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M.A.

HISTORY – I YEAR
DKH14 : CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND FREEDOM
STRUGGLE IN INDIA (1773 - 1947)
SYLLABUS
,e;jpahtpy; tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;l tuyhW (1773 Kjy; 1947 tiu)
myF I
fpof;fpe;jpa fk;ngdp – tq;fhsj;jpy; ,ul;ilahl;rp 1773 Mk;
Mz;L xOq;FKiwr;rl;lk; - 1784 Mk; Mz;L gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; -
1793> 1813> 1833 kw;Wk; 1853 Mk; tUl gl;lar;rl;lk; - 1857 rpg;gha;
fyfk; - fhuzq;fs; - tpisTfs; - kfhuhzpapd; Nguwptpg;G – 1861> 1892
Mk; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk; - kpz;Nlh – khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs;>
1909 – 1919 Mk; mz;L rl;lj;jpd; kj;jpa> khepy muRfs;.
myF – II
irkd; FOtpd; mwpf;if – tl;lNki[ khehLfSk; ,e;jpahtpd;
vjph;g;Gk; - 1935d; kj;jpa murhq;fk; - 1935d; khepy murhq;fq;fs; -
Mf];l; ed;nfhil fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOtpypUe;J> kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lk;
tiu - ,e;jpa Rje;jpu rl;lk; 1947 - ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd;
rpwg;Gj;jd;ikfs;; - murpay; mikg;G jpUj;jq;fs;.
myF – III
Mq;fpNya fk;ngdpf;F vjpuhd njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp – NtY}h;f;
fpsh;r;rp – rKjha rkar; rPh;jpUj;j ,af;fq;fs; - ,e;jpa Njrpa
fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; - 1885y; fhq;fpurpy; jPtputhj ,af;fq;fs; - 1905
Mk; Mz;L tq;fg; gphptpid – ntspehLfspy; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg;
Nghuhl;lk; - Kjyhk; cyfg;NghUk;> Rahl;rp ,af;fKk; - yf;Ndh
cld;ghL – khz;l; Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fSk;> ,ul;il Ml;rpAk; – nusyl;
rl;lk; - [hypad; thyhghf; gLnfhiy - fpyhghj; ,af;fk;.
myF – IV
xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; - Rauh[;af; fl;rp – irkd; FO
Gwf;fzpg;G> irkd; FO mwpf;if – NeU mwpf;if> [pd;dhtpd; 14
mk;rj; jpl;lq;fs; - rl;l kWg;G ,af;fk;> murpd; mlf;FKiw – tl;l
Nki[ khehLfs; - kPz;Lk; Nghuhl;lk; - tFg;Gthhpj; jPh;T – G+dh
cld;ghL.
myF – V
,uz;lhk; cyfg;NghUk;> ,e;jpahTk; - jdpegh; rj;jpafpufk; -
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOtpd; mwpf;if – 1942y; kf;fspd; vOr;rp – Rgh];
re;jpuNgh]; - rp.Mh;.ghh;Kyh – Ntty; jpl;lk; - rpk;yh khefhL –
ml;ypapd; mwpf;iffs; - mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lk; -
,ilf;fhy muR mikj;jy; - kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lk; 1947 - ,e;jpah
tpLjiy ngw ,Ue;j fhuzq;fs; - Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; rpy
jiyth;fs;.
nghUslf;fk;

myF jiyg;G gf;fk;


vz; vz;.
I fpof;fpe;jpa fk;ngdp 1
tq;fhsj;jpy; ,ul;ilahl;rp 1
1773 Mk; Mz;L xOq;FKiwr;rl;lk; 2
1784 Mk; Mz;L gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; 9
1793> 1813> 1833 kw;Wk; 1853 Mk; tUl gl;lar;rl;lk;. 12
1857 rpg;gha; fyfk;> fhuzq;fs;> tpisTfs; 21
kfhuhzpapd; Nguwptpg;G 25
1861> 1892 Mk; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk; 26
kpz;Nlh – khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; 1909 32
1919 Mk; mz;L rl;lj;jpd; kj;jpa> khepy muRfs; 37
II irkd; FOtpd; mwpf;if 45
tl;lNki[ khehLfSk; ,e;jpahtpd; vjph;g;Gk; 46
1935d; kj;jpa murhq;fk;> 1935d; khepy murhq;fq;fs; 51
Mf];l; ed;nfhil 60
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOtpypUe;J> kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lk; tiu 62
,e;jpa Rje;jpu rl;lk; 1947 63
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; rpwg;Gj;jd;ikfs; 65
murpay; mikg;G jpUj;jq;fs; 68
III Mq;fpNya fk;ngdpf;F vjpuhd njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp 76
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp 81
rKjha rkar; rPh;jpUj;j ,af;fq;fs; 85
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; 94
1885y; fhq;fpurpy; jPtputhj ,af;fq;fs; 102
1905 Mk; Mz;L tq;fg; gphptpid 107
ntspehLfspy; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lk; 108
Kjyhk; cyfg;NghUk;> Rahl;rp ,af;fKk; 111
yf;Ndh cld;ghL 115
khz;l; Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fSk;> ,ul;il Ml;rpAk; 116
nusyl; rl;lk; 119

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


2
[hypad; thyhghf; gLnfhiy 121
fpyhghj; ,af;fk; 124
IV xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; 129
Rauh[;af; fl;rp 134
irkd; FO Gwf;fzpg;G> irkd; FO mwpf;if 136
NeU mwpf;if 138
[pd;dhtpd; 14 mk;rj; jpl;lq;fs; 139
rl;l kWg;G ,af;fk;> murpd; mlf;FKiw 140
tl;l Nki[ khehLfs; 141
kPz;Lk; Nghuhl;lk; 142
tFg;Gthhpj; jPhT
; 143
G+dh cld;ghL 144
V ,uz;lhk; cyfg;NghUk;> ,e;jpahTk; 145
jdpegh; rj;jpafpufk; 146
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOtpd; mwpf;if 147
1942y; kf;fspd; vOr;rp 148
Rgh]; re;jpuNgh]; 150
rp.Mh;.ghh;Kyh 151
Ntty; jpl;lk; 152
rpk;yh khehL 152
ml;ypapd; mwpf;iffs; 153
mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lk; 154
,ilf;fhy muR mikj;jy; 156
kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lk; 1947 157
,e;jpah tpLjiy ngw ,Ue;j fhuzq;fs; 159
Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; rpy jiyth;fs; 161

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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myF - I
Mq;fpNyahpd; fpof;F ,e;jpa fk;ngdp
1600 brk;gh; 31k; ehs; 215 „thzpg tPuh;fs;‟ vyprngj; uhzp (1558-
1603)aplkpUe;J fPio ehLfSld; thzpgk; nra;tjw;fhf „Mq;fpyf;
fpof;fpe;jpa fk;ngdp‟iaj; Jtf;f mDkjp ngw;wdh;. Kjyhk; N[k;];
kd;dh; fhyj;jpy;> 1613k; Mz;L Mq;fpNyah; Kfyha kd;dh; [fhq;fPhpd;
mDkjpNahL> #uj;jpy; th;j;jff; fplq;iff; fl;bdh;. gpd;dh; Mf;uh>
mfkjhghj;> GNuhr; Mfpa ,lq;fspy; th;j;jff; fplq;Ffis epWtpdh;.
1661y; ,q;fpyhe;J gk;ghiag; Nghh;j;Jf;fPrpahplkpUe;J ,uz;lhk;
rhh;yRf;F rPjdkhfg; ngw;W ,e;jpaf; fk;ngdpf;F thliff;Ff; nfhLj;jJ
(1668). 17k; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpapy; ,f;fk;ngdp nrd;id> fy;fj;jh>
gk;gha; Mfpa ,lq;fis th;j;jf ikaq;fshff; nfhz;L> ,e;jpa
cs;ehl;Lg; Nghh;fspy; jiyapl;L> jq;fsJ Mjpf;fj;ij tphpTgLj;jpdh;.
tq;fhsj;jpy; Mq;fpNyah; Mjpf;fk;:-
1707y; Kfyhag; Nguurh; mTuq;frPg; ,we;jTld; Kfyhag; NguuR
rhpe;J rpjWz;L Nghapw;W. thhpRhpikr; rz;ilfs; Nguurpy;
ngUq;Fog;gj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mypth;jpfhd; tq;fhsj;ij Kfyhag;
NguurpypUe;J gphpj;Jj; jd; Ml;rpapd; fPo; nfhz;L te;jhh;. Mq;fpNyah;
mr;#o;epiyiaj; jq;fSf;Fr; rhjfkhf;fpf; nfhz;L rz;ilapl;Nlhhpd;
xU rhuhNuhL Nrh;eJ ; jq;fsJ Mjpf;f tphpthf;fj;jpy; <Lgl;ldh;.
gpshrpg;Nghh; (1757) kw;Wk; gf;rhh;Nghh; (1764) Mfpatw;wpy; Mq;fpNyah;
gq;Nfw;W Kd;dNk ngw;w ntw;wpfis epue;jukhf;fpf; nfhz;ldh;.
Mq;fpNyahpd; eph;thfr; rPh;jpUj;jq;fs;:-
fpistpd; ,ul;il Ml;rp:-
,UKiw tq;fhs fth;duhf ,Ue;j ,uhgh;l; fpist; 1765y;
tq;fhsj;jpy; „,ul;il Ml;rp‟ (Dual Government or Dyarchy) Kiwia
mwpKfg;gLj;jpdh;. mjd;gb tUtha; rk;ge;jg;gl;l „jpthdp‟ mjpfhuj;ij
Mq;fpNyah; ngw;wdh;. ,uhZtk;> ghJfhg;G> fhty;> Ml;rp Nghd;w
„eprhkj;‟ mjpfhuj;ij tq;fhs ethgplk; nfhLj;jdh;. mjhtJ>
Mq;fpNyah; jilapd;wp tUthiag; ngw ethg; ghJfhg;G mspf;f
Ntz;Lk;! ,e;j #o;r;rpj; jpwkpf;f ,ul;il Ml;rp tq;fhsj;jpy;
mjpfhukw;w nghWg;igAk;> nghWg;gw;w mjpfhuj;ijAk; nfhz;l
Kuz;gl;l ,ul;il eph;thfj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; tpisthf> mq;F
Ml;rp rPh;Fiye;jJ. ,e;jpa thzpgk; erpe;jJ. mjpfhuth;f;f mlf;FKiw
mjpfhpj;jJ. rKjha rkepiy gpwo;e;jJ. kf;fs; eyd;
Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;lJ. tskhd tq;fhsk; tWikg; gpbapy; rpf;fpaJ.

1) fpof;F ,e;jpa fk;ngdp ,e;jpahtpy; vt;thW epWtg;gl;lJ?

