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CONTEXT

CHAPTER PAGE NO.

Introduction ………………………………………………….. 1
STAAD Models ………………………………………………….. 6
Load Calculation ………………………………………………….. 8
Design of Long girder ………………………………………………….. 15
Design of Shear connectors ………………………………………………….. 34
Design of End Cross Girder ………………………………………………….. 39
Design of Intermediate cross frames ………………………………………………….. 42
 
 
 
 
 
 

INTRODUCTION 

Page 1
This document deals with the design of the superstructure having 35m span (Pier to Pier)

CONFIGURATION OF THE STRUCTURE:


The superstructure consists of 6 steel girders with equal spacing of 2.5m supporting
on bearings at the piers at both sides. Reinforced concrete deck slab is considered to be
supported on those girders on their top flanges. Total width of deck is 15.1m outer to outer.
Total width carries up and down carriageway having two lanes in each side. RC median having
500mm width has been considered in between the up and down carriageway. There are two RC
crash barriers at two outer most edges of the deck. Between crash barriers and carriage way
kerb shyness of 500mm has been considered.

Concrete deck is considered to be connected with the top flange of main girders with
proper shear connectors so that they can act together as composite section.

End cross girders are provided at both the ends of main girders for the purpose of
providing sufficient strength there to be lifted by hydraulic jacks during the replacement of
bearings or any other purposes.

Intermediate Cross frames are considered in between two End Cross Girders at
reasonable spacing to restrain the compression flange of main girders during construction
phase when the composite action is yet to be generated.

MATERIAL:
Main Girder and End Cross Girders are welded plate girders built up with structural
steel of grade E410 B0 conforming to IS:2062-2011. Whereas in Intermediate Cross Frames
rolled steel section of grade E250 has been considered.

FASTENINGS:
All the connections between members and splices between two parts of member
components has been done by HSFG bolts of grade 8.8 conforming to IS: 4000-1992.

WELDS:
All welds shall be done following the relevant IS and AWS codes of reference.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PHILOSOPHY:


Analytical 3D models of the structure have been prepared in STAAD Pro software.
Different models have been generated to simulate different types of loading phase.

For construction phase loading only six free standing girders have been modeled
without taking any contribution of intermediate cross frames. Girders have been assigned the
sectional properties of bare steel.

Page 2
For the purpose of permanent and transient loadings grillage models have been
prepared with main girders having the composite property for long term and short term
respectively. For proper grillage action deck slab is modeled by several beam members having
nearly 2m spacing. These elements have been assigned with contributory width and depth
same as the depth of deck slab.

Bending moments and Shear forces at salient points necessary for design have been
picked from STAAD output and used in design. Design has been done in Limit State method of
design as per IRC:24 – 2010.

REFERENCE CODES:
IRC: 5-2015
IRC: 6-2017
IRC: 22-2015
IRC: 24-2010
IS: 4000-1992

REFERENCE STAAD MODELS:


35m_DL.std
35m_SIDL.std
35m_LL.std
35m_FATIGUE.std
35m_WIND.std
End Crossgirder.std

Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
 
 
 
 
 
STAAD  MODELS 
 

Page 6
1 2 3

23 28

4 5 6

22 27

7 8 9

21 26

10 11 12

20 25

13 14 15

19 24

16 17 18
 

STAAD MODEL FOR DEAD LOAD WITH BEAM NUMBERS 

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119
161 169 177 185 193 201 209 217 225 233 241 249 257 265 273 281 289 297
1 2 3 4 5 6 298 7 8 9 10 11 12 299 13 14 15 16 17

160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 256 264 272 280 288 296

18 19 20 21 22 23 300 24 25 26 27 28 29 301 30 31 32 33 34

159 167 175 183 191 199 207 215 223 231 239 247 255 263 271 279 287 295

35 36 37 38
40 302 41 39 42 43 44 45 46 303 47 48 49 50 51
158 166 174 182 198 190
206 214 222 230 238 246 254 262 270 278 286 294
137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153
157 165 173 181 189 197 205 213 221 229 237 245 253 261 269 277 285 293
52 53 54 55 56 57 304 58 59 60 61 62 63 305 64 65 66 67 68

156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252 260 268 276 284 292

69 70 71 72 73 74 306 75 76 77 78 79 80 307 81 82 83 84 85

155 163 171 179 187 195 203 211 219 227 235 243 251 259 267 275 283 291

86 87 88 89 90 91 308 92 93 94 95 96 97 309 98 99 100 101 102


154 162 170 178 186 194 202 210 218 226 234 242 250 258 266 274 282 290
120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135Load136
1
 

STAAD MODEL FOR PERMANENT AND TRANSIENT LOAD WITH BEAM NUMBERS 

Page 7
 
 
 
 
 
LOAD CALCULATION 
 

Page 8
A. DEAD LOAD DURING CONSTRUCTION:
Dead Load will be carried by the beams acting alone, with no composite action

WEIGHT OF INTERMEDIATE CROSS FRAMES
Unit weight of structural steel = 78.5 kN/m3
Length of ISMC 125 2x2.5 = 5 m
C/S Area of ISMC 125 16.7 cm2
Length of ISA 75x75x8 2x2.5+4x2.175 = 13.7 m
C/S Area of ISA 75x75x8 11.4 cm2
Considering 20% extra area for stiffeners and splices total weight 
of one Cross Frame  = (5x0.00167+13.7x0.00114)x78.5x1.2 = 2.26 kN
Reaction per side = 1.13 kN

INPUT FOR DECK SLAB:
Contributory Width of Deck for Girder  G1 & G6= 2.550 m
Contributory Width of Deck for Girder  G2 & G5= 2.500 m
Contributory Width of Deck for Girder  G3 & G4= 2.500 m
Thickness of slab
Thickness of slab 0.220 m
Bottom of Haunch = 0.42 m
Thk. of Haunch for G1 & G6= 0.082 m Top of Haunch = 0.584 m
Thk. of Haunch for G2 & G5= 0.145 m Top of Haunch = 0.710 m
Thk. of Haunch for G3 & G4= 0.207 m Top of Haunch = 0.834 m

SELFWEIGHT OF CAST‐IN‐SITU DECK SLAB :
3
Unit weight of Green Concrete = 26 kN/m
Contributory Area of Deck for external girder  G1/6=
2
2.55x0.22+0.5x(0.42+0.584)x0.082 = 0.602 m
SW of deck portion on girder = 0.602x26 = 15.65 kN/m
contributory Area of Deck for girder  G2/5=
2
2.5x0.22+0.5x(0.42+0.71)x0.145 = 0.632 m
SW of deck portion on girder = 0.632x26 = 16.43 kN/m
contrbutory Area of Deck for girders G3/4=
2
2.5x0.22+0.5x(0.42+0.834)x0.207 = 0.68 m
SW of deck portion on girder = 0.68x26 = 17.68 kN/m

Page 9
B.SUPER IMPOSED DEAD LOAD:
i) Wearing Coat
For Girder G1 & G6 width of Wearing Coat = 2.05 m
2
Load for Wearing coat considered = 2 kN/m
Weight of Wearing Coat = 2.05x2 = 4.1 kN/m

For Girder G2 & G5 width of Wearing Coat = 2.5 m
2
Load for Wearing coat considered = 2 kN/m
Weight of Wearing Coat = 2.5x2 = 5 kN/m

For Girder G3 & G4 width of Wearing Coat = 1.95 m
2
Load for Wearing coat considered = 2 kN/m
Weight of Wearing Coat = 1.95x2 = 3.9 kN/m

ii) Weight of Crash Barrier
Load on Girder LG1 & LG5 considered = 7.00 kN/m
Load on Girder LG1 & LG5 considered = 14.00 kN/m

Page 10
CALCULATION OF TRAFFIC LIVE LOADS:
A. 70R TRACK LOADING: 

0.450 35t 35t

0.84 0.84
1.62

2.06
15.100

Effective Span, L= 34 m
Impact Factor 10 % [cl. 208.3 IRC: 6‐2017]
Wheel Load = 35 t
Length of Contact = 4.57 m
Let s divide both track in 10 divn
Let,s divide both track in 10 divn.
So, Load per nodes = 35x1.1x10/10 = 38.5 kN
Distance between nodes = 0.457 m

B. 70R WHEEL LOADING: 

8.50t 8.50t
6.00t 6.00t
0.450 4.00t 4.00t

0.86 0.86
1.63

1.93
15.100

Effective Span, L= 34 m
Impact Factor 18.95 % [cl. 208.3 IRC: 6‐2017]

Singlewheel
Axle load load
(t) (kN)
8 47.58
12 71.37
17 101.11

Page 11
C.CLASS‐A WHEEL LOADING: 

3.40t 3.40t
5.70t 5.70t
0.450 1.35t 1.35t

0.5 0.5
0.4

1.8
15.100

Effective Span, L= 34 m
Impact Factor 18.95 % [cl. 208.3 IRC: 6‐2017]

Singlewheel
Axle load load
(t) (kN)
2.7 16.06
11.4 67.80
6.8 40.44

Load during congestion:
Congestion factor = 1.21 [Table 7 IRC: 6‐2017]

Singlewheel
Axle load load
(t) (kN)
2.7 19.43
11.4 82.04
6.8 48.94

D. FATIGUE TRUCK: 

7.00t 7.00t
0.450 6.00t 6.00t

0.5 0.5
0.4

1.8
15.100

Impact Factor 9.5 % [cl. 204.6 IRC: 6‐2017]

Singlewheel
Axle load load
(t) (kN)
12 65.69
14 76.63

Page 12
WIND LOAD ON STRUCTURE:

