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RURAL DEVELOPMENT COLLEGE- KWASO

(DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT)

SINGLE PARENTING AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF

STUDENTS. A STUDY OF BASIC SCHOOL PUPILS IN KWASO.

BY

GROUP 17

A PROJECT WORK SUBMITTED TO THE RURAL DEVELOPENT COLLEGE IN

PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF

DIPLOMA IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.

JUNE, 2018.

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DECLARATION

Students’ Declaration

We hereby declare that this thesis is the result of our own work and that no other part of it has

been presented in whole or in part for another diploma in this college or elsewhere except

references which have been duly cited.

NAME OF STUDENTS INDEX NUMBER SIGNATURE

AMONU GYAMFUAH ESTHER (RDC/ 1944/16) ……………….

ERIC ACHEAMPONG (RDC/1912/16) …………….....

AGYEMANG ANNORBRA LILY (RDC/1936/16) ……….............

ADOKU EBENEZER (RDC/1920/16) …………………

ADUSEI SAMUEL (RDC/1928/16) …………………..

Date: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Supervisor’s Declaration

I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of this project was done in accordance with

the guidelines on writing of project work set out by the Rural Development College.

Signature ………………………….. Date: ……………………………….

Name: Mr. John Abuga

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to express our gratitude to the Almighty God for his continuous presence in our lives.

Also, to our supervisor Mr. Abuga John, we say, we are so grateful for your support, guidance,

patience, and suggestions throughout the whole work.

To our families for their continuous love, care, support and their prayers over the years of our

studies we say may God replenish your sacrifices.

Also to all respondents who volunteered to spend time in responding to our questions we express

our sincere gratitude for accepting and giving us all the support that we needed.

Finally, to all those who through their effort made this research project a success, we say,

“THANK YOU‟‟ and may God bless you all.

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DEDICATION

We dedicate this work to our families, friends, loved ones and all who have been helpful to us

throughout our studies.

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ABSTRACT

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TABLE OF CONTENT

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LIST OF TABLES

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CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Parents are the first point of contact of children. When both parents are present it implies that

the children would derive most care (Ortese, 1998). However when one of the parent is absent in

a child‟s life, a gap is created as the child would lose the support that would have emanated from

that parent. There are increasing changes in the family structure in contemporary societies; one

of which is the single-parent families. Globally, single parent families are increasing rapidly. For

instance, Grall (2009), reported that there are approximately 13.7 million single parents in the

USA with more than 12 million single parents in custody of over 20 million children in 2000.

This increased to 21.8 million children raised by single parents in 2009 (about 26% of children

21 years and below). In South Africa, about 28% of women are single parents. Again, according

to Steck (2009) the number of divorce cases leading to single parenting has risen considerably in

Europe since 1960s and that the most affected countries include the United Kingdom, Portugal,

Denmark and Belgium.

According to the Center for marriage and families (2005), over the past 35years in the United

States of America children being raised in two-parent homes have dropped significantly from

about 85% in 1968 to 70% in 2003. However, the population of children living in single-parent

homes has nearly doubled. In similar vein, Anderson (2002) found that almost half of all children

by age 15 will have lived in a single parent family. In Nigeria, Adelani and Ogunbanwo (2008)

found that there is an upsurge of single parents. These are been linked to relationship breakdown

or increasing rates of divorce and birth of child out of wedlock.

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Raising a child or children by one parent, either the mother or father alone, for most of the time

is reported to be quite challenging, placing extraordinary demands on both the parent and the

children (Bronnimann, 2007). In some societies, as reported by a single mother, it is more of a

stigma AAPH (2011). Salami and Alawode (2000) asserted that single parenting results from

divorce, separation of various kinds, having children from wedlock or death of one spouse which

leaves the roles in the hand of a single parent.

