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ABSTRACT

There are some methodologies being used in the design part, by individuals who are involved in the design process i.e. designers, material manufacturers, building products suppliers and added members of the building productiveness, to help reduce its impact on nature and be more sustainable. There are technology based solutions available with us to make the building more efficient and there are passive solutions to reduce the expense and impact of technologies by using more natural methods of allowing nature to do the work. There is also the approach of using innovative natural means

that mimic the environment itself in order to minimize negative

environmental impacts of the building on nature.

These design solutions are introduced through an approach known as biomimicry. There is a general saying that biomimicry is the idea of using actual

nature in design, and there is the saying, by others, largely in the science fields,

that biomimicry is just the idea of using the natural design of nature and the

environment to inspire our own design.

is just the idea of using the natural design of nature and the environment to inspire

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY PROBLEM STATEMENT The purpose of this dissertation is to find out the various biomimic

BIOMIMICRY

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The purpose of this dissertation is to find out the various biomimic

aspects that can be used in a building to make it more towards

sustainable. Also to study how these concepts are utilized in a building.

AIM

The aim of the dissertation is to study the concept of biomimicry in order to evolve design strategies that make a building more appealing, close to nature and also make it more towards sustainable building. Also, I want to make the appropriate use of resources that shall be

involved in my project.

OBJECTIVE

This dissertation contends that not only the appearance of a building matters. The building needs to be responsible towards environment. Organisms in nature face the same challenges we do, but they meet them sustainably. By observing animals, plants and natural procedures, we gain vision into what works and what does not. For us, these observations are helpful in both the design procedure and motivating new ideas using natural skills.

Major objectives of the study are:

To find all the possible ways that are part of biomimicry and can be involved in design.

To briefly understand the three different forms of biomimicry.

To study the buildings/ spaces designed on biomimicry concept and

evaluate the techniques used in them.

 To study the buildings/ spaces designed on biomimicry concept and evaluate the techniques used in

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY SCOPE The scope of this dissertation is the study and analysis of biomimicry as

BIOMIMICRY

SCOPE

The scope of this dissertation is the study and analysis of biomimicry as a important tool for sustainable architectural designs and construction, concentrating on the various possibilities of applying selected biomimetic principles in upcoming design processes, thus highlighting an important link between biomimicry and architecture and outlining its potential for future sustainable design.

INTRODUCTION

Biomimicry originates from two Greek words

Bios = Life Mimesis= imitate

Biomimicry is the idea of using the natural design of nature and the environment to inspire our own design. Biomimicry can be applied to improve the way the built environment is designed,

through site work, construction, and daily operations, and to reduce

the impact it has upon the natural environment through numerous strategies of reducing carbon emissions, waste and more. There are vast amounts of knowledge and ideas available to inform possible solutions to architectural design that will also allow designs to be more sustainable.

There are three forms of Biomimicry:

Biomorphic

Bio-utilization

Biophilic

be more sustainable. There are three forms of Biomimicry: • Biomorphic • Bio-utilization • Biophilic BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY HISTORY • Evidence of biomimicry can be proven to have been in practice through

BIOMIMICRY

HISTORY

Evidence of biomimicry can be proven to have been in practice through

Leonardo da Vinci, and may have been the inspiration for the first domes, which may have been designed based on eggs.

Leonardo da Vinci used nature and biology to inspire many of his designs and concepts during his time.

The term biomimicry was not referenced in scientific literature until in

1962.

The practice, of using biomimicry for inspiration, first began to become

popular in 1980 among material scientists who were seeking to

redevelop materials based on mimicking nature to improve upon them and find new innovative approaches.

Janine M. Benyus (b 1958), American writer and scientific observer from Montana, wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature” in

1997.

In 1998 she co-founded the Biomimicry Guild which helps inform, inspire and empower the bridging of nature’s wisdom with human knowledge.

PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY

Nature runs on sunlight.

Nature uses only the energy it needs.

Nature fits form to function.

Nature recycles everything.

Nature rewards cooperation.

Nature banks on diversity.

Nature demands local expertise.

Nature curbs excesses from within.

Nature taps the power of limits.

