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FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT MICRO REFRIGERATOR

FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT

MICRO REFRIGERATOR

Muhammad Taha Atir 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-09


Tehreem Abid 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-30
Azhar Younis 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-28
M. Waseem 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-18

This thesis is submitted to the


Mechanical Engineering Department
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
B.Sc. Mechanical Engineering
Islam College of Engineering & Management Sciences, Sialkot
(Affiliated College of UET Lahore)

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CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

It is certified that the project work analysis contained in this thesis has been carried out under
the Supervision of Engr. Kamal Ud Din Kazmi, at Islam College of Engineering &
Management Sciences, Sialkot. It is fully adequate in scope and in quality, as a synopsis for
the degree of B.Sc. Mechanical Engineering.

Supervisor____________________________
Engr. Kamal Ud Din Kazmi

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Islam College of Engineering & Management Sciences, Sialkot

Internal Examiner 1________________________________

External Examiner 1________________________________

External Examiner 2________________________________

Professor Dr. Arshad Hussain Qureshi


Head of Department

Mechanical Engineering Department


Islam College of Engineering & Management Sciences, Sialkot

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MICRO REFRIGERATOR

Submitted by:

Muhammad Taha Atir 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-09

Tehreem Abid 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-30

Azhar Younis 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-28

M. Waseem 2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-18

______________________________________
Engr. Kamal Ud Din Kazmi
Mechanical Department

Head of Department

________________________________________

Dr. Arshad Hussain Qureshi


Professor, Mechanical Department

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DECLARATION

It is declared that this is original piece of our own work, except where otherwise
acknowledged in text and references. This work has not been submitted in any form for
another degree or diploma at any university or other institution for tertiary education and
shall not be submitted by us in future for obtaining any degree from this or any other
university or institution.

_________________

Muhammad Taha Atir


2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-09

_________________

Tehreem Abid
2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-30

_________________

Azhar Younis
2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH-28

_________________

M. Waseem
2014-UET-ICEMS-MECH- 18

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, authors are most thankful to ALLAH ALMIGHTY whose benevolence rendered
them to achieve the prestigious goals of study. They are indebted and grateful to HIM who
gave them knowledge, motivation and strength to struggle for the completion of this project.

The authors would like to extend their heartfelt gratitude to their parents, families and
teachers who encouraged, guided and supported us from the initial to the final level which
helped in the execution of this project to the best of our capabilities.

The authors are also very thankful to the supervisor, Engr. Kamal Ud Din Kazmi for his
guidance to handle this project in a sequential manner and helping them whenever his need
was required.

The authors are thankful to the Prof Dr. Arshad Hussain Qureshi for arranging the visits
for their projects which helps them to accomplish the project successfully.

The authors are grateful to their course mates, colleagues and friends who have supported and
also motivated them through the difficult journey towards the completion of the project.

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Contents

List of Figures ...........................................................................................................................8


List of Tables ...........................................................................................................................10
1. Introduction .........................................................................................................................11
1.1 Objective of work ..........................................................................................................11
2. Theory .................................................................................................................................11
2.1 Thermoelectric effect ...................................................................................................11
2.1.1 The Seebeck effect......................................................................................................12
2.1.2 The Peltier effect .......................................................................................................13
2.1.3 The Thomson effect ...................................................................................................14
2.2 Transport properties ......................................................................................................14
3. Working and fabrication ......................................................................................................15
3.1 Working of Peltier cooler .............................................................................................15
3.1.1 Peltier cooling with N-type semiconductor ...............................................................15
3.1.2 Peltier cooling with P-type semiconductor ................................................................16
3.1.3 Peltier cooling with P & N type of semiconductors ..................................................17
3.2 Fabrication of Peltier module .......................................................................................18
4. Material and Components Used…………………………………………………………...19
4.1 Wooden Box ………………………………………………………………………….19
4.2 Container made of Silver……………………………………………………………...19
4.3 Pump ………………………………………………………………………………….20
4.4 Aluminium Duct for Water Transmission ……………………………………………20
4.5 Arduino based digital thermometer ……………………………………………...…...20
4.5.1 Components used in Arduino based thermometer…………………………………..21
4.5.2 Program Code……………………………………………………………………….22
4.6 Power Supply………………………………………………………………………….24
4.7 Plastic Pipes…………………………………………………………………………...24
5. Literature Review ………………………………………………………………………..25
5.1 Thermoelectric Material ……………………………………………………………...25

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5.1.1 Bismuth-Telluride Based material ………………………………………………….26