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk;> 1773
(Regulating Act, 1773)
Mq;fpy fpof;fpe;jpa thzpff; fk;ngdp tq;fhsj;jpYk; ,e;jpahtpd;
gpw ghfq;fspYk; RNjr muRfspd; Mjuitg; ngw;W tpahghuj;ij
tsh;j;J te;jJ. rpy ,lq;fspy; RNjr murh;fis ntd;W mg;gFjpfspy;
Ml;rp KiwiaAk; ftdpj;J te;jJ. gjpNdohk; E}w;whz;by; ,Wjptiu
fk;ngdpapd; mjpfhu tsh;r;rp kd;dhpd; tpUg;gj;ijg; nghUj;jjhfNt
,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; gjpndl;lhk; E}w;whz;by; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wk;
fk;ngdpapd; tptfhuq;fspy; kd;dhpd; mjpfhuq;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jp jdJ
mjpfhuj;ij epiy ehl;baJ. mg;gb fk;ngdpapd; tptfhuq;fisf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;F ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jhy; ,aw;wg;gl;l KjyhtJ
rl;lNl xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; MFk;.
fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l gy FiwghLfs; ePf;fg;gl;ld.
NkYk; ,r;rl;lNk ,e;jpa Ml;rp Kiwapd; tsh;r;rpapy; Kjy; gbahFk;.
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; tsh;r;rpf;fhd mbf;fy; MFk;.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gLtjw;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
1) fk;ngdp Copah;fspd; Mlk;gu tho;f;if:-
fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdpapy; gzpahw;wptpl;L ,q;fpyhe;J jpUk;gpa
Copah;fspd; Mlk;gu tho;f;if ,q;fpyhe;jpy; tho;e;J te;j Mq;fpy
kf;fis Mr;rhpag;gl itj;jJ. uhgh;l; fpist; ,q;fpyhe;J jpUk;gpa
rkaj;jpy; mtUila Mlk;gu tho;f;ifiaAk;> MilfisAk; fz;l
kf;fs; mtiu> ethg; uhgh;l; fpist; vd;W mioj;jdh;.
NkYk; gy fk;ngdp Copah;fs; jha;ehl;bw;Fj; jpUk;Gk; NghJ
mjpfkhd nry;tj;ijf; nfhz;L nrd;wdh;. mth;fs; jq;fsJ Gjpa
nry;tj;jpd; fhuzkhf Mlk;gu tho;f;if tho;e;jdh;. ,th; erpj;Jg; Nghd
gNuhf;fs; (Rotton boroughs) vd;w Njh;jy; njhFjpfis tpiyf;F thq;fp
ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh; Mapdh;. vdNt Mq;fpy kf;fs;> ,e;j fk;ngdp
Copah;fs; Mjutw;w ,e;jpa kf;fis Vkhw;wpNa nghUs; Nrh;j;jpUf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;W vz;zpdh;. NkYk; ,J mth;fsplk; nghwhikiaAk;
Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,jdhy; fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpy; ghuhSkd;wk; jiyapl
Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ nghJ kf;fs; fUj;jhf mike;jJ.
2) ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fspd; fUj;J:-
uhgh;l; fpistpd; ntw;wpfshy; fk;ngdpapd; murpay; mjpfhuj;jpYk;
thzpg tsh;r;rpapYk; kpFe;j Kd;Ndw;wk; Vw;gl;lJ. vdNt fk;ngdpapd;
yhgj;ijAk; yhgg; gq;fPl;ilANk nghpjhff; nfhz;L> fk;ngdpapd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd fhhpaq;fspNyNa mf;fiuNahL ghLgLk;
mYtyh;fsplk; yl;rf;fzf;fhd ,e;jpa kf;fis Ml;rp GhpAk; nghWg;ig
xg;gilg;gJ rhpay;y vd;W ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh fUjpdh;. NkYk;
tq;fhsk; Nghd;w gFjpfis MSk; nghWg;ig ,q;fpyhe;J muR Vw;why;
mr;nray; muRf;F ew;ngaiuj; Njb je;J FbNaw;w ehLfis
mjpfg;gLj;Jtjw;F mE$ykhf mikAk; vd;Wk; ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;
fUjpdh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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3) jilapyh thzpgf; nfhs;if (Policy of Free Trade):-
gjpndl;lhk; E}w;whz;by; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; „jilapyh thzpgf;
nfhs;if‟ (Laissez-faire) gw;wp Njrpa mstpy; tpthjq;fs; eilngw;W
te;jd. ,jd; tpisthf ,e;jpahTld; tpahghuk; nra;a Mq;fpyf;
fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdp kl;Lk; ngw;wpUe;j Kw;Whpik (monopolistic
right)f;F vjpuhf Fuy; vOe;jJ. fk;ngdp tptfhuj;jpy; ghuhSkd;wk;
jiyapl ,JTk; fhuzkhFk;.
4) tq;fhs kf;fspd; kpf Nkhrkhd epiy:-
tq;fhsj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l ,ul;il Ml;rpapd; tpisthf gy
rPh;NfLfs; fhzg;gl;lJ. kf;fspd; eyd;fisf; ftdpg;ghh; ahUk; ,y;iy.
ethgplk; Kiwapl;lhy; cz;ikahd mjpfhuk; fk;ngdpaplNk cs;sJ
vd;W $wpdh;. fk;ngdpaplk; Kiwapl;lhy; eph;thf mjpfhuk; ethgplNk
cs;sJ vd;wdh;. vdNt jhd; 1770-y; tq;fhsj;jpy; Njhd;wpa ngUk;
gQ;rj;jpd; tpisthf kf;fSf;F Vw;gl;l Jauq;fisg; Nghf;f ahUk;
Kd;tutpy;iy. Ie;jpy; xU gFjp kf;fs; ,we;jdh;. NkYk; fk;ngdp
Copah;fNs ,e;j gQ;rj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp nghUl;fspd; tpiyfis
cah;j;jpf; nfhs;is yhgk; rk;ghjpj;jdh;. ,e;j epiy ,q;fpyhe;J
kf;fis ,e;jpah;fs; kPJ ,uf;fg;gl itj;jJ. fk;ngdp eltbf;iffisg;
gw;wp tprhhpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w fUj;J tYtile;jJ.
5) fk;ngdpapd; Njhy;tp:-
1764-y; eilngw;w ik#h; Nghhpy; fk;ngdpapd; gilfs; i`jh;
mypaplk; gLNjhy;tpaile;jd. ,e;j nra;jp ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;wile;j
NghJ murhq;fKk;> kf;fSk; mjph;r;rpaile;jdh;. ,j;Njhy;tp
,q;fpyhe;jpd; GfOf;F fsq;fk; Vw;gLj;Jtjhf mikaNt fk;ngdp
tptfhuj;jpy; murhq;fk; jiyapl Kw;gl;lJ.
6) fk;ngdpapd; Nkhrkhd epjpepiyik:-
1765-k; Mz;L tq;fhsk;> gPfhh;> xhprh Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspy; jpthdp
chpikia fk;ngdp ngw;w NghJ> fk;ngdpf;F tUlj;jpw;F 16 yl;rk;
gTd; epfu yhgk; fpilf;Fk; vd;w ek;gpf;if Vw;gl;lJ. vdNt
fk;ngdpapd; gq;F njhifapd; kjpg;G cah;e;jJ. gq;Fjhuh;fSf;F
nfhLf;fg;gl;l yhgg; gq;fPL 10 rjtPjj;jpypUe;J 12.5 rjtPjkhf
cah;e;jJ. Mdhy; 1772-y; fk;ngdpapd; epjpepiy Nkhrkhfp jpthyh
Mfg;NghfpwJ vd;w tjejp gutpaJ. ,jdhy; gq;Ffspd; tpiy rhpe;jJ.
vdNt fk;ngdp gq;Fjhuh;fs; jq;fspd; eyd;fs; fhf;fg;gl ghuhSkd;wk;
cldbahf fk;ngdp tptfhuj;jpy; jiyapl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nfhhpf;if
tpLj;jdh;.
7) fk;ngdp ,q;fpyhe;J murhq;fj;jplk; Nfl;l fld;:-
fk;ngdpapd; thzpgk; nropg;ghf ele;J te;jNghJ murhq;fj;jpw;F
jdf;F toq;fg;gl;l KwWhpikf;fhf tUlj;jpw;F ehd;F yl;rk; gTd;
xOq;fhf nrYj;jp te;jJ. 1767 Kjy; 1772 tiu xOq;fhfr; nrYj;jp
te;j fk;ngdp> epjp neUf;fbapd; fhuzkhf ehd;F yl;rk; gTid
njhlh;e;J nrYj;j Kbatpy;iy. mJkl;Lky;yhJ „ghuhSkd;wk; fld;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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nfhLj;jhyd;wp fk;ngdp njhlh;e;J eilngw Kbahj epiy Vw;gl;lJ‟.
fk;ngdp eph;thff; FOtpdh; gj;J yl;rk; gTd; fld; Nfl;L
ghuhSkd;wj;ij mZfpdh;. vdNt jhd; fk;ngdpia xOq;FgLj;j
ghuhSkd;wk; ,e;j tha;gi
; g gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lJ.
8) ehh;j; gpuTtpd; kNrhjh:- 1773 Nk 18k; Njjp:-
fk;ngdpapd; eph;thfj;ij xOq;FgLj;j ghuhSkd;wk; „nghWf;F
FO‟ xd;iwak;> „ufrpaf; FO‟ (Select Committee Secret Committee)
xd;iwAk; epakpj;jJ. ,e;j FOf;fspd; tprhuizapy; 1757ypUe;J
1766f;Fs; fk;ngdp Copah;fs; ,UgJ yl;rk; gTDf;F Nky;
ed;nfhilahfg; ngw;wJ ep&gpf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ,e;j FOtpd; mwpf;if
fk;ngdpapd; Nkhrkhd eph;thfj;ijf; fLikahf fz;bj;jJ.
,e;j FOf;fspd; mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapNy ehh;j; gphpT 1773 Nk
18k; Njjp ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; „xOq;FgLj;Jk; kNrhjh‟ xd;iw
mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;. kNrhjh gw;wpa tpthjk; eilngw;wJ. kNrhjhTf;F
vjpuhf fk;ngdp eph;thfk; mDg;gpa vy;yh tpz;zg;gq;fisAk; js;Sgb
nra;J> kNrhjh epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. ,JNt „xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk;‟ vd;w
ngaiu ngw;wJ.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; fk;ngdpapd; tuyhw;wpy; xU Gjpa
rfhg;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;jpahtpYk; ,q;fpyhe;jpYk; fk;ngdpapd;
eltbf;iffis fz;fhzpf;Fk; chpikiag; ngw;wJ ghuhSkd;wk;.
fk;ngdpapd; mikg;G Kiwapy; gy khWjy;fis Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,jdhy;
fk;ngdpf;F xU Gjpa murpayikg;G cUthdJ.
1) fk;ngdp eph;thf mikg;gpy; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wq;fs;:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gLk; Kd;ghf fk;ngdp 24
,af;Feh;fisf; nfhz;l xU eph;thf rigahy; eph;tfpf;fg;gl;L te;jJ.
,e;j ,af;feh;fis fk;ngdpapy; 500gTz;l; KjyPL nra;j gq;Fjhuh;fs;
; jLj;jhh;fs;. ,e;j gq;Fjhuh;fisf; nfhz;l „chpikahsh; kd;wKk;‟
Njh;en
(Court of propritors) nray;gl;L te;jJ.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd;gb ,dpNky; 1000 gTz;l; KjyPL
nra;Js;s gq;Fjhuh;fSf;Nf ,af;Feh;fisj; Njh;en ; jLf;Fk; chpik
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. Mz;LNjhWk; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;L te;j ,af;Feh;fs; ,dp
ehd;F Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw jhd; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gLthh;fs;. mth;fspy;
ehd;fpy; xU gFjpapdh; (mjhtJ 6 Ngh;) Mz;LNjhWk; gjtp tpyf
Ntz;Lk;. Gjpa ,af;Feh;fs; mth;fSf;Fg; gjpyhf Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
2) fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpd; kPJ ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghL:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd;gb fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpd; kPJ
ghuhSkd;wk; gy fl;Lg;ghLfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ. fk;ngdpapd; tuT nryT
fzf;Fs; ,q;fpyhe;J mikr;ruit Kd; itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;
epythp rk;ge;jkhf ,e;jpahtpypUe;J tUk; vy;yh fbjq;fSk; fUT+yj;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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JiwapYk;> rptpy; uhZt fbjg; Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;fis ,q;fpyhe;jpy;
ntspcwTr; nrayhplKk; rkh;g;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW fk;ngdpapd;
rptpy; thzpg eltbf;iffspy; jiyapLk; chpik ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F
toq;fg;gl;lJ.
mJ kl;Lky;yhky; ,UgJ Mz;bw;F xUKiw fpof;fpe;jpaf;
fk;ngdp njhlh;e;J ,aq;f Ntz;Lkh> Ntz;lhkh? vd;gij eph;zapf;Fk;
chpikia ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F ,r;rl;lk; toq;fpaJ. vdNt ,UgJ
Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw fk;ngdpapy; fhzg;gLk; FiwghLfis ePf;f
ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F tha;g;Gf; fpilj;jJ. ,jd; fhuzkhfj;jhd; 1793> 1813>
1833> 1853k; tUl gl;la rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gl;ld.
3) fth;dh; n[duy;:-
tq;fhsj;jpd; fth;dh; xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd;gb
„tpy;ypak;Nfhl;ilapd; fth;dh; n[duy;‟ vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhh;. mtuJ
tUl rk;gsk; 25>000 gTd; MFk;. ,tuJ gjtpf;fhyk; Ie;J Mz;Lfs;
MFk. ,th; nrd;id> gk;gha; fth;dh;fistpl mjpf mjpfhuk;
gilj;jth;. ,tiu fye;J MNyhrpj;j gpd;Ng ,ju khepy fth;dh;fs;
RNjr murh;fSld; Nghh; GhpjNyh> rkhjhd cld;gbf;if nra;J
nfhs;sNth Ntz;Lk;.
4) fth;dh; n[duypd; MNyhrid rig:-
(Governor General – in – Council):-
eph;thfj;jpy; fth;dh; n[duYf;F MNyhrid $w ehd;F
cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l Xh; MNyhrid rig mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j
ehd;F cWg;gpdh;fspd; ngah;fs; tUkhW: fpshthpq;> gpuhd;rp];> khd;rd;>
ghh;ty; (Clavering, Francis, Monson, Barwell) ,th;fSk; Ie;J Mz;Lfs;
gjtp tfpg;gh;. ,e;j rigapd; ngUk;ghd;ik thf;Fg;gbNa (Majority Vote)
fth;dh; n[duy; Ml;rp elj;j Ntz;Lk;. thf;Ffs; rk epiyahf
,Uf;Fk; NghJ „KbT nra;Ak; thf;F‟ (Casting Vote) fth;dh; n[duYf;F
toq;fg;gl;lJ. fth;dh; n[duYk; MNyhridf; FOtpdUk; ,e;jpahtpd;
eph;thfj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd rl;lq;fis ,aw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;.
5) jiyik ePjpkd;wk;:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd;gb xU jiyik ePjpgjpAk;> %d;W
ePjpgjpfSk; mlq;fpa xU jiyik ePjpkd;wk; fy;fj;jhtpy;
mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J fth;dh; n[duYf;F fl;Lg;glhjJ. jiyik ePjpgp
kw;Wk; gpwePjpgjpfs; muruhNyNa epakpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jiyik
ePjpkd;wk; rptpy;> fphpkpdy; mYty;fisAk;> flw;gil kw;Wk;
kjrk;ge;jkhd tof;FfisAk; tprhhpf;Fk; chpik ngw;wpUe;jJ. ,e;j
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuk; tq;fhsk;> gPfhh;> xhprh> khfhzq;fspy; Mq;fpy
Ml;rpf;F cl;gl;l Fbfs; kPJ gutpapUe;jJ. jiyik ePjpgjpahf rh;
vyp[h ,k;Ng (Sir Elijah Impey) vd;gtUk; Nrk;gh;];> nykha;rh;> i`l;
(Chambers, Lamaistre, Hyde) MfpNahh; gpw ePjpgjpfshfTk;
epakpf;fg;gl;ldh;. jiyik ePjpgjp tUlj;jpw;F 8000 gTz;Lk;> gpw
ePjpgjpfs; 6000 gTz;Lk; Cjpak; ngw;whh;fs;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; ed;ikfs;:-
1) xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lNk ,e;jpahit Mq;fpyg; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd;
mjpfhuj;Jf;Fs; nfhz;L te;j Kjy; rl;lkhFk;. fk;ndp Copah;fs;
jq;fs; ehl;L murhq;fj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghL ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jjhy; ,e;jpa
kf;fis jq;f;s kdk; Nghdgb nfhs;isabj;J te;jdh;. Mdhy;
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; %ykhfNt fk;ngdpapd; eltbf;iffs;
fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;L ,q;fpyhe;Jf;F Vw;gl;l mtg;ngah; ePq;f eltbf;if
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
2) fk;ngdp mYtyh;fsplk; fhzg;gl;l Coy;fisAk;
xOq;fPdq;fisAk; mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfj;ij mfw;wTk; ,r;rl;lk;
cjtpaJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gbjhd; cjtpaJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gbjhd; fth;dh;
n[duyhf gzpGhpe;j thud; N`];bq;]; gpd;dh; ghuhSkd;wj;jhy; JNuhf
Fw;w tprhuiz nra;ag;gl;lhh;.
3) tq;fhsj;jpy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;j ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwapd;
rPh;Nflhd epiy khWtjw;F ,r;rl;lk; cjtp nra;jJ. ,e;jpa kf;fSk;
ed;ik ngw;wdh;.
4) fk;ngdp Copah;fs; RaeyDf;fhf nra;J te;j jdp thzpgk;
mfw;wg;gl;ljhy; fk;ngdpf;F mjpf yhgk; fpilj;jJ. ,e;jpa thzpgk;
tsh;e;jJ.
5) IE}W gTz;l; KjyPL nra;jth;fspd; thf;Fhpik uj;J
nra;ag;gl;ljhy;> trjp gilj;jth;fSk; ,ay;ghfNt jFjp
tha;e;jth;fSNk gq;Fjhuh; rigapy; ,lk; ngw;wdh;. ,jdhy; jFjp
tha;e;j ,af;Feh;fNs Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;ldh;.
6) ,af;Feh;fspd; gjtpf;fhyk; xU Mz;lhf ,Ue;j NghJ
mth;fshy; cUg;gbahf ve;j fhhpaKk; nra;a ,aytpy;iy. ,r;rl;lg;gb
gjtpf;fhyk; ehd;F Mz;Lfs; Mf;fg;gl;ljhy; ,af;Feh;fshy;
KOikahf gzpfis Mw;w Kbe;jJ.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; FiwghLfs;:-
“xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; fk;ngdp gjpTr; rl;lj;jpw;F tpNuhjkhdJk;
jdpegh; chpikiag; gwpg;gJk; MFk;”> vd;W vl;kz;l;gh;f; $Wfpwhh;.
“xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; njsptw;w Xh; miwFiwahd rl;lk;” vd;W
P.E. uhgh;l;]; vd;gth; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; eilKiwf;F te;jTlNdNa mjd;
FiwghLfs; njhpa Muk;gpj;jd. ,r;rkl;lj;jhy; fk;ngdpapy; xOq;F
Vw;gLtjw;Fg; gjpyhf xOq;fPdq;fNs Vw;gl;ld.
1) fth;dh; n[duYf;F MNyhridf; FOtpdUf;Fk; gifik:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; fth;dh; n[duYf;Fk; MNyhridf;
FOtpdUf;FkpilNa gifik Vw;glf; fhuzkhdJ. fth;dh; n[duy;
MNyhrid rigapd; ngUk;ghd;ik thf;fpw;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;L elf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;w epiyapUe;jjhy; murpay; Fog;gk; Vw;gl;lJ. MNyhridf;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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FOtpdhpy; ghh;nty; jtpu kw;wth;fSf;F ,e;jpah GjpaJ. ,e;jpa
eph;thfKk; GjpaJ. gof;f tof;fq;fSk; GjpaJ.
NkYk; ghh;ty; jtpu kw;w %d;W NgUk; fth;dh; n[duyhf
gjtpNaw;w thud; N`];bq;rpw;F mjpf njhe;juT nfhLj;jdh;. gpuhd;]p];
vd;gth; fth;dh; n[duypd; gjtpiaf; ifg;gw;w Kide;jhh;. MfNt
thud; N`];bq;]; nrayw;w epiyapy; ,Ue;jhh;. NkYk; xOq;FgLj;Jk;
rl;lj;jpy; MNyhridf; FOtpdhpd; mjpfhuq;fSk; fth;dh; n[duypd;
mjpfhuq;fSk; jdpj;jdpNa gphpj;Jf; $wg;gltpy;iy.
2) khepyq;fspd; kPJ fth;dh; n[duy; KOikahf mjpfhuk; nrYj;j
Kbatpy;iy:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lg;gb tq;fhs muR nrd;id> gk;gha; Mfpa
khepy muRfs; kPJ mjpfhuk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j khepy muRfs;
tq;fhs muRf;F fl;Lg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; „mtru fhyj;jpy;
Rje;jpukhf ,aq;fpf; nfhs;syhk;‟ vd;w xU tpjp fhzg;gl;ljhy;> mijg;
gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L khepy muRfs; fth;dh; n[duYf;F fl;Lg;glhky;
,aq;fpd. gk;gha; fth;dh; kuhl;bag; NghhpYk;> nrd;id fth;dh; fh;ehlf
ethGlDk;; jq;fs; tpUg;gg;gb ele;J nfhz;ldh;. NkYk; fth;dh;
n[duypd; mjpfhuq;fSk;> gpw fth;dh;fspd; mjpfhuq;fSk; gphpj;Jf;
$wg;gltpy;iy.
3) ePjpj;Jiwapy; fhzg;gl;l Fiwfs;:-
a) MNyhridf; FOtpdUf;Fk; jiyik ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa
cs;s njhlh;Gk;> rigapdhpd; mjpfhuq;fSk; ePjpj;Jiwapdhpd;
mjpfhuq;fSk; tiuaWj;Jf; $wg;glhjjhy; mbf;fb rr;ruTfs; Vw;gl;ld.
b) ePjpgjpfs; Neubahf ,q;fpyhe;J murh;fshy;
epakpf;fg;gl;lth;fs;. Mjyhy; mth;fs; fth;dh; n[duYf;Ff; fPo;gba
kWj;jdh;. ,e;jpahtpy; ahUf;Fk; jhq;fs; fl;Lg;gl Ntz;bajpy;iy vd;W
fUjpdh;.
c) nrd;id> gk;gha; khepy ePjpkd;wq;fSf;Fk; fy;fj;jh
cah;ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fk; vj;jifa njhlh;G ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;
tpsf;fg;gltpy;iy.
d) NkYk; jiyik ePjpkd;wk; ,e;jpaf;Fbkf;fs; midth; kPJk;
mjpfhuk; nrYj;Jtjh my;yJ fk;ngdpapd; fPo; gzpapykh;ej ; ,e;jpah;fs;
kPJ kl;Lk; mjpfhuk; nrYj;Jtjh vd;w nra;jp njspthff;
$wg;gltpy;iy. NkYk; ahh; ahh; gphpl;b\; Fbfs;> ahh; ahh; fk;ngdpapd;
gzpahl;fs; vd;gJk; njspthff; $wg;gltpy;iy.
e) xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; cah;ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ve;jr; rl;lk;
gpd;gw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; $wtpy;iy. mg;NghJ ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;J
rl;lk;> K];yPk; rl;lk;> Mq;fpyr; rl;lk; Mfpait eilKiwapypUe;jd.
Mq;fpyr; rl;lq;fs; ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;bd; #o;epiyf;Nfw;g cUthdit.
vdNt mbg;gil NtWghLfs; nfhz;l ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;j rl;lg; gpur;rid
Fog;gj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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f) fk;ngdp mjpfhhpfis jiyik ePjpkd;wk; fl;Lg;gLj;j KbAk;
vd;W $wg;gl;ljhy; ,urhuUf;FkpilNa Nghuhl;lk; Vw;gl;lJ.
g) Mq;fpy nkhopapy; jhd; ePjpkd;wk; nrayhw;w Nt;zbapUe;jjhy;
,e;jpah;fSf;F ed;ik Vw;gltpy;iy.
4) fk;ngdpapd; kPJ ghuhSkd;wk; KOikahd fl;Lg;ghl;il Vw;gLj;j
Kbatpy;iy:-
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd;gb fk;ngdpapd; fbjg; Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;fs;
midj;Jk; ,q;fpyhe;jpd; ntspcwTf; nrayhplk; rkh;gg ; pf;fgl Ntz;Lk;.
Mdhy; me;j fbjq;fis MuhaTk; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;sTk;
,e;jpa tptfhuq;fspy; jpwik ngw;wpUe;j ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs;
,y;iy. vdNt fk;ngdpapd; kPJ ghuhSkd;wk; KOikahd fl;Lg;ghl;il
Vw;gLj;j Kbatpy;iy.
5) eph;thff; Fog;gk;:-
ehl;by; gytifahd eph;thfk; eilngw;wjhy; ahUf;Ff;
fl;Lg;gLtJ vd;W Ghpahky; kf;fs; Fok;gpdh;. xU Ml;rpahsh; vd;w
epiy ,y;yhky;> ethGfs; Ml;rp> fth;dh; n[duypd; Ml;rp> ,af;Feh;fs;
FO> chpikahsh; FO> jiyik ePjpkd;wk;> khepy fth;dh; Ml;rp vd;w
gy tifahd Ml;rpapy; kf;fs; rpf;fpj; jtpj;jdh;.
6) ,af;Feh; FOtpd; mjpfhuk; tiuaWf;fg;gltpy;iy:-
fk;ngdp ,af;Feh; FOTk;> chpikahsh; FOTk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W
fl;Lg;glhky; ,aq;fpaJ. vdNt fk;ngdp gzpahsh;fs; ahUf;Fk;
fl;Lg;gltpy;iy. mg;gb fl;Lg;glhjth;fs; kPJ vd;d eltbf;if vd;gJk;
$wg;gltpy;iy. fk;ngdpf;F VNjDk; re;Njfk; Vw;gl;lhy; mth;fs;
,q;fpyhe;Jf;Nf njhlh;G nfhs;s Ntz;ba epiy ,Ue;jJ.
nkhj;jj;jpy; fk;ngdpapd; kPJ murhq;fj;jpw;fhtJ> Copah;fspd; kPJ
NkyjpfhhpfSf;fhtJ> MNyhrid rigapd; kPJ fth;dh; n[duYf;fhtJ>
nrd;id gk;gha; khepyq;fs; kPJ fy;fj;jh khepyj;jpw;fhtJ njspthd
mjpfhuj;ij xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; nfhLf;ftpy;iy.

1) xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; vt;thW epth;j;jp nra;ag;gl;lJ?


2) xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs; ahit?

gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; 1784


(Pitt’s India Act, 1784)
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; FiwghLfs; epthj;jpf;fg;gly;
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; eilKiwf;F te;jNghJ mjd; FiwghLfs;
ntspg;gilahfj; njhpayhapd. vdNt me;j FiwghLfis ePf;Ftjw;fhd
Gjpa Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. mjd; tpisthf fk;ngdpapd;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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nray;fisr; rPh;jpUj;j ghuhSkd;wk; gy rl;lq;fis ,aw;wpaJ.
mitfs; xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l FiwghLfis epth;j;jp
nra;jd. me;j rl;lq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. tq;fhs ePjpghpghyd rl;lk; (Bengal Judicature Act) 1781:-
1781-y; ghuhSkd;wk; ,uz;L FOf;fis epakpj;jJ. vl;kz;l; gh;f;
vd;gthpd; jiyikapy; epakpf;fg;gl;l FO ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s
ePjpghpghydj;ij ghprPyid nra;jJ. n`d;wp lz;lh]; vd;gth;
jiyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;l ufrpaFO ik#h; Nghh; cl;gl ,e;jpa
tptfhuq;fisg; gw;wp ghprPyid nra;jJ. ,e;j ,uz;L FOtpdhpd;
mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; 1781-y; tq;fhs ePjpghpghyd rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gl;lJ. ,e;j rl;lk; xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpy; ePjpj;Jiw
rk;ge;jg;gl;l FiwghLfis ePf;fpaJ.
Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) fth;dh; n[duYk; mtuJ MNyhridf; FO cWg;gpdh;fSk;
tq;fhs jiyik ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuj;jpw;F cl;gl;lth;fs; my;y.
2) fk;ngdpapd; thpt#y; rk;ge;jg;gl;l tof;Ffis tprhhpf;Fk;
mjpfhuk; ,e;j ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Ff; fpilahJ.
3) Mq;fpNyah;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l vy;yh tof;FfSk; ,e;j
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jhd; tprhhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
4) fy;fj;jhtpy; trpf;Fk; kf;fs; ahtUk; jiyik ePjpkd;w
mjpfhuj;jpw;F cl;gl;lth; Mth;. Mdhy; ,e;Jf;fSk;> K];yPk;fSk;
thhpRhpik Kjypa nra;jpfspy; mtuth; rl;lq;fspd; gbNa jPh;gG;
$wg;gLth;.
2. lz;lh]; k;Wk; /ghf;]; ,e;jpa tiuT: (Dunda’s and Fox India Bill):-
ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; vjph;fl;rpj; jiytuhd n`d;wp lz;lh]; vd;gth;
1782-y; Mq;fpy ,e;jpa Ml;rp Kiwiaf; fz;bf;Fk; 45 jPh;khdq;fisf;
nfhz;L te;jhh;. Kf;fpakhf fth;dh; n[duypd; mjpfhuj;ijf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; tpjkhfTk;> thud; N`];bq;]; Ml;rpKiwapy; my;yy;gl;l
[kPd;jhuh;fSf;F e\;l <L nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w tpjKkhf
mj;jPh;khdq;fs; mike;jd. Mdhy; me;j jPh;khdq;fSf;F rigapy;
Nghjpa MjuT fpilf;fhky; Ngha; tpl;ljhy; me;j jPh;khdq;fs;
Njhy;tpaile;jd.
1783-y; epjp cjtpf;fhf kWgbAk; fk;ngdp ghuhSkd;wj;ij
mZfpa NghJ kPz;Lk; xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;ijj; jpUj;j xU tha;gG ;
fpilj;jJ. mg;NghJ /ghf;];> ehh;j; gpuG MfpNahhpd; $l;L ke;jphprig
1783 etk;gh; 18-y; xU kNrhjhit ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; mwpKfg;Lj;jpaJ.
mJNt /ghf;]; ,e;jpa tiuT vdg;gLfpwJ.
3. gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; (Pitt’s India Act 1784):-
,q;fpyhe;J gpujkh; tpy;ypak; gpl; vd;gth; 1784> [dthpapy;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; xU kNrhjhit mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;. mJ Mf];L 1781-
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
12
y; epiwNtw;wg;gl;L „gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk;‟ vd;w ngah; ngw;wJ. gpl;
,e;jpar; rl;lk; xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpYs;s NkYk; gy FiwghLfis
ePf;fpaJ.
Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1. fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpak; (Board of Control):-
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lg;gb ,e;jpah rk;ge;jg;gl;l murpay; eph;thf
fhhpaq;fisf; ftdpg;gjw;F Gjpa rig xd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ. mjw;F
fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpak; vd;W ngah;. ,jpy; muruhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l MW
Mizah;fs; ,lk; ngWth;. mth;fs; fUT+yj;jiyth;> murhq;f nrayh;
xUth; kw;Wk; gphptp fTd;rpy; cWg;gpdh;fs; ehd;F Ngh; Mth;. ,e;j
thhpak; fk;ngdp ,af;Feh; FO> chpikahsh; kd;wk; Mfpatw;iwf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuk; ngw;wJ.
2. fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaNk ,e;jpahtpw;fhd Mq;fpyf; nfhs;ifia
tFf;Fk; mjpfhuk; nfhz;lJ. vy;yh rptpy;> uhZt> tUkhd
mjpfhuq;fis ,e;j thhpaNk Nkw;ghh;itapLk;. ,e;j thhpaj;jpd; mDkjp
,d;wp fk;ngdp ,af;Feh; FOtpdh; ve;j cj;juitAk; gpwg;gpj;jy; $lhJ.
,e;jpahtpypUe;J tUk; vy;yhf; fbjq;fisAk; fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jplk;
rkh;gg
; pf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,af;Feh;fs; ,e;jpahTf;F mDg;Gk; gjpiyAk;
jpUj;j fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpw;F mjpfhuk; cz;L.
3. ufrpaf; FO xd;W mikg;G (Committee of Secracy):-
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lj;jpd;gb fk;ngdpapd; FOtpy; cs;s 24
cWg;gpdh;fspypUe;J Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;l %d;W cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l
ufrpaf;FO xd;W Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. fl;Lgghl;L thhpaj;jpypUe;J
,e;jpahtpw;F mDg;gg;gLk; ufrpa Mizfs; ,e;j ufrpaf;FO
%ykhfNt nry;Yk;. ,e;j ufrpaf; FO cWg;gpdh;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;L
thhpaj;jpw;F Jiz epw;gh;fs;. ,jd; tpisthf fk;ngdp eph;thfk; gw;wp
vLf;Fk; Kf;fpa KbTfspd; kPJ 21 ,af;Feh;fs; tpyf;fg;gl;ldh;.
4. fth;dh; n[duypd; mjpfhuk; njspthf;fg;gl;lJ:-
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lj;jpd;gb nrd;id> gk;gha; khepyq;fs; kPjhd
fth;dh; n[duypd; Nkyjpfhuk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mjhtJ> fth;dh;
n[duypd; Nkw;ghh;it nra;Ak; topelj;Jk;> fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuk;
Mfpait njspthf tiuaWf;fg;gl;lJ.
5. ,af;Feh; FOtpd; mjpfhuq;fs; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;ld:-
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lg;gb fk;ngdp ,af;Feh;fs; ,dp thzpgk;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l mYty;fis kl;LNk ftdpg;gh;. murpay; mYty;fis
fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaNk vLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. jq;fs; gzpahsh;fis
epakpg;gJ my;yJ ePf;FtJ kl;LNk ,af;Feh; FOtpd; mjpfhuq;fshf
,Ue;jJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


13
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lj;jpd; rpwg;G:-
gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lj;jhy; Mq;fpyf; fk;ngdp gphpl;b\; mjpfhuj;jpw;F
cl;gl;l murhq;f ,yhf;fhf;fspy; xd;W Nghy; Mfptpl;lJ vdyhk;.
,Jtiu jdJ mYty;fspy; mDgtpj;J te;j vNjr;rjpfhuj;ij fk;ngdp
,oe;Jtpl;lJ. ,e;jpahtpy; fk;ngdpf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd gpuNjrq;f;s
,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; nghWg;ghapw;W.
tpy;ypak; gpl; ,ad;w mstpw;F fk;ngdpapd; gioa mikg;ig
khw;whjpUf;f Kad;whh;. ,jdhy; ,af;Feh;fSk; fk;ngdp mjpfhhpfSk;
kfpo;r;rpaile;jdh;.
Mdhy; gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; kw;nwhU ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwiaj;
Njhw;Wtpj;jJ.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpypUe;j FiwghLfs; ePf;fg;gl;L fk;ngdpapd;
ifapypUe;j mjpfhuq;fs; fth;dh; n[duypd; iff;F khwpaJ.
1793-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; (Charter Act of 1793)
1793-k; tUl xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lj;jpd; gb fk;ngdp tpahghuk;
nra;tjw;fhd Kw;Whpik ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw GJg;gpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wg;gl;bUe;jJ. mjd;gb fk;ngdpf;F mspf;fg;gl;l
gl;lak; (Charter) 1793-k; Mz;L KbtilaNt fk;ngdp eph;thff;FOtpdh;
ghuhSkd;wj;jplk; tpz;zg;gk; nra;jdh;. mg;NghJ ,q;fpyhe;J
murpaypYk;> ghuhSkd;wj;jpYk; fk;ngdpf;Fr; rhjfkhd #o;epiyNa
fhzg;gl;lJ.
fk;ngdpf;F NkYk; 20 ,UgJ Mz;Lfs; chpik mspf;Fk; 1793.
tUl gl;lar;rl;lk; kpf vspjhf ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; epiwNtwpaJ.
1798-k; tUl gl;la rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu Kw;Whpik NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F
ePl;bf;fg;gl;lJ.
2) fth;dh; n[duYf;F nrd;id> gk;gha; khepyq;fspd; kPJs;s
rptpy; kw;Wk; uhZt mjpfhuq;fs; kPz;Lk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
muRfSld; Nghh; my;yJ rkhjhdk; nra;J nfhs;tJ gw;wp fth;dh;
n[duiy khepy fth;dh;fs; fl;lhak; fye;J MNyhrpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
3) MNyhridf; FOtpdh;fspd; ngUk;ghd;ik Kbit kPwpr;
nray;gLk; mjpfhuk; khepy fth;dh;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ.
4) ,e;j rl;lk; xU typikahd ika murhq;fk; miktjw;F
toptFj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ. ,jd;gb fth;dh; n[duy; khepyq;fspy; cs;s
fk;ngdp Copah;fSf;F Mizfs; gpwg;gpf;fyhk;. khepyq;fSf;F tp[ak;
nra;Ak; NghJ mq;Fs;s MNyhridf; FO $l;lj;jpw;Fj; jiyik
tfpf;f chpik cz;L. jhd; tq;fhsj;jpy; ,y;yhj fhyq;fspy; rig
$l;lj;jpw;Fj; jiyik tfpf;f xU cgjiytiu fth;dh; n[duy;
epakpj;Jf; nfhs;s mjpfhuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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5) fth;dh; n[duy;> khepy fth;dh;fs;> gilj;jsgjpfs; MfpNahh;
jq;fs; gjtpf;fhyj;jpd; NghJ ,e;jpahittpl;L ntspNa Nghfj;
jiltpjpf;fg;gl;lJ.
6) ,e;jpahtpy; gphpl;b\; epyg;gug;ig tp];jhpf;Fk; vz;zk;
murhq;fj;jpw;F ,y;iy vd;W kPz;Lk; typAWj;jpf; $wg;gl;lJ. NkYk;
fk;ngdp mYtyh;fs; ghpRfs;> md;gspg;Gfs; ngWtJk;> yQ;rk; ngWtJk;
Fw;wk; vd;W typAWj;jg;gl;lJ.
7) fth;dh; n[duypd; MNyhridr; rig cWg;gpdh;fshf epakdk;
nra;ag;gLgth;fs; ,dpNky; Fiwe;jJ gd;dpnuz;L Mz;LfshtJ ,e;jpa
eph;thfj;jpy; mDgtk; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
8) ,r;rl;lg;gb fth;dh; n[duYf;F khepyq;fspy; „mikjp fhz;
ePjpgjp‟ (Justice of peace) epakpf;f chpik nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
9) ];jy murhq;fq;fSf;F kJghd chpkk; toq;fTk;> nghJ
Rfhjhuk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l KbT vLf;fTk; mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;lJ.
10) fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpd; Mizah;fs; vz;zpf;if MwpypUe;J
Ie;jhff; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; filrp ,uz;L cWg;gpdh;fs; gphpT
fTd;rpy; cWg;gpdh;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mtrpak; ,y;iy.
kjpg;gL
P :-
Nkw;fz;l \uj;Jf;fis MuhAk; NghJ> mit xOq;FgLj;Jk;
rl;lk; kw;Wk; gpl; ,e;jpar; rl;lk; Mfpaitfspy; fhzg;gl;l
fUj;Jf;fis kPz;Lk; typAWj;Jtjw;fhfNt mike;Js;sij mwpayhk;.
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f khw;wq;fs; vijAk; ,r;rl;lk; Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy. xNu xU
tpUk;gj;jfhj khw;wk; vd;dntd;why; fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpw;F MFk;
nryTfis ,e;jpa tUkhdj;jpypUe;Nj nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W
typAWj;jg;gl;lNjahFk;. ,e;epiy 1919-k; tUl ,e;jpa murhq;fr; rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gLk; tiu ePbj;jJ.
1813-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; (Charter Act of 1813)
1793-k; tUl gl;la rl;lg;gb fk;ngdpf;F ,UgJ tUl fhyj;jpw;F
toq;fg;gl;l tpahghu Kw;Whpikf; fhyk; KbtilaNt fk;ngdp
eph;thfj;jpdh; me;j rhrdj;ijg; GJg;gpg;gjw;fhf ghuhSkd;wj;jplk;
tpz;zg;gpj;jpdh;. vdNt ghuhSkd;wk; fk;ngdpapd; tptfhuq;fis myrp
Muha Kw;gl;lJ. gy ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; fk;ngdpapd;
Kw;Whpikia xopj;Jf; fl;l tpUk;gpdh;. ePz;l tpthjj;jpw;Fg; gpwF
ghuhSkd;wk; 1813-y; gjp%d;W jPh;khdq;fis epiwNtw;wpaJ. me;j
jPh;khdq;fspd; mbg;gilapNyNa 1813-k; tUl gl;la rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gllJ. ,e;jr; rl;lkhdJ fk;ngdpf;F ,e;jpa thzpgj;jpy; ,Ue;j
Kw;Whpikia (monopoly)ia ePf;fptpl;lJ. NkYk; fk;ngdpapd;
clikfspd; kPJ re;Njfj;jpw;F ,lkpy;yhky; kd;dhpd; Mjpgj;jpa
chpikia ,r;rl;lk; cWjpgLj;jpaJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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1813-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;l #o;epiy:-
1) fk;ngdpapd; epjpepiy kpf Nkhrkile;jJ. mjd; nghJf;fld;
mjpfhpj;jJ. nty;y];yp gpuGtpd; nfhs;iffspd; fhuzkhfNt
fk;ngdpf;F gy ,ilA+Wfs; Vw;gl;ld. vdNt ghuhSkd;wj;jplk; fld;
Nfl;L fk;ngdp tpz;zg;gpj;jJ.
2) fk;ngdpf;F toq;fg;gLk; rhrdj;ijg;gw;wp tpthjk;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; te;jNghJ> ,q;fpyhe;jpYs;s nghpa thzpgh;fs;>
cw;gj;jpahs;fs;> fg;gw; nrhe;jf;fhuh;fs; fk;ngdpapd; Kw;Whpikia
NkYk; ePl;bf;ff;$lhJ vd;W tpz;zg;gk; mspj;jdh;. ,e;jpah kw;Wk;
rPdhTldhd tpahghuk; nra;Ak; chpik vy;yh Mq;fpy kf;fSf;Fk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;ldh;.
3) Gul;l];jhe;J kp\pdhpkhh;fs; jhq;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;Fr; nrd;W
kjg;gpur;rhuk; nra;a mDkjpaspf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; murhq;fj;jplk;
Kiwapl;ldh;.
Nkw;fz;l #o;epiyapy; fk;ngdpapd; rhrdk; gw;wpa tpthjk;
eilngw;wJ. tpahghu Kw;Whpikia ePl;bf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> fpwp];Jt
kjg;gpur;rhuh;fSf;F mDkjp toq;ff;$lhJ vd;Wk; fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpdh;
thjpl;ldh;. ,jdhy; fhkd;]; rig ,e;jpa nra;jpfisg; gw;wp
tprhhpg;gjw;F xU nghWf;F FOit (Select Committee) mikj;jJ.
mf;FO rkh;gg ; pj;j mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; 1813-k; tUl gl;lar;rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
1813-k; tUlk; gl;lar; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) fk;ngdpapd; thzpg Kw;Whpik xopf;fg;gl;lJ:-
1813-k; tUl gl;lar;rl;lk; ,e;jpahTld; tpahghuk; nra;Ak;
chpikia NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F ePl;bj;jJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpa
thzpgj;jpy; fk;ngdpf;F ,Ue;j Kw;Whpik ePf;fg;gl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;J
kf;fs; midtUf;Fk; ,e;jpahTld; thzpgk; nra;Ak; chpik
toq;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; Njapiy> fQ;rh Kjypa nghUl;fis rPdhTf;F
tpw;gjpy; fk;ngdp ngw;wpUe;j Kw;Whpik NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F
ePl;bf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpahTld; tpahghuk; nra;a iynrd;]; toq;Ftjpy;
gy fl;Lg;ghLfs; tpjpf;fg;gl;ld.
2) fpwp];jt kp\pdhpkhh;fSf;F ,e;jpah nry;y mDkjp:-
,r;rl;lg;gb fpwp];jt kp\pdhpkhh;fs; ,e;jpahTf;F nrd;W
fpwp];Jt kjj;ijg; gug;g mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J ,e;jg; gl;la
rl;lj;jpd; rpwg;G mk;rkhFk;. rka eph;thfj;ijf; ftdpf;f jdpahf Jiw
xd;W mikf;FkhW fk;ngdp Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa kf;fSf;F
rka topghl;Lhpik toq;fNt ,t;thW kjg;gpur;rhuk; nra;a
mDkjpaspg;gjhf rl;lj;jpy; $wg;gl;lJ.
3) Nkw;fj;jpa fy;tp Kiwiag; gug;g gz xJf;fPL:-
,e;jpahtpYs;s gphpl;b\; gFjpfspy; thOk; kf;fspd; fy;tp>
gz;ghl;L> mwptpy; tsh;r;rpf;F fk;ngdpapd; yhgj;jpypUe;J Mz;Lf;F xU
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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yl;r &gha; xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. ,t;thW
,r;rl;lg;gb Kjd; Kjyhf ,e;jpaf; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;fhd nghWg;ig
fk;ngdp Vw;Fk;gb Neh;e;jJ. ,J 1813k; tUl gl;la rl;lj;jpd;
Kf;fpag;gFjpahFk;.
4) fk;ngdpapd; epjp eph;thf rPuikg;G:-
,r;rl;lg;gb fk;ngdp jdJ thzpgk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l tuT
nryTfisj; jdpahfTk;> eph;thfk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l tuT nryTfisj;
jdpahfTk; itj;Jf; nfhs;SkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. NkYk;
nrytPdq;fSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; Kd;Dhpik mspf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; typAWj;jg;gl;lJ.
5) fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpd; mjpfhu tphpthf;fk;:-
,r;rl;lg;gb ,e;jpahtpy; fk;ngdpapd; Ml;rpf;Fhpa gFjpfspy;
kd;dhpd; Mjpf;fk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. NkYk; fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpd;
mjpfhuq;fs; mjpfhpf;fg;gl;ld. fk;ngdp ,af;Feh;fSf;F ,dpNky;
fth;dh; n[duy;> fth;dh;fs;> gilj;jsgjpfs; MfpNahiu kl;LNk
epakdk; nra;a chpik cz;L. Mdhy; ,e;j epakdq;fSf;Fk;
fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpy; xg;Gjy; ngw Ntz;Lk;.
6) rptpy;> uhZt Copah;fSf;F gapw;rp epiyaq;fs; mikg;G:-
,e;jpahtpy; fk;ngdp rptpy; kw;Wk; uhZtj; Jiwapy; epakdk;
nra;ag;gLk; Copah;fSf;F jf;f gapw;rp mspf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,r;rl;lk;
$wpaJ. mjw;fhf rptpy; Copah;fSf;F gapw;rp mspf;f n`apypghp
(Hailey bury)apy; xU gapw;rp epiyaKk;> uhZt Copah;fSf;F
mb];Nfhk;g; (Aids Comb) vd;w ,lj;jpy; xU gapw;rp epiyaKk;
mikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;jg;gl;lJ.
7) ];jyRahl;rp epWtdq;fSf;F mjpf mjpfhuk;:-
,r;rl;lg;gb jyRahl;rp epWtdq;fSf;F NkYk; rpy mjpfhuq;fs;
toq;fg;gl;ld. kf;fs; kPJ thp tpjpf;fTk;> thp nrYj;jhjth;fisj;
jz;bf;fTk; chpik toq;fg;gl;lJ.
8) ,e;jpahtpy; Mq;fpyg;gil:-
fk;ngdp Ml;rpg; gFjpfs; kd;dUf;Fl;gl;lit Mfptpl;ljhy;
mg;gFjpfspd; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf ,Ugjhapuk; gphpl;b\; uhay; gilfis
mq;F epWj;jp itf;f mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ. me;j gilfSf;fhd guhkhpg;Gr;
nryTfis fk;ngdpNa Vw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk. ,J jtpu fk;ngdp
,e;jpa gil xd;iwAk; mikj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.
9) gp\g; epakdk;:-
,r;rl;lg;gb fy;fj;jhtpy; cs;s INuhg;gpah;fspd; eyd;fSf;fhf
xU gp\g;Gk; mtUf;F cjtp nra;tjw;fhf %d;W Jiz mYtyh;fSk;
epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,e;j gp\g;gpd; epakdk; ,e;jpahtpy; jpUr;rig
tuyhw;wpd; njhlf;fkhf mikfpwJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