Wind Loads on Unloaded structure:
Basic Wind speed, Vb= 50 m/s
Hence, Live load shall not be considered with wind [cl. 209.3.7 IRC: 6‐2017]
Average Height of superstructure = 10.5 m
Type of Structure = Terrain with Obstruction
[As the proposed Flyover is located at congested area of Kolkata]
Design wind speed for 33m/s basic wind speed = 17.980 m/s
2
Design wind pressure for 33m/s basic wind speed = 194.500 N/m [Table5 IRC: 6‐2017]
2
Design wind pressure for 50m/s basic wind speed = 446.5 N/m
Whether funneling action to be considered  NO
2
Design Wind Pressure = 446.5 N/m [cl. 209.2 4) IRC: 6‐2017]
Span of the Deck = 34 m Width of the Deck = 15.1 m
2
Solid Area in Elevation, A1= 34x(1.83+0.082+0.9) 95.608 m
2
Solid Area in Plan, A3= 34x15.1 = 513.4 m
Drag Coefficient, CD = 2.12 Gust factor, G = 2 [cl. 209.3.3 IRC: 6‐2017]
Lift Coefficient, CL = 0.75 [cl. 209.3.5 IRC: 6‐2014]

Transverse Wind Force FT= 0.4465x95.608x2x2.12 = 181.00 kN [cl. 209.3.3 IRC: 6‐2017]


Longitudinal Wind Force FL= 0.25x181 = 45.25 kN [cl. 209.3.4 IRC: 6‐2017]
Verticall Wind Force FV = 0.4465x513.4x2x0.75 = 343.85 kN [cl. 209.3.5 IRC: 6‐2017]
2
UDL = 343.85/(34x15.1) = 0.670 kN/m

Girder  Cont. UDL


mkd. Width (m) (kN/m)
G1 & G6 2.55 1.71
G2 & G5 2.5 1.67
G3 & G4 2.5 1.67

Wind Loads on Loaded structure:
Basic Wind speed, Vb= 36 m/s
Live load shall be considered with wind [cl. 209.3.7 IRC: 6‐2017]
Average Height of superstructure = 10.5 m
Design wind speed for 33m/s basic wind speed = 17.980 m/s
Design wind pressure for 33m/s basic wind speed = 194.500 m/s [Table5 IRC: 6‐2017]
2
Design wind pressure for 36m/s basic wind speed = 231.5 N/m
2
Design Wind Pressure = 231.5 N/m [cl. 209.2 4) IRC: 6‐2017]
2
Solid Area in Elevation, A1= 95.608 m
2
Solid Area in Plan, A3= 513.4 m

Transverse Wind Force FT= 0.2315x95.608x2x2.12 = 93.84 kN [cl. 209.3.3 IRC: 6‐2017]


Longitudinal Wind Force FL= 0.25x93.84 = 23.46 kN [cl. 209.3.4 IRC: 6‐2017]
Verticall Wind Force FV = 0.2315x513.4x2x0.75 = 178.28 kN [cl. 209.3.5 IRC: 6‐2017]
2
UDL = 178.28/(34x15.1) = 0.347 kN/m

Girder  Cont. UDL


mkd. Width (m) (kN/m)
G1 & G5 2.55 0.89
G2 & G4 2.5 0.87
G3  2.5 0.87

Page 13
CALCULATION OF SEISMIC LOAD:

Zone‐ III Zone Factor, Z  = 0.16


[Table 16 IRC:6‐2017]
Bridge can be catagorised as Flyover inside city. So,
Importance Factor, I  = 1.2 [Table 19 IRC:6‐2017]
Response Reduction Factor, R  = 1 [Table 20 IRC:6‐2017]
Damping percentage = 2%
Factor for damping = 1.4

S a /g  = 2.5

Horizontal Seismic co‐efficient, A h   =
0.16x1.2x2.5x1.4/(2x1) = 0.336

Vertical Seismic co‐efficient, A v  = 2/3x0.336 = 0.224


[cl. 219.3 IRC:6‐2017]
Impact factor on Live load = 1.19

Seismic forces in mid span 
Shear force Bending moment
Normal  Normal  Seismic 
Load type
Load Seismic Load Load Load
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)
SW of Girder 34 7.62 860 192.64
SW of deck slab 94 21.06 2555 572.32
Dead Load (Crash
 Barrier) 21 4.70 576 129.02
SIDL Wt. of
 Wearing coat 27 6.05 644 144.26
Carriageway 
Live Load 253 9.52 3431 129.17
Footpath live Load 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 48.95 1167.41

Seismic forces in splicing
Shear force Bending moment
Normal  Normal  Seismic 
Load type
Load Seismic Load Load Load
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)
SW of Girder 100 22.40 753 168.67
SW of deck slab 301 67.42 2242 502.21
Dead Load (Crash
 Barrier) 73 16.35 514 115.14
SIDL Wt. of
 Wearing coat 74 16.58 563 126.11
Carriageway 
Live Load 424 15.96 3101 116.74
Footpath live Load 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 138.71 1028.87

Page 14
 
 
 
 
 
DESIGN OF LONG GIRDER 
 
 

Page 15
DESIGN FORCES FOR GIRDERS

Design forces for Girder G1 & G6 :
Description BM (kNm) SF (kN) Deflection (mm)
SW Long girder 
820.00 96.00 18.37
and cross frames
SW of deck slab 2261.00 266.00 50.78
Wt. of Crash barrier 803.00 106.00 8.18
Wt. of Wearing coat 612.00 72.00 6.11
Footpath live load 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vehicular live load 3082.00 348.00 24.52
Wind load 123.00 15.00
Total 11048.10 1293.30 103.05

Design forces for Girder G2 & G5:
Description BM (kNM) SF (kN) Deflection (mm)
SW Long girder 
860.00 100.00 19.21
and cross frames
SW of deck slab 2374.00 279.00 53.31
Wt. of Crash barrier 641.00 43.00 5.92
Wt. of Wearing coat 622.00 76.00 6.00
Footpath live load 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vehicular live load 3252.00 454.00 24.72
Wind load 126.00 15.00
Total 11311.15 1397.20 104.18

Design forces for Girder G3 & G4 :
Description BM (kNM) SF (kN) Deflection (mm)
SW Long girder 
860.00 100.00 19.21
and cross frames
SW of deck slab 2555.00 301.00 57.36
Wt. of Crash barrier 576.00 73.00 5.38
Wt. of Wearing coat 644.00 74.00 5.88
Footpath live load 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vehicular live load 3431.00 424.00 24.57
Wind load 131.00 16.00
Total 11779.25 1419.80 107.43

So, from the above table it is clear that Girder mkd. G3 is critical for BM, SF and deflection
Hence, the section shall be designed  for Girder G3 and shall be provided for all.

Page 16
DESIGN OF LONG GIRDER IN MIDSPAN:

SUMMARY OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR

MOMENT
SHEAR
LOAD CASE (kNm)
(kN)
SW Girder 34 860
SW of deck slab 94 2555
Dead Load (Crash Barrier) 21 576
SIDL Wt. of Wearing coat 27 644
Carriageway Live Load 253 3431
Footpath live Load 0 0
Wind Load (Loaded) 6 131
Seismic Load 49 1168
Construction live load 1806

No. of bolts in a plane


No. hole dia
of bolt (mm)
Top Flange 0 23.5 Grade of Steel = E410
Bottom Flange 0 23.5 Grade of Conc. = M40

DESIGN DURING ERECTION STAGE:


Properties of Girder:
Width of Top Flange = 420 mm Width of Bottom Flange = 560 mm
Thickness of Top Flange = 25 mm Net Width = 560 mm
Effective width of bottom flange = 560.00 mm
[cl. 509.2.1.4 IRC:24-2010]
Depth of Web = 1780 mm Thickness of Bottom Flange = 25 mm
Depth of Web for shear check = 1780 mm Thickness of Web = 16 mm
Effective Length of the member, L LT = 4400 mm
Overall depth = 1830 mm Depth of N.A from top = 974.62 mm
2
C/S area = 52980 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 855.38 mm
Unit Wt. of section = 415.89 kg/m
If the Section is slender
Depth of N.A from top = 1008.78 mm
2
C/S area = 49687.84 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 821.22 mm

420 25

311.21

205.76
1008.78

NA for whole section


466.81
1780

NA for slender section

16

560 25

4
I zz for Whole Section = 27288018912 mm
4
I zz for Slender Section if applicable = 26269755742 mm
4
I yy = 410 520824240 mm
rz= 704.16 mm ry= 99.15 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 26041115 mm

Page 17
Elastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z ey = 1860087 mm3
Depth of Equal area axis from top = 25+(24843.92-420x25)/16 = 921.50 mm
Depth of Equal area axis from bottom = 1830-921.5 = 908.50 mm
Plastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z pz = 34784175 mm3
3
Plastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z py = 3163251 mm
Type of section Welded Section

Check of Top Flange Outstand:


Yield stress = 390 MPa ε = 0.80
Outstand of Flange, b = 202 mm b/t f = 8.08 9.4ε<8.08≤13.7ε
Hence, Top flange is Semi-Compact [Table 2 IRC:24-2010]

Check of Web:
Yield stress = 410 MPa ε = 0.78
Clear Depth of web, d = 1780 mm d/t w = 111.25 >126ε
Hence, Web is Slender
Hence the overall section is Slender [Note 4 under Table 2 IRC:24-2010]
Effective depth of to be consider = 98.39x16 = 1574.24 mm
Calculation of the resistance of the section against material failure due to Bending about major axis:
Yeid stress of steel, f y = 390 MPa
Material Safety factor, γm0 = 1.1 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]