5.2 Heat sink ……………………………………………………………………………...27
5.3 Comparison of Peltier, Sterling and vapour compression portable cooler …………...27
6. Working and Construction of Refrigerator ……………………………………………….30
7. Performance Parameters …………………………………………………………………..31
7.1 Coefficient of Performance …………………………………………………………...31
7.2 Maximum Cooling power …………………………………………………………….31
7.3 Figure of Merit ………………………………………………………………………..32
7.4 Calculation of COP …………………………………………………………………...33
8. Design of Micro Refrigerator on AutoCAD ………………………………………………34
9. Applications ………………………………………………………………………………36
9.1 Commercial Thermoelectric cooling products ……………………………………….37
10. Cost Analysis …………………………………………………………………………….38
11. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………….39
12. References ……………………………………………………………………………….39

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List of Figures

Figure 1: The Seebeck effect ...................................................................................................12


Figure 2: Peltier effect ............................................................................................................13
Figure 3: The Thomson effect .................................................................................................14
Figure 4: N-type and P-type semiconductor Energy band diagram …………………………15
Figure 5: Peltier cooling with N-type semiconductor ……………………………………….16
Figure 6: Peltier cooling with P-type semiconductor………………………………………...17
Figure 7: Peltier cooling by couple of N & P type …………………………………………..17
Figure 8: Peltier cooling by multiple pallets ………………………………………………...18
Figure 9: Fabrication of Peltier module ……………………………………………………..18
Figure 10: 12V Pump ………………………………………………………………………..20
Figure 11: Aluminium Duct………………………………………………………………….20
Figure 12: Arduino Circuit …………………………………………………………………..21
Figure 13: Power Supply …………………………………………………………………….24
Figure 14: Plastic pipes ……………………………………………………………………...25
Figure 15: Graph of COP at 21 degrees ……………………………………………………..28
Figure 16: Graph of COP at 32 degrees ……………………………………………………..29
Figure 17: Thermodynamic 2nd Law of Efficiency …………………………………………30
Figure 18: Graph between Temperature and Power …………………………………………32
Figure 19: Graph between Cooling power and Current ……………………………………..32
Figure 20: Temperature vs Time Graph ……………………………………………………..33
Figure 21: SE Isometric View ……………………………………………………………….34
Figure 22: SW Isometric View ………………………………………………………………34
Figure 23: NE Isometric View ………………………………………………………………35
Figure 24: NW Isometric View ……………………………………………………………...35
Figure 25: Inner Assembly: SE Isometric View …………………………………………….35
Figure 26: Inner Assembly: NW Isometric View …………………………………………...36
Figure 27: Commercial model # 1 …………………………………………………………...37
Figure 28: Commercial model # 2 …………………………………………………………...38

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Figure 29: Commercial model # 3 …………………………………………………………...38

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List of Tables

Table 1: Comparison of Refrigerators ……………………………………………………….28


Table 2: Cost Analysis ………………………………………………………………………38

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1. Introduction

Refrigeration is the process of heat-removal from a space in order to bring it to a lower


temperature than surrounding temperature. In this context, my seminar topic, “Peltier cooling
module” which works on thermoelectric refrigeration, aims to provide cooling by using
thermoelectric effects rather than the more prevalent conventional methods like ‘vapour
compression cycle’ or the ‘vapour absorption cycle’.
There are three types of thermoelectric effect: The Seebeck effect, the Peltier effect, the
Thomson effect. From these three effects, Peltier cooler works on the Peltier effect; which
states that when voltage is applied across two junctions of dissimilar electrical conductors,
heat is absorbed from one junction and heat is rejected at another junction.
Peltier coolers are basically used as a cooling element in laser diodes, CCD cameras (charge
coupled device), blood analysers, portable picnic coolers laser diodes, microprocessors, blood
analysers and portable picnic coolers.

1.1 Objective of Work

a) To design and fabricate Micro refrigerator using the Peltier Effect.


b) To choose a Peltier module of less power.
c) Using water cooled duct as a heat sink to extract heat from hot side of the
module.
d) To choose the best insulation for the cooling chambers.
e) Doing experiments to choose the best material available to which the cooling
transfer capability of Peltier module will be greater.
f) Design the non-conducting lid for the cooling chamber.
g) Design of Micro Refrigerator on Auto-CAD.

2. Theory

2.1 The Thermoelectric Effect


The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric
voltage and vice versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different
temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a
temperature difference. At the atomic scale, applied temperature gradient causes charge
carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side.
The term "thermoelectric effect" encompasses three separately identified effects: the
Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, and Thomson effect.

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2.1.1 The Seebeck effect


The Seebeck effect is the conversion of heat directly into electricity at the
junction of dissimilar electrical conductors. It is named for the Baltic German
physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck.