17
1813-k; tUlg; gl;lar; rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;:-
1813-k; tUlg; gl;lar; rl;lkhdJ fPo;f;fz;l gy fhhpaq;fspy;
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpwJ.
1) Kjyhtjhf> ,r;rl;lkhdJ „jilapy;yh thzpgf; nfhs;if‟f;Ff;
fpilj;j ntw;wpahff; fUjg;gLfpwJ. fhuzk; fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu
Kw;Whpik xopf;fg;gl;L ,e;jpa tpahghuk; nghJthf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;
tzpf Kw;Whpik ePf;fg;gl;ljhy; INuhg;gpag; nghUl;fs; ,e;jpahtpy; te;J
Ftpe;jd. ,jdhy; ,e;jpaj; njhopy;fs; ghjpf;fg;gl;L filrpapy; mope;Nj
Nghapd vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;bw;Fk; ,r;rk; ,lk; jUfpwJ.
2) ,uz;lhtjhf> ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;F xU yl;r
&gha; xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; gy khw;wq;fis
Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;jpah;fs; Mq;fpyf; fy;tpia gbf;f Muk;gpj;jjhy;
fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpy; Ntiyf;F Fiwe;j rk;gsj;jpy; mjpf ,e;jpah;fs;
fpilj;jhh;fs;. Nkw;fj;jpaf; fy;tp Kiw ,e;jpahtpy; Ntfkhf
tsh;r;rpaile;jJ.
3) %d;whtjhf> ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb ,e;jpahtpw;F te;j fpwp];Jt
rkag;gug;ghsh;s; fpwp];jt kjj;ijg; gug;g KO %r;Rld; <Lgl;ldh;.
,jw;fhf gy Njthyaq;fs; fl;lg;gl;ld. kUj;Jtkidfs;> kp\pdhp
gs;spf;$lq;fis epWtpdh;. ,jdhy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd ,e;jpah;fs;
fpwp];jt kjj;ijj; jOtpdh;. ,J ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; kpfg;nghpa
jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
,t;thW gytiffspy; 1813-k; tUlg; gl;lar; rl;lk; ,e;jpa
murpayikg;G tuyhw;wpy; rpwg;gplk; ngw;Ws;sJ.
1833-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; (Charter Act of 1833)
1813-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lg;gb fk;ngdpf;F NkYk; ,UgJ tUl
fhyj;jpw;F toq;fg;gl;l rhrdk; KbtilAk; Neuj;jpy; fk;ngdp eph;thff;
FOtpdh; rhrdj;ijg; GJg;gpf;Fk;gbahf ghuhSkd;wj;jplk;
tpz;zg;gpj;jdh;. ghuhSkd;wk; clNd ,e;jpa eph;thfk; gw;wp Muha xU
„nghWf;F FO‟ (Select Committee)it mikj;jJ. me;jf; FO rkh;gg ; pj;j
mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; 1833-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
,r;rl;lk; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; 1830 Kjy; 1834k; tUlk; tiu gpujkuhf ,Ue;j
„fpNu Nfhkfd;‟ (Early Grey) fhyj;jpy; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ
me;jpahtpy; fth;dh; n[duyhf ,Ue;jth; tpy;ypak; ngd;bq; gpuG Mthh;.
,e;j rl;lj;jpy; tpf;fl;rpapdhpd; jhuhs nfhs;iffspd; gpujpgypg;igAk;>
rpwe;j fw;wwpthsuhd nkf;fhNy gpuG> nghUshjhu Nkij N[k;]; kpy;
MfpNahhpd; fUj;Jf;fisAk; ehk; fhzKbfpwJ.
1833-k; tUl gl;la rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu eltbf;iffspd; KbT:-
,r;rl;lg;gb fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu eltbf;iffs; midj;Jk;
KbTf;F te;jd. ,dpNky; fk;ngdp ,q;fpyhe;J murhpd; rhh;ghf
eph;thfj;ij kl;LNk elj;jp tu Ntz;Lk;. fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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eltbf;iffis epWj;Jtpl;ljw;F ,og;gPlhf 90 kpy;ypad; gTz;l;fs;
,e;jpa tUkhdj;jpypUe;J nfhLf;fg;gl KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. NkYk;
,r;rl;lk; rPdhTld; fk;ngdpf;F ,Ue;j Kw;WhpikiaAk; ePf;fptpl;lJ.
vdNt fk;ngdp jdJ thzpg chpikfisnay;yhk; ,oe;Jtpl;lJ.
2) fth;dh; n[duypd; mjpfhu tphpthf;fk;:-
1833-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lk; khfhz murhq;fq;fspd; kPJ ika
murhq;fj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;il cWjpg;gLj;jpaJ. „tpy;ypak; Nfhl;ilapd;
fth;dh; n[duy;‟ vd;gJ ,dpNky; „,e;jpahtpd; fth;dh; n[duy;‟ vd;W
miof;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,tNu tq;fhsj;jpd; fth;duhfTk; ,Ug;ghh;.
fth;dh; n[duYk; mtuJ MNyhrid rigAk; jq;fs; Ml;rpapd; fPo;
,Uf;Fk; khfhzq;fs; kPJ Nkw;ghh;itapLjy;> fl;lisapLjy;> fl;Lg;ghL
nra;jy; Nghd;w mjpfhuq;fisg; ngw;whh;fs;.
,r;rl;lk; ,e;jpahtpy; xU ika Ml;rpKiw mika Ntz;bajpd;
mtrpaj;ij czh;e;J mjw;fhd eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;lJ. khfhz
fth;dh;fs; fth;dh; n[duypd; fl;lisf;Ff; fPo;gba Ntz;Lk;. fth;dh;
n[duypd; mDkjpapd; NghpNyNa tUkhdj;ijg; ngUf;fTk;> nryT
nra;aTk; Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpah KOikf;Fkhd „xNu tuT nryT jpl;lk;‟
fth;dh; n[duypdhy; jahhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,r;rl;lk; $wpaJ.
3) ika murpd; rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; mjpfhuk;:-
1833-k; tUlg; gl;lar; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; xUKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lk;
,aw;Wk; mjpfhuk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jw;F Kd;G xNu khjphpahd rl;lk;
,aw;Wk; Kiw ,y;iy. eilKiwapy; gl;la rl;lq;fs;> ghuhSkd;wr;
rl;lq;fs;> fth;dh; n[duypd; Mizfs;> ePjpkd;w jPh;g;Gfs; Nghd;w
gytifahd rl;lq;fs; fhzg;gl;ld. vdNt 1833-k; tUlr rl;lkhdJ
,e;jpah;fs; my;yJ Mq;fpNyah;fs; Mfpa vy;NyhUf;Fk; murhpd; gl;lag;
gbNah my;yJ NtWtifapNyh cUthf;fg;gl;l vy;yhtpj
ePjpkd;wq;fSf;Fk; chpa rl;lq;fisAk;> xOq;F Kiw tpjpfisAk;>
fth;dh; n[duYk; mtuJ MNyhrid rigAk; ,aw;Wk;. mjpfhuk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
4) fth;dh; kw;Wk; fth;dh; n[duypd; uj;J Miz mjpfhuk;:-
,r;rl;lk; fth;dh;> kw;Wk; fth;dh; n[duypd; uj;J Miz mjpfhuk;
gw;wpa njspthd tpsf;fj;ijf; $wpaJ. jq;fs; MNyhrid rig
epiwNtw;wpa KbTfis epWj;jp itf;f uj;J Mizia (Veto power)
cgNahfpf;Fk; NghJ mjw;fhd fhuzj;ij njspTglf;$w Ntz;Lk;.
NkYk; ,e;j „uj;J Miz mjpfhuj;ij‟ mbf;f cgNahfpf;f Ntz;lhk;
vd;Wk; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhh;fs;.
5) MNyhrid rigapy; rl;l cWg;gpdh; Nrh;f;fg;gLjy;:-
fth;dh; n[duypd; MNyhrid rig rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; nray;fisj;
jpwikahfr; nra;Ak; nghUl;L rl;l ty;Yeh; xUth; ehd;;fhtJ
cWg;gpduhf MNyhrid rigapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhh;. ,e;jr; rl;l
cWg;gpdh; fk;ngdpapd; gzpahsuhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. MNyhrid rig
rl;lk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l nraypy; <LgLk; NghJ kl;LNk ,e;j rl;l cWg;gpdh;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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mjd; tpthjq;fspy; gq;F nfhz;L jk; thf;if mspf;Fk; chpik
ngw;wpUe;jhh;. nkf;fhNy gpuG Kjy; rl;l cWg;gpduhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
6) ,e;jpah;fSf;F vjpuhd Ntw;Wik xopf;fg;gl;lJ:-
,r;rl;lk; ,e;jpah;fSf;F vjpuhd Ntw;Wikia xopj;jJ. „ve;j
,e;jpaDk; rkak;> rhjp> epw NtWghl;lhy; Ntiy ngWk; tha;gi ; g
,of;ff;$lhJ‟ vd;W ,r;rl;lk; $wpaJ. jpwik kl;LNk murhq;f
Ntiyapy; Nruj; jFjpahFk; vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; ,e;jpah;
fk;ngdpapd; Fbkf;fs; vd;w chpik Kjd;Kjyhf Vl;lstpyhtJ xg;Gf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ vdyhk;.
7) Mq;fpNyah;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;F tu ,Ue;j jil ePf;fk;:-
,r;rl;lg;gb Mq;fpy gpui[fs; jq;fs; tpahghuk;> kj rk;ge;jg;gl;l
Ntiy kw;Wk; rl;lg;gbbahd gpw fhhpaq;fSf;F ,e;jpahtpw;F tUtjw;F
,Ue;j jilfs; midj;Jk; ePf;fg;gl;Ltpl;ld. Mq;fpNyah;fs; ,dp
,e;jpahtpw;F te;J epyk; thq;fp ve;j ,lj;jpYk; FbNawyhk;. Mdhy;
Mq;fpNyah;fs; %yk; ,e;jpah;fSf;F mtkhpahij Vw;glhjthW
murhq;fk; ghh;j;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
8) ,e;jpah;fs; eyd;fs; fhf;fg;gLjy;:-
,r;rl;lkhdJ ,e;jpa kf;fspd; eyd;fisg; NgZtjw;fhd
rl;lq;fis ,aw;w fth;dh; n[duYf;F mjpfhuk; toq;fpaJ. ,jd;
mbg;gilapy; jhd; ,e;jpahtpy; mbikKiw xopf;fg;gl;lJ. gy rKjha
rPh;jpUj;jr; rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gl;ld.
9) fk;ngdpf;F ,og;gL
P :-
fk;ngdpapd; tpahghu chpikfs; Kw;wpYk; xopf;fg;gl;L tpl;ljhy;
fk;ngdp nfhLf;f Ntz;ba fld; KOtJk; ,e;jpa tUkhdj;jpypUe;J
nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,r;rl;lk; $wpaJ. fk;ngdp gq;Fjhuh;fSf;F
tUlj;jpw;F 10.30 rjtPjk; yhgg; gq;fPl;il Ik;gJ Mz;LfSf;F
nfhLf;f cWjpaspf;fg;gl;lJ.
1853-k; tUl gl;la rl;lk; (Charter Act of 1853)
1853-k; tUl gl;la rl;lk; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wk; ,aw;wpa
gl;la rl;lq;fspy; ,WjpahdJ MFk;. 1833-k; tUl rl;lg;gb fk;ngdpf;F
nfhLf;fg;gl;l ,UgJ tUl fhy rhrdk; 1853-y; KbtilaNt>
rhrdj;ij NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F GJg;gpf;FkhW ghuhSkd;wj;jplk;
fk;ngdp eph;thfj;jpdh; tpz;zg;gpj;jdh;. mg;NghJ gk;gha;> nrd;id>
tq;fhs kf;fs; ,q;fpyhe;J murhq;fj;jplk; gy tpz;zg;gq;fis
mspj;jdh;. mjpy; jw;NghJ eilKiwapYs;s ,ul;il eph;thf Kiwia
