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CHAPTER 3

CONCRETE PAVEMENT
THICKNESS DESIGN
PCA METHOD
Rigid pavements are so named because the pavement structure
deflects very little under loading due to the high modulus of
elasticity of their surface course.

A rigid pavement structure is typically composed of a PCC surface


course built on top of either (1) the subgrade or (2) an underlying
base course.

Because of its relative rigidity, the pavement structure distributes


loads over a wide area with only one, or at most two, structural
layers.
Basic Elements of a Rigid Pavement
(1) Surface Course – Concrete Slab
(2) Base Course / Subbase Course

PCC Surface

PCC Slab
JPCP JRCP
Jointed Plain Concrete Jointed Reinforced
Pavement Concrete Pavement
CRCP
Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavement
Jointed Plain Concrete
Pavement (JPCP)
- no steel reinforcement

- uses contraction joints to control


cracks
- transverse joints are spaced in order
to prevent joint-cracks due to
temperature and moisture stresses
- dowel bars are used at transverse
joints to assist in load transfer
- tie bars are typically used at
longitudinal
joints
Jointed Reinforced
Concrete Pavement
(JRCP)
- uses steel reinforcement

- steel reinforcement and contraction


joints assist in crack control
- the reinforcing steel / wire mesh is
used to hold the cracks tightly
together
- dowel bars are used at transverse
joints to help in the transfer of load
- the reinforcing steel / wire mesh
assists load transfer across cracks
Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavement
(CRCP)
- no contraction joints
- transverse cracking is allowed but is
held tightly together by the continuous
steel reinforcement
Concrete pavement showing
contraction joints

Skewed contraction joints


Dowel bars

Tie Bars
Design Criteria:
(1) Fatigue Analysis – recognizes that rigid pavements fail due to fatigue
of concrete.
(2) Erosion Analysis – recognizes that rigid pavements fail due to
pumping, erosion of foundation, and joint faulting.

Design Factors:
• Concrete Modulus of Rupture
• Subgrade and Subbase Support
• Design Period
• Traffic
Design Example:
The design involves a four-lane interstate pavement with doweled
joints and no concrete shoulders. A 100 mm untreated subbase will be
placed on a clay subgrade with a k value of 27 MPa/m. Other
information include concrete modulus of rupture = 4.5 MPa, design
period = 20 years, current ADT = 12,900, annual growth rate = 4% and
ADTT =19% of ADT.

Solution:

Use:
Load Safety Factor, LSF = 1.2
Trial Slab Thickness = 240 mm
Trucks on design lane in design period
= ADTT x Design years x 365
= 0.19*12,900 x 20 x 365
= 17,892,300

Trucks on design lane in design period (per 1000)


T = 17,892,300 / 1000 = 17,893
Expected Repititions for Single Axles

Obtain A from Table 5 (Appendix B-1)

SINGLE AXLES

Axle Axles per 1,000 Expected


load trucks, repetitions
(kN) A TA
133 0.28 5,011
125 0.65 11,631
115 1.33 23,798
107 2.84 50,817
98 4.72 84,455
89 10.40 186,088
80 13.56 242,630
Expected Repititions for Tandem Axles

Obtain A from Table 5 (Appendix B-1)

TANDEM AXLES

Axle Axles per 1,000 Expected


load trucks, repetitions
(kN) A TA
231 0.94 16,820
213 1.89 33,818
195 5.51 98,591
178 16.45 294,340
160 39.08 699,258
142 41.06 734,687
125 73.07 1,307,442
Based on Table 5, insert values into worksheet …
Equivalent Stress
From Table 6a – No Concrete Shoulders (Appendix B-2),
with Slab thickness = 240 mm and k = 35 Mpa/m
 Equivalent Stress = 1.44 (single axle) and 1.35 (tandem axles)

Stress Ratio Factor


For single axle,
Stress Ratio Factor = Equivalent Stress / MR
= 1.44 / 4.5
= 0.32
For tandem axles,
Stress Ratio Factor = 1.35 / 4.5
= 0.30
Erosion Factor
From Table 7a – Doweled Joints, No Concrete Shoulder (Appendix B-3),
with Slab thickness =240 mm and k = 35 Mpa/m
 Erosion factor = 2.61 (single axle) and 2.80 (tandem axles)
Fatigue Analysis
Compute ‘Allowable Load Repetitions’ from Figure 5 (Appendix B-5) and
calculate ‘Fatigue Percent’.

Example:
For single axle load 160 kN with stress ratio factor 0.32,
Allowable load repititions = 21,000

Fatigue percent = (5,011 / 21,000)*100%


= 23.9%
Erosion Analysis
Compute ‘Allowable Load Repetitions’ from Figure 6a – No Concrete Shoulders
(Appendix B-6) and calculate ‘Damage Percent’.

Example:
For single axle load 160 kN with erosion factor 2.61,
Allowable load repititions = 1,400,000

Damage percent = (5,011 / 1,400,000)*100%


= 0.4%
Total Fatigue Percent
and Total Damage
Percent
Calculate the total
fatigue and damage
percents.
Conclusion:

This design is controlled by fatigue analysis as it yielded a higher


percentage.
Since the total fatigue (65.0%) and total damage (31.9%) are less than
100%, therefore the slab thickness of 240 mm is adequate.