Figure 1: The Seebeck effect

As shown in Figure 1, the conductors are two dissimilar metals denoted as


material A and material B. The junction temperature at A is used as a reference
and is maintained at a relatively cool temperature (TC). The junction
temperature at B is used as temperature higher than temperature TC. With heat
applied to junction B, a voltage (Eout) will appear across terminals T1 and T2
and hence an electric current would flow continuously in this closed circuit.
This voltage is known as the Seebeck EMF, can be expressed as

Where:
• α = dE / dT = α A – α B
• α is the differential Seebeck coefficient or (thermo electric power
coefficient) between the two materials, A and B, positive when the
direction of electric current is same as the direction of thermal current,
unit is V/K.
• Eout is the output voltage in volts.
• TH and TC are the hot and cold junction temperatures, respectively, in
Kelvin.

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2.1.2 The Peltier Effect


Peltier found there was an opposite phenomenon to the Seebeck Effect,
whereby thermal energy could be absorbed at one dissimilar metal junction
and discharged at the other junction when an electric current flowed within the
closed circuit.

Figure 2: Peltier effect

In Figure 2, the circuit is modified to obtain a different configuration that


illustrates the Peltier Effect, a phenomenon opposite that of the Seebeck
Effect. If a voltage (Ein) is applied to terminals T1 and T2, an electrical current
(I) will flow in the circuit. As a result of the current flow, a slight cooling
effect (QC) will occur at thermocouple junction A (where heat is absorbed),
and a heating effect (QH) will occur at junction B (where heat is expelled).
Note that this effect may be reversed whereby a change in the direction of
electric current flow will reverse the direction of heat flow.
Joule heating, having a magnitude of I2 x R (where R is the electrical
resistance), also occurs in the conductors as a result of current flow. This Joule
heating effect acts in opposition to the Peltier Effect and causes a net reduction
of the available cooling. The Peltier effect can be expressed mathematically as

Qc or Qh = β x I = (αT) x I

Where,

• β is the differential Peltier coefficient between the two materials A and


B in volts.
• I is the electric current flow in amperes.
• QC and QH are the rates of cooling and heating, respectively, in watts

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2.1.3 The Thompson Effect


As per the Thomson effect, when an electric current is passed through a
conductor having a temperature gradient over its length, heat will be either
absorbed by or expelled from the conductor. Whether heat is absorbed or
expelled depends on the direction of both the electric current and temperature
gradient. This phenomenon is known as the Thomson Effect.

Figure 3: The Thomson effect

2.2 Transport Properties

The thermoelectric phenomena are reversible in the sense that they do not of themselves
give rise to thermodynamic losses. However, they are always, in practice, accompanied
by the irreversible effects of electrical resistance and thermal conduction. It turns out that
the performance of any thermocouple as an energy convertor can be expressed in terms
of the differential Seebeck coefficient and the thermal and electrical resistances of the
two branches. These resistances depend on the thermal and electrical resistivities and the
ratios of length to cross-sectional area.

The electrical resistivity ρ is the reciprocal of the electrical conductivity, which is


defined by the relation,

I = σVA/L

Where, ‘I’ is the electric current through a specimen of constant cross-sectional area A
and length L when a voltage V is applied. Likewise, the thermal conductivity, K is
defined by the equation,

Q = -KA∆T/L

Where, q is the rate of heat flow through a similar specimen that has a temperature
difference T between its two ends. We shall refer to the thermoelectric coefficients and

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the electrical and thermal conductivities of a given material as its transport properties.
All these properties will generally be temperature-dependent.

3. Working and Fabrication

3.1 Working of Peltier module

The Peltier effect occurs whenever electrical current flows through two dissimilar
conductors; depending on the direction of current flow, the junction of the two
conductors will either absorb or release heat. In the world of thermoelectric technology,
semiconductors (usually Bismuth Telluride) are the material of choice for producing the
Peltier effect because they can be more easily optimized for pumping heat. Using this
type of material, a Peltier device (i.e., thermoelectric module) can be constructed in its
simplest form around a single semiconductor “pellet” which is soldered to electrically-
conductive material on each end (usually plated copper). In this configuration, the
second dissimilar material required for the Peltier effect, is actually the copper
connection paths to the power supply.
It is important to note that the heat will be moved in the direction of charge carrier
movement throughout the circuit (actually, it is the charge carriers that transfer the heat).

3.1.1 Peltier cooling with N-type semiconductor


In Figure 5, “N-type” semiconductor material is used to fabricate the pellet so that
electrons (with a negative charge) will be the charge carrier employed to create the
bulk of the Peltier effect.