According to the Ghana Statistical Service [GSS] (2012), the population of Ghana 12 years and

older constitute 16,886,305. Out of the total [7,237,730] 42.9 percent of them are married, 1.9

percent are separated, 3.4 percent are divorced while 4.9 percent of them are widowed .This

shows that in Ghana about [1,713,743] that is 10.2 percent of the people are single parents that is

those separated, divorced and widowed.

Single parents may have profound negative impact on student‟s academic performance as parents

play an important role in most children‟s academic development. Previous research indicates that

children from both parents perform better than children from single parents. This was attributed

to the limited time a single parent has to spend on their child‟s academic work.

This study is therefore to investigate the effects of single parenting on children‟s academic

performance in Kwaso in the Ejisu Municipality to either confirm or disapprove these previous

findings.

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1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study seeks to investigate single- parenting and its effects on school children‟s academic

performance. There are many students within our school system that come from single-parent

families. Due to the many issues that stem from single- parent families, some students are unable

to reach their full potential.

Again, an analysis of data by the National Association of Education Procurement (1986),

indicated that third graders living with one parent score considerably lower than third grades

living with both parents. It is widely believed that children from broken homes have high

incidence of academic, emotional and behavioral problems than children from two parent family.

Ideally, children are supposed to live with both parent in order for them to be assisted with both

academic and social activities that will help them to achieve full potentials and become more

than happy children in the society. However, there are situations where children live or stay with

only one parent. When it happens like this, children do not get the necessary parental guidance.

These children sometimes become wayward by dropping out of school. Again, Fischer (2007)

indicated that children who grow up in household with only one biological parent are worse of

average than children who grow up in household with both of their biological parents.

On the other hand, some studies identified many positive effects of single parenting on the

children, parents and even on the society such as the ability and ease with which to take all

financial decisions, being close to children, undivided love thus maintaining closer ties, easier to

make rules, and enforce such rules for children to follow. Children in single-parent family are

believed to contribute and participate more in family activities and therefore children grow up

with a sense of respect, responsible citizens, as well as allowing parents spend quality time, thus

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increasing bonding. In addition, children tend to experience community support and warmth

from extended families and contribute/participate more in family activities. It is also reported

that some have more empathetic, sensitive, caring adults because of their deprivation, thus

getting more support and assistance.

1. 3 Research Questions

1. What are the causes of single parenting in Kwaso?

2. What are the challenges single parents encounter in educating their children in Kwaso?

3. What are the effects of single parenting on the academic performance of students in Kwaso?

1.4 Objectives of the study

1.4.1 General objective of the study

The general objective of the study is to determine the effects of single- parenting on the

academic performance of students.

1.4.2 Specific objectives of the study

Specifically, the study seeks to;

1. Find out the causes of single parenting in Kwaso.

2. Find out the challenges single parents in Kwaso face in educating their children.

3. Find out the effects of single-parenting on the academic performance of students.

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1.5 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms used in the study are explained below.

Single-parenting: This is a situation in which one of the two individuals involved in the

conception of the child is being responsible for the upbringing and welfare of the child (White &

Child, 1973).

In this study single parenting refers to only the mother or father of the child taking care of him or

her.

Effects of single parenting: These are both the positive negative aspects that single parenting

have on the lives and academic performance of children or students in this study.

In this study, effects of single parenting refer to the negative impact of a single parent on the

child‟s performance in school.

Students: People who are in school to learn and acquire knowledge and skills.

For the purpose of this study, student refers to pupils in basic school (upper and lower primary).

Academic performance: Is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved

their short or long –term educational goals.

In this study, academic performance refers to a student‟s grades or marks obtained from

examinations conducted in the school.

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1.6 Significance of the Study

Research into the effects of single parenting on the academic achievement of students will

eventually be of massive relevance.

First, it would create awareness for policy makers to consider the necessary measures to help

support children from single parent‟s homes towards their academic achievements. The outcome

of this study will be an additional reference material to other academia‟s to design strategies to

deal with increasing falling standards of education of students from single parent homes.