βb= 26041115/34784175 = 0.75 [509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]


Centre to centre between two flanges, h f = 1780+12.5+12.5 = 1805 mm
2 0.5
π²x200000x520824240x1805 1 4400/99.15
M cr = 1+
2x4400² 20 1805/25

= 4.84E+10 Nmm
= 48375.59 kNm

√(βbZpfy/Mcr) = 0.46 √(1.2Zefy/Mcr) = 0.50

Non dimensional slenderness ratio, λLT= 0.46 α LT = 0.49 φ LT = 0.67


χ LT = 0.87 f bd = 307 MPa

M dz = 0.75x34784175x307/10⁶ = 8009 kNm [cl. 509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]

β b Z py f y / γ m0 =
0.75x34784175x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 9249.43 kNm
1.2Z ey f y / γ m0 =1.2x26041115x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 11079.31 kNm
Moment capacity for compression flange restrained = 9249 kNm

CALCULATION OF SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR PARMANENT LOADING:


Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Average width = 627 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Modulur Ratio = 15
Overall depth = 2257 mm Depth of N.A from top = 822.81 mm
2
Composite C/S area = 95007.11 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 1434.19 mm
CG of bare steel section from top of concrete = 220+207+1008.78 = 1435.78 mm
Net moment of of transformed area about N.A
(2500x220x712.81+627x207x499.31)/15-49687.84x612.97 = 0.00
I zz For Effective Section= (2500x220^3/12+2500x220x712.81^2+627x207^3/12+627x207x499.31^2)/15
+26269755742+49687.84x612.97^2 = 65808289119 mm4
4
I yy For Effective Section= 19747163003 mm
3
Elastic Section Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 65808289119/1434.1 45885490 mm
Elastic Moment capacity, M ez = 1.2x45885490x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 19522.19 kNm

Page 18
Plastic moment capacity:
α cc = 0.67 γ c = 1.5 η = 1.00 λ = 0.80
a= (390/1.1)/(0.67x1x0.8x40/1.5) = 24.80
[ANNEXURE-I IRC:22-2015]
Depth of CG of steel from top of concrete= 1008.78+207+220 = 1435.78 mm
Depth of plastic neutral axis from top =
220+207+25+(24.8x49000.34-550000-129789-2x24.8x9812.5)/(2x24.8x16) = 513.39 mm
Hence, the Plastic Neutral Axis are within the web of beam
Plastic Moment capacity, M pz = 390x[49000.34x{1435.78-0.5x0.8x427}-
2x9812.5x{0.5x25+(1-0.8/2)x427}-
16x(513.39-427-25)x{513.39+(1-
0.8)x427+25}]/(1.1x10⁶) =
19889.47 kNm
[Table I.1 IRC:22-2015]
Ultimate Moment capacity, M dz = 19522.19 kNm

CALCULATION OF SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TRANSIENT LOADING:


Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Average width = 627 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Modulur Ratio = 7.5
Overall depth = 2257 mm Depth of N.A from top = 605.77 mm
2
C/S area = 140326.37 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 1651.23 mm
CG of bare steel section from top of concrete = 220+207+1008.78 = 1435.78 mm
Net moment of of transformed area about N.A
(2500x220x495.77+627x207x282.27)/7.5-49687.84x830.01 = 0.00
I zz For Effective Section= (2500x220^3/12+2500x220x495.77^2+627x207^3/12+627x207x282.27^2)/7.5
+26269755742+49687.84x830.01^2 = 80261364563 mm4
4
I yy For Effective Section= 38885671084 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 80261364563/1651.2 48607017 mm
Elastic Moment capacity, M ez = 1.2x48607017x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 20680.08 kNm

Plastic Moment capacity, M pz = 19889 kNm


Ultimate Moment capacity, M dz = 19889.47 kNm

Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in Construction stage:

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Construction DL 3415 1.35 4610 8009 0.58
Loading LL 1806 1.35 2438 8009 0.30
Total Interaction = 0.88
<1 Hence, OK

Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in service condition :

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Normal Loading DL 3415 1.35 4610 9249 0.50
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 576 1.35 778 19522 0.04
SIDL 644 1.75 1127 19522 0.06

Short Term Loading Live Load 3431 1.5 5147 19889 0.26
Footpath Live load 0 1.15 0 19889 0.00
Wind load 131 0.9 118 19889 0.01
Total Interaction = 0.86
<1 Hence, OK

Page 19
Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in seismic condition :

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Normal Loading DL 3415 1.35 4610 9249 0.50
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 576 1.35 778 19522 0.04
SIDL 644 1.75 1127 19522 0.06

Short Term Loading Live Load 3431 0.2 686 19889 0.03
Footpath Live load 0 0 0 19889 0.00
1780 Seismic load 1168 1.5 1752 19889 0.09
Total Interaction = 0.72
<1 Hence, OK
1100
DESIGN FOR SHEAR:
Yield stress of Girder Web, f yw = 410 MPa

V
Type of Loading (kN) Factor Vn
Normal Loading DL 128 1.35 173
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 21 1.35 28
SIDL 27 1.75 47

Short Term Loading Live Load 253 1.5 380


Footpath Live load 0 1.15 0
Wind load 6 0.9 5
Total 633.30

Simple Post Critical method : [cl. 509.4.2.2 a) IRC:24-2010]


depth of web, d = 1780 mm Thickness of Web, t w = 16 mm
d/t w = 111.25

Type of Web Stiffened Spacing of stiffeners, c = 1100 mm


c/d = 0.61797753
Kv = 4+5.35/0.617977528089888² 18.01
Poisson's Ratio, µ = 0.3
18.01π²x200000
τ cr,e = = 263.04 MPa
12(1-0.3²)x111.25²
Non dimensional web slenderness, λ w = √[410/(√3x263.04] = 0.95
Hence, 0.8<λw<1.2
τv = [1-0.8(0.95-0.8)]x(410/√3) = 208.31 MPa
2
Shear Area, A v = 1780x16 = 28480 mm
V cr = 208.31x28480/1000 = 5932.67
>633.3 Hence OK

CHECK FOR FATIGUE:

Partial Safety factor for Fatigue Strength, γ mft = 1.15 [Table 18 IRC:24-2010]
Partial Safety factor for loads, γ fft = 1 [cl. 511.2.3.1 IRC:24-2010]
Thickness of the thickest plate = 25 mm
Correction factor µ c = 1 [cl. 511.2.1 IRC:24-2010]
Detail Category classification of the member= 52 MPa
Modified strength, f fn = 45.22 MPa
Design Life of the structure = 100 yrs. Avg. No. of occurrence per day 55
Total number of stress cycle, N SC = 365x100x55 = 2007500
27/γ mft = 23.48 MPa 5x106x(27/γ mft x γ fft xf )3= 1158124
Hence, Fatigue check is required.

Page 20
Now, N SC ≤5 x 10⁶
Fatigue strength = 45.22x³√(5x10⁶/2007500) = 61.3 MPa
[cl. 511.4 IRC:24-2010]
Fatigue strength after modification, f f = 1x61.3 = 61.3 MPa
[cl. 511.2.1 IRC:24-2010]

420 Gap between stiffener & Bottom Flange = 50 mm


427 yt = 75 mm
25

605.77 Bending moment= 1933 kNm


Shear Force = 170 kN
16

1651.23 yt 25

560.00

MI about Neutral Axis for Transient loading= 80261364563 mm4


Bending Stress at the tip of stiffener = 1933x10⁶x1576.23/80261364563 = 37.96 MPa
First moment of area of the portion below the tip of stiffener about Neutral Axis =
= 560x25x1638.73+16x50x1601.23 = 24223204 mm3
Longitudinal Shear Stress = 170x1000x24223204/(80261364563x16) = 3.21 MPa
Major Principal stress = 37.96/2+√[(37.96/2)²+3.21²] = 38.23 MPa
Minor Principal stress = 37.96/2-√[(37.96/2)²+3.21²] = -0.27 MPa
Maximum = 38.23 MPa
<61.3 Hence, OK

CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:


Deflection in Basic Load cases:
Load Cases Deflection(mm)
SW of Girder 19.21
Weight of Deck 57.36
Dead Load 5.38
Wt. of Wearing coat 5.88
Carriage way Live Load 24.57
Footpath Live load 0

Deflection in Frequent Load Combinations: [Table B.3 IRC:6-2017]


Span of Girder = 34 m

Allowabl
Actual e
Load Cases Check
Deflectio Deflectio
n(mm) n(mm)
Service Loads 107.43 56.67 Permissible limit exceeded, Camber required
Live Load and Impact 18.43 42.50 Within permissible limit
[cl. 504.5.1 IRC:24-2010]

Total camber required = 19.21+57.36+5.38+1.2x5.88 = 90 mm

Page 21
DESIGN OF LONG GIRDER IN SPLICE LOCATION:

SUMMARY OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR

MOMENT
SHEAR
LOAD CASE (kNm)
(kN)
SW Girder 100 753
SW of deck slab 301 2242
Dead Load (Crash Barrier) 73 514
SIDL Wt. of Wearing coat 74 563
Carriageway Live Load 424 3101
Footpath live Load 0 0
Wind Load (Loaded) 16 110
Seismic Load 139 1039
Construction live load 1585

No. of bolts in a plane


No. hole dia
of bolt (mm)
Top Flange 4 25.5 Grade of Steel = E410
Bottom Flange 6 25.5 Grade of Conc. = M40

DESIGN DURING ERECTION STAGE:


Properties of Girder:
Width of Top Flange = 420 mm Width of Bottom Flange = 560 mm
Thickness of Top Flange = 25 mm Net Width = 407 mm
Effective width of bottom flange = 446.32 mm
[cl. 509.2.1.4 IRC:24-2010]
Depth of Web = 1780 mm Thickness of Bottom Flange = 25 mm
Depth of Web for shear check = 500 mm Thickness of Web = 16 mm
Effective Length of the member, L LT = 4400 mm
Overall depth = 1830 mm Depth of N.A from top = 909.03 mm
2
C/S area = 50138 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 920.97 mm
Unit Wt. of section = 393.58 kg/m
If the Section is slender
Depth of N.A from top = 942.51 mm
2
C/S area = 46845.84 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 887.49 mm

420 25

284.70

205.76
942.51

NA for whole section


427.05
1780

NA for slender section

16

560 25

4
I zz for Whole Section = 24358912652 mm
4
I zz for Slender Section if applicable = 23478978685 mm
4
I yy = 410 520824240 mm
rz= 684.32 mm ry= 101.92 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 24911119 mm

Page 22
Elastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z ey = 1860087 mm3
Depth of Equal area axis from top = 25+(25069-420x25)/16 = 935.56 mm
Depth of Equal area axis from bottom = 1830-935.5625 = 894.44 mm
Plastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z pz = 32280875 mm3
3
Plastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z py = 3163251 mm
Type of section Welded Section

Check of Top Flange Outstand:


Yield stress = 390 MPa ε = 0.80
Outstand of Flange, b = 202 mm b/t f = 8.08 9.4ε<8.08≤13.7ε
Hence, Top flange is Semi-Compact [Table 2 IRC:24-2010]

Check of Web:
Yield stress = 410 MPa ε = 0.78
Clear Depth of web, d = 1780 mm d/t w = 111.25 >126ε
Hence, Web is Slender
Hence the overall section is Slender [Note 4 under Table 2 IRC:24-2010]

Calculation of the resistance of the section against material failure due to Bending about major axis:
Yeid stress of steel, f y = 390 MPa
Material Safety factor, γm0 = 1.1 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]

βb= 24911119/32280875 = 0.77 [509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]


Centre to centre between two flanges, h f = 1780+12.5+12.5 = 1805 mm
2 0.5
π²x200000x520824240x1805 1 4400/101.92
M cr = 1+
2x4400² 20 1805/25

= 4.84E+10 Nmm
= 48351.54 kNm

√(βbZpfy/Mcr) = 0.45 √(1.2Zefy/Mcr) = 0.49

Non dimensional slenderness ratio, λLT= 0.45 α LT = 0.49 φ LT = 0.66


χ LT = 0.87 f bd = 309 MPa

M dz = 0.77x32280875x309/10⁶ = 7681 kNm [cl. 509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]

β b Z py f y / γ m0 =
0.77x32280875x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 8812.68 kNm
1.2Z ey f y / γ m0 =1.2x24911119x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 10598.55 kNm
Moment capacity for compression flange restrained = 8813 kNm

CALCULATION OF SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR PARMANENT LOADING:


Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Average width = 627 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Modulur Ratio = 15
Overall depth = 2257 mm Depth of N.A from top = 770.23 mm
2
Composite C/S area = 92165.11 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 1486.77 mm
CG of bare steel section from top of concrete = 220+207+942.51 = 1369.51 mm
Net moment of of transformed area about N.A
(2500x220x660.23+627x207x446.73)/15-46845.84x599.28 = 0.00
I zz For Effective Section= (2500x220^3/12+2500x220x660.23^2+627x207^3/12+627x207x446.73^2)/15
+23478978685+46845.84x599.28^2 = 60092871172 mm4
4
I yy For Effective Section= 19747092770 mm
3
Elastic Section Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 60092871172/1486.7 40418394 mm
Elastic Moment capacity, M ez = 1.2x40418394x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 17196.19 kNm

Page 23
Plastic moment capacity:
α cc = 0.67 γ c = 1.5 η = 1.00 λ = 0.80
a= (390/1.1)/(0.67x1x0.8x40/1.5) = 24.80
[ANNEXURE-I IRC:22-2015]
Depth of CG of steel from top of concrete= 942.51+207+220 = 1369.51 mm
Depth of plastic neutral axis from top =
220+207+(24.8x46158.34-550000-129789)/(2x24.8x392.5) = 450.88 mm
Hence, the Plastic Neutral Axis are within top flange of beam
Plastic Moment capacity, M pz = 390x[46158.34x{1369.51-0.5x0.8x427}-
392.5x(450.88-427)x{450.88+(1-
0.8)x427}]/(1.1x10⁶) =
17835.04 kNm
[Table I.1 IRC:22-2015]
Ultimate Moment capacity, M dz = 17196.19 kNm

CALCULATION OF SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TRANSIENT LOADING:


Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Average width = 627 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Modulur Ratio = 7.5
Overall depth = 2257 mm Depth of N.A from top = 566.03 mm
2
C/S area = 137484.37 mm Depth of N.A from bottom = 1690.97 mm
CG of bare steel section from top of concrete = 220+207+942.51 = 1369.51 mm
Net moment of of transformed area about N.A
(2500x220x456.03+627x207x242.53)/7.5-46845.84x803.48 = 0.00
I zz For Effective Section= (2500x220^3/12+2500x220x456.03^2+627x207^3/12+627x207x242.53^2)/7.5
+23478978685+46845.84x803.48^2 = 70347843754 mm4
4
I yy For Effective Section= 38885600852 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 70347843754/1690.9 41602065 mm
Elastic Moment capacity, M ez = 1.2x41602065x390/(1.1x 10⁶) = 17699.79 kNm

Plastic Moment capacity, M pz = 17835.04 kNm


Ultimate Moment capacity, M dz = 17699.79 kNm

Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in Construction stage:

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Construction DL 2995 1.35 4043 7681 0.53
Loading LL 1585 1.35 2140 7681 0.28
Total Interaction = 0.81
<1 Hence, OK

Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in service condition :

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Normal Loading DL 2995 1.35 4043 7681 0.53
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 514 1.35 694 17196 0.04
SIDL 563 1.75 985 17196 0.06

Short Term Loading Live Load 3101 1.5 4652 17700 0.26
Footpath Live load 0 1.15 0 17700 0.00
Wind load 110 0.9 99 17700 0.01
Total Interaction = 0.89
<1 Hence, OK

Page 24
Checking of the Ultimate Capacity in seismic condition :

Mz Muz Mdz Interacti-


Type of Loading (kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) on ratio
Normal Loading DL 2995 1.35 4043 7681 0.53
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 514 1.35 694 17196 0.04
SIDL 563 1.75 985 17196 0.06

Short Term Loading Live Load 3101 0.2 620 17700 0.04
Footpath Live load 0 0 0 17700 0.00
500 Seismic load 1039 1.5 1559 17700 0.09
Total Interaction = 0.75
<1 Hence, OK
1100
DESIGN FOR SHEAR:
Yield stress of Girder Web, f yw = 410 MPa

V
Type of Loading (kN) Factor Vn
Normal Loading DL 401 1.35 541
Long Term Loading Crash Barrier 73 1.35 99
SIDL 74 1.75 130

Short Term Loading Live Load 424 1.5 636


Footpath Live load 0 1.15 0
Wind load 16 0.9 14
Total 1419.80

Simple Post Critical method : [cl. 509.4.2.2 a) IRC:24-2010]


depth of web, d = 500 mm Thickness of Web, t w = 16 mm
d/t w = 31.25

Type of Web Stiffened Spacing of stiffeners, c = 1100 mm


c/d = 2.2
Kv = 5.35+4/2.2² 6.18
Poisson's Ratio, µ = 0.3
6.18π²x200000
τ cr,e = = 1143.92 MPa
12(1-0.3²)x31.25²
Non dimensional web slenderness, λ w = √[410/(√3x1143.92] = 0.45
Hence, λw≤0.8
τv = 410/√3 = 236.71 MPa
2
Shear Area, A v = 500x16 = 8000 mm
V cr = 236.71x8000/1000 = 1893.68

CHECK FOR FATIGUE:

Partial Safety factor for Fatigue Strength, γ mft = 1.15 [Table 18 IRC:24-2010]
Partial Safety factor for loads, γ fft = 1 [cl. 511.2.3.1 IRC:24-2010]
Thickness of the thickest plate = 25 mm
Correction factor µ c = 1 [cl. 511.2.1 IRC:24-2010]
Detail Category classification of the member= 52 MPa
Modified strength, f fn = 45.22 MPa
Design Life of the structure = 100 yrs. Avg. No. of occurrence per day 55
Total number of stress cycle, N SC = 365x100x55 = 2007500
27/γ mft = 23.48 MPa 5x106x(27/γ mft x γ fft xf )3= 1008058
Hence, Fatigue check is required.