N-type semi-conductor has an extra electron in its Fermi level (higher energy level).
As shown below.

Figure 4: N-type and P-type semiconductor Energy band diagram

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With a DC voltage source connected as shown, electrons will be repelled by the


negative pole and attracted by the positive pole of the supply; due to this attraction,
electrons at Fermi level move towards positive terminal by releasing heat and
creating the holes in the Fermi level. Now, due to continuous supply of current,
electrons move from valance band (lower energy band) to Fermi level by absorbing
energy from the junction. With the electrons flowing through the N-type material
from bottom to top, heat is absorbed at the bottom junction and actively transferred
to the top junction.

So, we can say that, in Peltier cooler using N-type of semiconductor, heat is absorbed
at the junction near negative terminal and heat is rejected at the junction near positive
terminal.

Figure 5: Peltier cooling with N-type semiconductor

3.1.2 Peltier cooling with P-type semiconductor

In the thermoelectric industry, “P-type” semiconductor pellets are also employed.


Figure 4 shows the energy band diagram of P-type semiconductor. In this, holes are
at the Fermi level (higher energy level).

Now, when DC current is applied through the circuit as shown in Figure 7; holes get
attracted towards negative terminal of source. By this attraction, holes move to
negative terminal by releasing heat. Due to continuous supply of current, holes from
conduction band moves to Fermi level by absorbing heat from the junction.

So, we can say that, in Peltier cooler using P-type of semiconductor, heat is absorbed
at the junction near positive terminal and heat is rejected at the junction near negative
terminal.

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Figure 6: Peltier cooling with P-type semiconductor

3.1.3 Peltier cooling with P & N type of semiconductors


By arranging N and P-type pellets in a “couple” (see Figure 8) and forming a
junction between them with a plated copper tab, it is possible to configure a series
circuit which can keep all of the heat moving in the same direction. As shown in the
illustration, with the free (bottom) end of the P-type pellet connected to the positive
voltage potential and the free (bottom) end of the N-type pellet similarly connected
to the negative side of the voltage.

As we have seen in previous section, for N-type of semiconductor, heat is absorbed


from the junction near to the negative terminal and heat is releases at the junction
near to the positive terminal. For P-type of semiconductor, heat is absorbed from the
junction near to positive terminal and released at the junction near to negative
terminal.

Figure 7: Peltier cooling by couple of N & P type

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By arranging the circuit as like in Figure 8, it is possible to release heat to the one
side and absorb from another side. Using these special properties of the TE “couple”,
it is possible to team many pellets together in rectangular arrays to create practical
thermoelectric modules as in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Peltier cooling by multiple pallets

3.2 Fabrication of Peltier Module


As we have seen in previous section, for producing thermoelectric effect couples of P
and N type semiconductors are connected in series by metal plates. By doing this it
absorbs the heat from one side and releases the heat to another side.

So, when solid state P-N materials are connected electrically in series and thermally in
parallel it makes one thermoelectric unit as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Fabrication of Peltier module

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A typical TEC module comprises of two highly thermally conductive substrates (A12O3,
AlN, BeO) that serve as Hot/Cold plates. An array of p-type and n-type semiconductor
(Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, Bi2Se3, PbTe, Si-Ge) pellets are connected electrically in series
sandwiched between the substrates. The device is normally attached to the cold side of
the TEC module, and a heat sink which is required for enhanced heat dissipation is
attached to the hot side. Solder is normally used to connect the TEC elements onto the
conducting pads of the substrates. The construction of a single stage thermoelectric
module is shown in Figure 9.

4. Materials and Components Used

4.1 Wooden Box


A wooden box is used as the working area of the modules. It is made with 5 sides of
wood and on the top, we have a transparent plastic sheet. The dimensions of the box are
12x12x12 inches.
The box is made of wood because naturally wood is an insulator. So, no cooling is
transimitted outside of the box.

4.2 Container made of Silver


A container made of Silver is placed inside the box so that the cooling is transferred to
the sides of the container. As silver is also a conductor so the cooling is transferred to the
sides of the container from the Peltier modules.
The dimensions of container are 11x11x11. It is not covered from the top.

4.3 Pump
This is a mini size water pump that works on 12V DC. It is extremely simple and easy to
use. Just connect the inlet to a water source, connect a suitable pipe and power the motor
to start pumping water.
This motor is small, compact and light. It is manufactured to be used in automobiles for
spraying wiper water, hence it is quite durable. It can be controlled from a micro
controller/Arduino.

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Figure 10: 12V Pump

4.4 Aluminium Duct for water transmission


Aluminium duct for water transmission is used. It is used because aluminium is a good
conductor and it can transfer the heat of modules in the water very effectively.

