Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jretconser

Online grocery shopping in Thailand: Consumer acceptance and usage T


behavior
Fabian Driedigera, , Veera Bhatiasevib

a
International College of National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand
b
Mahidol University International College, Thailand

ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT

Keywords: This study is the first of its kind to examine the acceptance and usage behavior of online grocery shopping in
Online grocery shopping Thailand. It proposes an extension of the technology acceptance model, including subjective norm, visibility,
TAM perceived risk, and perceived enjoyment to better understand the factors and the extent to which they lead to the
Thailand acceptance or rejection of online grocery shopping. In order to accurately test the variables and the relationships
Acceptance
of the proposed research model, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to 450 residents in the Bangkok
Behavior
area, of which 263 valid responses were returned back to the researcher. Instrument development was done by
using existing scales and items from the current literature on technology acceptance. Partial least squares
structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for this research, with the results emphasizing that perceived
ease of use, perceived usefulness, intention to use, subjective norm, and perceived enjoyment have a statistically
significant relationship towards the acceptance of online grocery shopping in Thailand. By contrast, visibility
and perceived risk were found to have no significant impact on the perceived usefulness of online grocery
shopping. The results and implications are summarized in the discussion part of this paper where valuable
recommendations for decision makers are provided.

1. Introduction online, while 55% expressed their willingness to do so in the future.


Interestingly, among all tested regions, OGS is particularly popular in
The global online grocery shopping (OGS) market reached $48 Asia-Pacific and other developing markets (The Nielson Company,
billion in 2016 and has grown 15% within the last year, according to 2015).
Kantar Worldpanel (McKevitt, 2016). The same report states that e- Current academic literature has researched different aspects of on-
commerce currently accounts for 4.4% of all fast-moving consumer line grocery shopping, including well-established acceptance models,
goods (FMCG), while the whole FMCG market grew at only 1.6% per such as the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Hansen, 2008; Hansen
annum. Given the enormous size of the global grocery market ($8.8 et al., 2004; Ramus and Nielsen, 2005), theory of reasoned action (TRA)
trillion in 2015), the currently low e-commerce penetration in the in- (Hansen et al., 2004), and technology acceptance model (TAM)
dustry combined with the high growth rate of OGS clearly demonstrates (Childers et al., 2001; Kurnia and Chien, 2003). Another common area
that businesses have no option but to concentrate resources into the of research are situational factors and triggers that can explain the
digital world. However, as the Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD) adoption of online grocery shopping (Hand et al., 2009; Robinson et al.,
points out, the growth rate for groceries varies heavily among high, 2007). Situational factors, such as having a baby or having health
middle, and low income countries (Johnson, 2015). They identified problems, can explain online grocery shopping adaptation (Hand et al.,
middle income countries to be the major driver for growth, making up 2009). The general acceptance of e-commerce has been researched in
almost 70% of global growth. According to The Nielson Company cross- cultural studies, suggesting that e-shopping adoption and beha-
(2015), retailers are increasingly introducing e-commerce models in vior varies among different nations and cultures (Choi and Geistfeld,
order to attract tech-savvy and time-conscious consumers. The market 2004; Park and Jun, 2003). Park and Jun (2003) researched the dif-
research investigated the shopping preferences of consumers on a ferences between American and Korean consumers in terms of their
global scale, including 30,000 respondents from 60 countries. They internet buying behavior and concluded that there are significant dif-
discovered that one quarter of the respondents already order groceries ferences in the perceived risk of conducting e-commerce. Choi and


Corresponding author.
E-mail address: f.driediger@gmail.com (F. Driediger).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.02.005
Received 2 March 2018; Received in revised form 12 December 2018; Accepted 8 February 2019
Available online 27 February 2019
0969-6989/ © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Table 1
Literature Review OGS.
Authors Topic Methods Findings

(Park et al., 1996) Consumer perceptions of Home Qualitative study Consumer experience increased convenience and express perceived
Shopping (OGS) in the US. risk.
(Hiser et al., 1999) Willingness to use OGS in Texas, Quantitative study (n = 390) Consumer express convenience and perceived risk as major influence.
US. Older people are less likely to use OGS.
(Morganosky and Cude, 2000) Consumer response to OGS in the Quantitative study (n = 243) Convenience and saving time are primary reasons to use OGS.
US.
(Childers et al., 2001) Hedonic and utilitarian motivations Quantitative study (Hedonic: TAM was confirmed. Navigation, convenience, and sub-experience
for OGS in the US. n = 274) (Utilitarian: n = 366) are significant.
(Raijas, 2002) Consumer benefits and problems Quantitative study (n = 93) Study confirms convenience and perceived ease of use to be
using OGS in Finland. important.
(Rohm and Swaminathan, OGS motivations in the US. Quantitative study (n = 429) Convenience, store orientation, information use, and variety seeking
2004) are significant factors.
(Hansen, 2008) OGS and consumer values in Quantitative study (n = 1058) Theory of planned behavior was confirmed. Openness to change, and
Sweden self-transcendence do not influence attitude towards OGS.
(Hand et al., 2009) Influence of situational factors on Qualitative study Quantitative Situational factors can explain continued or discontinued usage.
OGS in the UK. study (n = 1128)
(Hui and Wan, 2009) OGS in Singapore Quantitative study (n = 211) Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are strong predictors
for behavioral intention. Intention to use is influenced by age,
education and income.
(Anesbury et al., 2015) Observational study of OGS in Quantitative study (n = 40) OGS behavior is similar to offline shopping behavior.
(Mortimer et al., 2016) Impact of shopping frequency on Quantitative study (n = 555) Significant differences between frequent and infrequent users for
perceived risk in Australia. perceived risk.

Geistfeld (2004) further found that Korean consumers show a higher including perishables. The ordering process is generally managed by e-
extent of subjective norm, compared to their American counterparts, commerce websites or mobile apps. According to Chaffey (2011), e-
when shopping online. While the existing literature certainly provides a commerce is defined as “all electronically mediated information ex-
comprehensive overview of the different acceptance models and their changes between an organization and its stakeholders” (p. 14).
ability to explain OGS acceptance in US and European markets, further Research in the field of OGS started in the late 90s Park et al.
research is necessary in order to test their ability of prediction in the (1996), found that high-tech baby boomers utilized home shopping
environment of developing countries, such as Thailand. Thus, more services because of their urge to streamline their lives and that online
studies need to be conducted in countries culturally different to those in shopping offered one solution to increase convenience. The same study
the existing literature. also suggests, that consumers are concerned about security risks. Fur-
In order to fill this current research gap in the academic literature thermore did they express their concerns towards perceived risks. An-
and to forge more knowledge about the OGS acceptance in developing other study from Hiser et al. (1999) analyzed the familiarity and will-
countries, this study addresses the following research objectives. ingness to use online food shopping services in a local area of Texas, US.
The study confirmed consumers’ perceived convenience towards OGS.
Perceived convenience and saving time as the main reasons for OGS
1. To test whether the relationships from existing e-commerce literature
were also confirmed in studies by Morganosky and Cude (2000) and
replicate for online grocery shopping in Thailand.
2. To determine the factors and the extent to which they lead to the acceptance Raijas (2002). Contrary to these studies, Rohm and Swaminathan
of online grocery shopping. (2004) failed to confirm the importance of time savings, and recreation
3. To determine and recognize the factors with the highest extent of influence on and enjoyment. With regards to the technology acceptance model,
Thai consumers’ acceptance of online grocery shopping. Childers et al. (2001) Found that perceived usefulness and perceived
4. To form managerial guidance and recommendations concerning the accep-
tance of online grocery shopping.
ease of use are strong predictors for OGS usage. In a recent study by
Mortimer et al. (2016), researchers investigated the impact of shopping
frequency on perceived risk. The findings suggest that customer sa-
Answering these research objectives will help fill the current gaps in tisfaction is a strong predictor for infrequent and frequent online
the existing literature and help scholars in identifying differences in the shoppers, while perceived risk has the ability to fully mediate the effect
acceptance of online grocery shopping in the context of developing of trust on the repurchase intentions for infrequent shoppers.
countries. A comprehensive literature review is provided in the next Despite comprehensive studies of consumer behavior and accep-
section, discussing the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the tance of OGS in US and European markets, it remains unclear whether
concept of online grocery shopping (OGS). Afterwards, the paper will the results can be applied to other parts of the world. Cultural differ-
describe the research methodology employed, including instrument ences in power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and
development, data collection, and participants’ characteristics. collectivism, masculinity and femininity, and long- versus short-term
Subsequently, the research model and its hypotheses are defined and orientation are well- studied subjects and known to influence people’s
elucidated, followed by a detailed analysis of the data and its results. purchasing behavior (Hofstede, 2001). For instance, a study conducted
The paper will eventually conclude with a discussion and implications by Choi and Geistfeld (2004) has shown that subjective norm is more
part. important to South Korean consumers in comparison to their counter-
parts in the US. However, as exhibited in Table 1, the English-speaking
2. Literature review literature holds little information about OGS acceptance in emerging
markets such as Thailand.
2.1. Online grocery shopping
2.2. Online grocery shopping in Thailand
Online grocery shopping (OGS) or electronic grocery shopping
(EGS) is a form of e-commerce that allows private individuals and The OGS market in Thailand is still relatively young and in the
businesses to purchase foodstuffs and various household supplies, often growing stage of the product life cycle, although it has already attracted