BIOMIMICRY

LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY

Mimicking a form or a shape from nature

The first level is Organism- this refers to mimicking a specified

organism. This could be the entire organism or a portion of the

organism.

Mimicking a process carried out by nature

The second level of biomimicry is the Behavior level. This refers to

imitating a specific type of behavior or act which an organism does to survive or replicates on a daily basis in relation to a larger context.

Mimicking a material and how it performs or mimicking of natural ecosystems

The third level of biomimicry is Ecosystem- this states to mimicking a

specific ecosystem and how it functions successfully as well as what features and principles are required for it to function effectively.

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY
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BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY ORGANISM LEVEL • Namibian Beetle and Water Collection Namibian beetle, also known as the

BIOMIMICRY

ORGANISM LEVEL

Namibian Beetle and Water Collection

Namibian beetle, also known as the African Stenocara beetle, lives in a desolate desert that

rarely sees any rainfall. Even though there is less than one inch of rainfall per year, there is frequently fog in the morning. There are bumps on

the beetle’s shell which are hydrophilic (water-

attracting) along with alternate parts to its shell which are hydrophobic (water-repelling). The hydrophobic parts to the shell act like channels or groves for water and moisture. During the hot day

the beetle is exposed to the radiating sun and its

black shell absorbs a lot of the heat. When nightfall approaches, it comes out from below the ground and climbs to the top of a mound and waits for the morning to come. Because the beetle’s temperature is a lot warmer than its surroundings,

it is a beacon for moisture. When the morning fog

rolls in, water droplets from the fog are combined and collected on the beetle’s shell.

moisture. When the morning fog rolls in, water droplets from the fog are combined and collected
moisture. When the morning fog rolls in, water droplets from the fog are combined and collected

Hydrological Center for the University of Namibia, Matthew Parkes

The building is a sequence of pods that are placed behind a tall, slightly-

curved nylon net screen which is used to collect water. The nylon net wall is

leaning towards the ocean so that it can sufficiently capture as much moisture as possible from the fogs that come easing in off the ocean front.

The water collects on the mesh screen and because of its shape and vertical orientation, the water naturally runs down the mesh into

gutter system located at the bottom of the screens. The water is then

transported through the gutters into large cisterns that keep the water at an appropriate cooler temperature so that the water does not evaporate.

large cisterns that keep the water at an appropriate cooler temperature so that the water does
large cisterns that keep the water at an appropriate cooler temperature so that the water does
large cisterns that keep the water at an appropriate cooler temperature so that the water does

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY ORGANISM LEVEL • Termite Mound and Temperature Regulation

BIOMIMICRY

ORGANISM LEVEL

Termite Mound and Temperature Regulation

BIOMIMICRY ORGANISM LEVEL • Termite Mound and Temperature Regulation

Eastgate Center, Zimbabwe, Mick Pearce The Eastgate Center is mostly made of concrete which is an excellent

material to use as an insulator as well as absorbing heat from the sun.

The outside air that is brought into the building is either warmed or

cooled depending on the temperature of the buildings mass. If the buildings mass is cooler, than the air that enters the structure would also be cooled. The air is then directed upwards towards the chimney but on its way up to the top it passes into the building’s floors and

offices. The building is actually made up of three parts; two exterior

structures and a glass center that connects them together. The glass space in the center also participates in natural convection and is usually open to the local breezes.

The glass space in the center also participates in natural convection and is usually open to
The glass space in the center also participates in natural convection and is usually open to

BIOMIMICRY

BIOMIMICRY ECOSYSTEM LEVEL Coral Reef Project Haiti Over the past few years, Haiti has been

BIOMIMICRY

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

Coral Reef Project Haiti

Over the past few years, Haiti has been victims to devastating earthquakes, ranging from 7.0 and up on the Richter scale, which had a substantial impact on the country as a whole. Everyone was forced to watch as their homes and community were destroyed by these

tremendous natural disasters.

Vincent Callebaut, who is the founder of Vincent Callebaut Architecte, looked to nature as the basis for his design proposal. Callebaut explored the principals behind coral reefs. Coral is basically underwater structural formations that consist of calcium carbonate.

the principals behind coral reefs. Coral is basically underwater structural formations that consist of calcium carbonate.
the principals behind coral reefs. Coral is basically underwater structural formations that consist of calcium carbonate.