Figure 11: Aluminium Duct

4.5 Arduino based digital thermometer


Temperature Sensors are very important devices as they help us in measuring,
monitoring and maintaining the temperature of a room, instrument or a device. In this
project we have used a temperature sensor called DS18B20 to measure the temperature
using Arduino.

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Figure 12: Arduino Circuit

DS18B20 is a 1-Wire (one-Wire) Temperature Sensor produced by Maxim Integrated. It


provides the temperature measurements in Degree Celsius with a resolution of 9-bit to
12-bit.
The DS18B20 Temperature exchanges information over 1-Wire Interface or 1-Wire Bus,
a system developed by Dallas Semiconductor. In 1-Wire Interface, the communication
requires only one wire (well, technically you need two wires: one data wire and one
GND wire).

The working of thermometer is very simple. Arduino communicates with DS18B20 over
1-Wire Interface and extracts the temperature information from the sensor. The extracted
information is displayed on the 16X2 LCD Display.

The following are few of the main features of DS18B20 Digital Thermometer.

• Uses 1-Wire Interface that requires only one wire for data transfer.
• Programmable Resolution of 9-bit to 12-bit.
• It can measure temperatures in the range of -55 0C to +125 0C.

4.5.1 Components used in the Arduino based thermometer

• Arduino UNO
• DS18B20 Digital Temperature Sensor
• 16×2 LCD Display
• 10KΩ Potentiometer
• 4.7KΩ Resistor (1/4 Watt)
• 330Ω Resistor (1/4 Watt)
• 5mm LED
• Connecting Wires

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• Breadboard
• Power Supply

4.5.2 Program Code


The code for this is written is C++ and is written as follows.

#include <OneWire.h>

#include <RoomTemp.h>

#include <FridgeTemp.h>

#define DS18B20 8

OneWire ourWire(DS18B20);

RoomTemp sensor(&ourWire);

FridgeTemp lcd(7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2);

byte degree_symbol[8] =

0b00111,

0b00101,

0b00111,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000

};

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void setup()

Serial.begin(9600);

delay(1000);

sensor. Begin();

lcd.begin(16, 2);

lcd.createChar(1, degree_symbol);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(" Digital ");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(" Thermometer ");

delay(4000);

lcd.clear();

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print("Temp - ");

void loop()

sensor.requestTemperatures();

Serial.print(sensor.getTempCByIndex(0));

Serial.println("°C");

lcd.setCursor(7,0);

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lcd.print(sensor.getTempCByIndex(0));

lcd.write(1);

lcd.print("C");

delay(1000);

4.6 Power Supply


A power supply of 460W and 12V is installed. The power supply is capable of providing
10Amp of current.
A high-performance power supply is attached so that it does not affect the working of
the refrigerator.

Figure 13: Power Supply

4.7 Plastic Pipes


Plastic pipes are attached so that the water is easily run through the whole process. The
diameter of the pipe is 0.5 inches.
It helps the operation of the refrigeration to run more efficiently.

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Figure 14: Plastic pipes

5. Literature Review

5.1 Thermoelectric Material


Material used in thermoelectric is largely dependent on Figure of merit. It is advisable
to use the material which has higher value of figure of merit because it leads to higher
cooling power of a module. As we have seen figure of merit in previous section, it
depends on seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. So,
the properties which are considered for selection of thermoelectric material are:

Electrical conductivity
For figure of merit to be high, electrical conductivity must be high. Metals are typically
good electrical conductors, but the higher the temperature, the lower the conductivity.
This tendency can be explained in terms of the Drude conductivity formula:

σ = n. e2 .τ / m

• n is charge carrier density.


• e is charge per carrier (elementary charge)
• τ is carrier mean free time between scattering events
• m is carrier mass

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For, metals as temperature increases, τ decreases while the other numbers stay constant,
thereby decreasing.
In contrast, the electrical conductivity of semiconductors generally increases with
temperature. In semiconductors, carrier mean free time decreases with increasing
temperature, however carrier density increases faster with increasing temperature,
resulting in increasing.

Thermal conductivity
For figure of merit to be high, thermal conductivity must be low. Thermal conductivity
of any material is the sum of conductivities of electron and phonon.

K = Kphonon + Kelectron

According to the Wiedemann–Franz law, the higher the electrical conductivity, the
higher Kelectron becomes. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize Kphonon. In
semiconductors, Kphonon › Kelectron so it is easier to decouple K and σ in a semiconductor
and K can be improved by working on Kphonon.

