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Women and Minorities in the

Band Conducting Profession:


Past, Present, and Future

Linda Hartley and Deborah Sheldon


The Midwest Clinic Band and Orchestra
International Conference
December 18, 2008, 10:00 am
Chicago Congress Plaza Gold Room

Marin Alsop
Baltimore Symphony Orchestra Conductor

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Band Directors by School Size


2001& 2007 - Ohio
Marching Band State Finals 2007
Marching Band State Finals 2001
45

40
37 40
36
35 35

30 30

25 25 Men
Women
20 20
17

15
15

10 10
10

5 5
5
1 1 1
0
0 AA A B C
AA A B C
Series1
Series2

1
CMS Stats: College Band
Female Conductors
Directors Over Three Decades
100 96.19 94.37
Appear at Midwest
89.5
90

80 1950s 1955, 1956, 1958, 1959


70

60
1960s 1960, 1961, 1965, 1966, 1968
50 1970s 1971
40
1980s 1980, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1989
30

20 1990s 1990, 1992, 1993, 1996-1998


10.5
10 5.63
3.81 2000s 2000-2007
0
1984' 1994' 2004'

Distribution of Male and Female Wind Distribution of Male and Female Wind
Band Conductors at Midwest Band Conductors at Midwest
100% 100% 99% 120
109
94% 93% Male
91% 92% 104
90%
Female 95
85% 100 91
80%

78
70% 80
67
60%
Males
Females 60
50%

40% 40

30% 18
20 14
9 10
20% 4 6
15% 0 1
10% 9% 0
7% 8%
6%
0s

0s

0s

0s

0s

0s

0s
1%
4

0
0% 0%
19

19

19

19

19

19

20
1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s

Breakdown of Female Gender and Level at Midwest


Conductors at Midwest 275
14

13 250
12
225
High School/ Community
Elem/Middle/ JH School
200
10

175
8 8 8
150 Male
6 125 Female
5
100
4 4

75
2 2 2
50
1 1 1

0 0 0
25
1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
0
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2
Females’ Conducting
Distribution of Females’
Distribution of Conducting Level at
Midwest by Gender Levels at Midwest - 1940s-2000s
14

40s 50s 60s


12
Levels of Conducting at Midwest: Males and Females
70s 80s 90s

00s
100 93
10
100 99 100 100
95
80
8
59 76
60 Male
Female 6

40
41 4
34
20
7 5
0 0 0 2
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Ensemble Level

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Males’ Conducting
Distribution of Males’
Instances of Females Conducting x Level
Levels at Midwest - 1940s-2000s
40% 40%

50
35%
40s 50s 60s
70s 80s 90s
40 30% 30%
00s

26%
25%

30
20%

15%
20

10%

10
5%

2% 2%
0% 0% 0% 0%
0
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Distribution of Midwest Conducting Level


1940-
1940-2007
Across Genders - 1940-2007
300

Current Research
250
Male

Female

200

150

100

50

0
Elem Mid Sch JH Sch H Sch Univ Adult Military Other

3
Respondents’ Duties
Respondents’ Respondents’ Gender
Respondents’
Percent of Respondents Gender Distribution
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100%
91.8%
Beginning Conducting Course
(undergraduate) 53.1%
80%
Instrumental Conducting Course
(undergraduate) 65.3%
Current Duties

Instrumental Conducting Course 60%


(graduate) 87.8%

Wind/Percussion Ensemble Director 95.9% 40%

String Ensemble Director 4.1%


20%
Jazz Ensemble Director 0.0% 8.2%

Graduate Conducting Student Advising 0%


73.5%
Male Female

Other 14.3%

Respondents’ Race
Respondents’ Colleagues’ Race
Male Colleagues’
Race Distribution: Respondents Race Distribution - Male Colleagues
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 20 40 60 80

American American Indian/Native


Indian/Native Alaskan Alaskan

Asian/Pacific Islander
Asian/Pacific Islander

Black
Black
3
Hispanic

Hispanic
White 100.0%

White
Other 72

Other
Prefer Not to Answer

Colleagues’ Race
Female Colleagues’ Male v. Female Colleagues
100%
Race Distribution: Female Colleagues
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 90% 85%

American Indian/Native 80%


Male
Alaskan
Female
70%

Asian/Pacific Islander
60%

Black 50%

40%
Hispanic
30%

White 20%
13 15%

10%
Other

0%

4
Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students
AY 0102 AY 0203
60 60

50 49 50
Male Male
Female 45
Female
40 40

30
30

20
20 20
17

10
10

2 3
0 1
0 0 0 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
0 1 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other 0
Indian/Native Islander American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
Alaskan Indian/Native Islander
Alaskan

Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students
AY 0304 AY 0405
60 60

50 49 50
Male Male

Female Female
42
40 40

30 30

22
20 20
17

10 10

2 3 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
Indian/Native Islander Indian/Native Islander
Alaskan Alaskan

Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students
AY 0506 AY 0607
60
60

50 50
Male Male 47
45
Female Female
40 40

30
30

20
20
16
17

10
10

2
1 1 2
1
3 0 0 0
2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other Indian/Native Islander
Indian/Native Islander Alaskan
Alaskan

5
Race and Gender Distribution Among
Race Distribution Among
Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students Male Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students
AY 0708
AY 0102 - 0708
60
60

