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CHAPTER 3

PAVEMENT DESIGN:
Flexible Pavement Design
(JKR Method)
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PAVEMENT DESIGN

• Magnitude of axle load
?
• Wheel configuration
• Volume and composition of axle loads
• Tyre pressure and contact area

(3) Climate or Environment

Single Axle Tridem Axle

Tandem Axle

Each tyre has point of load

4
 Lx 
   LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,
18,000 lb
 LS 

4 4
 1.5  Lorry 9 tonnes  9 
  Car 1.5 tonne  
 8.16   8.16 
 0.00114  1.48

4
4  26 
 18   
   8.16 
 8 . 16 
 103.07
 23.67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

Seepage through Seepage through pavement

shoulder
Water content rises in subgrade
Subgrade looses strength and stability
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
JKR ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 5/85 DESIGN METHOD

PROCEDURE:

1. Design life is usually taken as 10 years.

2. Traffic Estimation:

Initial Annual Commercial Vehicle Traffic per direction, Vo

Pc
Vo  ADT   365  D  L
100
where ADT = average daily traffic
Pc = percentage of commercial vehicles
D = directional distribution (usually 0.50)
L = lane distribution (usually 1.00)
Total Number of Commercial Vehicles per direction, Vc

Vo [(1  r ) x  1]
Vc 
r
where r = traffic growth rate
x = design life

Total Equivalent Standard Axles, ESA

ESA = Vc x e where e = equivalent factor (Table 3.5)

Daily Traffic Flow at the end of the design period, Vx

Vx = V1 (1 + r)x where V1 = ADT / 2 (per direction)
3. Capacity Estimation
Maximum Hourly Capacity, c
c=IxRxT

where I = ideal hourly capacity (Table 3.6)

R = roadway reduction factor (Table 3.7)
T = traffic reduction factor (Table 3.8)
Daily Capacity, C
C = 10 x c (assume c is 10% of C)

Check C > Vx
If C > Vx  capacity will not be exceeded at the end of the design period (OK)
If C < Vx  capacity will be exceeded by the end of the design period (not OK)
When C < Vx happens, need to reduce design period.
Years required to reach capacity, log C
Vx
n
log 1  r 
4. Calculate thickness, TA.
TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 + a3 D3

where a1, a2, a3 = structural coefficients (Table 3.9)

d1, d2 , d3 = layer depth (based on Tables 3.10, 3.11, 3.12)

5. Determine the equivalent thickness, TA’ using Thickness Nomograph

Based on subgrade CBR, ESA and TA values (Figure 3.5).
If CBR varies within the 1 m depth of the subgrade, the mean CBR is calculated:

 h CBR 13  h CBR 13 ...  h CBR 13 

CBR   1 1 2 2 n n 
 100 
 

Make sure TA > TA’

Table 3.5: Guide for Equivalence Factor

Percentage of 51 –
0 – 15% 16 – 50%
selected heavy 100%
goods vehicles
Type of road Local Trunk
3.0 3.7
Equivalence Factor 1.2 2.0

Road Type Passenger Vehicle Unit

per hour
Multilane 2000 per lane
Two Lanes (bothways) 2000 total for bothways
Three Lanes (bothways) 4000 total for bothways
Table 3.7: Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor
Shoulder Width
Carriageway Width 2.00 m 1.50 1.25 m 1.00
m m
7.5 m 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90
7.0 m 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.79
6.0 m 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.73
5.0 m 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64

Table 3.8: Traffic Reduction Factor

Type of Terrain Factor
Flat T = 100/(100+Pc)
Rolling T = 100/(100+2Pc)
Mountainous T = 100/(100+5Pc)
Table 3.9: Structural Layer Coefficient

Type of Layer Property Coefficient

Component
Wearing and Binder
Asphalt Concrete 1.00
Course
Type 1 : Stability
0.8
Dense Bituminous > 400 kg
Macadam Type 2: Stability
0.55
> 300 kg

Base Course Unconfined compressive

Cement Stabilized strength (7 days) 30 -40 0.45
kg/m2
Mechanically
Stabilized crushed 80% 0.32
aggregate
Sand, Laterite etc 20% 0.23
Subbase Crushed aggregate 30% 0.25
Cement Stabilized 60% 0.28
Table 3.10: Structural Layer Coefficient

Minimum
Type of Layer
Thickness
Wearing Course 4 cm
Binder Course 5 cm
Bituminous 5 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10 cm
Cement Treated 10 cm
Granular 10 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15 cm
Table 3-11: Standard and Construction Layer Thickness

Standard
Type of Layer One layer lift
Thickness
Wearing Course 4-5 cm 4-5 cm
Binder Course 5-10 cm 5-10 cm
Bituminous 5-20 cm 5-15 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10-20 cm 10-15 cm
Cement Treated 10-20 cm 10-20 cm
Granular 10-30 cm 10-20 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15-20 cm 15-20 cm

Table 3.12: Minimum Thickness of TA Total thick of

Bituminous Layer bituminous layer
< 17.5 cm 5.0 cm
17.5 – 22.5 cm 10.0 cm
23.0 – 29.5 cm 15.0 cm
> 30.0 cm 17.5 cm