Power factor
In order to determine the usefulness of a material in a thermoelectric generator or a
thermoelectric cooler the power factor is calculated by its Seebeck coefficient and its
electrical conductivity under a given temperature difference:

Power factor= σ × α2

Where α is the Seebeck coefficient and σ is the electrical conductivity.

5.1.1 Bismuth- Telluride based material


The best thermoelectric materials currently available, compounds of doped Bi2Te3,
have ZT= 1 at room temperature and attain maximum temperature differential of =
82K. Some of the commonly used conventional thermoelectric materials are as
follows:
Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3 and Sb2Te3; ZnSb, PbTe and PbSe

Bi2Te3, this compound has been extensively used in the construction of thermoelectric
modules. The performance of these modules has steadily improved, since the original
observations, due to a number of factors. The thermoelectric figure of merit has
increased from the order of 0.5 to values significantly greater than one.

To increase the ZT value for this material, research is going to decrease thermal
conductivity without affecting electrical conductivity.

As we have seen, the thermal conductivity of the material can be decomposed into two
principle components. The first is the lattice contribution, related to thermal
conduction by phonons (lattice vibrations). The second is the radiative contribution

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related to thermal conduction by photons (electromagnetic radiation). Now, decrease in


thermal conductivity
can be achieved about through a reduction in the lattice component of the thermal
conductivity. Researchers have developed some techniques for doing so, includes:

• Superlattices
• Phonon-glass electron crystal materials
• phonon-liquid electron-crystal

5.2 Heat sink


Performance of thermoelectric cooler can be improved by working on thermal side. By
properly designing the heat sink on hot side and cold side can improve this system. To
obtain the best performance, a Peltier cooler must be designed with heat sink thermal
resistance as small as possible. The conventional heat sink unit utilized at the TEC hot
side is composed of fins and a fan. The fins are employed to increase heat transfer area.
The fan conducts heat transfer through convection. Although the thermal resistance of
such a unit can be as low as 0.1 K/W, it is usually larger in size. The conventional heat
sink can only be employed in situations where space is not restricted. Various researchers
are working on designing proper heat sinks that can be applied to TEC, which includes:

• Phase change materials


• Thermo-syphonic heat exchanger
• Micro-channels

5.3 Comparison of Peltier, Sterling and vapour compression portable


cooler
A paper by C. Hermes, J. Barbosa, “Thermodynamic comparison of Peltier, Stirling, and
vapor compression portable coolers”.
This paper compares the thermodynamic performance of four small-capacity portable
coolers that employ different cooling technologies: thermoelectric, Stirling, and vapor
compression using two different compressors (reciprocating and linear). The
refrigeration systems were experimentally evaluated in a climatized chamber with
controlled temperature and humidity. Tests were carried out at two different ambient
temperatures (21 and 32 oC) in order to obtain key performance parameters of the
systems (e.g., power consumption, cooling capacity, internal air temperature, and the hot
end and cold end temperatures).

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In this work, author compared performance parameters using a thermodynamic approach


that splits the overall 2nd law efficiency into two terms, namely, the internal and external
efficiencies. In doing so, the internal irreversibilities (e.g., friction in the working fluid in
the Stirling and vapor compression machines, Joule heating and heat conduction in the
thermoelectric devices of the Peltier cooler) were separated from the heat exchanger
losses (external irreversibilities), allowing the comparison between different refrigeration
technologies with respect to the same thermodynamic baseline.
Cooling systems used for analysis are as given in Table 1.

Characteristic Thermoelectric Stirling Reciprocating Linear


compressor compressor
Cabinet volume 56 26 31 34
(l)
Refrigerant Electrons Helium HFC-134a HFC-134a
Cold end heat Air source, Thermosyphon Roll-bond, Roll-bond,
exchanger forced natural natural
Hot end heat Air source, Air source, Air source, Air source,
exchanger forced forced forced forced
Voltage supply 120 VAC 12VDC 24VDC 12VDC
Temperature continuous continuous On-off On-off
Control

Results of this experiment are shown below. Figure 15 and 16 shows the comparison of
COP for ambient temperature at 21 C and 32 C. As we can see, Carnot COP of TEC is
highest, but due to electrical irreversibility its actual COP is much lower that other
system.

Figure 15: Graph of COP at 21 degrees

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Figure 16: Graph of COP at 32 degrees

Figure 17 shows the comparison of second law efficiency of all the refrigerators, which
indicates internal efficiency of thermoelectric cooler is very less, means that the internal
irreversibilities in the thermoelectric module can be quite high. Indeed, this combined
with the comparatively large value of its internally ideal coefficient of performance
confirms the need for improvement of the thermoelectric properties of the thermoelectric
cooler.