Page 25
Now, N SC ≤5 x 10⁶
Fatigue strength = 45.22x³√(5x10⁶/2007500) = 61.3 MPa
[cl. 511.4 IRC:24-2010]
Fatigue strength after modification, f f = 1x61.3 = 61.3 MPa
[cl. 511.2.1 IRC:24-2010]

420 Gap between stiffener & Bottom Flange = 50 mm


427 yt = 75 mm
25

566.03 Bending moment= 1718 kNm


Shear Force = 270 kN
16

1690.97 yt
25
446.32

MI about Neutral Axis for Short term condition= 70347843754 mm4


Bending Stress at the tip of stiffener = 1718x10⁶x1615.97/70347843754 = 39.46 MPa
First moment of area of the portion below the tip of stiffener about Neutral Axis =
= 446.32x25x1678.47+16x50x1640.97 = 20041144 mm3
Longitudinal Shear Stress = 270x1000x20041144/(70347843754x16) = 4.81 MPa
Major Principal stress = 39.46/2+√[(39.46/2)²+4.81²] = 40.04 MPa
Minor Principal stress = 39.46/2-√[(39.46/2)²+4.81²] = -0.58 MPa
Maximum = 40.04 MPa
<61.3 Hence, OK

CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:


Deflection in Basic Load cases:
Load Cases Deflection(mm)
SW of Girder 16.49
Weight of Deck 49.25
Dead Load 4.67
Wt. of Wearing coat 5.08
Carriage way Live Load 21.39
Footpath Live load 0

Deflection in Frequent Load Combinations: [Table B.3 IRC:6-2017]


Span of Girder = 34 m

Actual Allowable
Load Cases Check
Deflectio Deflectio
n(mm) n(mm)
Service Loads 92.55 56.67 Permissible limit exceeded, Camber required
Live Load and Impact 16.04 42.50 Within permissible limit
[cl. 504.5.1 IRC:24-2010]

Total camber required = 16.49+49.25+4.67+1.2x5.08 = 77 mm

Page 26
DESIGN OF SPLICE JOINT FOR GIRDER :

DESIGN OF SPLICE JOINT OF TOP FLANGE PLATE :


Width of Flange = 420 mm Thickness of Flange = 25 mm
No. of Bolt in a single plane = 4 Dia. Of Hole = 25.5 mm
Gross C/S area of Flange = 420x25 = 10500 mm2
Considering 5% extra area of splice plate required = 11025 mm2

For Ultimate condition


Maximum compressive Stress at Top Flange = 181.29 MPa
Ultimate compressive force at Top Flange = 181.29x10500/1000 1903.55 kN
Permissible bending stress = 390/1.1= 354.55 MPa
Design Strength of Plate, Pd = 354.55x10500/1000 = 3722.80 kN
1.1x Actual Force = 1.1x1903.55 = 2093.905 kN
0.8x Flange capacity = 0.8x3722.8 = 2978.24 kN
Hence, design force on each side = 2978.24 kN

For Working condition


Maximum compressive Stress at Top Flange = 133.38 MPa
Working compressive force at Top Flange = 133.38x10500/1000 1400.49 kN
Permissible axial stress = 0.6x390 = 234 MPa
Capacity of Flange = 234x10500/1000 = 2457.00 kN
1.1x Actual Force = 1.1x1400.49 = 1540.539 kN
0.8x Flange capacity = 0.8x2457 = 1965.6 kN
Hence, design force on each side = 1965.6 kN

Length Width Thk.


No.
(mm) (mm) (mm)
Top splice plate 1 760 420 16
Bottom splice plate 2 760 150 16

Total area of splice plate provided = 1x420x16+2x150x16 = 11520 mm2


>11025 Hence, OK
Ultimate strength of plate = 540 MPa
Yield stress of plate = 390 MPa Material Safety factor, γm0 = 1.1
Compression capacity of flange = 390x11520/(1.1x1000) = 4084.36 kN [cl. 507.1.2 IRC:24-2010]
>2978.24 Hence, OK

Design of Bolt in "slip critical" condition:


Dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Grade 8.8 Minimum Bolt tension = 212 kN
Slip factor = 0.4 Number of interface = 2 [Table 3 IS 4000:1992]
Shear capacity of HSFG bolt = 0.4x2x212/1.4 = 121.14 kN
[cl.5.4.2 IS 4000:1992]

No. bolt required = 1965.6/121.14 = 16

Design of Bolt "after slip condition":


Yield stress, fyb = 640 MPa Ultimate stress, fub = 800 MPa
FOS of bolt, γmb = 1.25 Material Safety factor, γmb = 1.25
Nominal dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Dia. Of Hole= 25.5 mm [cl. 512.5.4 a) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75x25.5 = 44.625 mm [cl. 512.5.4 b) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum pitch = 2.5x24 = 60 mm [cl. 512.5.4 c) IRC:24-2010]
Pitch provided along length = 70 mm
Edge distance provided = 50 mm
kb = 0.65 [cl. 512.5.5.4 IRC:24-2010]
Design Bearing capacity of bolt , V dpb = 2.5x0.65x24x25x540/(1.25x1000) = 421.2 kN

Number of effective interface = 2


2
Shank area of bolt, Asb = 452 mm [table 2 IS 4000:1992]
2
Net area of bolt, Asn = 353 mm
Nominal shear capacity Vnsb = 800x353x2/(√3x1000) = 326.1 kN
Design shear capacity Vdsb = 326.1/1.25 = 260.9 kN [cl. 512.5.5.3 IRC:24-2010]
Bolt value = 260.9 kN
No. of bolt required = 2978.24/260.9 = 11

Page 27
Maximum no. of bolt required to satisfy both the conditions = 16
No. of bolts provided along width each side of splice= 4
No. of bolts provided along length each side of splice = 5
Total no. of bolt = 20 Hence, OK

DESIGN OF SPLICE JOINT OF BOTTOM FLANGE PLATE :


Width of Flange = 560 mm Thickness of Flange = 25 mm
No. of Bolt in a single plane = 4 Dia. Of Hole = 25.5 mm
Gross C/S area of Flange = 560x25 = 14000 mm2
Net C/S area of Flange = (560-4x25.5)x25 = 11450 mm2
Considering 5% extra area of splice plate required = 14700 mm2

For Ultimate condition


Maximum Tensile Stress at Bottom Flange = 308.57 MPa
Maximum Tensile force = 308.57x14000/1000 = 4319.98 kN
Yield strength of Gross section, Tdg = 14000x410/(1.1x1000) = 5218.18 kN [cl. 506.1.1 IRC:24-2010]
Rapture strength of Net area, Tdn = 0.9x11450x540/(1.25x1000) = 4451.76 kN [cl. 506.1.2 IRC:24-2010]
Design Strength of Plate, Td = 4451.76 kN
1.1x Actual Force = 1.1x4319.98 = 4751.978 kN
0.8x Flange capacity = 0.8x4451.76 = 3561.41 kN
Hence, design force on each side = 4751.98 kN

For Working condition


Maximum Tensile Stress at Top Flange = 217.04 MPa
Working Tensile force at Top Flange = 217.04x14000/1000 = 3038.56 kN
Permissible axial stress = 0.6x410 = 246 MPa
Capacity of Flange = 246x14000/1000 = 3444.00 kN
1.1x Actual Force = 1.1x3038.56 = 3342.416 kN
0.8x Flange capacity = 0.8x3444 = 2755.2 kN
Hence, design force on each side = 3342.416 kN

Length Width Thk.


No.
(mm) (mm) (mm)
Top splice plate 2 650 200 20
Bottom splice plate 1 650 560 20

Total area of splice plate provided = 2x200x20+1x560x20 = 19200 mm2


>14700 Hence, OK
Net Area = 19200-4x25.5x20-4x25.5x20 = 15120 mm2
Yield stress of plate = 410 MPa Material Safety factor, γm0 = 1.1
Ultimate stress of plate = 540 MPa Material Safety factor, γml = 1.25
Total capacity of splice plates = 0.9x15120x540/(1.25x1000) = 5878.66 kN
>4751.978 Hence, OK

Design of Bolt in "slip critical" condition:


Dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Grade 8.8 Minimum Bolt tension = 212 kN
Slip factor = 0.4 Number of interface = 2 [Table 3 IS 4000:1992]
Shear capacity of HSFG bolt = 0.4x2x212/1.4 = 121.14 kN
[cl.5.4.2 IS 4000:1992]

No. bolt required = 3342.416/121.14 = 28

Design of Bolt "after slip condition":


Yield stress, fyb = 640 MPa Ultimate stress, fub = 800 MPa
FOS of bolt, γmb = 1.25 Material Safety factor, γmb = 1.25
Nominal dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Dia. Of Hole= 25.5 mm [cl. 512.5.4 a) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75x25.5 = 44.625 mm [cl. 512.5.4 b) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum pitch = 2.5x24 = 60 mm [cl. 512.5.4 c) IRC:24-2010]
Pitch provided along length = 70 mm
Edge distance provided = 50 mm
kb = 0.65 [cl. 512.5.5.4 IRC:24-2010]
Design Bearing capacity of bolt , V dpb = 2.5x0.65x24x25x540/(1.25x1000) = 421.2 kN

Number of effective interface = 2


2
Shank area of bolt, Asb = 452 mm [table 2 IS 4000:1992]

Page 28
Net area of bolt, Asn = 353 mm2
0.9fubAn = 0.9x800x353/1000 = 254.16 kN
fybAsb(γmf/γm0) = 640x452x(1.25/1.25)/1000 = 289.3 kN
Nominal shear capacity Vnsb = 800x353x2/(√3x1000) = 326.1 kN
Design shear capacity Vdsb = 326.1/1.25 = 260.9 kN [cl. 512.5.5.3 IRC:24-2010]
Bolt value = 260.9 kN
No. of bolt required = 4751.978/260.9 = 18

Maximum no. of bolt required to satisfy both the conditions = 28


No. of bolts provided along width each side of splice= 4
No. of bolts provided along length each side of splice = 8
Total no. of bolt = 32 Hence, OK

DESIGN OF MOMENT PLATE AT WEB :


Depth of Web plate, d3 = 1780 mm Thicknewss of Web plate, tw = 16 mm
Moment of inertia = 16x1780³/12 = 7519669333 mm4
Distance between top and bottom moment plate = 1474 mm

For Ultimate condition


Part of moment acting on web
in construction
4043.25x7519669333/23478978685 = 1294.94 kNm
phase
in permanent
1679.15x7519669333/60092871172 = 210.12 kNm
loading
4750.5x7519669333/70347843754 = 507.79 kNm
in transient loading
Total 2012.85 kNm
Force acting on web moment splice = 2012.85/1.474 = 1365.57 kN

For Working condition


Part of moment acting on web
in construction
2995x7519669333/23478978685 = 959.22 kNm
phase
in permanent
1189.6x7519669333/60092871172 = 148.86 kNm
loading
3211x7519669333/70347843754 = 343.23 kNm
in transient loading
Total 1451.31 kNm
Force acting on web moment splice = 1451.31/1.474 = 984.61 kN

Length Height Thk.