It would also make it necessary for parents to be responsible and committed to their children‟s

socialization process towards their academic development.

Finally, undertaking of this research will equip the researchers with the necessary skills to

undertake further researches in the future.

1.7 Description of the Study Area

Kwaso can be found in the Ashanti region of Ghana. It is a community under the Ejisu

Municipality. In terms of location, it can be found at the eastern part of Ejisu long the Lake

Bosomtwe road. It is surrounded by communities such as Korase, Essienimpong, and Piase.

Kwaso was founded by a hunter by name Nana Amoako Panin after he discovered a stream

during hunting and caught a fish from the stream for his dog and the dog did not die so he named

the stream Kwaso. Kwaso is ruled by a chief and the main occupation of the people is farming.

The community has a mini sized market which operates daily but Tuesdays are the „market‟

days.

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In terms of educational facilities, the community has two basic schools that is the M/A and the

Presby primary schools. The Rural Development College is also situated in the town. The

community also has a rural bank, a police station, a court and many Small and Medium scale

Enterprises or businesses (SMEs). The population of Kwaso is estimated at three thousand

(3000) according to the 2010 population and housing census.

1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the background to the study, the

statement of the problem, research questions, research objectives, significance of the study,

profile of the study area and the organization of the study. Chapter two presents an overview of

existing literature. Chapter three contains the research methodology. It describes the research

design and the tools that were used in data collection and analysis for the study. Data analysis

and presentation of findings are in Chapter four. It also includes a discussion of the data

collection from the field. Chapter five contains the summary of findings, recommendations and

conclusion.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the relevant literature is reviewed. The chapter is grouped under the following

sub-sections.

 The concept single parenting

 Causes of single parenting

 Challenges of single parenting

 Effects of single parenting on the academic performance of students.

2.2 The Concept Single Parenting

According to Keller et al (1997) single parenting refers to a situation where mothers or fathers

raise their children without the presence of the other spouse. Again, single parenting to Whiting

and Child (1993) is a situation in which one of the two individuals involved in the conception of

the child is responsible for the upbringing of the child. Dowd (1997) defined a single parent as a

parent, not living with a spouse or partner, who has most of the day-to-day responsibilities in

raising the child or children.

In the view of Kinnear (1999), single parenting has contributed to the less performance of

students academically. It has also contributed massively on the less development in our various

societies, countries and the world as a whole.

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2.3 Causes of Single Parenting

There are several causes of single parenting. However, two major demographic trends underlie

the rise of single parenting over the past several decades. These are increase in birth to unmarried

women and increased rate of death. Data from the US Census Bureau (2000) after the conduct of

a population Survey (1990-2000) showed that one-third of all single parenting situations are

attributed to unmarried women giving birth. The survey also found that death of a parent as a

cause of single parenting has seen a decline in the past 50 years.

2.3.1 Divorce

Divorce is one of the main events that lead to single parenting in advanced countries (Amato

2000). Although not all single parenthood is due to divorce, marital dissolution is the largest

contributor to the number of children living with one parent. For instance according to Chelin

(1981), half of all marriages begun in the mid 1990‟s will end in a divorce. Recent statistics

indicates that in the future divorce maybe even higher (Burnpass, 1989). Again, Kinnear (1999)

found that of all single parenting families, a majority that is 58% of all cases were attributed to

divorce.

Rodgers (1996) estimated that, 50% of children born in recent cohort will spend some part of

their childhood with single parents as a result of separation and divorce. Strong et al (2002)

opined that as many as one couple out of every six marriages are likely to have separated for at

least two days.

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2.3.2 Death of one parent

According to Amato (2000) single parent families were historically as result of parental death.

About one-fourth of children born around the turn of nineteenth century experience death of a

parent before they reached age fifteen. Amato further stated that, the factors most commonly

related present day US single family are changing social and cultural trends, increased rate of

divorce.