225
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

quite a number of businesses to the industry. Not surprisingly, large Ever since its introduction, TAM has been applied to different
brick and mortar stores, such as Tesco Lotus, were among the first to technologies, under different situations, with different control factors,
offer their services online (Rungfapaisarn, 2016a). The company re- and different subjects, and is well proven to be a robust model (Lee
portedly describes their major online shoppers to be in the age group of et al., 2003). Several meta-analyses have confirmed its powerful char-
25–44 years old who rate convenience as the number one reason for acteristics. In a comprehensive study by King and He (2006), 88 pub-
online shopping. Interestingly, Tesco Lotus claims that the average lished studies that utilized TAM were analyzed and results have shown
online basket size is 3.5 times as large as at the physical store that TAM is indeed a valid and robust model. The authors further
(Rungfapaisarn, 2016a). pointed out that TAM is a complete mediating model that explains the
Big C is another huge player in the grocery shopping industry in effect of PEOU on behavioral intention primarily through PU. Another
Thailand and also offering its products through several e-commerce meta-analysis that analyzed 145 published studies identified three main
platforms. However, the company reports that sales from the online factors as the root of TAM’s popularity (Yousafzai et al., 2007). Firstly,
channels are still small and further confirms its online customers’ pre- the model is described as specifically designed towards information
ference for convenience and customized offers (Rungfapaisarn, 2016b). technology and as a good measure to provide explanation and predic-
While the OGS market is growing, it provides a great opportunity for tion of a diverse user population’s acceptance of a wide range of
research in order to explain certain consumer behavior. The driving technologies, within varying organizations, cultural contexts, and ex-
forces such as growth of the middle income class and its move from a pertise levels. Secondly, TAM has a well-recognized theoretical back-
low-income country to an upper-income country are expected to help ground, is well researched, and provides a validated inventory of
OGS to improve its acceptance in Thailand (World Bank, 2018). Fur- measurement scales. Thirdly, because the model is well researched, it
thermore, the strong female workforce (45.7% of the total workforce) has accumulated a strong empirical support for its explanatory qualities
might be another accelerator for OGS in Thailand (World Bank, 2017). and attributes. It is therefore considered to be the prevailing model of
With reference to general e-commerce acceptance in Thailand, most users’ acceptance of technology. According to the valuable insights of
existing academic research focuses on the adoption of small and previously conducted research and analyses, this study will therefore
medium enterprises, rather than individual consumers (Lertwongsatien employ the modified version of TAM and further integrate four external
and Wongpinunwatana, 2003; Limthongchai and Speece, 2003; variables, namely subjective norm, visibility, perceived risk, and en-
Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003; Sutanonpaiboon and Pearson, joyment.
2006). Sutanonpaiboon and Pearson (2006) found that non-adoption of
e-commerce among SMEs can be explained by cultural, technological, 3. Research model and hypotheses
financial, and logistical reasons. Probably the most comprehensive
work on internet usage behavior among Thai consumers was conducted As described previously, the TAM consists of 4 permanent variables.
by the Electronic Transactions Development Agency (ETDA) and the The belief on a system’s perceived ease of use (PEOU) can be a predictor
Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (ETDA, for its perceived usefulness (PU). This relationship has been supported
2016). This annually executed survey aims to collect information about in several studies (King and He, 2006). According to Davis (1989),
users’ internet usage behavior and to provide implications for policy- PEOU is defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using a
makers and businesses. According to the latest report, 59% of internet particular system would be free of effort” (p. 320). The term “effort”
users purchase goods online, suggesting a great confidence and trust refers to the finite resources a person may allocate to the activities he or
among online shoppers. Thailand’s e-commerce industry is currently she is responsible for (Radner and Rothschild, 1975). PU is defined by
booming and expected to see double-digit growth in the future, Davis (1989) as “the degree to which a person believes that using a
meaning that the number of consumers today, 11 million, is likely to particular system would enhance his or her job performance” (p. 320).
double in the next three to five years (Potkin, 2016). As both definitions imply, they were initially intended to measure
people's technology acceptance in a job setting, but have long been
2.3. Technology acceptance model transferred and tested in various other fields (Yousafzai et al., 2007).
According to several studies, in various fields, such as mobile
The technology acceptance model (TAM), originally articulated to commerce (Wu and Wang, 2005), e-commerce (Ha and Stoel, 2009),
explain the behavior of computer usage, was derived from the theory of and internet banking (Lai and Li, 2005) have confirmed that PEOU
reasoned action (TRA) (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975, 1980). Due to its positively affected PU at a significant level. A study on the impact of
robust characteristics, TAM is the most commonly employed model to cognitive absorption on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use
explain an individual’s acceptance of a particular information system in online learning has accepted the positive relationship between PEOU
(Lee et al., 2003). The model was first introduced by Davis (1989) and and intention to use (ITU) (Saadé and Bahli, 2005). Lallmahamood
has ever since been used in countless studies to predict and explain why (2007) who tested the relationship in a study on the acceptance of in-
users accept or reject information technology (Legris et al., 2003). TAM ternet banking in Malaysia also supported this relationship. A study
introduced two new variables, namely perceived usefulness (PU) and about the intention to use the Internet among Chinese older adults
perceived ease of use (PEOU), and proposed them as the major de- further confirmed the relationship (Pan and Jordan-Marsh, 2010).
terminants for attitude towards a given technology. Con- Translated to the context of our study, the intention to use OGS is in-
temporaneously, Davis (1989) suggested that further external variables fluenced by a user’s belief on whether OGS is free of effort.
have to be defined in order to explain perceived usefulness and per- The influence of PU on ITU was shown to be positive in a study
ceived ease of use. The model considers PEOU and PU to be the most conducted in Thailand concerning the structural relationship for the
important variables in explaining system use (Legris et al., 2003). De- determinants of cloud computing adoption in education (Bhatiasevi and
spite its high extent of adoption, many researchers have since expressed Naglis, 2015). A positive relationship was also supported in a study by
the need for additional variables to provide an even stronger model Klopping and McKinney (2004) who tested the acceptance of consumer
(Legris et al., 2003). In their proposed extension, Venkatesh and Davis e-commerce. The relationship was further confirmed in a study on
(2000) removed attitude towards a given technology because of its mobile wireless technology adoption (Kim and Garrison, 2009). Along
weak prediction of both behavioral intention and actual system use. with the previously conducted studies in various technological fields,
The decision was confirmed and supported by several other studies hypotheses are proposed as follows:
(Lederer et al., 2000; Teo et al., 1999; Wu and Wang, 2005). Ad-
H1. PEOU is positively related to the PU of online grocery shopping.
ditionally, the new model re-introduced subjective norm as an external
variable (Venkatesh and Davis, 2000). H2. PEOU is positively related to the ITU of online grocery shopping.

