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# PROBLEM 9.

191
A piece of thin, uniform sheet metal is cut to form the machine component
shown. Denoting the mass of the component by m, determine its moment of
inertia with respect to (a) the axis AA′ (b) the axis BB′ where the AA′ and
BB′ axes are parallel to the x axis and lie in a plane parallel to and at a
distance a above the zx plane.

SOLUTION

## First note that the x axis is a centroidal axis so that

I = I x, mass + md 2

## and that from the solution to Problem 9.115,

7
I x, mass = ma 2
18

7
ma 2 + m ( a )
2
(a) Have I AA′, mass =
18

or I AA′ = 1.389ma 2

7
( )
2
(b) Have I BB′, mass = ma 2 + m a 2
18

or I BB′ = 2.39ma 2
PROBLEM 9.192
For the 5 × 3 × 12 -in. angle cross section shown, use Mohr’s circle to
determine (a) the moments of inertia and the product of inertia with respect
to new centroidal axes obtained by rotating the x and y axes 45°
counterclockwise, (b) the orientation of new centroidal axes for which
I x = 2 in 4 and I x′y′ < 0.

SOLUTION

I y = 2.58 in 4

## From Problem 9.106 I xy = −2.8125 in 4

Now I ave =
1
2
(Ix + I y )
1
= ( 9.45 + 2.58) in 4 = 6.015 in 4
2

2
 Ix − I y 
R=   + I xy
2

 2 

2
 9.45 − 2.58 
 + ( −2.8125 )
2
=
 2 

= 4.4395 in 4

2I xy 2 ( −2.8125 ) in 4
tan 2θ m = − =− = 0.81877
Ix − I y ( 9.45 − 2.58) in 4

## 2θ m = tan −1 ( 0.81877 ) = 39.310°

PROBLEM 9.192 CONTINUED

## Then I x′′ , I y′′ = I ave ± R cos α = ( 6.015 ± 4.4395cos α ) in 4

or I x′′ = 8.83 in 4

## Also I x′′y′′ = R sin α = 4.4395sin α

or I x′′y′′ = 3.43 in 4

or β = 57.715°

## Rotate the centroidal axis 57.7° clockwise.

PROBLEM 9.193
Four 3 × 3 × 14 -in. angles are welded to a rolled W section as shown.
Determine the moments of inertia and the radii of gyration of the combined
section with respect to its centroidal x and y axes.

SOLUTION
W section: A = 9.13 in 2

I x = 110 in 4

I y = 37.1 in 4

Angle: A = 1.44 in 2

I x = I y = 1.24 in 4

## Note: Atotal = AW + 4 Aangle

= 9.13 + 4 (1.44 )  in 2

= 14.89 in 2

Now ( )W + 4 ( I x )angle
Ix = Ix

where ( I x )angle = I x + Ad 2

( )
= 1.24 in 4 + 1.44 in 2 ( 4.00 + 0.842 ) in.
2

= 35.0007 in 4

## Then I x = 110 + 4 ( 35.0007 )  in 4 = 250.0028 in 4

or I x = 250 in 4

Ix 250.0028 in 4
and k x2 = =
Atotal 14.89 in 2

or k x = 4.10 in.

also Iy = Iy ( )W + 4 ( I y )angle
PROBLEM 9.193 CONTINUED
where ( I y )angle = I y + Ad 2

( )
= 1.24 in 4 + 1.44 in 2 ( 5 − 0.842 ) in.
2

= 26.1361 in 4

## Then I y = 37.1 + 4 ( 26.1361)  in 4 = 141.6444 in 4

or I y = 141.6 in 4

Iy 141.6444 in 4
and k y2 = =
Atotal 14.89 in 2

or k y = 3.08 in.
PROBLEM 9.194
For the 2-kg connecting rod shown, it has been experimentally determined that
the mass moments of inertia of the rod with respect to the center-line axes of the
bearings AA′ and BB′ are, respectively, I AA′ = 78 gm 2 and I BB′ = 41 gm 2 .
Knowing that ra + rb = 290 mm , determine (a) the location of the centroidal
axis GG′ (b) the radius of gyration with respect to axis GG′