Single parent families headed by fathers are growing in many regions of the world. This is

largely due to increase rate of death or mortality. “There are nearly 3 million single parents in

UK of which approximately 10% are single fathers with dependent children” (Kinnear, 1999).

Although parental status might not be directly modifiable by clinicians, single parenthood is

readily ascertainable and is an important social factor that has been shown to adversely affect

health. To date research on single parents largely focused on single mothers. Single mothers

generally has lower socio economic status, poorer self-related health and mental health, higher

level of psychological distress and more health related problems and hospital admissions than the

general population resulting in death of most mothers causing single parents in UK.

2.3.3 Increase in birth to unmarried women

Some out of wedlock births are intended, but many are unintentional. Where out of wedlock

births are accepted by society, they may result in single parenting. According to Kendall (2003)

when women give birth to many children without marriage, she is very likely to experience

single parenting because if the man realizes that the children are too many for him to cater for, he

may then want to escape his responsibilities in the home as the father by either travelling with or

without coming back again to support the woman and the children.

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Women who give birth outside their marriage tends to be disadvantaged than their counterparts

both before and after the birth. Unmarried women generally have lower income, lower

educational levels and are more likely to be dependent on welfare assistance compared with

married mothers. A majority of unmarried births now occur to co-habiting parents: between 2006

and 2010, 58% of unmarried births were to cohabiting parents, in 2002, the proportion was 40%

(Strong et al, 2002). Children born to cohabiting parents are more likely to see their parents

eventually marry than those born to non-co-residential parents. Children born to unmarried

mothers are more likely to grow up in a single parent household, experience instable living

arrangements, live in poverty and have socio emotional problems. As these children reach

adolescence, they are more likely to have low educational attainment, engage in sex at a younger

age and have birth outside of marriage (Strong et al, 2002).

2.3.4 Desertion

Desertion is one of the ways to single parenthood in our society. It is a situation whereby either

the father or the mother walks away from the marriage, leaving the other party without help or

support. Desertion is also known as the poor man‟s divorce (Kendall, 2003).

2.4 Effects of Single Parenting

This section looks at the effects of single parenting on the schooling of students. It looks at the

psychological and academic achievements of children from single parent homes.

2.4.1 Psychological Well-Being

There is research evidence concluding that the effects on children‟s psychological well-being are

enormous when their parents‟ divorce. Clarke-Stewart & Hayward (1996) found that children

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from divorced homes are emotionally affected. For example a study by Arendell (1986)

concluded that divorced women complained about the prevalence of the stereotype that their

children are likely to experience most of which take place in their school environment which

affects their academic outcome. However, additional research suggested that children who lived

with their fathers had greater sense of well-being than those children who lived with their

mothers after divorce (Biller & Kimpton, 1997). Azuka-Obieke Uchenna (2013) also found that

children from single parent homes are more likely to suffer deprivations and denials of some

rights and opportunities that will have negative psycho-social impact on them in school years.

Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan (1997) did an analysis of children from single homes and those

living with both parents. The study found that although children from divorced homes did

experience more psychological and behavioral problems than children from intact homes, 70% to

80% of these children emerge as “reasonably competent and well-adjusted individuals” after a

time of readjustment to the divorce. Downey and Ainsworth-Darnell (1998) indicated that

although general statistics show that overall, children living with both parents tended to be

emotionally strong and highly involved, 46%- 49% of children from single parent homes are also

emotionally strong.

2.4.2 Academic Performance

Lack of parental involvement is the biggest problem in public schools (Pitman, 1993). Where

parents are involved, the students have higher grades, test scores and graduation rates, better

school attendance, increased motivation, better self- esteem, low rates of supervision, decreased

use of drugs and alcohol and fewer instances of violent behavior.

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According to Pitman (1993), compared with two- parent families, children of single parents are

more likely to have lower educated goals and complete fewer years of school, have lower

earnings and poor in young adulthood, marry and bear children at early an age, get divorced and

become involved in delinquency, alcohol abuse and drug addiction.