226
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

H3. PU is positively related to the ITU of online grocery shopping. and formulated:
According to the original TAM, behavioral intention to use a given H6. VIS is positively related to the PU of online grocery shopping.
system is positively related to the actual system use (Davis, 1989). It is
worth mentioning that 47% of the studies related to TAM measure self-
reported usage and only 9% measure the actual usage (Yousafzai et al., 3.3. Perceived risk
2007). However, there is still enough literature available to support this
hypothesis. A study by Horton et al. (2001) confirmed the positive re- The perceived risk (PR) of using a given technology is another factor
lationship in an attempt to explain intranet use with TAM, tested in two originating from the diffusion of innovation theory (Rogers, 2010).
UK companies. The relationship was also found to withstand in the field According to Rogers (2010), PR comprises of several facets, such as
of e-commerce (Klopping and McKinney, 2004). In a comprehensive psychological risk, social risk, performance risk, financial risk, time
literature review of the TAM’s ability to predict actual use, the re- risk, and privacy risk. For the purpose of this study we will classify PR
searchers summarized, based on 73 published articles, that intention to as a combination of performance risk, time risk, and privacy risk. Per-
use is likely to be correlated with actual use (Turner et al., 2010). Since formance risk is defined as “the possibility of the product mal-
our study does not measure the actual usage of the respondents, but functioning and not performing as it was designed and advertised and
rather self-reported habits, the term “usage behavior” is used (UB). therefore failing to deliver the desired benefits” (Grewal et al., 1994, p.
Verification of previous studies leads to the following hypothesis: 455). In the context of this study, it translates to the consumer’s risk of
not receiving the groceries in the expected and desired condition. Time
H4. ITU is positively related to the UB of online grocery shopping.
risk is defined as the possibility of “making a bad purchasing decision
by wasting time researching and making the purchase, learning how to
3.1. Subjective norm use a product or service only to have to replace it if it does not perform
to expectations” (Featherman and Pavlou, 2003, p. 455). As this is,
Subjective norm (SN) originates from the theory of reasoned action, generally speaking, a matching definition for most technologies, it is
and is defined as a “person's perception that most people who are im- missing a very important aspect of e-commerce, namely the delivery
portant to him think he should or should not perform the behavior in time and its associated risk of not receiving the ordered products on
question” (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975, p. 302). Within the context of this time. Privacy risk is defined as the “potential loss of control over per-
study, consumers will conduct OGS if they feel that influential people of sonal information, such as when information about you is used without
their environment think OGS is a good thing to do. According to the your knowledge or permission” (Featherman and Pavlou, 2003, p. 455).
extension of TAM, SN has a positive relationship towards PU With regards to our study, perceived privacy risk refers to the security
(Venkatesh and Davis, 2000). The proposal was confirmed by a study of information and payment methods when using OGS. The influence of
related to US consumers’ readiness to adopt mobile technology for PR on PU has been studied by Lu et al. (2005), who found that PR
fashion goods (Kim et al., 2009). The overall influence on subjective negatively affects PU upon intentions to use online applications. An-
norm, used with TAM, has been studied in a meta-analysis that con- other study conducted in the field of online shopping acceptance sup-
cluded and supported the positive relationship between SN and PU ported the negative relationship between PR and PU (Li and Huang,
(Schepers and Wetzels, 2007). The authors of the study analyzed 51 2009). Crespo et al. (2009) confirmed the negative influence of PR on
articles, containing 63 studies, in order to evaluate the influence of SN PU on internet shopping behavior among people with previous online
on PU and ITU. Based on these findings, the following hypothesis can be shopping experience, although pointing out that the effect is insignif-
formulated: icant among non-buyers. According to Rose and Fogarty (2006), the
negative relationship is also reported in a study on self-service banking
H5. SN is positively related to the PU of online grocery shopping. technologies among senior consumers. Despite some contradictory re-
search, most studies support the negative relationship between PR and
PU, hence the subsequent hypothesis is formed:
3.2. Visibility
H7. PR is negatively related to the PU of online grocery shopping.
The visibility (VIS) of a given technology originates from the dif-
fusion of innovation theory by Rogers (2010), and refers to the extent to
which an innovation is apparent to potential adopters. Visibility in 3.4. Perceived Enjoyment
combination with the TAM has been studied by Karahanna et al. (1999)
who investigated the influence of visibility on attitude towards in- According to Davis et al. (1992), perceived enjoyment is defined as
formation technology adoption across time. They confirmed the posi- “the extent to which the activity of using the computer is perceived to
tive relationship to be of statistical significance. In a study about OGS be enjoyable in its own right, apart from any performance consequences
acceptance in Australia, Kurnia and Chien (2003) found VIS to be an that may be anticipated” (p. 1113). In the context of our study, the
important factor for the community’s acceptance of this particular definition can be translated to the extent to which a user perceives
technology. The positive influence of VIS on attitude towards mobile online grocery shopping to be enjoyable. Venkatesh (2000), who stu-
banking was also supported and consistent among actual user- and non- died the influence of PEOU on user acceptance, added perceived en-
user-groups (Karjaluoto et al., 2010). However, all of these studies joyment to his research model and found a positive relationship be-
employed the original TAM that included attitudes towards a given tween ENJ and PEOU among users with increased experience. Mun and
technology, a variable that has been removed in the extension of TAM Hwang (2003) studied the prediction of web-based information systems
due to its weak prediction (Venkatesh and Davis, 2000). In a cross- use and found a positive relationship between ENJ and PEOU, as well as
cultural study on digital library adoption, researchers partially sup- between ENJ and PU. Both relationships were also supported in an
ported the relationship between VIS and PU (Miller and Khera, 2010). assessment of the influence of perceived enjoyment and attitude on the
While one group from Peru supported the positive relationship, parti- intention to use technology among pre-service teachers (Teo and Noyes,
cipants from Kenya did not. This suggests that the role of VIS differs 2011). In the context of e-commerce acceptance among college stu-
throughout cultures. Research on the effect of VIS on PU is still limited dents, the relationship between ENJ and PU has been supported as well
and our study aims to fill this gap. Based on the existing literature (Ha and Stoel, 2009). In a manner consistent with the existing literature
which suggests a positive relationship between VIS and attitude to- and to research the role of ENJ on the acceptance of OGS, the following
wards a given technology, the following hypothesis has been derived hypotheses have been formulated:

227
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Fig. 1. Research model and hypotheses.

H8. ENJ is positively related to the PU of online grocery shopping. Table 2


Instrument development.
H9. ENJ is positively related to the PEOU of online grocery shopping.
Scale Source
The proposed research model and hypotheses is shown in Fig. 1.
ENJ (Childers et al., 2001)
ITU (Kurnia and Chien, 2003)
4. Research methodology PEOU (Bhatiasevi and Naglis, 2015; Kurnia and Chien, 2003)
PR (Kurnia and Chien, 2003)
4.1. Quantitative method PU (Kurnia and Chien, 2003)
SN (Hansen et al., 2004; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000)
UB (Moon and Kim, 2001)
In order to receive a broad number of responses and to confirm
VIS (Kurnia and Chien, 2003)
existing literature on the topic of OGS, a quantitative research method
was selected for this study. Since the study aims specifically for the
opinion of Thai consumers, it was decided to translate the questionnaire was distributed to graduate students from several universities and in-
from English to Thai. The translation was done by a certified translation stitutes in Bangkok. Distribution of the survey was voluntarily under-
office in Bangkok. As suggested by Werner and Campbell (1970), the taken by all participants. Completing the survey took about 15 min.
survey was back translated by an independent professional native Thai Overall, a total of 450 questionnaires was distributed and 333 were
speaker, in order to verify the accuracy of the Thai version. The process filled and returned to the researcher, resulting in a 74% response rate.
was completed without any major issues and subsequently passed the In order to improve the data quality, the questionnaire contained sev-
pilot test. The questionnaire was adopted and modified based on pre- eral reverse scored items (PR_5, ENJ_3, ENJ_6) to help filter out re-
vious studies. The instrument development is further explained in the spondents that either did not read or understand the questions. Im-
following part. plementation of reverse scored items has been a subject of controversy
among researchers. However, since the snowball sampling technique
4.1.1. Instrument development reduces the researcher’s control over the responses, it was decided to
In order to ensure validity and allow for comparison between this implement them in the questionnaire. After removing incomplete and
study and previously conducted studies, scales and items have been invalid responses, a total of 263 responses were available for analysis.
derived from existing literature. Apart from Section 1 of the ques-
tionnaire, which asks for demographic and descriptive characteristics, 5. Data analysis and findings
all items have been measured by using a seven-point Likert scale, ran-
ging from (1) strongly disagree to (7) strongly agree. The second part of 5.1. Analysis of the measurement validity
the survey was designed to measure the construct of this study. A pilot
study with 15 respondents was conducted in order to test the format, As suggested by Anderson and Gerbing (1988), this study uses a
structure and clarity of the questions. The entire questionnaire is en- two-step approach. Firstly, the reliability of the scales was tested and
closed in Appendix A (EN version) and 2 (TH version). (Table 2) evaluated. Secondly, the model was analyzed in order to test the
structure and to evaluate the model’s ability to predict a certain out-
4.1.2. Data collection come. As reported in Table 5, Cronbach’s alpha exceeded the re-
This research focuses on a sample of residents in Bangkok, Thailand. commended threshold of 0.7 as suggested by Nunnally (1967). In ad-
In order to obtain responses from all strata of society, a snowball dition, composite reliability (CR) was tested and exceeded the
sampling technique was used (Goodman, 1961). This particular sam- recommended threshold of 0.7 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994).
pling technique is known to allow researchers access to previously Average variance extracted (AVE) exceeded the 0.5 threshold as sug-
hidden populations and is furthermore known to be economical, effi- gested by Fornell and Larcker (1981). Confirmatory factor analysis has
cient, and effective (Atkinson and Flint, 2001). Mainly two sources of been administered in pursuance of testing the measurement model.
participants have been used. Firstly, several high school teachers dis- According to Hair (2009), the values for factor loading should exceed a
tributed the survey to their students, who were asked to further dis- threshold of 0.5. As a result of a low factor loading value, one item
tribute the questionnaires to their parents. Secondly, the questionnaire (PR_5) was removed. All other items exceeded the recommended value.

228
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Table 3 Table 5
Descriptive statistics of the samples. Means, standard deviation, internal consistencies and item loadings.
Respondent characteristics (n = 263) Frequency Percentage Construct Mean SD Item Factor AVE CR Cronbach
Age loading alpha

