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1. What is meant by Shell in Unix?

2. What is Program and Process in Unix.
3. What is signal in Unix.
4. List the three different things that we can tell the kernel to do when a signal occurs.
5. Explain signal function with syntax
6. What are the limitations of pipes.
7. What are the steps involved in obtaining a shared resource by a process?
8. How is a system call different from Library function.
9. What is named pipe?
10. What is a semaphore?
11. Give the TCP header format.


12. Draw the OSI seven layered model along with approximate mapping to the internet Protocol
suite. Also explain the functions offered by each layer.
13. Explain POSIX standards.
14. Differences between TCP and UDP Protocols.
15. Explain Packet exchange for TCP connection.
16. Explain the Shell responsibilities.
17. Explain buffer sizes and limitations.
18. Summarize the Protocol usage of Common Internet applications.
19. Explain the TCP client-server communication with neat TCP state transition diagram

1. what is a socket in TCP communication.

2. What are the byte ordering functions?
3. Give the IPv4 internet socket address structure .
4. List out various address conversion functions .
5. What is meant by well known ports?
6. What is meant by registered ports?
7. Explain the value result arguments.
8. List out the byte manipulation functions with syntax.
9. Explain socket function with syntax .
10. Explain connect function with syntax.
11. Explain bind function with syntax..
12. Explain listen function with syntax.
13. Explain accept function with syntax.
14. Explain close function with syntax .
15. Explain the exec functions.
16. state the difference between fork( ) and exec( ) function.
17. Explain the following functions.
a) getsockname() b) getpeername() c)close()
18. Explain how multiple clients are handled by a concurrent server.

19. Explain internet socket address structures IPv4 and IPv6 .
20. Explain address the various address conversion functions with syntax.
21. Compare various socket address structures with help of neat diagram.
22. Explain with function call sequence in TCP Client/Server communication with a neat
23. Explain concurrent server implementation with necessary coding.
24. Write short notes on the following with syntax
i. Socket() ii. Bind()
25. Write short notes on the following with syntax
i. Listen() ii. Accept()
26. Write short notes on the following with syntax
i. Connect() ii. Close()
27. Write short notes on the following with syntax
i. Readn() ii. Written() iii. Readline()


1. Give the block diagram for simple TCP echo client and server communication.
2. What is meant by zombie state of a process?
3. Write the coding for sig_chld function to handle the SIGCHLD signal in order to prevent
zombie Mention any two uses of I/O Multiplexing in networking applications.
4. What is meant by I/O multiplexing?
5. Explain the difference between termination of server process and crashing of server host.
6. What are steps performed by a TCP echo server. 8. What is meant by server process?
7. What is meant by server host?
8. List out the various I/O models
9. Give the distinct phases for an input operation on a socket
10. Draw the diagram for blocking I/O model
11. Draw the diagram for non blocking I/O model
12. Draw the diagram for I/O multiplexing.
13. Draw the diagram for Signal Driven I/O model.
14. Draw the diagram for asynchronous I/O model.
15. What is the purpose of select() function?
16. Write the syntax of select() function.
17. List out the function’s/macro’s the operate on fd_set descriptor set.
18. Explain shutdown() function with syntax.
19. Give the difference between close() and shutdown() functions.
20. Explain pselect() function with syntax.
21. Give the syntax of poll() function with syntax and structure.
22. Write a C program to implement a TCP echo server and explain the steps involved.
23. Write a C program to implement a TCP echo client and explain the steps involved.
24. Write short notes on
i. POSIX signal handling .
ii. Signal function that calls the POSIX sigaction function.
25. a.Explain the signal function with syntax.
b.Write a SIGCHLD signal handler that calls wait() and explain?
26. a.Explain the difference between wait() and waitpid() with diagram .
b Write a SIGCHLD signal handler that calls waitpid() and explain?
27. Explain the steps involved when server process terminates.
28. Explain the following
a. Steps involved in crashing of server host.
b. Steps involved in crashing and rebooting of server host .