SOLUTION
(a) Have I AA′ = I GG′ + mra2 ra + rb = 290 mm

= 0.29 m

## and I BB′ = I GG′ + mrb2

Subtracting (
I BB′ − I AA′ = m rb2 − ra2 )
( 41 − 78) g ⋅ m2 = (2000 g) ( rb + ra )( rb − ra )

## or −37 = (2000) (0.29) ( rb − ra )

or ra − rb = 63.793 × 10−3 m

now ra + rb = 0.29 m

ra = 0.17689 m

or ra = 176.9 mm

## Then I GG′ = 78 g ⋅ m 2 − (2000 g) (0.17689 m)2

= 15.420 g ⋅ m 2

I GG′ 15.420 g ⋅ m 2
′ = = = 0.007710 m 2
2
Finally, kGG
m 2000 g

kGG′ = 0.08781 m

kGG′ = 87.8 mm
PROBLEM 9.195
Determine the mass moment of inertia of the 0.9-lb machine component
shown with respect to the axis AA′ .

SOLUTION
First note that the given shape can be formed adding a small cone to a cylinder and then removing a larger
cone as indicated.

h h + 2.4
Now = or h = 1.2 in.
0.4 1.2
The weight of the body is given by
W = mg = g ( m1 + m2 − m3 ) = ρ g (V1 + V2 − V3 )
3
 π π   1 ft 
0.9 lb = ρ × 32.2 ft/s 2 π ( 0.8 ) ( 2.4 ) + ( 0.2 ) (1.2 ) − ( 0.6 ) ( 3.6 )  in 3 × 
2 2 2
or 
 3 3   12 in. 

## = ρ × 32.2 ft/s 2 ( 2.79253 + 0.02909 − 0.78540 ) × 10−3 ft 3

or ρ = 13.7266 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft 4

Then ( )
m1 = (13.7266 ) 2.79253 × 10−3 = 0.038332 lb ⋅ s 2 /ft

−3 2

−3 2

## Finally, using Figure 9.28 have,

I AA′ = ( I AA′ )1 + ( I AA′ )2 − ( I AA′ )3

1 3 3
= m1a12 + m2a22 − m3a32
2 10 10
2
1 3 3 2  1 ft 
=  ( 0.038332 )( 0.8 ) + ( 0.000399 )( 0.2 ) − ( 0.010781)( 0.6 )  (lb ⋅ s 2 /ft) × in 2 × 
2 2

2 10 10   12 in. 

## or I AA′ = 77.1 × 10−6 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

PROBLEM 9.196
Determine the moments of inertia and the radii of gyration of the steel
machine element shown with respect to the x and y axes. (The density of
steel is 7850 kg/m3.)

SOLUTION

## First compute the mass of each component. Have

m = ρstV

Then ( )
m1 = 7850 kg/m3 ( 0.24 × 0.04 × 0.14 ) m3

= 10.5504 kg

π
( ) 
m2 = m3 = 7850 kg/m3  ( 0.07 ) × 0.04  m3 = 2.41683 kg
2
2

( 
2
)
m4 = m5 = 7850 kg/m3 π ( 0.044 ) × ( 0.04 )  m3 = 1.90979 kg

Using Figure 9.28 for components 1, 4, and 5 and the equations derived above (before the solution to
Problem 9.144) for a semicylinder, have
I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x )2 + ( I x )3 + ( I x )4 − ( I x )5 where ( I x )2 = ( I x )3
1
(  1
) 2 
=  (10.5504 kg ) 0.042 + 0.142 m 2  + 2  ( 2.41683 kg ) 3 ( 0.07 m ) + ( 0.04 m )  
12  12 
2