< 18 9 3.4 ENJ 4.27 0.80 ENJ_1 0.719 0.616 0.918 0.896
18–25 42 16 ENJ_2 0.790
26–45 161 61.2 ENJ_3 0.815
46–60 48 18.3 ENJ_4 0.762
> 60 3 1.1 ENJ_5 0.855
Gender ENJ_6 0.784
Male 86 32.7 ENJ_7 0.764
Female 177 67.3 ITU 4.86 1.12 ITU_1 0.881 0.728 0.914 0.876
Education ITU_2 0.855
High School 56 21.3 ITU_3 0.845
Some College 24 9.1 ITU_4 0.831
Bachelor's Degree 122 46.4 PEOU 4.80 1.02 PEOU_1 0.789 0.761 0.927 0.894
Master's Degree 58 22.1 PEOU_2 0.897
Invalidity 3 1.1 PEOU_3 0.906
Marital Status PEOU_4 0.893
Single 131 49.8 PR 5.30 1.09 PR_1 0.723 0.659 0.885 0.855
Married 110 41.8 PR_2 0.750
Divorced 21 8 PR_3 0.873
Invalidity 1 0.4 PR_4 0.888
Number of people in household PU 4.62 0.88 PU_1 0.621 0.510 0.891 0.861
1 7 2.7 PU_2 0.778
2 19 7.2 PU_3 0.647
3 48 18.3 PU_4 0.828
4 94 35.7 PU_5 0.600
5 41 15.6 PU_6 0.701
>5 54 20.5 PU_7 0.686
Job Position PU_8 0.812
Junior staff 75 28.5 SN 3.89 1.05 SN_1 0.848 0.698 0.902 0.856
Senior staff 25 9.5 SN_2 0.795
Lower-level manager 14 5.3 SN_3 0.843
Middle-level manager 24 9.1 SN_4 0.854
Senior-level manager 2 0.8 UB 2.24 1.17 UB_1 0.887 0.720 0.884 0.816
Other/Self-employed 120 45.6 UB_2 0.707
Invalidity 3 1.1 UB_3 0.935
Total income of household (in THB per month) VIS 4.40 1.13 VIS_1 0.830 0.685 0.897 0.848
0 – 24,999 36 13.7 VIS_2 0.836
25,000–49,999 74 28.1 VIS_3 0.851
50,000–74,999 42 16 VIS_4 0.792
75,000–99,999 20 7.6
100,000 – 150,000 29 11
> 150,000 28 10.6
equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the proposed model.
Not disclosed 34 12.9
PLS-SEM is used for variance-based structural equation modeling and
allows testing of complete theories and concepts. Variance-based SEM
Table 4 differs from co-variance-based SEM (i.e., AMOS) in cases where it is
Heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations matrix. more exploratory than confirmatory (Hair et al., 2011). PLS-SEM is
used for predicting and identifying key driver constructs as well as
Construct ENJ ITU PEOU PR PU SN UB VIS
testing an extension of an existing structural theory (Hair et al., 2011).
ENJ – In comparison with first generation regression models, such as linear
ITU 0.593 – regression, ANOVA, and MANOVA, SEM provides the ability to si-
PEOU 0.596 0.684 – multaneously test model relationships among multiple dependent and
PR 0.119 0.205 0.109 –
independent variables (Gerbing and Anderson, 1988). Thus, SEM was
PU 0.568 0.774 0.720 0.176 –
SN 0.583 0.527 0.447 0.059 0.476 – chosen as the tool of measurement for this research. According to Hair
UB 0.352 0.272 0.186 0.193 0.228 0.381 – et al. (2011), when using PLS-SEM, the primary evaluation criteria for
VIS 0.392 0.411 0.396 0.184 0.349 0.588 0.329 – the structural model are the R2 measures together with the level of
significance of the path coefficients. Accordingly, the R2 should be high
with respect to the research discipline. Since this paper aims to explain
Discriminant validity was tested by using the heterotrait-monotrait consumer behavior and acceptance, a R2 value of 0.20 is considered
ratio of correlations (HTMT), which is an alternative approach to assess high (Hair et al., 2011). As described in Table 6, the model allocates
discriminant validity, and according to Henseler et al. (2015), superior 52.3% of the variance to intention to use, 28.8% of the variance to
to traditional approaches (i.e. the Fornell-Larcker criterion and cross-
loadings) when using variance-based structural equation modeling. A
Table 6
HTMT value below 0.85 means that discriminant validity has been es-
Evaluation of the structural model.
tablished between two reflective constructs (Kline, 2015). As reported
in Table 4, all values are within the desired range. Construct R2 Adjusted R2 P-value Q2

ITU 0.523 0.519 < 0.001 0.355


PEOU 0.288 0.286 < 0.001 0.205
5.2. Model testing results
PU 0.469 0.459 < 0.001 0.216
UB 0.070 0.066 < 0.05 0.040
For the purpose of this study, partial least squares structural

229
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

perceived ease of use, 46.9% of the variance to perceived usefulness, 6. Conclusion


and 7% of the variance to usage behavior. All R2 values are statistically
significant. Additionally, the presence of multicollinearity among in- 6.1. Discussion
dicators was tested, using variance inflation factor (VIF) statistics. All
VIF values (Appendix C) are significantly lower than the recommended As mentioned in the introduction, the main objective of this study is
value of 3.3 (Petter et al., 2007). Although model fit indices for PLS- to determine crucial factors and the extent to which they lead to the
SEM, and its critical threshold values, are currently not fully understood acceptance of online grocery shopping among Thai consumers. The
and subject to further research, the model fit has been tested by mea- results of the hypotheses testing are displayed in Table 8. Based on the
suring SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual). A SRMR value hypothesis test, the following relationships are supported; PEOU → PU
of 0.076 for the saturated model and 0.096 for the estimated model are (β 0.490, p < 0.001), PEOU → ITU (β 0.281, p < 0.001), PU → ITU
below the suggested threshold of 0.1 (Hu and Bentler, 1998) and (β 0.509, p < 0.001), ITU → UB (β 0.265, p < 0.001), SN → PU (β
therefore suggest a good fit. SmartPLS v. 3.2.6 was used to perform the 0.132, p < 0.05), ENJ → PU (β 0.173, p < 0.01), and ENJ → PEOU (β
PLS-SEM algorithm and bootstrapping. 0.537, p < 0.001). However, the two external variables VIS and PR
Another assessment of the structural model involves the capability and their relationships towards PU are not supported.
of the model to predict certain behavior. The predominant measure of The positive relationship between perceived ease of use and per-
predictive relevance is the Stone-Geisser’s Q2 (Fornell and Larcker, ceived usefulness (H1) is supported in this study, which means that
1981; Stone, 1974). As recommended by Hair et al. (2011), cross-va- consumers who find online grocery shopping ease to use, or who think
lidated redundancy was used in order to measure the model’s predictive they can easily become skillful at using it, are likely to perceive it as
relevance. Accordingly, if the Q2 value for a certain endogenous latent useful. Overall, perceived ease of use measured a mean-value of 4.80,
variable is larger than zero, the latent construct exhibits predictive meaning that the majority of respondents indeed find OGS to be easy to
relevance. In order to measure Q2, a blindfolding procedure was per- use. The positive relationship between PEOU and PU has also been
formed with a d-value of 7. All endogenous latent variables have a Q2 confirmed by Kurnia and Chien (2003) in the context of online grocery
value above zero and therefore possess the ability of prediction. shopping in Australia.
Path coefficients and levels of significance are displayed in Fig. 2. In The results also support the positive relationship between perceived
order to obtain standard errors for hypothesis testing, PLS-SEM uses ease of use and intention to use (H2). This shows that respondents who
bootstrapping that involves repeated random sampling with replace- perceive OGS to be easy to use have an increased intention to use. The
ment from the original sample to create a bootstrap sample (Hair et al., relationship is also supported in a study conducted by Gefen and Straub
2011). For the purpose of this study, bootstrapping was run with 5,000 (2000) who measured the importance of perceived ease of use on IS
sub-samples, as suggested by Hair et al. (2011). With the exception of adoption in the field of e-commerce.
visibility (VIS) and perceived risk (PR), all hypotheses were tested po- Hypothesis 3, the positive relationship between perceived useful-
sitive and at a significant level. ness and intention to use is supported in this study. The result of the
In addition, multi-group analysis was performed using partial least survey has shown that perceived usefulness contributes greatly to the
squares multi group analysis (PLS-MGA). This form of analysis is based intention of use of OGS, meaning that users who perceive OGS as useful
on PLS-SEM bootstrapping results and a non-parametric significance are very likely to develop intentions to use it in the future. It is worth
test for the difference of group specific results (Henseler et al., 2009). mentioning that perceived usefulness has a greater contribution to-
Accordingly, a p-value smaller than 0.05 or greater than 0.95 for a wards intention to use than perceived ease of use. Overall perceived
given group-specific difference in path coefficients represents statistical usefulness measured a mean-value of 4.62, suggesting that OGS is
significance. Participants have been grouped based on gender, marital mostly perceived as being useful. Since the scale for PU comprised of
status, income per month, and size of household. The results are re- eight items, it is interesting to have a deeper look at some items and
ported in Table 7. their responses. PU_6 is the item with the highest mean-value (5.14) of
the PU scale. The question asked respondents whether OGS can over-
come obstacles for physically disabled people, suggesting that OGS
indeed is perceived as being a helpful tool for disabled people. PU_8 has
the second highest mean-value (5.08) of the PU scale. The question

Fig. 2. Path model and hypotheses testing results.