This unit is made up of two passive houses, having metallic structure and tropical wood facades, which interlocks in duplex round the horizontal circulation which joins every single unit. When these houses, or modules, are accumulated together, they form the organic shape of the two waves of “corals”. Because they

were designed in this way, the modules have the ability to cantilever out over one

another which gives the opportunity for an organic garden to be present on every module, using the roof of the unit below as the garden. The roof gardens then serve as a way for each family to cultivate and grow their own food, making them self-sufficient.

What makes this design so unique is that it is actually constructed

from only using one standardized and prefabricated module. It is the placement and orientation of each module that give the overall scheme a non-uniform design aesthetic.

The project also features hydro-turbines which are located underneath

the pier. The hydro-turbines use the kinetic energy from the sea and convert it into

electrical energy. To capture solar energy, arrays of photovoltaic panels are also placed on the top of the roofs. In the center of the two coral waves, there is spiraling wind turbines which generate power from the tropical wind that passes through the valley. With all of these systems working as one, the design becomes a self-sufficient, carbon neutral village for the people of Haiti.

systems working as one, the design becomes a self-sufficient, carbon neutral village for the people of

BIOMIMICRY

Expressionism and Symbolism in Biomimicry

LOTUS TEMPLE, New Delhi The Lotus Temple situated in New Delhi, India, popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its flowerlike shape, is a Bahai Community House of Worship and also a prominent attraction in Delhi. The building was completed in 1986 and now serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. The worship house was designed by Iranian architect Fariborz Sahba.

Light in interiors

The whole superstructure is planned so as to function as a skylight.

The internal dome is spherical and decorated after the inmost portion of the lotus flower. Light enters the hall in the same way as it passes through the inner folds of the lotus petals.

The central part of the temple is held by nine open petals where each of which is utilised as a skylight.

The interior dome, therefore, is sort of a bud consisting of twenty seven petals, and light-weight filters through these inner folds and is subtle throughout the hall.

BIOMIMICRY

of twenty seven petals, and light-weight filters through these inner folds and is subtle throughout the
of twenty seven petals, and light-weight filters through these inner folds and is subtle throughout the
of twenty seven petals, and light-weight filters through these inner folds and is subtle throughout the

Cooling method adopted:

Building as a chimney

The dominant hall of the temple is planned to function as a chimney, with openings at top and bottom (stack affect) This

ensures a continuous drought of cool air to pass over the pools in basement and hall

Cool air (heavy) is drawn from the bottom openings and hot air

(light) is emitted out from the top. This process is reversed in humid days

The natural gradient of land is used in construction of certain large basement at the level of pools. The floor of auditorium is lowered by five steps so that they act as louvers for cool air entrance

Two sets of exhaust fans complement this whole system.

The first of dome cools the concrete shell and therefore prevents transference of heat. The second set chimneys air from the auditorium to the cold basement for cooling and recycles it back.

BIOMIMICRY

CONCLUSION

Nature is always forced to adapt to new things much like humans

are. For example, the climate that is always changing and now with global

warming it is even more apparent that nature must find its own ways to adapt. Insects, mammals, reptiles, plants, trees, and other types of vegetation have evolved over centuries in order to survive in such a dynamic environment; and those that have not and were unable to adapt die off but

still contribute to the equal balance of life. Those types of adaptations and

evolving principals in nature should be studied and implemented into the built environment. Creating a sustainable built environment is not done by integrating just solar panels on every building. Humans need to be more in-

tune with nature and look at nature for inspiration. Designs that mimic nature’s beauty and elegance should not just be on a material or form basis;

it should be from a thorough understanding of the philosophy and principals

that make those solutions from nature work successfully. Now looking back at the question, can we take the philosophy behind natures living organisms and use them to aid in the development of mankind? We definitely can and should to find a new way to survive that not only benefits humans, but the natural environment as well. Represented thoroughly in this report, Biomimicry can be used as an integrative architectural design component in order to achieve this, and create complete unity between the building, the users, and the environment.

in order to achieve this, and create complete unity between the building, the users, and the

BIOMIMICRY