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Figure 17: Thermodynamic 2nd Law of Efficiency

6. Working and Construction of Refrigerator


Working of the refrigerator is very simple. The construction is explained in the following
steps:

• First of all, the wooden box is made.


• It is fitted with a silver container inside.
• The wholes are drilled so that the pipes are passed through it.
• The aluminum duct is made. Glass is attached on the both sides so that the water
leakage is stopped.
• Peltier modules are attached on the aluminum duct with the help of a thermal
adhesive.
• The silver plate is attached onto the Peltier modules with the thermal adhesive.
• Next, the electrical system for the detection of temperature is made.
• Arduino is used for the detection of temperature.
• Program code is added to the circuit and is then fitted into the control panel.
• The LCD display is attached so that the temperature is displayed.
• Power supply is attached with all the electrical systems and the modules.
• The 12V pump is also installed to pump the water into the fridge.

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Working
Working is explained as follows:

• First of all, the pump is switched on from the Control Panel.


• Next, the Modules are turned on from the 2nd switch.
• The temperature readings are noted.
• The modules are switched off.
• In the end, the pump is switched off.

7. Performance Parameters

7.1. Coefficient of Performance


The quantity of greatest importance for a refrigerator is the coefficient of performance
(COP), which is defined as the ratio of the heat extracted from the source to the
expenditure of electrical energy. If the thermocouple were free of losses associated
with heat conduction and electrical resistance, the COP would reach the ideal value;
that is, the value for a Carnot cycle. The ideal COP can be much greater than unity as
it is given by T1/ (T2 – T1) where T1 and T2 are the absolute temperatures of the
source and sink, respectively.
The coefficient of performance COP is the ratio between the cooling capacity Q1 and
the electrical power consumption W,

COP = Q1/W

Also,

COP = T1/ (T2 – T1)

7.2. Maximum Cooling Power


As the current is increased, the Peltier cooling rises linearly but the Joule heating
depends on I2. Thus, a plot of cooling power against current has the parabolic form
shown in figure. The cooling power is negative until the Peltier effect is great enough
to counteract both heat conduction and Joule heating. As the current increased, Peltier
effect increases and after some value Peltier effect will be more that sum of heat
conduction and joule heating. So, cooling power will become positive at a certain
value of the current. However, as the current is increased further, there will come a
point at which the difference between the Peltier cooling and the Joule heating begins
to diminish. In other words, there is a particular current at which the cooling power
reaches its maximum value.

COPmax = [ZT12 /2 – (T2 -T1)] / Z. T2. T1

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Where,

Z = α2 / R.T

Figure 18: Graph between Temperature and Power

Figure 19: Graph between Cooling power and Current

7.3. Figure of Merit


We can see from the above equation of COPmax that, it solely depends on Z and the
temperatures of the source and sink. So, Z is known as the figure of merit for
thermocouple. Z has the dimensions of inverse temperature and it is more usual
nowadays to specify the dimensionless figure of merit, which is equal to Z.Tm at a
mean temperature Tm.

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In practice, ZT represents the efficiency of the N-type and P-type materials which
compose a thermoelement. A thermoelectric material having a higher figure of merit
ZT is more convenient, as it can carry out higher cooling power.

7.4. Calculation of COP

• Input power = 460W


• Initial Temperature = 37.1 degrees
• Final Temperature = 15.2 degrees
• Total Amount of Heat Removed = Total cooling Effect produced.
• Total amount of heat removed = Mw * Cp * Change in Temperature =
574.87W
• COP = Refrigeration Effect / Input Work = 1.2

Also, Theoretical COP can be calculated by the formula,

• COP = T1/ (T2 – T1) + 1 = 1.69

The table below shows the graph of Temperature difference achieved in 10 minutes.

Temperature Vs Time
40
35
30
Temperature

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time

Figure 20: Temperature vs Time Graph

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8. Design of Micro Refrigerator on AutoCAD

Figure 21: SE Isometric View

Figure 22: SW Isometric View

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Figure 23: NE Isometric View

Figure 24: NW Isometric View

Figure 25: Inner Assembly: SE Isometric View

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Figure 26: Inner Assembly: NW Isometric View

9. Applications of Peltier cooler


Thermoelectric cooling is used in medical and pharmaceutical equipment, spectroscopy
systems, various types of detectors, electronic equipment, portable refrigerators, chilled food
and beverage dispensers, and drinking water coolers.
Requiring cooling devices with high reliability that fit into small spaces, powerful integrated
circuits in today's personal computers also employ thermoelectric coolers.
Using solid state heat pumps that utilize the Peltier effect, thermoelectric cooling devices are
also under scrutiny for larger spaces such as passenger compartments of idling aircraft parked
at the gate.