230
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Table 8
House-hold size > 5 n = 95 Summary of hypotheses testing.
Hypothesis Relationship Supported
0.467*** (5.409)

0.354*** (4.491)

0.482*** (5.916)

0.577*** (5.710)

−0.016 (0.184)
H1 PEOU → PU Yes

0.282* (2.534)
0.108 (0.947)

0.189 (1.515)

0.197 (1.895)
H2 PEOU → ITU Yes
H3 PU → ITU Yes
H4 ITU → UB Yes
H5 SN → PU Yes
H6 VIS → PU No
H7 PR → PU No
H8 ENJ → PU Yes
H9 ENJ → PEOU Yes
House-hold size < 5

0.590*** (12.275)

0.288*** (3.121)
0.503*** (7.832)

0.463*** (6.606)
0.212** (3.173)

−0.008 (0.109)
0.216* (2.151)

asked respondents whether they perceive OGS to be convenient for


0.039 (0.564)

0.110 (1.512)

their grocery shopping. Given the responses, it is fair to say that con-
n = 168

venience is one of the most important factor for influencing the per-
ceived usefulness, followed by the time-saving effect of OGS (PU_2 with
Significant at: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; T-statistics in parentheses; Coefficients in bold indicate a significant difference between the two groups.

a mean-value of 4.99). However, due to mean-values close to neutral


(4), efficiency (PU_1), effectiveness (PU_3), and increased productivity
(PU_5) do not seem to have a large impact on perceived usefulness.
Income > 50,000 THB

Appendix B presents a summary of the questionnaire, including mean-


values. A study on behavioral intentions to use a website, conducted by
0.630*** (7.487)
0.495*** (7.074)

0.425*** (5.335)

−0.009 (0.122)

Chuan-Chuan Lin and Lu (2000), also supports the positive relationship


0.212* (2.183)
0.205* (2.505)

0.184* (2.235)
0.176 (1.825)

0.177 (1.788)

between perceived usefulness and intention to use.


n = 119

The positive relationship between intention to use and usage be-


havior (H4) is another hypothesis, supported by this study, meaning
that users with intentions to use OGS are likely to actually buy groceries
online. Intention to use measured a mean-value of 4.86. Based on
comparing the mean-values of the survey, price (ITU_4) seems to be the
number one determinant for intention to use, followed by free home
Income < 50,000 THB

delivery (ITU_3), suggesting that consumers’ intention to use increases


0.411*** (4.393)
0.564*** (8.085)

0.331*** (4.206)

0.507*** (5.367)

if OGS is delivered free of charge and at a competitive price. Klopping


0.350** (2.748)
0.118 (1.161)

0.014 (0.155)

0.048 (0.547)
0.131 (1.306)

and McKinney (2004) also supported this hypothesis in a study focused


on business-to-consumer e-commerce.
n = 110

A positive relationship between subjective norm and perceived


usefulness (H5) is also supported by this study. Suggesting that the
environment of an individual has an impact on his or her perceived
0.583*** (10.085)

0.539*** (6.347)

0.594*** (6.014)
Married n = 110

0.247** (2.718)
0.252** (2.657)

−0.063 (0.660)

usefulness of OGS. However, overall subjective norm measured a mean-


0.201* (2.272)
0.051 (0.531)

0.053 (0.530)

value of 3.89, which suggests that most people reported their en-
vironment to have a rather negative opinion of OGS. This is not overly
surprising, since OGS is a relatively new form of grocery shopping.
Thus, it is important to understand that family, friends, and acquain-
Single and divorced n = 152

tances have a significant impact on a user’s perceived usefulness of


OGS. The positive relationship between subjective norm and perceived
usefulness is also supported in a study related to the adoption of mobile
0.499*** (8.019)

0.300*** (4.502)

0.427*** (5.758)

0.434*** (6.098)

commerce (Bhatti, 2015).


0.291** (3.026)
0.189* (2.255)

0.064 (0.684)

0.138 (1.548)
0.014 (0.184)

Hypothesis 8, the positive relationship between enjoyment and


perceived usefulness, is supported in this study, suggesting that the
more a user enjoys OGS, the more likely he or she will perceive it as
useful. Overall, the survey reported a mean-value of 4.27, meaning that
many respondents are not quite sure whether they perceive OGS to be
0.655*** (16.083)

0.317*** (5.415)
0.279*** (3.214)
0.470*** (6.499)

0.317*** (7.098)
0.218** (2.829)

enjoyable. One reason for this neutral opinion could be that those who
Female n = 177

0.094 (1.208)

0.049 (0.744)

0.024 (0.356)

have not yet tried OGS are unsure about the enjoyment factor of doing
so. In their study about consumer e-shopping acceptance, Ha and Stoel
Path coefficients of multi group analysis.

(2009) further support this hypothesis.


Lastly, the positive relationship between enjoyment and perceived
ease of use is also supported in this study, meaning that consumers who
0.535*** (7.204)

0.518*** (4.402)
−0.025 (0.259)
0.321* (2.206)

0.280* (2.195)
0.236 (1.664)

0.141 (1.013)

0.140 (1.286)

0.009 (0.093)

enjoy OGS are perceiving it to be easy to use. This relationship exhibits


Male n = 86

the highest correlation (0.537) within the model. In other words, OGS
providers must attach an enjoyment factor to their systems in order to
increase the users’ perceived ease of use as well as perceived usefulness.
Mun and Hwang (2003) also support this hypothesis in their study
ENJ → PEOU
Relationship

PEOU → ITU
PEOU →PU

about web-based information systems.


ENJ →PU
ITU →UB

PU →ITU

VIS →PU
SN →PU
PR →PU

On the contrary, two hypotheses are not supported. The relationship


Table 7

between visibility and perceived usefulness is not supported (H6), as

231
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

consumers do not respond to an increased visibility of OGS within their Table 9


environment, hence it does not influence their perceived usefulness. Comparative IT development indicators.
Questions of the survey asked respondents whether they see other Country Networked Support for IT IT infrastructure Human
people using OGS. Indeed, responses indicate that the usage of OGS is readiness industry capital
commonly seen in public or within the respondent’s organization. index development
However, just the mere observation of others using OGS does not lead
Indonesia 4.0 48.0 7.2 30.1
to an increase of perceived usefulness. This is interesting, since the Philippines 4.0 51.0 9.6 34.9
relationship between subjective norm and perceived usefulness was Thailand 4.2 54.2 16.1 34.0
supported in this study. One explanation for this could be that Thai Vietnam 3.9 43.5 23.5 23.5
consumers only perceive OGS to be useful if the technology arrives
(World Economic Forum, 2016), (Business Software Alliance, 2011).
within their inner circle of family and friends, who will then share their
experience and opinion about it. Another explanation could be the fact
that OGS is relatively new to the Thai market, and that early adopters 6.2. Contributions and implications
do not have a significant impact on the early and late majority. The
result of this study is contrary to the study conducted by Kurnia and Since this is one of the first studies to research the acceptance of
Chien (2003), who showed that there is a positive relationship between OGS in a developing country, not to mention the first to focus on
visibility and attitude towards OGS among Australian consumers. Fur- consumers in Thailand, this paper provides a first look into the world of
ther research in this field might be necessary, especially within a cross- OGS in this particular country. It has successfully proven the TAM to be
cultural context. a valid model in explaining the acceptance of OGS in Thailand. Not only
Hypothesis 7 is also not supported in this study. Contrary to the will this research help to understand Thai consumers, but it will also
prior prediction, this study has shown a positive relationship between help to understand consumer behavior in other developing countries, in
perceived risk and perceived usefulness, although not significant. particular within the ASEAN borders. According to Table 9 some of the
Overall, respondents reported a high risk associated to OGS, with a ASEAN countries share similar technological advancements, hence we
mean-value of 5.3. The highest concern was expressed towards the can assume that this research features an applicable framework to other
quality of the products (PR_4; mean-value of 5.7). This shows that developing countries.
consumers are mostly concerned with the fact that when using OGS, Our research has found that OGS usage behavior is still relatively
they do not have the option to select the products themselves. To re- low (mean-value of 2.24). Despite the low usage behavior, respondents
duce the perceived risk is a challenge, OGS providers need to develop have expressed their willingness to use OGS in the future under two
solutions for consumers who express a high mistrust. However, the conditions. Firstly, OGS firms need to offer competitive prices in order
question of why there is no relationship between perceived risk and to make online shopping appealing to the consumers. Secondly, re-
perceived usefulness must still be addressed. Again, OGS is relatively spondents stated their intent to use OGS when there is free home de-
new to the market and it could therefore be suggested that perceived livery. Whether this is feasible to do is questionable, but OGS firms
risk is no barrier for early adopters. Existing literature is not conclusive might be able to use free delivery as a marketing tool to attract new
of the role of perceived risk. The study of Kurnia and Chien (2003) has customers and have them try the service. The existing literature sug-
shown a non-significant negative relationship while other studies, gests that customers are likely to get hooked on the service once they
within the broader context of e-business, have supported a negative try it (Smaros et al., 2000).
relationship (Tan and Teo, 2000). In the matter of OGS, further research In terms of the perceived usefulness of OGS, respondents have
is necessary to confirm the results of our study. shown to particularly value the time-saving and convenience aspects of
With reference to the multi-group analysis, differences in gender, OGS. This shows that firms need to incorporate those two factors into
marital status, monthly income, and size of household were analyzed. their services and effectively communicate these aspects in their mar-
In terms of gender, this analysis has revealed that there are significant keting campaigns. Furthermore, this research has discovered that most
differences between males and females in the relationships of perceived people think OGS can be a valuable tool for physically disabled and
enjoyment towards perceived ease of use, and subjective norm towards elderly people. To include these aspects in a firm’s communications is
perceived usefulness. Accordingly, the correlation between perceived another recommendation to consider. When comparing the effects of
enjoyment and perceived ease of use is higher for females, meaning that PU and PEOU, it is important to understand that PU has a much greater
they are more likely to perceive OGS to be easy to use if they enjoy influence on the intention to use OGS. Therefore, firms should prioritize
using it. Likewise, females express a higher emphasis on subjective the usefulness in their applications and services.
norm and the relationship towards perceived usefulness. In other Another highly important aspect of OGS is the perceived enjoyment,
words, females are reportedly more influenced by their direct en- which was shown to influence both, the PU and the PEOU. Businesses
vironment, such as friends and family members. As for the reported should focus on the enjoyment factor and make their application fun
monthly income, participants were divided into two groups, those with and interesting to use. Furthermore, they should design systems that
a reported income of 50,000 THB and above, and those with a reported produce good feelings for its users. Lastly, this research supports the
income of less than 50,000 THB. Significant differences were re- relationship between SN and PU to be an important factor among Thai
cognized in the relationship of perceived usefulness towards intention users. Firms need to understand that individuals highly value their
to use. The group with a reported monthly income of more than 50,000 friends’ and family’s opinion and if they impose a negative image of
THB expresses a higher influence of perceived usefulness towards in- OGS, users are unlikely to perceive OGS to be useful. The survey has
tention to use, meaning that some attributes of OGS, such as effec- also revealed that most users reported their friends and families to have
tiveness and efficiency, are more appealing to the higher income class a rather negative opinion about OGS. This creates a major challenge for
and lead to a higher intention to use. Concerning marital status, there OGS firms, because they have to develop new strategies in order to
are no significant differences between singles and married respondents. improve the overall perception of OGS in society. However, by doing so
Likewise, various sizes of households do not seem to have any sig- firms might benefit from the networking effect and increase their cus-
nificant differences in their acceptance and behavior. Group 1 included tomer base through mouth of word marketing.
respondents with less than five people in their household, and Group 2
included respondents with more than five people. 6.3. Limitations and future research