No.
(mm) (mm) (mm)
Web moment splice
2 1200 170 16
plate
No. of bolt in a plane = 2 Dia. Of bolt = 24 mm
Dia. Of hole = 25.5 mm
Gross area of splice plate = 2x170x16 = 5440 mm2
Net area of splice plate = 2x(170-2x25.5)x16 = 3808 mm2
Ultimate strength of plate = 410 MPa
Yield stress of plate = 540 MPa
Capacity of yield = 410x5440/(1.1x1000) = 2027.64 kN
Capacity of rapture = 0.9x540x3808/(1.25x1000) = 1480.55 kN
Design capacity = 1480.55 kN
>1365.57 Hence, OK
Design of Bolt in "slip critical" condition:
Dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Grade 8.8 Minimum Bolt tension = 212 kN
Slip factor = 0.4 Number of interface = 2 [Table 3 IS 4000:1992]
Shear capacity of HSFG bolt = 0.4x2x212/1.4 = 121.14 kN
[cl.5.4.2 IS 4000:1992]

No. bolt required = 984.61/121.14 = 8

Page 29
Design of Bolt "after slip condition":
Yield stress, fyb = 640 MPa Ultimate stress, fub = 800 MPa
FOS of bolt, γmb = 1.25 Material Safety factor, γmb = 1.25
Nominal dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Dia. Of Hole= 25.5 mm [cl. 512.5.4 a) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75x25.5 = 44.625 mm [cl. 512.5.4 b) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum pitch = 2.5x24 = 60 mm [cl. 512.5.4 c) IRC:24-2010]
Pitch provided along length = 70 mm
Edge distance provided = 50 mm
kb = 0.65 [cl. 512.5.5.4 IRC:24-2010]
Design Bearing capacity of bolt , V dpb = 2.5x0.65x24x16x540/(1.25x1000) = 269.57 kN

Number of effective interface = 2


2
Shank area of bolt, Asb = 452 mm [table 2 IS 4000:1992]
2
Net area of bolt, Asn = 353 mm
Nominal shear capacity Vnsb = 800x353x2/(√3x1000) = 326.1 kN
Design shear capacity Vdsb = 326.1/1.25 = 260.9 kN [cl. 512.5.5.3 IRC:24-2010]
Bolt value = 260.9 kN
No. of bolt required = 1365.57/260.9 = 5

Maximum no. of bolt required to satisfy both the conditions = 8


No. of bolts provided in each horizontal line= 5
No. of bolts provided in each vertical line= 2
Total no. of bolt = 10 Hence, OK

DESIGN OF SHEAR PLATE OF WEB SPLICE :


Depth of Web plate, d3 = 1780 mm Thicknewss of Web plate, tw = 16 mm
2
Area of Web Plate = 1780x16 = 28480 mm
Considering 5% extra of central 3/4 portion of web plate total area of splice plates required
1.05x0.75x28480 = 22428 mm2

Length Height Thk.


No.
(mm) (mm) (mm)
Web splice plate 2 320 1204 12

Total area of splice plate provided = 2x1204x12 = 28896 mm2


>22428 Hence, OK

Total factored Shear force at Splice location = 633.30 kN


Total working Shear force at Splice location = 440.40 kN

Design of Bolt in "slip critical" condition:


Dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Grade 8.8 Minimum Bolt tension = 212 kN
Slip factor = 0.4 Number of interface = 2 [Table 3 IS 4000:1992]
Shear capacity of HSFG bolt = 0.4x2x212/1.4 = 121.14 kN
[cl.5.4.2 IS 4000:1992]

No. bolt required = 440.4/121.14 = 4

Design of Bolt "after slip condition":


Yield stress, fyb = 640 MPa Ultimate stress, fub = 800 MPa
FOS of bolt, γmb = 1.25
Nominal dia. Of Bolt = 24 mm Dia. Of Hole= 25.5 mm [cl. 512.5.4 a) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75x25.5 = 44.625 mm [cl. 512.5.4 b) IRC:24-2010]
Minimum pitch = 2.5x24 = 60 mm [cl. 512.5.4 c) IRC:24-2010]
Pitch provided along length = 120 mm
Edge distance provided = 62 mm
kb = 0.81 [cl. 512.5.5.4 IRC:24-2010]
Design Bearing capacity of bolt , V dpb = 2.5x0.81x24x16x540/(1.25x1000) = 335.92 kN

Page 30
Number of effective interface = 2
2
Shank area of bolt, Asb = 452 mm [table 2 IS 4000:1992]
2
Net area of bolt, Asn = 353 mm
Nominal shear capacity Vnsb = 800x353x2/(√3x1000) = 326.1 kN
Design shear capacity Vdsb = 326.1/1.25 = 260.9 kN [cl. 512.5.5.3 IRC:24-2010]
Bolt value = 260.9 kN
No. of bolt required = 633.3/260.9 = 2

Maximum no. of bolt required to satisfy both the conditions = 4


No. of bolts provided in each horizontal line= 2
No. of bolts provided in each vertical line= 12
Total no. of bolt = 24 Hence, OK

760x150x16 THK.
BOT. SPLICE PLATE 4x70 4x70 760x420x16 THK.
TOP SPLICE PLATE

4x70
1200x170x16 THK.
WEB MOMENT PLATE

11x120

320x1204x12 THK.
WEB SHEAR PLATE

650x200x20 THK.
TOP SPLICE PLATE

7x70 7x70
650x560x20 THK.
BOT. SPLICE PLATE

Page 31
DESIGN OF STIFFENER FOR GIRDER :

DESIGN OF INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER:


Depth of Web = 1780 mm Thickness of Web = 16 mm
Yield stress of Web, f yw = 410 MPa εv = 0.78
Material Safety factor, γ m0 = 1.1 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]
Spacing of Stiffeners provided = 1100 mm
Hence, c < 0.74d
Minimum d/t w required = 270x0.78= 210.6
t w required = 8.5 mm Hence, OK
c/d = 0.62 < √2
Minimum moment of inertia required = 1.5x1780³x8.5³/1100² = 4293611 mm4
[cl. 509.7.2.4 IRC:24-2010]
Thickness of stiffener provided = 12 mm
Outstand of stiffener provided = 125 mm
Maximum effective outstand of stiffener = 14x12x0.78 = 131.04 mm
[cl. 509.7.1.2 IRC:24-2010]
Maximum outstand of stiffener = 20x12x0.78 = 187.2 mm
[cl. 509.7.2.4 IRC:24-2010]
Effective outstand to be considered = 125 mm
Contributory width of girder web = Minimum of 40x16 and 1100 640 mm
125

16 12

640

MI about centre line of Web= 2x12x125³/12+2x12x125x70.5²+640x16³/12 =


19035453 mm4
Hence, OK
[cl. 509.7.1.5 IRC:24-2010]
Area of the sitffener including web = 2x125x12+640x16 = 13240 mm2
Radius of Gyration about web, r y = √(19035453/13240) = 37.92 mm
Effective length of stiffener, L = 0.7x1780 = 1246 mm
[cl. 509.7.1.5 IRC:24-2010]
Buckling Class= c α = 0.49 λ = 0.47 φ = 0.68
χ LT = 0.86 f cd = 320 MPa
Design resistance of stiffener, F qd = 13240x320/1000 = 4236.8 kN
[cl. 507.1.2.1 IRC:24-2010]
Maximum factored shear, V = 1419.80 kN
Shear Buckling resistance of the web panel, V cr = 1893.68 kN
Load to be resisted by stiffener, F q = 0 kN
<4236.8 Hence, OK
[cl. 509.7.2.5 IRC:24-2010]
DESIGN OF CONNECTION BETWEEN INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER AND WEB :
Design Shear force for Transverse stiffener = 16²/(5x125) = 0.41 kN/mm
[cl. 509.7.2.6 IRC:24-2010]
Shear Force = 0.41x1780 = 729.8 kN
Additional Force if any = 0 kN
Total Shear force for the stiffener = 729.8 kN
No. of weld surface = 2 Weld size provided = 6 mm
Material F.O.S of weld, f mw = 1.25 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]
Length of Weld = 3460 mm
Ultimate stress of weld, f u = 410 MPa
Strength of weld, f wd = 410/(1.732x1.25) = 189.38 MPa
Capacity of Weld = 189.38x0.707x6x3460/1000 = 2780 kN
>729.8 Hence, OK
[cl. 512.4.5.1.1 IRC:24-2010]

Page 32
DESIGN OF BEARING STIFFENER:
Maximum factored shear, V = 1419.80 kN
Thickness of Bearing stiffener provided, t b = 20 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange of Girder at support = 25 mm
Thickness of Web of Girder at support = 16 mm Depth of Web = 500 mm
Number of Bearing stiffener provided = 1
Outstand of stiffener provided = 125 mm
Maximum effective outstand of stiffener = 14x20x0.78 = 218.4 mm
[cl. 509.7.1.2 IRC:24-2010]
Effective outstand to be considered = 125 mm
Stiff Bearing Length = 0 mm [cl. 509.7.1.3 IRC:24-2010]
Length obtained by disperssion of load in 1:2.5 sloppe, n 2 = 2x2.5x25 = 125 mm
Yield stress of Web, f yw = 410 MPa Material Safety factor, γ m0 = 1.1