1 2
+  (1.90979 kg ) 3 ( 0.044 m ) + ( 0.04 m )  + (1.90979 kg )( 0.04 m ) 
2 2

12   

1 2 
−  (1.90979 kg ) 3 ( 0.044 m ) + ( 0.04 m )  
2

 12  

## = ( 0.0186390 ) + 2 ( 0.0032829 ) + ( 0.0011790 + 0.0030557 ) − ( 0.0011790 )  kg ⋅ m 2

= 0.0282605 kg ⋅ m 2

or I x = 28.3 × 10−3 kg ⋅ m 2
PROBLEM 9.196 CONTINUED
( )1 + ( I y )2 + ( I y )3 + ( I y )4 − ( I y )5
Iy = Iy

where ( I y ) 2 = ( I y )3 ( I y )4 = ( I y )5
Then
1
( 
I y =  (10.5504 kg ) 0.242 + 0.142 m 2 
 12 
)
4 × 0.07  2 
2
 1
+ 2 ( 2.41683 kg )  −
16 
2
 2 9π 
( ) 
0.07 m + ( 2.41683 kg )  0.12 +
2
 3π 
 m 
 

## = ( 0.0678742 ) + 2 ( 0.0037881 + 0.0541678 )  kg ⋅ m 2

= 0.1837860 kg ⋅ m 2

or I y = 183.8 × 10−3 kg ⋅ m 2

Also m = m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 − m5 where m2 = m3 , m4 = m5
= (10.5504 + 2 × 2.41683) kg = 15.38406 kg

Ix 0.0282605 kg ⋅ m 2
Then k x2 = =
m 15.38406 kg

or k x = 42.9 mm

Iy 0.1837860 kg ⋅ m 2
and k y2 = =
m 15.38406 kg

or k y = 109.3 mm
PROBLEM 9.197
Determine the moments of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect
to the x and y axes.

SOLUTION
Have I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x )2 − ( I x )3

1
where ( I x )1 = ( 2a )( 2a )3 = 4 a 4
12 3
π
Now ( I AA )2 = ( I BB )3 = a4
8

and ( I AA )2 = ( I xz )2 + Ad 2
2
or ( I x )2 = ( I x )3 = π8 a 4 −  π2 a 2 
2 3
4a 
 
 3π 

π 8  4
= − a
 8 9π 
2
π 8  4  π 2  4a 
Then ( I x ) = I x2
2
( ) 2
+ Ad 22 =  −
 8 9π
 a +  a  a +
  2  3π

 4 5π  4
= + a
3 8 
2
π 8  4  π 2  4a 
( I x )3 ( )
= I x3
3
+ Ad32 =  −  a +  a  a −
 8 9π   2 

3π 

 4 5π  4
= − + a
 3 8 

4 4  4 5π  4   4 5π  4 
Finally Ix = a +  +  a  −  − + a 
3  3 8    3 8  

or I x = 4a 4

## Also Iy = (Iy ) + (Iy ) − (Iy )

1 2 3

(Iy )
1
where = ( 2a )( 2a )3 + ( 2a )2 ( a )2 = 16 a 4
1 12 3
 π 4  π 2  2
(Iy ) = (Iy )
16 4
= a +  a  ( a )  ∴ Iy = a
2 3  8 2   3
PROBLEM 9.198
A 20-mm-diameter hole is bored in a 32-mm-diameter rod as shown.
Determine the depth d of the hole so that the ratio of the moments of inertia
of the rod with and without the hole with respect to the axis AA′ is 0.96.

SOLUTION

First note

Cylinder: I AA′ =
1 2
2
ma m = ρV = ρ × π a 2 L ( )
1
= πρ a 4 L
2

3 π 
Cone: I AA′ = ma 2 m = ρV = ρ ×  a 2h 
10  3 

1
= πρ a 4h
10

( I AA′ )bored
Now = 0.96
( I AA′ )solid
or 0.96 ( I AA′ )solid = ( I AA′ )solid − ( I AA′ )hole

## or 0.04 ( I AA′ )solid = ( I AA′ )cylinder + ( I AA′ )cone 

  hole

1  1 1
Then 0.04  πρ arod
4
Lrod  = πρ ahole
4
d + πρ ahole
4
hcone
 2  2 10

4
a  1
or d = 0.04  rod  Lrod − hcone
 ahole  5

4
 16 mm  1
= 0.04   ( 70 mm ) − ( 5.8 mm )
 10 mm  5

or d = 17.19 mm