Despite thorough efforts taken in carrying out and developing this

232
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

study, it does have limitations. First and foremost the study tried to Furthermore, since this paper measured usage behavior on a self-re-
gather an overall picture of the online grocery shopping acceptance in porting basis, it remains unclear if the responses truly represent actual
Thailand. As seen in Table 3, the survey has successfully delivered data usage. In order to test actual usage, researchers would need to obtain
from all strata of society. However, it is unclear how the results of the primary data from OGS firms. Technological advancement and chan-
hypotheses testing would change when conducted only for certain ging business models are also subject to future research. As companies
subgroups. It is also uncertain if the sample of respondents from employ new strategies such as click & collect at store, click & collect at
Bangkok truly represents the acceptance of OGS in Thailand. Due to the 3rd party, and click & drive, it remains unclear how this would impact
logistical challenges involved in OGS, it is likely that the perception of consumer behavior. Lastly, the research model of this study is based on
consumers changes in rural areas where infrastructure is less developed. TAM, extended by external variables such as subjective norm, visibility,
Secondly, as mentioned before, OGS is a new concept and people need perceived risk, and enjoyment. As seen in the model testing part of this
time to adopt this technology. It could be possible that results of this paper, two out of four external variables are not supported, which
survey change once the concept is more strongly integrated into society. means further research needs to be conducted to find additional factors
Also, with reference to the usage behavior, further research is necessary that can explain perceived usefulness. For the purpose of identifying
in order to find differences in consumer behavior among early adopters external variables, it might be necessary to administer qualitative re-
and the early/late majority. A longitudinal method might deliver a search in order to discover unknown factors.
better understanding of Thai consumers’ acceptance of OGS.

Appendix A

Instruction

The purpose of this questionnaire is to study the acceptance of Online Grocery Shopping among Thai users. Information provided in this
questionnaire will be kept confidential by the researcher and the institute. The researcher kindly appreciates your help and contribution. If you
would like to receive a copy of this research, feel free to leave your email address in the field below.

Section 1

1. General Information

1.1 Are you a Thai citizen? ª Yes ª No


1.2 Age ª < 18 ª 18–25
ª 26–45 ª 46–60
ª > 60
1.3 Gender ª Male ª Female
1.4 Education ª High School ª Some College
ª Bachelor's Degree ª Master's Degree
ª Doctoral Degree
1.5 Marital status ª Single ª Married ª Divorced
1.6 Number of people in household ª 1 ª2 ª3
ª 4 ª5 ª >5
1.7 Total income of household in THB ª 0 – 24,999 ª 25,000–49,999
ª 50,000–74,999 ª 75000–99,999
ª 100,000 – 150,000 ª > 150,000
ª I do not wish to answer this question
1.8 Job position ª Junior staff ª Senior staff
ª Lower-level manager ª Middle-level manager
ª Senior-level manager ª Other / Self-employed

Section 2
Kindly let us know your opinion about Online Grocery Shopping by indicating to which extent you agree or disagree with the statements below.
Please circle the number (from 1 to 7) which best represents your opinion where 1 means you strongly disagree with the statement and 7 means you
strongly agree with the statement.

2. Subjective Norm Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly


Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

2.1 Members of my family think that it is a good idea to buy groceries via the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Internet.
2.2 Most of my friends and acquaintances think that shopping groceries via the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Internet is a good idea.
2.3 People who influence my behavior think that I should buy groceries online. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2.4 People who are important to me think that I should buy groceries online. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3. Visibility Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly


Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

3.1 I have seen others using Online Grocery Shopping. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


3.2 In my organization/school, one easily sees Online Grocery Shopping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
being used.
3.3 I have seen Online Grocery Shopping being used outside my organi- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
zation/school.
3.4 It is easy for me to see others using Online Grocery Shopping in public. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

233
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

4. Perceived Risk Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly


Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

4.1 I am concerned with the payment security aspects of Online Grocery Shopping. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
4.2 I am concerned with the privacy of my information provided when using 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Online Grocery Shopping.
4.3 I am concerned with the punctuality of the delivery time of Online Grocery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Shopping.
4.4 I am concerned with the quality of the products delivered when ordering from 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Online Grocery Shopping.
4.5 I am confident over the security aspects of Internet banking in Thailand. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5. Enjoyment Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neutral Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree

5.1 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be fun for its own sake. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.2 Online Grocery Shopping is/would make me feel good. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.3 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be boring. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.4 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be exciting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.5 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be enjoyable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.6 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be uncomfortable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.7 Online Grocery Shopping is/would be interesting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6. Perceived ease of use Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly
Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

6.1 Online Grocery Shopping is/might be easy to use. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


6.2 It is/might be easy to become skillful at using Online Grocery Shopping. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6.3 It is/might be easy for me to follow the procedures when ordering 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
groceries online.
6.4 Overall, I believe that Online Grocery Shopping is easy to use. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7. Perceived usefulness Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly


Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

7.1 Using Online Grocery Shopping can improve my efficiency in purchasing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


groceries.
7.2 Using Online Grocery Shopping can save me a lot of time. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7.3 Using Online Grocery Shopping can enhance my effectiveness in pur- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
chasing groceries.
7.4 Using Online Grocery Shopping can make my grocery shopping easier. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7.5 Using Online Grocery Shopping can increase my productivity. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7.6 Using Online Grocery Shopping can overcome the obstacles for physically 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
disabled people.
7.7 Using Online Grocery Shopping can overcome the obstacles for elderly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
people.
7.8 Using Online Grocery Shopping is convenient for my grocery shopping. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8. Intention to use Strongly Disagree Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Agree Strongly


Disagree Disagree Agree Agree

8.1 I intend to use Online Grocery Shopping when the service becomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
widely available.
8.2 Whenever possible, I intend to use Online Grocery Shopping to purchase 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
groceries.
8.3 I intend to use Online Grocery Shopping when there is free home 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
delivery.
8.4 I intend to use Online Grocery Shopping when the price is competitive. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9. Usage behavior Not at all Less than once a About once a 2–3 times a 4–5 times a About once a Several times
month month month month week each week

9.1 How many times do you use Online Grocery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Shopping during a month?
< 1h 1 – 5h 5 – 10 h 10 – 15 h 15 – 20 h 20 – 25 h > 25 h
9.2 How many hours do you use Online Grocery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Shopping every month?
Extremely infre- Quite infrequent Slightly infre- Neither Slightly fre- Quite fre- Extremely fre-
quently quently quent quent quent
9.3 How frequently do you use Online Grocery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Shopping?

234
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Appendix B

(See Table B1)

Table B1
Questionnaire items.
Item Missing Mean Median Min Max SD Kurtosis Skewness

SN_1 0 3.852 4 1 7 1.238 0.421 − 0.163


SN_2 0 4.209 4 1 7 1.179 0.254 − 0.006
SN_3 0 3.776 4 1 7 1.302 0.216 − 0.097
SN_4 0 3.719 4 1 7 1.310 0.269 − 0.132
VIS_1 0 4.646 5 1 7 1.314 − 0.264 − 0.175
VIS_2 0 4.213 4 1 7 1.395 − 0.247 − 0.123
VIS_3 0 4.331 4 1 7 1.351 0.067 − 0.330
VIS_4 0 4.426 4 1 7 1.390 0.202 − 0.375
PR_1 0 5.133 5 1 7 1.357 0.415 − 0.693
PR_2 0 5.163 5 1 7 1.308 0.253 − 0.593
PR_3 0 5.205 5 1 7 1.306 0.499 − 0.715
PR_4 0 5.700 6 2 7 1.260 − 0.047 − 0.784
ENJ_1 0 4.224 4 1 7 1.120 1.125 0.022
ENJ_2 0 4.122 4 1 7 1.100 1.353 0.033
ENJ_3 0 4.354 4 1 7 0.943 1.502 0.578
ENJ_4 0 4.179 4 1 7 0.838 2.252 0.121
ENJ_5 0 4.251 4 1 7 1.031 1.071 − 0.037
ENJ_6 0 4.361 4 1 7 1.066 0.784 0.262
ENJ_7 0 4.399 4 1 7 1.004 0.878 0.154
PEOU_1 0 4.795 5 2 7 1.142 0.078 − 0.130
PEOU_2 0 4.817 5 1 7 1.172 − 0.292 0.018
PEOU_3 0 4.791 5 1 7 1.146 0.223 − 0.193
PEOU_4 0 4.795 5 1 7 1.219 − 0.120 − 0.209
PU_1 0 4.030 4 1 7 1.186 0.469 − 0.059
PU_2 0 4.989 5 1 7 1.366 − 0.416 − 0.249
PU_3 0 4.061 4 1 7 1.094 1.240 − 0.016
PU_4 0 4.650 5 1 7 1.166 0.156 − 0.172
PU_5 0 4.068 4 1 7 1.101 0.894 − 0.274
PU_6 0 5.141 5 1 7 1.359 − 0.107 − 0.476
PU_7 0 4.924 5 1 7 1.326 − 0.473 − 0.194
PU_8 0 5.080 5 1 7 1.295 − 0.095 − 0.297
ITU_1 0 4.589 4 1 7 1.284 − 0.093 − 0.075
ITU_2 0 4.616 4 1 7 1.234 0.016 − 0.043
ITU_3 0 5.099 5 1 7 1.378 0.104 − 0.530
ITU_4 0 5.141 5 1 7 1.356 − 0.003 − 0.478
UB_1 0 2.380 2 1 7 1.264 − 0.200 0.687
UB_2 0 1.943 1 1 7 1.343 3.760 1.915
UB_3 0 2.399 2 1 7 1.499 − 0.264 0.897