Again, Knox (1996) indicated that more often than not, when parents separate or divorce

children often lose both financial and emotional support of their fathers, which can have a

negative impact on academic performance.

In contrast, there are a few studies that believe that the single parent households may not have as

widespread and adverse an effect on academics as publicized. Findings suggest that conventional

wisdom may exaggerate the detrimental effects on father absence (Debell, 2007).

2.5 Conclusion

It will be of great importance to the communities, societies, countries and the world as a whole to

detect how single-parenting affects children in their daily lives and their academic performance.

This will ensure that authorities make it a duty and concern to find appropriate ways and means

to solve these problems.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter captures the research methods and procedures that were used to the identify effects

of single-parenting on the academic performance of students. It among others includes, research

design, target population, sample size, sampling techniques, techniques of data collection and

data analysis and presentation.

3.2 Research Design

Research design according to Mouton (2003) is a plan or blue print of how you intend

conducting the research. This study is a survey. Surveys are often part of research designs

(usually in the form of a questionnaire) and in this study, a survey is used to probe the pupil‟s

knowledge with regards to the effects of single parenting on their academic performance.

3.3 Target Population

The target population for the study was basic schools pupils who are from single parent homes as

well as pupils who lived with both parents.

3.4 Sampling Technique

A sample is smaller groups obtained from the accessible population while ensuring that the

sample size is neither too large nor too small but rather optimum, that is; one that fulfills the

requirement of efficiency, representativeness, liability and flexibility (Kothari, 2004).

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In this study, purposive sampling technique was used. This was to ensure that only children who

fall under the target population become part of the study. The simple random sampling technique

was then used to select the respondents for the study. This technique ensured that each child

who fell under the target population had an equal chance of been part of the sample.

3.5 Sample Size

Considering the fact that it is practically impossible for the researchers to enumerate all students

who fell within the target population due to time and financial constraints, 30 pupils were

purposely selected to participate in the study.

3.6 Sources of Data

In this study, both primary and secondary data source of information was used to collect all the

necessary information. Secondary data involved the use of research that focused on published

text books and unpublished books, articles, newspapers and internet searches. The responses to

the questionnaires administered on the field constituted the primary sources of data.

3.7 Data Collection Instrument

This study employed questionnaire and direct observation in collecting data from the field. The

questionnaires were close ended with alternatives provided for respondents to choose from.

3.8 Data Analysis and Presentation

The data collected from the field was analyzed using SPSS and the results presented in tables for

easy visualization and understanding.

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CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter of the research work discussed and analysed the data collected from the field for the

purpose of obtaining the objective of the study.

4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Children

This part looked at the personal characteristics of the respondents. Among the personal

characteristics of the respondents were the gender, age range and their religious affiliation. Table

4.1 captures these characteristics.

Table 4.1 Demographic characteristics of children

Variable Frequency Per cent


Gender
Male 14 47
Female 16 53
Total 30 100
Age group
7-9 11 36.7
10-12 15 50.0
13-15 3 10.3
Above 15 1 3.3
Total 30 100
Religion
Christianity 29 96.7
Islam 1 3.3
Total 30 100
Source: Field data, 2018.

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From table 4.1, it is seen that about 47% of the respondents are males while the remaining 53%

are females. This shows that a majority of the respondents are females. This outcome is

attributed to the fact usually in basic schools; the female population are more than the males.

Again, it is seen that from table 4.1, about 38% of the respondents fall within the age group 7-9,

50% fall within the age group 10-12 and also 10% of the respondents fall within the age group

13-15. From the findings it can be seen that most of the children fall within the age group 10-12

indicating most children in the basic schools are very young and therefore makes it difficult for

them to take decisions for themselves. The researchers also looked at the religious affiliation of

the respondents. The results as contained in table 4.1 showed that 29 out of the 30 sampled

respondents are Christians while only one of them is a Muslim. This finding shows that

Christians are many in the school and confirms the fact that Kwaso is a Christian dominated

town.