125

16 20

125

a) Check against Compression:


Buckling resistance of stiffener, F w = (0+125)x16x410/1.1/1000 = 745.45 kN
<1419.8 Hence, Web stiffener required
[cl. 509.7.4 IRC:24-2010]
MI about centre line of Web= 2x20x125³/12+2x20x125x70.5²+125x16³/12 =
31404333 mm4
Area of the sitffener including web = 2x20x125+125x16 = 7000 mm2
Radius of Gyration about web, r y = √(31404333/7000) = 66.98 mm
Effective length of stiffener, L = 0.7x500 = 350 mm
[cl. 509.7.1.5 IRC:24-2010]
Buckling Class= c α = 0.49 λ = 0.08 φ = 0.47
χ LT = 1.00 f cd = 373 MPa
Design resistance of stiffener, F qd = 7000x373/1000 = 2611 kN
>1419.8 Hence, OK
[cl. 507.1.2.1 IRC:24-2010]
a) Check against Bearing:
2
Area of stiffener in contact with flange, A q = 2x20x125 = 5000 mm
Yield stress of stiffener, f yq = 410 MPa
Bearing Strength of stiffener, F psd = 5000x410/(0.8x1.1x1000) = 2329.55 kN
>1419.8 Hence, OK

DESIGN OF CONNECTION BETWEEN BEARING STIFFENER AND WEB :


Design Shear force at Bearing stiffener = 1419.80 kN
Additional Force if any = 0 kN
Total Shear force for the stiffener = 1419.80 kN
No. of weld surface = 4 Weld size provided = 6 mm
Material F.O.S of weld, f mw = 1.25 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]
Length of Weld = 1x4x1780 = 7120 mm
Ultimate stress of weld, f u = 410 MPa
Strength of weld, f wd = 410/(1.732x1.25) = 189.38 MPa
Capacity of Weld = 189.38x0.707x6x7120/1000 = 5720 kN
>1419.8 Hence, OK
[cl. 512.4.5.1.1 IRC:24-2010]

Page 33
 
 
 
 
 
DESIGN OF SHEAR 
CONNECTOR 
 
 
 

Page 34
DESIGN OF SHEAR CONNECTOR BETWEEN SPLICE AND MIDSPAN

PROPERTIES OF CONNECTOR:
Diameter of Stud used, d  = 22 mm Ht. of Stud, h s  = 150 mm
Number of studs provided in one row, n = 3
Characteristic strength of concrete, F ck   = 40 MPa
Partial safety factor for stud,   v = 1.25
Ultimate tensile stress of stud, f u = 495 MPa
Characteristic cylindrical strength of concrete, f ck(cy ) = 32 MPa
Secant modulus of Elasticity of concrete, E cm  = 33000 MPa [Table III‐1 IRC:22‐2015]
0.8f u  d /4  v  =
2
0.8x495xPIx22^2/(4x1.25) = 120426.0 N
  = 1
0.29 d 2 sqrt(f ck(cy) E cm )/  v = 115389.2 N
Ultimate Static Strength per connector, Q u  = 115.39 kN [cl. 606.3.1.1 IRC:22‐2015]
 Q u = 3x115.39 = 346.17 kN
CHECK FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE:
Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Moment of inertia for Transient condition = 80261364563 mm4
Depth of Neutral axis from top for transient  = 605.77 mm
Moment of inertia for Permanent condition = 65808289119 mm4
D h fN
Depth of Neutral axis from top for Permanent  =
l i f f P 822
822.81
81 mm
Modulur Ratio for Transient condition = 7.5
Modulur Ratio for Permanent condition = 15

First moment of area above flange about NA for Transient loading
= (2500x220x495.77+627x207x282.27)/7.5
= 41241205 mm3
First moment of area above flange about NA for Permanent loading
= (2500x220x712.814830292695+627x207x499.314830292695)/15
= 30456915 mm3

V VL
(kN) (kN/m)
197.78
Transient Loading 385
34.99
Sustained Loading 76
Total= 232.77
[cl. 606.4.1 IRC:22‐2015]
V VL
(kN) (kN/m)
196.54
Fatigue Loading 255

Spacing of Shear Connector , S L1  = 346.17x1000/232.77=  1487 mm

Page 35
CHECK FOR LIMIT STRENGTH OF FATIGUE:
Design normal and shear fatigue stress of Stud,   fn   = 67 MPa [Table 5 IRC:22‐2015]

Design Life of the structure = 100 yrs. Avg. No. of occurrence per day  55


Total number of stress cycle, N SC = 365x100x55 = 2007500
Fatigue stregth of Stud connector,  f  = 67x⁵√(5x10⁶/2007500) = 80.42 MPa [cl. 606.3.2 IRC:22‐2015]
Ultimate Static Strength per connector, Q r   = 80.42x380/1000 = 30.57 kN [Table 8 IRC:22‐2015]
 Q u  = 3x30.57 = 91.71 kN
Design force due to fatigue load = 196.54 kN/m
Spacing of Shear Connector , S R = 91.71x1000/196.54=  467 mm [cl. 606.4.2 IRC:22‐2015]

CHECK FOR FULL SHEAR CONNECTION:
Width of Bottom Flange = 560 mm Material Safety factor, m0  = 1.1
Thickness of Bottom Flange = 25 mm Yield stress, f y  = 390 MPa
Thickness of Top Flange = 25 mm Yield stress, f y  = 390 MPa
2
C/S area of Tensile flange, A sl  = = 560x25 = 14000 mm
Effective area of concrete slab = 2500x220 = 550000 mm2
H 1  = 14000x390/(1.1x1000) = 4964 kN
H 2  = 0.36x40x550000/1000 = 7920 kN
Maximum possible compressive force = 4964 kN
Actual Span of Girder, L = 34 m
Spacing of Shear Connector , S L2  = 346.17x1000x34/4964=  2371 mm [cl. 606.4.1.1 IRC:22‐2015]
Maximum Spacing of Shear Connector , S L  = 21x25x√(250/390) = 420.34 mm [cl. 606.9 1a) IRC:22‐2015]
Spacing of Shear Connector provided , S = 280 mm

DESIGN OF TRANSVERSE SHEAR:
DESIGN OF TRANSVERSE SHEAR:
Length of possible shear plans envelop, L  = 720 mm
Yield stress of Transverse reinforcement, f yk  = 500 MPa
Transverse reinf. Provided in Haunch= Y12 @ 150 C/C
2
Area of transverse reinf provided per metre run, A h   = 15.08 cm /m [cl. 606.12 IRC:22‐2015]
n  = 3 Fig. 12b
0.632L√f ck  = 2877.93 kN/m
0.232L√f ck  + 0.1A st f yk n  = 3318.45 kN/m
Longitudinal Shear force, V L  = 2877.93 kN/m
Transverse steel required = 2.5x2877.93/500 = 14.39 cm2/m
<15.08 Hence, OK [cl. 606.10 IRC:22‐2015]

Page 36
DESIGN OF SHEAR CONNECTOR BETWEEN SPLICE AND SUPPORT

PROPERTIES OF CONNECTOR:
Diameter of Stud used, d  = 22 mm Ht. of Stud, h s  = 150 mm
Number of studs provided in one row, n = 3
Characteristic strength of concrete, F ck   = 40 MPa
Partial safety factor for stud,   v = 1.25
Ultimate tensile stress of stud, f u = 495 MPa
Characteristic cylindrical strength of concrete, f ck(cy ) = 32 MPa
Secant modulus of Elasticity of concrete, E cm  = 33000 MPa [Table III‐1 IRC:22‐2015]
0.8f u  d /4  v  =
2
0.8x495xPIx22^2/(4x1.25) = 120426.0 N
  = 1
0.29 d 2 sqrt(f ck(cy) E cm )/  v = 115389.2 N
Ultimate Static Strength per connector, Q u  = 115.39 kN [cl. 606.3.1.1 IRC:22‐2015]
 Q u = 3x115.39 = 346.17 kN
CHECK FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE:
Width of Deck slab working as composite section = 2500 mm
Thicknessof Deck slab = 220 mm
Width at Haunch top = 834 mm
Width at Haunch bottom = 420 mm
Thickness of Haunch = 207 mm
Moment of inertia for Transient condition = 70347843754 mm4
Depth of Neutral axis from top for transient  = 566.03 mm
Moment of inertia for Permanent condition =
Moment of inertia for Permanent condition = 60092871172 mm4
Depth of Neutral axis from top for Permanent  = 770.23 mm
Modulur Ratio for Transient condition = 7.5
Modulur Ratio for Permanent condition = 15

First moment of area above flange about NA for Transient loading
= (2500x220x456.03+627x207x242.53)/7.5
= 3.8E+07 mm3
First moment of area above flange about NA for Permanent loading
= (2500x220x660.229627449752+627x207x446.729627449752)/15
= 2.8E+07 mm3

V VL
(kN) (kN/m)
347.99
Transient Loading 650
106.54
Sustained Loading 228
Total= 454.53
[cl. 606.4.1 IRC:22‐2015]
V VL
(kN) (kN/m)
325.04
Fatigue Loading 405

Spacing of Shear Connector , S L1  = 346.17x1000/454.53=  762 mm

Page 37
CHECK FOR LIMIT STRENGTH OF FATIGUE:
Design normal and shear fatigue stress of Stud,   fn   = 67 MPa [Table 5 IRC:22‐2015]