SN = Subjective norm; VIS = Visibility; PR = Perceived risk; ENJ = Perceived enjoyment; PEOU = Perceived ease of use; PU = Perceived usefulness; ITU
= Intention to use; UB = Usage behavior.

Appendix C

(See Table C1)

Table C1
Collinearity statistics.
Factor ENJ ITU PEOU PR PU SN UB VIS

ENJ – – 1.000 – 1.678 – – –


ITU – – – – – – 1.000 –
PEOU – 1.712 – – 1.502 – – –
PR – – – – 1.062 – – –
PU – 1.712 – – – – – –
SN – – – – 1.664 – – –
UB – – – – – – – –
VIS – – – – 1.446 – – –

SN = Subjective norm; VIS = Visibility; PR = Perceived risk; ENJ = Perceived enjoyment; PEOU = Perceived ease of use; PU = Perceived usefulness; ITU
= Intention to use; UB = Usage behavior.

235
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

Appendix D. Supplementary material

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.02.005.

References Res. 30, 78–90.


Hofstede, G., 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions
and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M., 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Horton, R.P., Buck, T., Waterson, P.E., Clegg, C.W., 2001. Explaining intranet use with the
Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. technology acceptance model. J. Inf. Technol. 16 (4), 237–249.
Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M., 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, 1 Hu, L., Bentler, P.M., 1998. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to
ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. underparameterized model misspecification. Psychol. Methods 3 (4), 424.
Anderson, J.C., Gerbing, D.W., 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review Hui, T.-K., Wan, D., 2009. Who are the online grocers? Serv. Ind. J. 29 (11), 1479–1489.
and recommended two-step approach. Psychol. Bull. 103 (3), 411. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060902793334.
Anesbury, Z., Nenycz-Thiel, M., Dawes, J., Kennedy, R., 2015. How do shoppers behave Johnson, K., 2015. August 17). Global grocery markets: our forecasts to 2020. Retrieved
online? An observational study of online grocery shopping. J. Consum. Behav. December 29, 2016, from 〈http://www.igd.com/Research/Retail/Global-grocery-
〈http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cb.1566/pdf〉. markets-our-forecasts-to-2020/〉.
Atkinson, R., Flint, J., 2001. Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: Snowball Karahanna, E., Straub, D.W., Chervany, N.L., 1999. Information technology adoption
research strategies. Social. Res. Update 33 (1), 1–4. across time: a cross-sectional comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs.
Bhatiasevi, V., Naglis, M., 2015. Investigating the structural relationship for the de- MIS Q. 183–213.
terminants of cloud computing adoption in education. Educ. Inf. Technol. 1–27. Karjaluoto, H., Püschel, J., Afonso Mazzon, J., Mauro C. Hernandez, J., 2010. Mobile
Bhatti, T., 2015. Exploring factors influencing the adoption of Mobile commerce. J. banking: proposition of an integrated adoption intention framework. Int. J. Bank
Internet Bank. Commer. 2007 (Retrieved from). 〈http://www.icommercecentral. Mark. 28 (5), 389–409.
com/abstract.php?abstract_id=38513〉. Kim, J., Jin, Ma, Y., Park, J., 2009. Are US consumers ready to adopt mobile technology
Business Software Alliance, 2011. IT Industry Competitiveness Index 2011. Retrieved for fashion goods? An integrated theoretical approach. J. Fash. Mark. Manag. Int. J.
December 10, 2018, from 〈http://globalindex11.bsa.org/country-table/〉. 13 (2), 215–230.
Chaffey, D., 2011. E-Business and E-Commerce Management: Strategy, Implementation Kim, S., Garrison, G., 2009. Investigating mobile wireless technology adoption: an ex-
and Practice, 4 ed. Prentice Hall. tension of the technology acceptance model. Inf. Syst. Front. 11 (3), 323–333.
Childers, T.L., Carr, C.L., Peck, J., Carson, S., 2001. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations King, W.R., He, J., 2006. A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model. Inf. Manag.
for online retail shopping behavior. J. Retail. 77 (4), 511–535. https://doi.org/10. 43 (6), 740–755.
1016/S0022-4359(01)00056-2. Kline, R.B., 2015. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 4th ed.
Choi, J., Geistfeld, L.V., 2004. A cross-cultural investigation of consumer e-shopping Guilford publications.
adoption. J. Econ. Psychol. 25 (6), 821–838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2003. Klopping, I.M., McKinney, E., 2004. Extending the technology acceptance model and the
08.006. task-technology fit model to consumer E-commerce. Inf. Technol. Learn. Perform. J.
Chuan-Chuan Lin, J., Lu, H., 2000. Towards an understanding of the behavioural inten- 22 (1), 35–48.
tion to use a web site. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 20 (3), 197–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/ Kurnia, S., Chien, J.A.W., 2003. The acceptance of the online grocery shopping. In:
S0268-4012(00)00005-0. Proceedings of the 16th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia.
Crespo, Á.H., Bosque, I.R. del, Sánchez, M.M.G. de los S., 2009. The influence of perceived Citeseer. Retrieved from 〈http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?Doi=10.
risk on Internet shopping behavior: a multidimensional perspective. J. Risk Res. 12 1.1.529.7050&rep=rep1&type=pdf〉.
(2), 259–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669870802497744. Lai, V.S., Li, H., 2005. Technology acceptance model for internet banking: an invariance
Davis, F.D., 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of analysis. Inf. Manag. 42 (2), 373–386.
information technology. MIS Q. 319–340. Lallmahamood, M., 2007. An examination of individual’s perceived security and privacy
Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., Warshaw, P.R., 1992. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use of the internet in Malaysia and the influence of this on their intention to use E-
computers in the workplace. J. Appl. Social. Psychol. 22 (14), 1111–1132. commerce: using an extension of the technology acceptance model. J. Internet Bank.
ETDA, 2016. November 11). Thailand internet user profile 2016. Retrieved December 31, Commer. 12 (3), 1.
2016, from 〈https://www.etda.or.th/publishing-detail/thailand-internet-user- Lederer, A.L., Maupin, D.J., Sena, M.P., Zhuang, Y., 2000. The technology acceptance
profile-2016.html〉. model and the World Wide Web. Decis. Support Syst. 29 (3), 269–282.
Featherman, M.S., Pavlou, P.A., 2003. Predicting e-services adoption: a perceived risk Lee, Y., Kozar, K.A., Larsen, K.R., 2003. The technology acceptance model: past, present,
facets perspective. Int. J. Human.-Comput. Stud. 59 (4), 451–474. and future. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 12 (1), 50.
Fornell, C., Larcker, D.F., 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable Legris, P., Ingham, J., Collerette, P., 2003. Why do people use information technology? A
variables and measurement error. J. Mark. Res. 39–50. critical review of the technology acceptance model. Inf. Manag. 40 (3), 191–204.
Gefen, D., Straub, D.W., 2000. The relative importance of perceived ease of use in IS https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(01)00143-4.
adoption: a study of e-commerce adoption. J. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 1 (1), 8. Lertwongsatien, C., Wongpinunwatana, N., 2003. E-commerce adoption in Thailand: an
Gerbing, D.W., Anderson, J.C., 1988. An updated paradigm for scale development in- empirical study of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). J. Glob. Inf. Technol.
corporating unidimensionality and its assessment. J. Mark. Res. 186–192. Manag. 6 (3), 67–83.
Goodman, L.A., 1961. Snowball sampling. Ann. Math. Stat. 148–170. Li, Y.-H., Huang, J.-W., 2009. Applying theory of perceived risk and technology accep-
Grewal, D., Gotlieb, J., Marmorstein, H., 1994. The moderating effects of message tance model in the online shopping channel. World Acad. Sci., Eng. Technol. 53 (1),
framing and source credibility on the price-perceived risk relationship. J. Consum. 919–925.
Res. 21 (1), 145–153. Limthongchai, P., Speece, M., 2003. The effect of perceived characteristics of innovation
Ha, S., Stoel, L., 2009. Consumer e-shopping acceptance: antecedents in a technology on e-commerce adoption by SMEs in Thailand. In: Proceedings of the Seventh
acceptance model. J. Bus. Res. 62 (5), 565–571. International Conference on Global Business and Economic Development, Bangkok,
Hair, Joe F., Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., 2011. PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet. J. Mark. Thailand. Retrieved from 〈http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?Abstract_id=
Theory Pract. 19 (2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202. 2565392〉.
Hair, JosephF., 2009. Multivariate data analysis. Retrieved from 〈https://works.bepress. Lu, H.-P., Hsu, C.-L., Hsu, H.-Y., 2005. An empirical study of the effect of perceived risk
com/joe_hair/2/〉. upon intention to use online applications. Inf. Manag. Comput. Secur. 13 (2),
Hand, C., Harris, P., Singh, J., Rettie, R., Dall’Olmo Riley, F., 2009. Online grocery 106–120.
shopping: the influence of situational factors. Eur. J. Mark. 43 (9/10), 1205–1219. McKevitt, F., 2016. September 29). Global e-commerce grocery market has grown 15% to
https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560910976447. 48bn - English - Kantar Worldpanel. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from 〈http://
Hansen, T., 2008. Consumer values, the theory of planned behaviour and online grocery www.kantarworldpanel.com/en/Press-Releases/Globa–e-commerce-grocery-market-
shopping. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 32 (2), 128–137. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470- has-grown-15-to-48bn〉.
6431.2007.00655.x. Miller, J., Khera, O., 2010. Digital library adoption and the technology acceptance model:
Hansen, T., Møller Jensen, J., Stubbe Solgaard, H., 2004. Predicting online grocery a cross-country analysis. Electron. J. Inf. Syst. Dev. Ctries. 40 (Retrieved from).
buying intention: a comparison of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of 〈http://144.214.55.140/Ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/view/626〉.
planned behavior. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 24 (6), 539–550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. Moon, J.-W., Kim, Y.-G., 2001. Extending the TAM for a world-wide-web context. Inf.
ijinfomgt.2004.08.004. Manag. 38 (4), 217–230.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., 2015. A new criterion for assessing discriminant Morganosky, M.A., Cude, B.J., 2000. Consumer response to online grocery shopping. Int.
validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 43 (1), J. Retail Distrib. Manag. 28 (1), 17–26.
115–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8. Mortimer, G., Hasan, S.F. e., Andrews, L., Martin, J., 2016. Online grocery shopping: the
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sinkovics, R.R., 2009. The use of partial least squares path impact of shopping frequency on perceived risk. Int. Rev. Retail Distrib. Consum. Res.
modeling in international marketing. New Challenges to International Marketing 20. 26 (2), 202–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593969.2015.1130737.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 277–319. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474- Mun, Y.Y., Hwang, Y., 2003. Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-
7979(2009)0000020014. efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model.
Hiser, J., Nayga, R.M., Capps, O., 1999. An exploratory analysis of familiarity and will- Int. J. Human. Comput. Stud. 59 (4), 431–449.
ingness to use online food shopping services in a local area of Texas. J. Food Distrib. Nunnally, J.C., Bernstein, I.H., 1994. The assessment of reliability. Psychom. Theory 3