xopf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> murhq;f cah; gjtpfspy; ,e;jpah;fisAk;>
epakpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> gpujpepjpj;Jt Ml;rpKiw murhq;fj;ij
mikf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,it gw;wp
Muha ghuhSkd;wk; FO xd;iw mikj;jJ. mf;FO rkh;gg ; pj;j
mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; 1853-k; tUl gl;la rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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,e;j gl;la rl;lk; murpayikg;gpy; NkYk; gy khWjy;fis
Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
1853-k; tUlr; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) fk;ngdpapd; rhrk; GJg;gpf;fg;gltpy;iy:-
,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb fk;ngdpapd; rhrdk; NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F
ePl;bf;fg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; „ghuhSkd;wk; tpUk;Gk; tiu ,q;fpyhe;J
murhpd; rhh;ghf ,e;jpahtpYs;s gphpl;b\; gFjpfis fk;ngdp Ml;rp
nra;J nfhs;syhk;‟ vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; vg;nghOJ
Ntz;LkhdhYk; fk;ngdpaplkpUe;J Ml;rp nra;Ak; mjpfhuj;ijg; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;s ghuhSkd;wk; chpik ngw;wJ.
2) ,af;Feh; FOtpd; mjpfhuk; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ:-
,r;rl;lg;gb fk;ngdp ,af;Feh;fspd; mjpfhuk; NkYk;
Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. ,af;Feh;fspd; vz;zpf;if ,Ugj;jp ehd;fpypUe;J
gjpndl;lhff; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j gjpndl;L Nghpy; MW Ngh; kd;duhy;
epakpf;fg;gLth;. ,jd;gb Njh;jy; ,y;yhky; ,af;Feh; FOtpd;
cWg;gpdh;fs; epakpf;fg;gLk; Kiw GFj;jg;gl;lJ. ,af;Feh; FO $l;lk;
$l;Ltjw;Fj; Njitahd Fiwe;jgl;r cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;if gj;jhf
Mf;fg;gl;lJ.
3) Ml;rpg; gzpf;F Njh;T Nghl;b %yk; epakdk;:-
eph;thff; FOtplk; vQ;rpapUe;j epakdk; nra;Ak; mjpfhuq;fSk;
,r;rl;lg;gb KbTf;F te;jd. mjhtJ ,r;rl;lg;gb> ,dpNky; fk;ngdp
Ml;rpg; gzpj;Jiwf;F Njh;Tg; Nghl;b elj;jp mjd; %yk; jpwik
ngw;wth;fisNa epakpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,r;rl;lk; typAWj;jpaJ.
4) fth;dh n[duypd; rl;lkpaw;Wk; rigapd; tphpthf;fk;:-
1853-k; tUlr; rl;lj;jpd;gb rl;lkpaw;Wk; rigapy; gy khw;wq;fs;
nra;ag;gl;ld. fth;dh; n[duypd; MNyhridf; FOtpypUe;j rl;l
cWg;gpdh; epue;jukhf;fg;gl;lhh;. ,g;NghJ MNyhrid rig cWg;gpdh;
vz;zpf;if kPz;Lk; ehd;fhdJ rl;l cWg;gpdh; kw;w cWg;gpdh;fisg;
NghyNt vy;yh tpthjq;fspy; gq;F ngwTk; Xl;lspf;fTk; chpik
ngw;whh;.
,e;jpa eph;thfr; rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wtjw;fhf fth;dh; n[duypd;
rig NkYk; tphpthf;fg;gl;lJ. MW Gjpa mq;fj;jpdh;fs; Gjpjhf
MNyhrid rigapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhh;fs;. mth;fs; tq;fhsj;jpd;
jiyik ePjpgjp> jiyik ePjpkd;wj;jpd; kw;WnkhU ePjpgjp> tq;fhsk;>
gk;gha;> nrd;id> tlNkw;F khepyk; MfpaitfspypUe;J xt;nthU
cWg;gpdh; Mfpa nkhj;jk; MWNgh; Mth;.
5) rl;lkpaw;Wk; rigapd; eilKiw:-
fth;dh; n[duypd; Gjpjhf Nrh;f;fg;gl;l MW cWg;gpdh;fisf;
nfhz;l rl;lrigapy; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; eilKiwfs;
gpd;gw;wg;gl;ld. rigapy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gLk; xt;nthU kNrhjhTk;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Kjypy; xU FOtpd; ghprPyidf;F mDg;gg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpwF
rigapy; tpthjk; eilngw;W epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
rigapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l xt;nthU kNrhjhTk; fth;dh; n[duypd;
ifnaOj;J ngw;w gpd;dNu rl;lkhFk;. ,aw;wg;gl;l kNrhjhf;fis
js;Sgb nra;Ak; „kWg;ghiz mjpfhuk;‟ (Veto Power) fth;dh;
n[duYf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. jw;NghJ rl;lrigapy; cs;s nkhj;jk; 12
cWg;gpdh;fspy; (fth;dh; n[duy;> gilj;jsgjp> MNyhrid rig
cWg;gpdh; 4 Ngh;> Gjpjhf Nrh;f;fg;gl;l 6 Ngh;)? Ngh; te;jpUe;jhy; jhd;
rig eltbf;ifia Muk;gpf;f KbAk;. ,e;j cWg;gpdh;fspd; tUlr;
rk;gsk; 600 gTz;l; vd;W eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ.
6) ,e;jpar; rl;lq;fspd; njhFg;G:-
,e;jpar; rl;lq;fisj; njhFg;gjw;F yz;ldpy; xU rl;lf;FO
Vw;gLj;jTk; ,r;rl;lk; toptFj;jJ. Vw;fdNt nkf;fhNy gpuGtpd;
jiyikapy; ,e;jpa rl;lq;fisj; njhFf;Fk; gzp 1833-ypUe;Nj
Muk;gpf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. ,jd; tpisthf jz;lid tpjp njhFg;G>
Fw;wtpay; eilKiwj; njhFg;G Mfpait njhFf;fg;gl;L
ntspaplg;gl;lJ.
7) Gjpa khepyq;fis cUthf;Fk; mjpfhuk;:-
1853-k; tUl rl;lg;gb Gjpa khepyq;fis cUthf;fTk; Vw;fdNt
cs;s khepyq;fspd; vy;iyfspy; khw;wk; nra;aTk; fth;dh; n[duYf;F
mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,e;j khw;wq;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;L thhpaj;jpd;
xg;Gjiyg; ngw Ntz;Lk;. ,jd;gbjhd;> m];]hk;> kj;jpa khfhzk;>
Mf;uh> gh;kh> nly;yp Nghd;w Gjpa gy khepyq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;ld.
8) tq;fhsj;jpw;F jdpahf fth;dh; epakdk;:-
,Jtiu ,e;jpahtpd; fth;dh; n[duNy tq;fhsj;jpd; fth;dUkhf
nray;gl;L te;jhh;. ,jdhy; eph;thfg; gOTk; gy Fog;gq;fSk; Vw;gl;lJ.
,jid epth;j;jp nra;a ,r;rl;lg;gb tq;fhsj;jpw;F jdpahf xU fth;dh;
epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;. NkYk; gQ;rhg; khepyj;jpw;Fk; jdpahf xU Jiz
fth;dh; epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
1853-k; tUl gl;la rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;:-
1853k; tUl gl;la rl;lkhdJ ,e;jpa murpayikg;G tsh;r;rpapy;
rpwg;gplk; ngWfpwJ. fth;dh; n[duypd; MNyhrid rig
rl;lkpaj;Jtjw;fhf tphpthf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jpahtpy; xU ika
rl;lrig njhlq;fg;gLtjw;F Muk;gk; vd;W $wyhk;. mJ xU kpdp
ghuhSkd;wkhfNt nray;gl Muk;gpj;jJ.
mLj;J> fk;ngdpapd; Ml;rp chpik NkYk; ,UgJ Mz;LfSf;F
ePl;bf;fg;gltpy;iy. mjhtJ xOq;FKiwr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J fk;ngdpapd;
Mjpf;fk; rpwpJ rpwpjhff; Fiwf;fg;gl;L filrpapy; ghuhSkd;wNk ,e;jpa
Ml;rpia vLj;Jf; nfhs;sf;$ba epiy cUthfptpl;lJ. Mk;
fk;ngdpapd; KbT neUq;fptpl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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1) 1793-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs; ahit?
1857 rpg;gha; fyfk;
1808ypUe;J 1856 tiu ,e;jpahtpd; gy gFjpfspYk; Mq;fpNya
Mjpf;fj;Jf;nfjpuhfg; gy cs;ehl;Lf; fpsh;r;rpfs; Vw;gl;ld. Mq;fpyf;
fpof;fpe;jpa fk;ngdp mf;fpsh;r;rpfisnay;yhk; jdJ ,uhZt
typikahy; mlf;fp xLf;fptpl;lJ. vdpDk; Mq;fpNahpd; mlf;F KiwAk;
Mf;fpukpg;Gf; nfhs;ifAk; ,e;jpa Ml;rpahshpilNaAk; gpuhe;jpaj;
jiyth;fspilNaAk;> kf;fspilNaAk; kdf;frg;ig Vw;gLj;jpd. Fwpg;ghf
ly;n`srp gpuGtpd; ,izg; ghjpf;ff; nfhs;ifAk;> mJ
nray;gLj;jg;gl;l KiwAk; kd;dh;fspilNa kdf;fyf;fj;ij
cz;lhf;fpaJ. mjd; $l;LtpisT 1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rpahFk;.
fpsh;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
murpay; fhuzq;fs;:-
ly;n`rpapd; gq;F:-
1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rp fth;dh; n[duy; fhdpq; gpuG (1856-1862)
fhyj;jpy; epfo;ej
; J. Mdhy; mtUf;F Kd;G mg;gjtpapypUe;j
ly;n`srp gpuG (1848-1856) mf;fpsh;r;rpf;F mbj;jskpl;lhh;. mth;
jPtpukhfg; gpd;gw;wpa epy ,izg;Gf; nfhs;if (Policy of Annexation)Ak;
mtfhrpapypf; nfhs;if (Doctrine of Lapse)fshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,e;jpa
murh;fspilNa ghJfhg;gpd;ikiaAk;> gaj;ijAk;> gugug;igAk;
Vw;gLj;jpd. cjhuzkhf> ehehrhfpg;> ,yl;Rkpgha;> jhe;jpahjhNg>
gfJh;\h MfpNahh; ly;n`srpapd; nfhs;iffshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L
ntWg;gpd; vy;iyf;Nf Juj;jg;gl;lth;fs;. tptrhapfisj;
jpUg;jpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf mth; Nkw;nfhz;l epyf;nfhs;if guk;giu
gykpf;fth;fshd jhYf;jhh;fis tpNuhjpfshf;fpaJ. mth; nfhz;L te;j
gy Kw;Nghf;F rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; gpw;Nghf;F kdg;Nghf;Fila kf;fspilNa
re;Njfj;ijAk;> rQ;ryj;ijAk; Vw;gLj;jpd. vdNt> ly;n`srp gpuGtpd;
epy ,izg;G> ,tfhrpapyp> rPh;jpUj;j eph;thf ,uhZt eltbf;iffs;
1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rpf;Ff; fzprkhd msTf;Ff; fhuzkhapUe;jd vd;gjpy;
re;Njfkpy;iy.
gfJ}h; \h gl;l mtkjpg;G:-
,uz;lhtJ mf;ghpd; thhprhf te;j ,uz;lhk; gfJ}h;\h (1837-1857)
ngausTf;F Kfyhag; Nguuruhf ,Ue;jhYk; nghJkf;fshy; Fwpg;ghf
K];yPk;fshy;> nghpJk; kjpf;fg;gl;lhh;. mtUf;F tajhfptpl;lJ vd;W
fhuzq;fhl;b mtuJ thhprhf gf;UjPd; epakpf;fg;gl;l NghJ gfJ}h;\hTk;>
nghJkf;fSk; mjph;r;rpaile;jdh;. mJkl;Lky;y> mth; gy;NtW
fl;Lg;ghLfSf;Fk; mtkhdj;Jf;Fk; jd;khdf; Fiwthd
eltbf;iffSf;Fk; cl;gLj;jg;gl;lhh;. mtUf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;L te;j
rYiffs; epWj;jg;gl;ld.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