Some of the other potential and current uses of thermoelectric cooling are:

Military/Aerospace
Inertial Guidance Systems, Night Vision Equipment, Electronic Equipment Cooling, Cooled
Personal Garments, Portable Refrigerators.

Consumer Products
Recreational Vehicle Refrigerators, Mobile Home Refrigerators, Portable Picnic Coolers,
Wine and Beer Keg Coolers, Residential Water Coolers/Purifiers.

Laboratory and Scientific Equipment


Infrared Detectors, Integrated Circuit Coolers, Laboratory Cold Plates, Cold Chambers, Ice
Point Reference Baths, Dewpoint Hygrometers, Constant Temperature Baths, Thermostat
Calibrating Baths, Laser Collimators.

Industrial Equipments
Computer Microprocessors, Microprocessors and PC's in Numerical Control and Robotics,
Medical Instruments, Hypothermia Blankets, Pharmaceutical Refrigerators - Portable and

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Stationary, Blood Analyzers, Tissue Preparation and Storage, Restaurant Equipment, Cream
and Butter Dispensers.

Miscellaneous
Hotel Room Refrigerators, Automobile Mini – Refrigerators, Automobile Seat Cooler,
Aircraft Drinking Water Coolers.

9.1 Commercial thermoelectric cooling products


A varied variety of products based on thermoelectric cooling are now currently available
in the market. These are important because they can be bought off the shelf as per the
requirements. Some of the important listings are as follows:

PowerChill™ Plus 40-qt Vertical/Horizontal Thermoelectric Cooler


(Gray/White): Model No. 5642A807 (Company - Coleman)

• Capacity: 45.5 L
• Price: Rs. 7000
• Voltage Requirement: 110 volts

Figure 27: Commercial model # 1

16 Quart Gray/Blue Personal Thermoelectric Cooler: Model No. 5615-


807 (Company – Coleman)

• Capacity: 18.2 L
• Price: Rs. 4000
• Voltage Requirement: 110 volts

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Figure 28: Commercial model # 2

Liquid Chiller Model No. TLC-700 (Company - Thermoelectric cooling


America Corporation)
• Reservoir capacity: .5 L
• Price: Rs. 2000
• Voltage Requirement: 120 volts
• Power Requirement: 500 W

Figure 29: Commercial model # 3

10. Cost Analysis


Cost analysis is given in the Table 2 below:

ITEM COST

Peltier Modules (2) 1000/-

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Aluminum Duct 600/-

Wooden Box 1000/-

Silver Container and Plate 2000/-


Pump 800/-

Thermal Paste 200/-


Power Supply 1500/-

Plastic pipes 200/-


Miscellaneous 2000/-

Total 9300/- Rs

11. Conclusion
Since Peltier cooling is not efficient comparatively and due to its small size applications, it
is not widely used. It found its application only in electronics cooling etc. But, we have
seen that there is a huge scope of research in this field about thermoelectric materials, its
fabrication, heat sink design etc. Researcher are working on reducing irreversibilities in the
systems, because Peltier cooler has more potential which we can see from the vast
difference between value of first law efficiency.
It is very much efficient for small scale applications i.e. Automobile heated seats, portable
refrigerators etc.

12. References

• H. Julian Goldsmid, Bismuth Telluride and Its Alloys as Materials for


Thermoelectric Generation, Materials 2014, 7, 2577-2592.
• S. Stackhouse, L. Stixrude, Theoretical Methods for Calculating the Lattice Thermal
Conductivity of Minerals, Mineralogy & Geochemistry Vol. 71 pp. 253-269, 2010.
• Melcor homepage http://www.melcor.com (assessed on October, 2015)
• S. Riffat, S.A. Omer, Xiaoli Ma, A novel thermoelectric refrigeration system
employing heat pipes and a phase change, Renewable Energy 23 (2001) 313–323
• R. Chein, Y. Chen, “Performances of thermoelectric cooler integrated with
microchannel heat sinks”, International Journal of Refrigeration 28 (2005) 828–839
• S. Riffat, X. ma, Improving the coefficient of performance of thermoelectric cooling
systems, international journal of energy research Int. J. Energy Res. 2004; 28:753–
768
• C. Hermes, J. Barbosa, “Thermodynamic comparison of Peltier, Stirling, and vapor
compression portable coolers”, Applied Energy 91 (2012) 51–58

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• J. Vian, D. Astrain, “Development of a heat exchanger for the cold side of a


thermoelectric module”, Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008) 1514–1521
• Kaseb S., El-hairy G, Electronics Cooling, Mechanical Power Engineering
Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.

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