (CBG) – NPO 1-2 hours prior for
accurate results
 Neutrophils – phagocytosis; 1st line of defense,
(NR: 70-110mg/dL) others: 80-120mg/dL
arrive at a given site within 1 hour of inflammatory
 Random Blood Sugar (RBS) – no fasting
reaction, short lived; sensitive to bacterial
 Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) – requires NPO for 8 hours;
invasion.
results may be affected by diet
 Monocytes – with longer phagocytic action; 2nd
 Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HBA1C) – most accurate
line of defense; effective against bacteria, fungi
indicator of patient’s glucose control for the past 3-4
and viruses
months; no fasting.
 Eosinophils – allergic reactions/ phagocytosis of
(NR: 6-6.8%)
parasites
 Basophils – allergic reactions; produce and stores
LIVER ENZYMES: TRANSAMINASES
histamines and other substances involved in
 Sensitive indicators of live injury/tissue injuries
hypersensitivity reactions
 Based from release of enzymes from damaged liver
cells.
SERUM ELECTROLYTES
 Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)
- Contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles
 Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT)
 Na 135-145 mEq/L
 K 3.5-5 mEq/L
BLOOD CULTURES
o ↑ (excitable heart); cardiac arrest
 Aerobic
o ↓ cardiac arrest
 Anaerobic
 Ca 4.5-5 mg/dL
 X2 in 2 different areas 1UE 1LE
o Ca ↑ P ↓ (reverse effect)
 Nursing Responsibilities
 Cl 97-107 mEq/L
o Peak of fever
 Phosphorus 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
o No antipyretics prior to blood extraction
 Mg 1.3-2.5 mEq/L
o Prior to start antibiotics
Diagnostic Tests
 Results  Lower GI Endoscopy (LGIE) – Colonoscopy
o 24hrs (NPO from midnight), Proctosigmoidoscoy,
o 48hrs Anoscopy (place on knee-chest position)
o 72hrs final report
INDIRECT VISUALIZATION
CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY TESTS
 Culture – determines the specific microorganism Xrays
possibly causing the infection.  Roentgenography – Xray; visualization of body
 Sensitivity – determines the specific antibiotics that the parts with the use of roentgen rays; mostly non-
microorganism is sensitive, as well as those that make invasive
them resistant.
 Ask if patient is pregnant – exposure of baby to
URINALYSIS radiation may cause congenital anomalies.
 Early morning
 Clean catch no squamous cells  Angiography/Fluoroscopy – invasive, puncture
 Midstream urine through femoral artery where catheter will be
 Label properly: name, age, birthday, date, and time of inserted, and injection of dye into affected
collection arteries before xray. Check for allergies to Iodine.
 Send to lab within 30 minutes of collection to prevent  Cerebral Angiography
bacterial growth.  Coronary Angiography

URINE CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY TEST Barium Swallow


 Examination of Upper GI tract under fluoroscopy
STOOL CULTURE after the patient drinks Barium Sulfate
 NPO from Midnight
OCCULT BLOOD/GUIAC TEST
 Occult – hidden/not seen by the naked eye. CT Scan
 To check for presence of occult blood in the stool
 Hemoglobin free diet for 3 days prior to specimen Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
collection.  No metals
 No red meat, beef, lessen meat, green leafy
vegetables, dark-colored foods that may alter stool Ultrasound
color.
TRANSFORMED VISUALIZATION
FECALYSIS  Graphic representation of a structure or its function.
 Collect small amount  Graphs are translation of physical energy forms:
 Label properly electricity, sound, and radiation waves
 Send to lab within 30 minutes of collection to prevent
bacterial growth within specimen Electrocardiogram (ECG)

VISUALIZATION PROCEDURES Electroencephalogram (EEG)


 Direct Visualization  Electrodes will be attached to the patient’s
 Indirect Visualization head.
 Transformed Visualization
EMG with NCS/NCV
DIRECT VISUALIZATION  Several needles will be injected to the muscles
 Viewing of internal body cavities with the use of
scopes, and projected on the screen. Audiogram/Audiometry
 Invasive – requires informed and signed consent  Measures hearing acuity.
form. All possible consequences should be well  Pure Tone Audiometry
explained by the doctor.  Speech Audiometry
 Decibels – unit of measurement for
 Fundoscopy – ophthalmoscope; visual acuity loudness/intensity of sound.
and eye structures.
 Otoscopy – examination of internal ear TESTS FOR FUNCTIONS
structures with otoscope.  Exercise Tolerance/Treadmill Stress Test
 Bronchoscopy – direct inspection and  Basal Metabolic Rate
observation of the respiratory tract.  Blood Gas Analysis

 Cystoscopy – direct visualization of the bladder;


requires full bladder, drink 1-2 glasses of fluid prior to
procedure.

 Gastrointestinal endoscopies
 Upper GI Endoscopy (UGIE) – Esophagoscopy,
EGD, EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy (NPO 6-
12 hours prior)