23
nghUshjhuf; fhuzq;fs;:-
Ntiyapd;ik:-
,q;fpyhe;J fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdpapd; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;iffSk;
eltbf;iffSk; kf;fspilNa Ntiyapd;ikia vd;Wkpy;yh msTf;F
mjpfhpj;Jtpl;lJ. epyr;Rthd;jhh;fspd; epyg;gl;lhf;fs; ghprPypf;fg;gl;l
NghJ gyh; gl;lh chpik vJTkpd;wp epyr; nrhe;jf;fhuh;fshf ,Ug;gJ
njhpa te;jJ. mj;jifNahuJ epyq;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;lNghJ mth;fs;
epykw;w Vofshapdh;. E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd jhYf;jhh;fs; jhpj;jpu
ehuhazh;fs; Mdhh;fs;! Fj;jifaw;w epyq;fis mDgtpj;J te;Njhh;
gyh;. mth;fsJ epyq;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;lNghJ mth;fSk; Ntiyaw;Nwhh;
$l;lj;jpy; js;sg;gl;ldh;. ehLfs; ,izf;fg;gl;lTld; murh;fsJ
gilfs; fiyf;fg;gl;ld. mjd; fhuzkhfg; giltPuh;fs; Ntiy
,oe;jdh;. Nky;epiy eph;thfg; gjtpfspy; ,Ue;NjhUk; gjtpePf;fk;
nra;ag;gl;ldh;. Ntiyaw;Nwhh; midtUk; fpsh;r;rpapy; kfpo;r;rpAld;
fye;J nfhz;ldh;.
rKjhaf; fhuzq;fs;:-
r%fr; rl;lq;fs;:-
Mq;fpNyah;fs; nfhz;L te;j r%fr; rPh;jpUj;jr; rl;lq;fis
,e;jpag; goikthjpfs; vjph;j;jdh;. cld;fl;il VWk; tof;fj;ijj; jil
nra;j NghJ (1829) kf;fs; murhq;fj;ij re;Njfpj;jdh;. mNjNghd;W rhjp
Vyhepiy ePf;fr; rl;lk; (1850) ,aw;wg;gl;lNghJ jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;F
nrhj;Jhpik toq;fpa mr;rl;lj;ij ,e;Jf;fs; rl;lj;Jf;FG;
GWk;ghdnjd;W vjph;j;jdh;. tpjit kWkzr; rl;lKk; (1856) fLk;
fz;ldj;Jf;Fs;shapw;W. mr;rl;lk; kD> ahf;Q ty;f;fpah; MfpNahh;
tFj;j rl;lj;Jf;F tpNuhjkhdnjd;W fUj;jg;gl;lJ. xUKiwjhd;
gpwf;fpNwhk;> xUKiwjhd; kzk; nra;J nfhs;fpNwhk;. xU Kiwjhd;
,wf;fpNwhk; vdf;$wp tpjitfNs mr;rl;lj;ij vjph;j;jdh;! r%fr;
rlq;FfspYk; rk;gpujhaq;fspYk; gof;f tof;fq;fspYk; Mq;fpNyah;
FWf;fpLtijf; Fwpg;ghf ,e;Jf;fs; tpUk;gtpy;iy.
,uhZtf;fhuzq;fs;:-
,e;jpar; rpg;gha;fs; jq;fsJ Fiwe;j Cjpak;> gjtp cah;tpw;fhd
tha;g;gpd;ik> gpw FiwAila gzpepiyfs; gw;wp nghpJk;
mjpUg;jpAw;wpUe;jdh;. rpwg;Gr; rYiffs; vJTkpd;wpj; njhiyJ}uq;fspy;
gzpahw;Wtij mth;fs; tpUk;gtpy;iy. fly;jhz;b mDg;gg;gLtij
Nky;rhjp rpg;gha;fs; ntWj;jdh;. mth;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;bUe;j ,ytr
jghy; rYifia epWj;jpaJ (1854). ntspehLfspy; jpwikf; Fiwthfr;
nray;gLk; rpg;gha;fSf;F Xa;T+jpakpy;iy vd;W rl;lk; nfhz;L te;jJ
(1856) Nghd;w eltbf;iffs; rpg;gha;fspilNa ntWg;ig tsh;j;jd.
cldbf; fhuzk;:-
1856y; ,e;jpa ,uhZtj;jpy; Gjpa vd;gy
P ;L Jg;ghf;fpfs; (Enfield
Rifles) mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. lk;lk;> mk;ghyh> rpahy;Nfhl; Mfpa
,lq;fspy; mj;Jg;ghf;fpfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;fhd gapw;rp Vw;ghL
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
24
nra;ag;gl;lJU. 1857y; vd;gyP ;L Jg;ghf;fpapy; nrYj;jg;gLk; Njhl;lhf;fs;
gR> gd;wp nfhOg;Gf; fyitahy; G+rg;gl;Ls;sd vd;w the;jp tq;fhs
,uhZt rpg;gha;fspilNa Ntfkhfg; gutpw;F. Jg;ghf;fpf;Fs; Njhl;lh
nrYj;jg;gLKd; mjd; Edpghfj;ij thapdhy; fbf;f Ntz;bapUe;jjhy;
,e;J rpg;gha;fSk; K];yPk; rpg;gha;fSk; mUtUg;NghL ntWj;jdh;.
gy;NtW fhuzq;fshy; ehL Kd;dNkNa Kw;Wk; vhpkiyahf
nfhe;jspf;Fk; flyhf ,Ue;jJ. ntb kUe;Jf; fplq;fhapUe;j
#o;epiyapy; nfhOg;G jltg;gl;l Njhl;lh gw;witj;jj; jPf;Fr;rpaha;
mjpy; tpOe;jJ! fplq;F ntbj;jJ. fpsh;r;rp Jtq;fpaJ. vdNt 1857
ngUq;fpsh;r;rp jd;dpr;irahy; vOe;j jw;nray; epfo;r;rp my;y. khwhf>
mJ Mq;fpNya Ml;rpf;nfjpuhf vOe;j vjph;g;Gzh;r;rpj; Njf;fj;jpd;
tbfhyhFk;. nfhOg;G jltg;gl;l NJhl;lh tptfhuk; mt;tbfhiyj;
jpwe;Jtpl;lJ mt;tsNt.
fpsh;r;rpapd; Nghf;F:-
1857 [dthp khjk; fy;fj;jhTf;F mUNfAs;s lk;lk;kpy; nfhOg;G
jltpa Njhl;lhf;fs; gw;wpa the;jp Jtq;fpaJ. tpiutpy; mJ fhl;Lj;jP
Nghy tq;fhs rpg;gha;fspilNa gutpaJ. ngh;`hk;G+h; rpg;gha;fs; Kjypy;
Gjpa Njhl;lhf;fis thq;fpf; nfhs;s kWj;jdh; (gpg;uthp 26). ,uhZt
mjpfhhp kpl;nryhy; (Mictchell) fz;bf;fg;gl;l mth;fs; md;W es;sputpy;
$r;rypl;Lj; jq;fSila vjph;gi ; gj; njhptpj;jdh;. gpd;dh; kq;fs; ghz;Nl
(Mangal Pandey) vd;w gpuhkz rpg;gha; rhh;[z;l; Nk[iu Nehf;fpr;
Rl;lhh;.nyg;bdd;l; ngs gLfhaKw;whh; (khh;r; 29). ghz;Nl kuz
jz;lid ngw;whh;.
nly;ypapypUe;j fhyhl;gilapdUk; kPul; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSld;
Nrh;e;J nfhz;ldh;! fh;dy; hpg;isAk; gpw Mq;fpNya mjpfhhpfSk;
nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. Mq;fpNyauJ gq;fshf;fs; jPf;fpiuahapd. nrq;Nfhl;il
(Red Fort) ifg;gw;wg;gl;lJ. g`J}h;\h Nguhrnudg; gpfldg;gLj;jg;gl;lhh;.
caphpDk; Nkyhd ehl;ilAk; kjj;ijAk; me;epa Mgj;jpdpd;Wk;
fhg;ghw;Wk;gbg; Nguurh; g`J}h;\hTk; xU gpufldj;ij ntspapl;lhh;.
1857 Nk 16 md;W Nguurh; g`J}h;\htpd; jiyikapy; Kiwg;gb by;yp
tpLtpf;fg;gl;lJ.
by;ypapd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpwF fpsh;r;rp #iwf; fhw;nwd Rod;wbj;jJ.
gpNuh];G+h;> K]gh;G+h;> mypfhh;> gQ;rhg; Mfpa ,lq;fspy; rpg;gha;fs;
fpsh;r;rp nra;jdh;. mNahj;jpapYk; tlNkw;F khepyj;jpYk; gy
fpsh;r;rpf;fhu rpg;gha;fs; ,Ue;jdh;;. rpg;gha;f; fpsh;r;rpNahL nghJ
kf;fSk; fpsh;e;njO;jdh;. tpiutpNyNa yf;Ndh> gNuyp> fhd;G+h;> Mf;u>
[hd;]p> kj;jpa ,e;jpah> ge;Njy; fz;L Nghd;w gFjpfSf;Ff; fpsh;r;rp
Ntfkhfg; gutpaJ. mq;nfy;yhk; Mq;fpNyah;f;s nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;.
mth;fsJ cilikfs; mopf;fg;gl;ld.
fpsh;r;rp xLf;fg;gly;:-
kj;jpa ,e;jpahtpy; fpsh;r;rpia mlf;Fk; nghWg;G rh;
`f;Nuh];]plk; tplg;gl;lJ. uhzp ,yl;Rkpgha;> jhe;jpah NjhNg>
Fd;thh;rpq; Mfpa %tuJ $l;L vjph;g;ig Nuh]; re;jpf;f Neh;e;jJ. Nuh];
[hd;]; efiuf; ifg;gw;wpa NghJ (1858 Vg;uy; 3) uhzp ,yl;Rkp gha;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Nfhl;ilia tpl;L ntspNawp fy;gp jhe;jpah NjhNgAld; Nrh;e;J
nfhz;lhh;. fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fspd; JizAld; mth;fs; Jzpfukhff;
Fthypaiuf; ifg;gw;wp ehdhrhfpg;ig Ng\;ththfg; gpufldg;gLj;jpdh;!
ehdhTk; mtuJ Mjuthsh;fSk; gjtpg; gpukhzf; nfhz;lhl;lq;fspy;
jq;fsJ Neuj;ijAk; gzj;ijAk; nghUisAk; tPzbj;Jf; nfhz;ld.
uhzp ,yl;Rkpgha; kl;Lk; MZil mzpe;J fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSld;
jPuj;Jld; Nghhpl;lhh;. Mdhy;> mtuJ Fjpiu fhy; ,lwpaNghJ fPNo
tpOe;jhh;. tpOe;jth; voNt ,y;iy. mtiu ahnud;W milahsk;
njhpahj xUtd; ntl;bf; nfhd;Wtpl;lhd;! fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fspNyNa
,yl;Rkpgha; jhd; rpwe;j Jzpr;ry; kpf;f ,uhZtj; jiyth; vd;W
Mq;fpNyaj; jsgjp NuhN[ Gfohuk; #l;bdhh;. rk;gy; gs;sj;jhf;Ff;Fj;
jg;gpr; nrd;w jhe;jpah NjhNg khd;rpq; vd;gtuhy; fhl;bf; nfhLf;fg;gl;L>
gpbgl;L J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;. ehdhrhfpg; jdJ FLk;gj;jpdNuhL
Neghsj;Jf;Fr; nrd;Wtpl;lhh;. fpsh;r;rp mlf;fg;gl;lJ.
Njhy;tpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
ed;F Jtf;fg;gl;l fpshr;;rp Nkhrkhfj; Njhy;tpaile;jjw;Fg; gy
fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jd. fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;fpilNa nghJthd Fwpf;Nfhs;
vJTkpy;iy. rpg;gha;fNsh> jiyth;fNsh> kf;fNsh ehl;Lg;gw;why;
ce;jg;gltpy;iy. mth;fSila Nehf;fq;fs; gythfTk;
Kuz;gl;litahfTk; ,Ue;jd. fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;Fj; jf;f jpwikahd
jiyik mikatpy;iy. ehdhrhfpg; Mq;fpNyaiug; gopthq;Fk;
nfhLikf;fhuuhfTk; gjtpg; gpj;juhfTk; ,Ue;jhh;. ,yl;Rkpgha; rpwe;j
tPuhq;fid. Mdhy; fpsh;r;rpia topelj;j mtuhy; Kbatpy;iy.
,e;jpa murh;fs; gyh; Mq;fpNyaiu tpRthrj;Jld; Mjhpj;jdh;.
rpe;jpahTk; N`hy;fhUk; Mq;fpNyaUf;Ff; Nflaq;fshfg; gad;gl;ldh;.
1857-k; tUl rpg;gha; fyfj;jpw;Fg; gpwF fk;ngdpapd; Ml;rpia
ePf;fptpl;L ,e;jpahit ,q;fpyhe;J Ml;rpapd; fPo; Neubahff; nfhz;L tu
KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,jw;fhf 1858-k; tUlk; Mf];L khjk; ,uz;lhk;
Njjp xU rl;lk; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. ,J
„,e;jpahtpy; kpfr; rpwe;j muir cz;lhf;Ftjw;fhd rl;lk;‟ (Act for the
better government of India) vd toq;fg;gl;lJ. „murpahYk; murpahh;
ngahpYk;> ehl;bd; Kf;fpa fhhpajhprpfSs; xUth; %yk; gjpide;J
cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l xU MNyhrid rig cjtpAld; ,e;jpah
Ml;rp nra;ag;gLk;” vd;W me;j rl;lk; $wpaJ.
,q;fpyhe;ij Mz;L te;j Nguurp tpf;Nlhhpahtpd; ngauhy;
myfhghj; efhpy; eilngw;w xU gpukhz;lkhd jh;ghhpy; itrpuha;
fhdpq;gpuG xU gpufldj;jpd; %yk; 1858 etk;gh; 1-k; Njjp
,e;jpahtpYs;s gj;J Nfhb kf;fSf;F mwptpj;jhh;. mJNt
kfhuhzpahhpd; Nguwpg;G vdg;gLfpwJ. „,e;jpa kf;fspd; kfhrhrdk;‟ vd;W
mJ Gfog;gLfpwJ.
kfhuhzpahhpd; Nguwptpg;gpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs;
kfhuhzpahhpd; Nguwpf;if nlh;gp gpuG vd;gtuhy; jahhpf;fg;gl;L
tpf;Nlhhpah kfhuhzpahy; mq;fPfhuk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;j Nguwptpg;G
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;iffisAk; ,e;jpah vjph;fhyj;jpy;
vt;tpjkhf Msg;gLk; vd;w cWjpnkhopiaAk; nfhz;bUe;jJ. mjpy;
fhzg;gl;l Kf;fpakhd rhuhk;rq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:-
1) ,Jtiu Mq;fpyf; fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdpahy; Msg;gl;L te;j
,e;jpah ,dp gphpl;b\; Nguurpahy; Neubahf Ml;rp nra;ag;gLk;.
2) ,e;jpa RNjr murh;fSld; fk;ngdp nra;J nfhz;l
cld;gbf;iffisAk;> xg;ge;jq;fisAk; gphpl;b\; muR mg;gbNa Vw;Wf;
nfhz;L cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk;.
3) fhdpq; gpuG gphpl;b\; Neub Ml;rpapd; fPo; Kjy; ,e;jpa
itrpuhahfTk; fth;dh; n[duyhfTk; epakdk; nra;ag;gLthh;.
4) ,e;jpa RNjr murh;fspd; chpikfs;> kjpg;G> me;j];J
MfpaitfSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;J kjpj;J elf;fg;gLk;.
5) ,e;jpahtpd; goikahd chpikfs;> tof;fq;fs;> tof;fhWfs;>
ek;gpf;iffs; MfpaitfSf;F chpa kjpg;Gk; khpahijAk; nfhLf;fg;gLk;.
6) fpwp];jt kjf; nfhs;iffspd; kPJ ek;gpf;if nfhz;bUf;Fk;
gphpl;b\; muR fpwpj;tj kjf; nfhs;iffisAk;> ek;gpf;iffisAk;
,e;jpa kf;fs; kPJ jpzpf;fhJ. vdNt kjj;jpd; ngauhy; ve;j
,e;jpaUf;Fk; rYif toq;fhJ. ahUf;Fk; ,ilA+Nwh>
mikjpapd;ikiaNah Vw;gLj;jhJ. rl;lg;gb vy;NyhUf;Fk; ghugl;rkw;w
ghJfhg;G nfhLf;fg;gLk;.
7) ,e;jpa kf;fspd; kj topghl;bYk;> kj ek;gpf;ifapYk; gphpl;b\;
muR jiyaplhJ KOikahd kj topghl;Lhpik toq;fg;gLk;.
8) ,g;nghOJ ,Uf;ff;$ba gphpl;b\; ,e;jpag; gFjpfis NkYk;
tphpTgLj;Jk; Mir gphpl;b\; muRf;F fpilahJ. mjhtJ fhL gpbf;Fk;
Mirapy; ehl;lk; ,y;iy.
9) ,e;jpa kf;fspd; ey;tho;Nt gphpl;b\; murpd; Nehf;fkhFk;.
kf;fspd; ed;ikf;fhfNt Ml;rp elj;jg;gLk;. flTspd; MrPh;thjj;Jld;
cs;ehl;L mikjp Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;. ehl;by;; mikjpahd #o;epiyia
cUthf;FtNj vq;fs; jzpahj Mir. nghJ ed;ikf;fhd> tsh;r;rpg;
gzpfSf;fhd gzpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
10) ,dk;> nkhop> kjk; Mfpa NtWghLfs; ,y;yhky; fy;tpj; jFjp>
jpwik Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; ,e;jpah;fSf;F muR gjtpfs;
nfhLf;fg;gLk;. NkYk; flikahw;Wtjpy; jpwik> Neh;ik Mfpatw;wpd;
mbg;gilapy; gjtpapykh;j;Jk; nfhs;if filg;gpbf;fg;gLk;.
11) Mq;fpy Fbkf;fspd; nfhiyfspy; Neubahfr;
rk;ge;jg;gl;lth;fs; jtpu> 1857-58k; tUl Gul;rpapy; gq;F nfhz;l vy;yh
kf;fSf;Fk; nghJ kd;dpg;G (General amnesty) mspf;fg;gLk;.
12) kfhuhzpahhpd; Nguwptpg;gpy; filrpf;F Ke;jpd thp kpfTk; Gfo;
ngw;w thpfshFk;. mth;fspd; (,e;jpa kf;fs;) tsk;> mgptpUj;jp
Kd;Ndw;wj;jpNyNa vq;fs; typik> mth;fspd; kdj;jpUg;jpNa vq;fs;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
27
ghJfhg;G> mth;fsJ ed;wp czh;Nt vq;fSf;F fpilf;Fk; rd;khdk;
MFk;.