4.2 Causes of single parenting

Single parenting is caused by many factors. The researchers therefore sought to find out some of

the causes of single parenting in Kwaso. The results are shown in table 4.2.

Table 4.2 Residence of child

Who child stays with Frequency Per cent


Mother 9 30.0%
Father 3 10.0%
Both Parents 15 50.0%
Other relatives 3 10.0%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

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From table 4.2 it is seen that 50% of the respondents lived with both parents. 50% of them also

stay with either only the mother or father or other relatives. Specifically, 30% of them stayed

with the mother only while 10% stayed with their fathers and other relatives respectively. With a

majority of the children from single parent homes staying with their mothers only suggests that

most of the single parents in Kwaso are women. This is attributed to the fact that young children

always feel comfortable living with their mothers than fathers.

Table 4.3 Cause of single parenting

Cause of single parenting


Frequency Per cent
Travelling (Migration) 9 60
Separation 2 13
Divorce 1 7
Death 3 20.0
Total 15 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

From the fifteen children who indicated that they stayed with single parents, a majority of them

that is 60% indicated that the other parent had travelled (migrated). 13% of them attributed to it

separation of the parents while 7% was due to divorce and 20% of it is attributed to death of the

other parent. This finding shows that the major cause of single parenting in Kwaso is traveling or

migration. This suggests that migration is high especially among men in Kwaso. This finding is

contrary to an earlier finding by Amato (2000) that divorce is one of the main events that lead to

single parenting in advanced countries.

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Table 4.4 Number of siblings respondent has

Number of siblings Frequency Per cent


2-3 11 36.7%
4-5 12 40.0%
more than 5 7 23.3%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

From table 4.4, it is seen that a majority (40.0%) of the respondents have 4-5 siblings, about 37%

have 2-3 siblings while 23% of them have more than five siblings. The finding shows that all the

respondents have more than a sibling. This implies a high dependency ratio in families and its

attendant economic hardship. The greater the number of children in a family the more these

children have to share available family resources resulting in the children given smaller amounts

of money for school and inability to buy them new uniforms.

Table 4.5 Employment status of respondent‟s parents

Is your parent working? Frequency Per cent


Yes 23 76.7%
No 7 23.3%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

From table 4.5, it is seen that most of the respondents‟ parents that is about 77% of them are

working. 23% of them however are not working. This shows that even though they are single

parents, most of them are working and therefore can take care of their children.

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4. 3 Effects of Single parenting

The researchers sought to unravel the effects single parenting has on the schooling of the

children from such homes. The results are discussed below.

Table 4.6 Child welfare in school

Are you given money when going to


school? Frequency Per cent
Yes 29 96.7%
No 1 3.3%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

From table 4.6, it can be seen that almost all the respondents that is close to 97% of them are

given money to buy food in school. However, 3% of them go to school without money or food.

This shows that single parents in Kwaso are responsible and do not leave their children to go to

school with empty stomachs.

Table 4.7 Amount of money given to respondents for school

Amount of money Frequency Per cent


below 50 pesewas 1 3.3%
1-2 cedis 28 93.3%
3-5 cedis 1 3.3%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

From Table 4.7 it can be seen that, 3% of the respondents are given less than 50 pesewas for

school daily, another 3% are given between 3-5 cedis for school daily while about 94% of them

are given between 1-2 cedis for school daily. 94% of the respondents‟ parents give them 1-2

cedis daily for school because earlier analysis in table 4.2 showed that a majority (78%) of the

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respondents had 2-5 siblings. This means that the little monies parents have has to be shared for

these children.

In the basic school, pupils report to school at 7:30 am and close at 2:00 pm in the afternoon.

Looking at the time they spend in school within the day and the amount of money they take to

school, it shows that it is not enough for them and for that matter can affect their academic

activities in school.