236
F. Driediger and V. Bhatiasevi Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 48 (2019) 224–237

(1), 248–292. nationmultimedia.com/news/business/corporate/30295722〉.


Nunnally, J.C., 1967. Psychometric Theory, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Saadé, R., Bahli, B., 2005. The impact of cognitive absorption on perceived usefulness and
Pan, S., Jordan-Marsh, M., 2010. Internet use intention and adoption among Chinese perceived ease of use in on-line learning: an extension of the technology acceptance
older adults: from the expanded technology acceptance model perspective. Comput. model. Inf. Manag. 42 (2), 317–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2003.12.013.
Human. Behav. 26 (5), 1111–1119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.015. Schepers, J., Wetzels, M., 2007. A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model:
Park, C., Jun, J.-K., 2003. A cross-cultural comparison of Internet buying behavior: effects investigating subjective norm and moderation effects. Inf. Manag. 44 (1), 90–103.
of Internet usage, perceived risks, and innovativeness. Int. Mark. Rev. 20 (5), Smaros, J., Holmström, J., Kämäräinen, V., 2000. New service opportunities in the e-
534–553. grocery business. Int. J. Logist. Manag. 11 (1), 61–74.
Park, K., Perosio, D., German, G.A., McLaughlin, E.W., 1996. What’s in store for home Stone, M., 1974. Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. J. R.
shopping? Retrieved from 〈http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/handle/186335〉. Stat. Soc. Ser. B (Methodol.) 111–147.
Petter, S., Straub, D., Rai, A., 2007. Specifying formative constructs in information sys- Sutanonpaiboon, J., Pearson, A.M., 2006. E-commerce adoption: perceptions of man-
tems research. MIS Q. 623–656. agers/owners of small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. J. Internet
Potkin, F., 2016. June 27). Will Thailand’s E-Commerce cashless boom disrupt asia’s retail Commer. 5 (3), 53–82.
market? Retrieved December 31, 2016, from 〈http://www.forbes.com/sites/ Tan, M., Teo, T.S., 2000. Factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking. J. AIS 1
fannypotkin/2016/06/27/will-thailands-e-commerce-cashless-boom-disrupt-asias- (1es), 5.
retail-market/〉. Teo, T., Noyes, J., 2011. An assessment of the influence of perceived enjoyment and
Radner, R., Rothschild, M., 1975. March 6). On the allocation of effort. Retrieved attitude on the intention to use technology among pre-service teachers: a structural
December 27, 2016, from 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ equation modeling approach. Comput. Educ. 57 (2), 1645–1653.
002205317590006X〉. Teo, T.S., Lim, V.K., Lai, R.Y., 1999. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in Internet usage.
Raijas, A., 2002. The consumer benefits and problems in the electronic grocery store. J. Omega 27 (1), 25–37.
Retail. Consum. Serv. 9 (2), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(01) The Nielson Company, 2015. April). Global E-commerce and the new retail report APRIL
00024-8. 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from 〈https://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/
Ramus, K., Nielsen, N.A., 2005. Online grocery retailing: what do consumers think? nielsenglobal/vn/docs/Reports/2015/Nielsen%20Global%20E-Commerce%20and
Internet Res. 15 (3), 335–352. https://doi.org/10.1108/10662240510602726. %20The%20New%20Retail%20Report%20APRIL%202015%20(Digital).pdf〉.
Robinson, H., Dall’Olmo Riley, F., Rettie, R., Rolls-Willson, G., 2007. The role of situa- Turner, M., Kitchenham, B., Brereton, P., Charters, S., Budgen, D., 2010. Does the tech-
tional variables in online grocery shopping in the UK. Mark. Rev. 7 (1), 89–106. nology acceptance model predict actual use? A systematic literature review. Inf.
https://doi.org/10.1362/146934707×180703. Softw. Technol. 52 (5), 463–479.
Rogers, E.M., 2010. Diffusion of Innovations, 4th Edition. Simon and Schuster. Venkatesh, V., 2000. Determinants of perceived ease of use: integrating control, intrinsic
Rohm, A.J., Swaminathan, V., 2004. A typology of online shoppers based on shopping motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model. Inf. Syst. Res. 11 (4),
motivations. J. Bus. Res. 57 (7), 748–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02) 342–365.
00351-X. Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D., 2000. A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance
Rose, J., Fogarty, G.J., 2006. Determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of model: four longitudinal field studies. Manag. Sci. 46 (2), 186–204.
use in the technology acceptance model: senior consumers' adoption of self-service Werner, O., Campbell, D.T., 1970. Translating, working through interpreters, and the
banking technologies. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Biennial Conference of the Academy problem of decentering. A Handbook of Method in Cultural Anthropology 398. pp.
of World Business, Marketing and Management Development: Business Across 420.
Borders in the 21st Century (Vol. 2), pp. 122–129. Academy of World Business, World Bank, 2017. Female labor force. Retrieved December 11, 2018, from 〈https://data.
Marketing and Management Development. Retrieved from 〈http://eprints.usq.edu. worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.TOTL.FE.ZS〉.
au/1649〉. World Bank, 2018. The world bank In Thailand [Text/HTML]. Retrieved December 11,
Rotchanakitumnuai, S., Speece, M., 2003. Barriers to Internet banking adoption: a qua- 2018, from 〈http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/thailand/overview〉.
litative study among corporate customers in Thailand. Int. J. Bank Mark. 21 (6/7), World Economic Forum, 2016. Global information technology report 2016. Retrieved
312–323. December 10, 2018, from 〈http://wef.ch/1T18VgN〉.
Rungfapaisarn, K., 2016a. June 28). Tesco Lotus aims to double online shopping every Wu, J.-H., Wang, S.-C., 2005. What drives mobile commerce?: an empirical evaluation of
year. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from 〈http://www.nationmultimedia.com/ the revised technology acceptance model. Inf. Manag. 42 (5), 719–729.
news/business/corporate/30289260〉. Yousafzai, S.Y., Foxall, G.R., Pallister, J.G., 2007. Technology acceptance: a meta‐analysis
Rungfapaisarn, K., 2016b. September 20). Big C, Tesco Lotus try to cash in on online of the TAM: Part 1. J. Model. Manag. 2 (3), 251–280. https://doi.org/10.1108/
shopping trends. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from 〈http://www. 17465660710834453.

237