Design Life of the structure = 100 yrs. Avg. No. of occurrence per day  55


Total number of stress cycle, N SC = 365x100x55 = 2007500
Fatigue stregth of Stud connector,   f  = 67x⁵√(5x10⁶/2007500) = 80.42 MPa [cl. 606.3.2 IRC:22‐2015]
Ultimate Static Strength per connector, Q r   = 80.42x380/1000 = 30.57 kN [Table 8 IRC:22‐2015]
 Q u  = 3x30.57 = 91.71 kN
Design force due to fatigue load = 325.04 kN/m
Spacing of Shear Connector , S R = 91.71x1000/325.04=  282 mm [cl. 606.4.2 IRC:22‐2015]

CHECK FOR FULL SHEAR CONNECTION:
Width of Bottom Flange = 560 mm Material Safety factor, m0  = 1.1
Thickness of Bottom Flange = 25 mm Yield stress, f y  = 390 MPa
Thickness of Top Flange = 25 mm Yield stress, f y  = 390 MPa
2
C/S area of Tensile flange, A sl  = = 560x25 = 14000 mm
Effective area of concrete slab = 2500x220 = 550000 mm2
H 1  = 14000x390/(1.1x1000) = 4964 kN
H 2  = 0.36x40x550000/1000 = 7920 kN
Maximum possible compressive force = 4964 kN
Actual Span of Girder, L = 34 m
Spacing of Shear Connector , S L2  = 346.17x1000x34/4964=  2371 mm [cl. 606.4.1.1 IRC:22‐2015]
Maximum Spacing of Shear Connector , S L  = 21x25x√(250/390) = 420.34 mm [cl. 606.9 1a) IRC:22‐2015]
Spacing of Shear Connector provided , S = 140 mm

DESIGN OF TRANSVERSE SHEAR:
Length of possible shear plans envelop, L  = 720 mm
Yield stress of Transverse reinforcement, f yk  = 500 MPa
Transverse reinf. Provided in Haunch= Y12 @ 150 C/C
2
Area of transverse reinf provided per metre run, A h   = 15.08 cm /m [cl. 606.12 IRC:22‐2015]
n  = 3 Fig. 12b
0.632L√f ck  = 2877.93 kN/m
0.232L√f ck  + 0.1A st f yk n  = 3318.45 kN/m
Longitudinal Shear force, V L  = 2877.93 kN/m
Transverse steel required = 2.5x2877.93/500 = 14.39 cm2/m
<15.08 Hence, OK [cl. 606.10 IRC:22‐2015]

Page 38
 
 
 
 
 
DESIGN OF END CROSS GIRDER 
 
 
 

Page 39
DESIGN OF END CROSS GIRDER:

SUMMARY OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR AT MID SPAN

MOMENT
SHEAR
LOAD CASE (kNm)
(kN)
Selfweight of Girder 215 413
Weight of Deck Slab 580 1144
Weight of Crash Barrier 121 204
Super Imposed Dead load 150 284

DESIGN DURING JACKING STAGE:

Properties of Girder:
Width of Top Flange = 310 mm Width of Bottom Flange = 310 mm
Thickness of Top Flange = 20 mm Thickness of Bottom Flange = 20 mm
Depth of Web = 980 mm Thickness of Web = 20 mm
Effective Length of the member, L LT = 2500 mm
Overall depth = 1020 mm Depth of N.A from top = 510.00 mm
C/S area = 32000 mm2 Depth of N.A from bottom = 510.00 mm
Moment of Inertia about major axis, I zz = 4669066667 mm4
4
Moment of Inertia about major axis, I yy = 99956667 mm
rz= 381.98 mm ry= 55.89 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z ez = 9155033 mm
3
Elastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z ey = 644882 mm
Depth of Equal area axis from top = 510.00 mm
Depth of Equal area axis from bottom = 510.00 mm
3
Plastic Setion Modulous about major axis, Z pz = 11002000 mm
3
Plastic Setion Modulous about minor axis, Z py = 1059000 mm
Type of section Welded Section

Check of Top Flange Outstand:


Yield stress = 410 MPa ε = 0.78
Outstand of Flange, b = 145 mm b/t f = 7.25 8.4ε<7.25≤9.4ε
Hence, Top flange is Compact [Table 2 IRC:24-2010]

Check of Web:
Yield stress = 410 MPa ε = 0.78
Clear Depth of web, d = 980 mm d/t w = 49.00 ≤84ε
Hence, Web is Plastic
Hence the overall section is Compact [Note 4 under Table 2 IRC:24-2010]

Page 40
Calculation of the resistance of the section against material failure due to Bending about major axis:
Yeid stress of steel, f y = 410 MPa
Material Safety factor, γm0 = 1.1 [Table 1 IRC:24-2010]
β b= 1 [509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]
Centre to centre between two flanges, h f = 980+10+10 = 1000 mm
2 0.5
π²x200000x99956667x1000 1 2500/55.89
M cr = 1+
2x2500² 20 1000/20

= 1.61E+10 Nmm
= 16097.25 kNm

√(βbZpfy/Mcr) = 0.53 √(1.2Zefy/Mcr) = 0.53

Non dimensional slenderness ratio, λLT= 0.53 α LT = 0.49 φ LT = 0.72


χ LT = 0.83 f bd = 308 MPa

M dz = 1x11002000x308/10⁶ = 3389 kNm [cl. 509.2.2 IRC:24-2010]

Checking of the Ultimate Capacity:

Mz Muz Mdz Inter


(kNm) Factor (kNm) (kNm) action
Selfweight of Girder 413 1.35 558 3389 0.16
Wt of Deck slab 1144 1.35 1544 3389 0.46
Wt of Crash Barrier 204 1.35 275 3389 0.08
SIDL 284 1.75 497 3389 0.15
Total Interaction = 0.85
<1 Hence, OK

DESIGN FOR SHEAR:


Yield stress of Girder Web, f yw = 410 MPa

V
(kN) Factor Vn
Selfweight of Girder 215.0 1.35 290
Wt of Deck slab 580.0 1.35 783
Wt of Crash Barrier 121.0 1.35 163
SIDL 150.0 1.75 263
Total 1499.10

Simple Post Critical method : [cl. 509.4.2.2 a) IRC:24-2010]


deth of web, d = 980 mm Thickness of Web, t w = 20 mm
d/t w = 49.00

Type of Web Unstiffened Spacing of stiffeners, c = 1150 mm

Kv = 5.35
Poisson's Ratio, µ = 0.3
5.35π²x200000 MPa
τ cr,e = = 402.78
12(1-0.3²)x49²
Non dimensional web slenderness, λ w = √[410/(√3x402.78] = 0.77
Hence, λw≤0.8
τv = 410/√3 = 236.71 MPa
2
Shear Area, A v = 980x20 = 19600 mm
V cr = 236.71x19600/1000 = 4639.52
>1499.1 Hence OK

Page 41
 
 
 
 
 
DESIGN OF INTRMEDIATE 
CROSS FRAME 
 
 
 
 
Page 42
DESIGN OF CROSS FRAME:

Stress in Compression Flange during construction =


(4610.25+2438.1)x10^6x1008.78/26269755742 = 270.66 MPa
Width of Comp. Flange = 420 mm Thickness = 25 mm
Maximum compressive Force = 270.66x420x25/1000 = 2841.93 kN
Considering 2.5% of this acting on Lateral Frame = 71.05 kN
Spacing between Girders = 2.50 m
Gap between Top and Bottom chord = 1.78 m
Angle between digonal and chord = tan⁻¹(1.78/1.25) = 54.92 °
Force on diagonal members = 71.05/(2cos54.92°) = 61.82 kN

2.50

71.05

1.78
.82 61
61 .82

54.92°

DESIGN OF TOP LATERAL TIE MEMBER:


Let's use 2ISMC125
2 4 4
Area = 1670 mm Izz = 4250000 mm Iyy= 611000 mm
distance of CG from Web face = 19.5 mm Gap = 12 mm

2
Area of combined section = 2x1670 = 3340 mm
4
Izz of combined section = 2x4250000 = 8500000 mm
4
Iyy of combined section = 2x611000+2x1670x(19.5+6)^2 = 3393835 mm
Lz = 1.25 m rz = 71.34 mm L z /r z = 17.52
Ly = 2.50 m ry = 45.08 mm L y /r y = 55.46

Critical Slenderness ratio, = 55.46


f cc = 641.84 MPa Yield stress, fy= 250 MPa
λ= 0.62 α= 0.49 γ m0 = 1.1
φ= 0.80 χ= 0.55 f cd = 125.41 MPa
Compression Capacity of Lateral Tie = 125.41x3340/1000 = 418.87 kN
>71.05 Hence, OK

Page 43
DESIGN OF DIAGONAL MEMBER:
Let's use 2ISA 75x75x8
2 4 4
Area = 1140 mm Izz = 590000 mm Iyy= 590000 mm
distance of CG from Web face = 21.4 mm Gap = 12 mm

2
Area of combined section = 2x1140 = 2280 mm
4
Izz of combined section = 2x590000 = 1180000 mm
4
Iyy of combined section = 2x590000+2x1140x(21.4+6)^2 = 2891733 mm
Lz = 1.740 m rz = 32.17 mm L z /r z = 54.08
Ly = 2.175 m ry = 50.36 mm L y /r y = 43.19

Critical Slenderness ratio, = 54.08


f cc = 674.81 MPa Yield stress, fy= 250 MPa
λ= 0.61 α= 0.49 γ m0 = 1.1
φ= 0.79 χ= 0.56 f cd = 127.76 MPa
Compression Capacity of Lateral Tie = 127.76x2280/1000 = 291.29 kN
>61.82 Hence, OK

Page 44