Table 4.8 Parents ability to buy books for respondents

Parent ability to buy books Frequency Per cent


Yes 24 80.0%
No 6 20.0%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

Table 4.8 looked at the ability of the respondents‟ parents to buy them books for use in school.

The results showed that 80% of the respondents‟ parents buy them books which are relevant to

their studies in school while 20% of the respondents‟ parents are unable to buy books for them.

This finding of the study shows that parents in Kwaso are much concerned with the educational

needs of their children.

Table 4.9 Number of years child has been wearing uniform

Age of uniform Frequency Per cent


Less than a year 14 46.7%
2-3 years 11 36.7%
4-5 years 5 16.7%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018.

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Table 4.9 looks at how long the respondents have been wearing their uniform. The results show

that about 83% of the respondents have worn their uniforms for between 1-3 years and about

17% of the respondents have worn theirs for between 4-5 years. It can be seen that minority of

the respondents have worn their uniform for many years but most of them have worn theirs for

lesser years showing that most of the parents are doing well in terms of clothing their children

for school.

.Table 4.10 Academic performance of respondents

Academic performance Frequency Per cent


Not improved 4 13.3%
Improved 22 73.3%
Gone down 4 13.3%
Total 30 100.0%
Source: Field data, 2018

From table 4.10, out of the 30 respondents 22 of them representing about 74% indicated that

their academic performance has improved irrespective of the type of parent(s) they stay with.

Four of them each representing 13% indicated that their academic performance has improved or

gone down respectively. This result shows that majority of the respondents academic

performance has gone up or improved, showing that single patenting has no much negative

effects on the academic performance of students. It also shows that the single parents are playing

their parenting roles effectively hence this outcome.

The findings of this study is contrary to an earlier study by Knox (1996) who found that single

parenting can lead to loss of both financial and emotional support which can have a negative

impact on the academic performance of children.

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CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This is the final chapter of the entire research work. This chapter covers the summary of the main

findings from the field, conclusion and some recommendations made by the researchers based on

the findings of the study.

5.2 Summary of key Findings.

On the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents the study found that 47% of them

were males while 53% were females revealing that there are more females in the basic schools

than males. Again with regards to the age of the respondents, the study found that the majority

of them were young as 88% of them are between ages 7-12. On the religious affiliation of the

respondents, the study found that 98% of them are Christians while the remaining 2% are

Muslims.

On the causes of single parenting, the study found that traveling or migration was the major

cause of the act while the other causes of the occurrence are separation, divorce and death. The

study also found that most of the respondents came from homes with siblings of 2-3. With

regards to whom children from single parent homes stayed with, the study found that a majority

(30%) stayed with their mothers. This suggests that most of the single parents in Kwaso are

mothers (females). However, the study found that 77% of all the single parents are economically

engaged and therefore are able to buy books, uniforms and give their children money to buy food

in school on a daily basis.

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On the effects of single parenting on the academic performance of the pupils, the study found

that single parenting did not have any have negative effects on the academic performance of such

pupils. A majority (74%) of them indicated that their academic performance had improved.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that migration is the major cause of single

parenting and mothers are usually the single parents. However, single parenting does not have

much negative effects on the pupil‟s academic performance.

5.4 Recommendations

The following are recommendations put forward as a result of the outcome of the study:

1. Parents should increase the amount of money they give to their children to buy food in

school.

2. The absent parent should not abandon their responsibilities. They should remit their

spouses and children.

3. Parents should have time for their children at home by assisting them to do their

homework and other academic activities.

4. Parents should consider family planning methods to minimize their family size so that

they can take care of them very well.

5. Parents should do well and buy new uniforms for their children from time to time so that

they can look descent all the time.

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REFERENCES

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P.T. Ortese, single-parenting in Nigeria; Counseling Concern and Implications, The Counselor

16(1) (1998), 61-66

Single parenting in the NinetiesA Rainbow of Emotions, (1996), parents place,

http://www.parentsplace.com

Single parenting in the NinetiesDeveloping a Healthy Self-esteem in your child, (1996), parents

place, http//www.parentsplace.com.