50
Male 50
44
Female
40
40

30
30
American Indian/Native Alaskan
20 20 Asian/Pacific Islander

20 Black
Hispanic

10 White
Other
10
3 3
0 0 1 1
0 1 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other 0
Indian/Native Islander AY0102 AY0203 AY0304 AY0405 AY0506 AY0607 AY0708
Alaskan

Race Distribution Among Gender Distribution Among


Female Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students Graduate Wind Band Conducting Students
AY 0102 - 0708 AY 0102 - 0708
100%
60 Male
Female
90%
American Indian/Native Alaskan
Asian/Pacific Islander
50 Black 80%
Hispanic 73.5% 73.2%
White 70.6% 70.0% 68.9% 68.5%
Other 70% 65.3%
40
60%

30 50%

40%
34.7%
20 30.0% 31.1% 31.5%
29.4%
30% 26.5% 26.8%

10 20%

10%
0
AY0102 AY0203 AY0304 AY0405 AY0506 AY0607 AY0708 0%
AY0102 AY0203 AY0304 AY0405 AY0506 AY0607 AY0708

Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Conducting Symposium Participants Conducting Symposium Participants
AY 0102 AY 0203
55
55
50 Male
50
Male 45 Female
45
Female
40
40
38
35
35
30
30

25 25

21 20 21
20

15 15

10 10
8
5 5
4 3
2
1 1 2
1 1 2 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
Indian/Native Islander Indian/Native Islander
Alaskan Alaskan

6
Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Conducting Symposium Participants Conducting Symposium Participants
AY 0304 AY 0405
55
55
50
50
45 Male
45 Male
Female 40 Female
40 41
35
35
30
30 27
25
25
20
20 19 18
15
15
10
10
5 5
5
2 2 1
2
1 1 2
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
Indian/Native Islander
Indian/Native Islander
Alaskan
Alaskan

Race and Gender Distribution Among Race and Gender Distribution Among
Conducting Symposium Participants Conducting Symposium Participants
AY 0506 AY 0607
55 54
50

45 Male
Female
40

35

30
28
25

20

15

10

5 4
2 3
0 0 0 0 1 0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other
Indian/Native Islander
Alaskan

Race and Gender Distribution Among Race Distribution Among


Conducting Symposium Participants Male Conducting Symposium Participants
AY 0708 AY 0102 - 0708
55
55

50 50
49
Male 45
45
Female
40 40

35 35

30 30
25
25
American Indian/Native Alaskan
20 Asian/Pacific Islander
20
Black
15
15 Hispanic
12
10 White
10 Other
5
2 2 3 5
0 0 1 1 1 1
0
American Asian/Pacific Black Hispanic White Other 0
Indian/Native Islander AY0102 AY0203 AY0304 AY0405 AY0607 AY0708
Alaskan

7
Race Distribution Among
Female Conducting Symposium Participants College Band Directors’
AY 0102 - 0708
55
Opinions - 1990s
50

45
American Indian/Native Alaskan
Asian/Pacific Islander
 Significant differences in perception:
40
Black
Hispanic
Women band directors are NOT discriminated against in
35
White higher education hiring practices:
Agree:
30
20% Female
25
60% Male
20 20% Unsure
15 Women are encouraged to pursue a career in the field of
10 band directing at the college level:
5 Agree:
0
16% Female
AY0102 AY0203 AY0304 AY0405 AY0607 AY0708 68% Male
16% Unsure

Current Organizations’ Boards


Betty Atterbury (MEJ,1992)
& Past Presidents
 "Many people believe that females
 ASBDA: 10 men, 1 woman
should not conduct bands. Females
 CBDNA: 7 men
who wish to pursue careers as band
directors not only have this perception  CBDNA past presidents: 34 men
to overcome, but they have, at the  NBA: 9 men, 2 women
secondary or college level, few female  NBA past presidents: 20 men, 2 women
role models to emulate." (p. 27)  WASBE: 15 men, 2 women
 WASBE past presidents: 13 men

What has influenced Julia Eklund Koza


this disparity? (JRME,1993 & 1994)
 Military bands/tradition  A probable influence for gender-bias in school
music programs could stem from gender-
 Instrument stereotpyes related references in music education
 Athletic band connection journals. In an analysis focusing on gender
references in the Music Supervisor Journals
 Large class sizes from 1914 through 1924, Koza found the MSJ
 Lack of role models/mentorship frequently described career opportunities in
music for males, the role of music education
 Public perception for boys, and boys' musical likes and dislikes.
 Similar findings in 1988 music-related middle
school textbooks: females underrepresented,
and stereotypes common.

8
Progress Discussion Points
 What can we do to recruit women and minorities to the
Beginning August 2008: field of teaching instrumental music?
College Band Directors National Association  How do dynamics in college/university settings affect
now asks its members to provide their career decisions of women and minority students?
gender and ethnicity (optional)  What is at the root of the continued white male
domination in the field of band conducting?

 Should the traditional responsibilities of the high school


band director change to accommodate more women?

 Do women & minority band directors need to


demonstrate higher competency in order to attain more
prominent positions?

Future
In this 21st century, we
hope that all talented
and capable students
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encouraged to
participate and grow in
a career that can be
extremely rewarding.