S.O. Salam and E.A. Alawode, Influence of Single-parenting on the academic achievement of

adolescent in secondary schools, Implications for Counseling, department of Guidance and

Counseling University of Ibadan

Ghana Statistical Service: (August, 2005) Ghana Population Data Analysis Report, Vol.1 Accra,

Ghana

Keller, A., Ford, L., &Meacham, J. (1997). Dimension of self-concept in preschool children.

Developmental Psychology, 14, 483-489.

Cherlin, A. (1981). Marriage, divorce, remarriage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Bumpass, L. (1994). A social map of midlife: Family and work over the middle life course

U.S. Bureau of the census. (2000). Census 2000 data. Washington, DC: Author

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Rothbart, M. L. K. (1971). Birth order and mother-child interaction. New York: Cambridge

University Press

Knox W. Virginia (2004).National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Journal of Human Resources,

ERIC Journal

Neequaye, A. R., &Neequaye, J. E. (1995). Factors that could influence the spread of AIDS in

Ghana: Knowledge of AIDS, Sexual behavior, prostitution, traditional medical practices. Journal

of Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome, 1, 4, (a), 914

Bryan, S. & Devault, C. (1998). The marriage and family experience; intimate relationship in the

changing society. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-

analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26-46

Amato, P.R. (1993). Children‟s adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and Empirical

support. Journal of Marriage and Family, 55, 23-38.

Bronnimann S (2007) The stress of single mothers and its effects on quality child care. URJHS 7.

American Association of Professional Hynotheapist, AAPH (2011) US Census Bureau

Grall TS (2009) Custodial Mothers and Fathers and their child support: Washington: US Census
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on child rearing. Continental J Nursing Science. Wilolud Online Journals.

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APPENDIX

RURAL DEVELOPMENT COLLEGE-KWASO

(DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT)

Questionnaire

We are final year students of the above school conducting an academic research. This research is

conducted to ascertain “The effects of single parenting on the academic performance of students.

A study in Kwaso”. This work is purely for academic purpose. Confidentiality of respondents is

assured.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIDREN

1. What is your gender? a) Male [ ] b) Female [ ]

2. What is your age? a) 4-6 [ ] b) 7-9 [ ] c) 10-12 [ ] d) 13-15[ ] e) above 15 [ ]

3. What is your religion? a) Christianity [ ] b) Islam [ ] c) Traditional [ ] d) Others [ ]

4. What is your class? a) Lower primary [ ] b) Upper primary [ ] c) JHS [ ]

SECTION B: CAUSES OF SINGLE PARENTING

5 .Who do you stay with? a) Mother [ ] b) Father [ ] c) Both [ ] d) Others (please be specific) [ ]

6. If only one then where is the other? a) Travelled [ ] b) Separated [ ] c) Divorced d) Death [ ]

7. How many siblings do you have? a) Don‟t have [ ] b) 2-3 [ ] c)4-5 [ ] d) more than 5 [ ]

8. Do your parent(s) work? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ].

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SECTION C: EFFECTS OF SINGLE PARENTING ON CHILDREN’S EDUCATION

9. Do your parent(s) give you money to buy food in school? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]

10. If yes how much? a) Below 0.50p [ ] b) 0.50p [ ] c) 1-2 cedis [ ] d) 3-5 cedis [ ]

e) More than 5[ ]

11. Are your parent(s) able to buy you all the books you need for school? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]

12. How many years have been using your current uniform? a) Less than one year [ ] b) 2-3

years [ ] c) 4-5 years [ ] d) more than five years[ ]

13. Has your performance in class improved or gone down? a) Not improved [ ] b) improved [ ]

c) gone down [ ]

THANK YOU FOR CO-OPERATION

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