1) 1857k; tUl rpg;gha; fyfj;jpd; fhuzq;fs; ahit?


2) rpg;gha; fyfj;jpd; Nghf;if tpthp?
3) rpg;gha; fyfj;jpd; tpisTfis tpthp?
1861-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk;
(Indian Councils Act of 1861)
1861-k; tUlk; ,aw;wg;gl;l ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk;> rl;lkd;wq;fspy;
,e;jpah;fs; cWg;gpdh;fshfr; Nrh;tjw;F trjp nra;J nfhLj;jJ. khepy
rl;lkd;wq;fs; jhq;fs; ,oe;j chpikfis kPl;Lf; nfhz;ld.
,q;fpyhe;jpd; gpujkuhd fpshl;rdpd; Rje;jpu kdg;ghd;ikapd;
vjpnuhypia ,r;rl;lj;jpy; fhz KbfpwJ. NkYk; ,e;jr; rl;lkhdJ ,dp
tutpUf;fpw rl;lq;fSf;F MjhukhfTk;> Kd;NdhbahfTk; tpsq;fpaJ
vd;W $wyhk;.
1861-k; tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gLtjw;fhd #o;epiy
1) rl;lkpaw;WtjpYk;> eph;thfj;jpYk; ,e;jpah;fSf;F gq;F ,y;iy:-
Nfhbf;fzf;fhd ,e;jpah;fSf;fhfr; rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wk;
nghWg;gpid ngw;wpUe;j itrpuhapd; eph;thf rigapy; ,Ue;j
cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if FiwT. mth;fs; ,e;jpaj; jd;ikfs;>
gz;Gfisg; gw;wp mwpTk;> mDgtKk; ngw;wpUf;ftpy;iy. ,e;j rigapy;
,e;jpah;fs; ,lk; ngwhjJ> xU ngUq;FiwahfNt fUjg;gl;lJ.
,aw;wg;gLk; rl;lq;fisg; gw;wp ,e;jpah;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisAk;>
tpkh;rdq;fisAk; Mq;fpNyah;fSf;F njhptpf;Fk; xNu top> fyfq;fs;>
Gul;rpfs;> ehrNtiyfs; Nghd;w gyhj;fhu KiwfNsahFk;. murpay;
hPjpahd Kiwapy; (Constitutional) vLj;Jf;$w vt;tpj topAk; ,y;iy.
vdNt rl;lkpaw;Wtjpy; ,e;jpah;fSf;Fk; gq;F mspf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w
mtrpak; Vw;gl;lJ.
2) rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjpy; fhzg;gl;l FiwghLfs;:-
rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; rig jpUg;jpfukhf nray;gltpy;iy. ghuhSkd;w
eilKiwfs; mg;gbNa gpd;gw;wg;gl;ljhy; rl;lkpaw;Wtjw;F mjpf
fhyjhkjkhdJ. ,jpy; ,e;jpah;fs; ,y;yhjjhy; ,e;jpah;fSf;Fj;;
Njitahd rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gltpy;iy. NkYk; ,e;j rigapd;
cWg;gpdh;fs; murpdhy; epakpf;fg;gl;lth;fs;. Mjyhy; muRf;F
fl;Lg;gl;Nl nray;gl;ldh;. ,e;jpa kf;fs; kPJ ve;j mDjhgKk;
fhl;ltpy;iy.
3) khepyq;fSf;fhd rl;lkpaw;Wtjpy; fhzg;gl;l ,ilA+Wfs;:-
1833-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lg;gb vy;yh khepyq;fSf;Fkhd
rl;lq;fis ,aw;w ika rl;lkd;wk; mjpfhuk; ngw;wpUe;jJ. xt;nthU
khepyj;jpypUe;Jk; xU gpujpejp ,lk; ngw;whh;. MdhYk; ,e;j
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
28
rl;lkd;wj;jpdhy; khepyq;fSf;Fj; Njitahd rl;lq;fis ,aw;w
Kbatpy;iy. vdNt khepy muRfs; jq;fSf;F mjpf rl;lkpaw;Wk;
mjpfhuq;fs; Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nfl;ld.
4) rl;lkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu vy;iy gw;wpa Fog;gk;:-
ika rl;lkd;wkhdJ jdJ mjpfhu vy;iyia tsh;j;Jf; nfhz;L
xU rpwpa ghuhSkd;wk; NghyNt nray;gl Muk;gpj;jJ. rpy Neuq;fspy
fth;dh; n[duyplk; eph;thfk; gw;wpa jfty;fisAk;> ,e;jpah
mikr;rUld; mth; nfhz;bUe;j fbjg; Nghf;Ftuj;ijAk; rkh;gg ; pf;Fk;gb
Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ. xU rpy Neuq;fspy; ,q;fpyhe;J murpd;
Ntz;LNfhSf;Nf nrtprha;f;ftpy;iy. ,g;gb mjpfhu vy;iy eph;zak;
nra;ag;glhjjhy; Rje;jpukhf ,aq;f Kw;gl;lJ. vdNt mjd; mjpfhu
vy;iy eph;zak; nra;ag;gl Ntz;bba mtrpak; Vw;gl;lJ.
Nkw;fz;l #o;epiyapy; mg;NghJ itrpuhahf ,Ue;j fhdpq; gpuG
,e;jpah mikr;ruhf ,Ue;j Tl;gpuGTf;F (Lord Wood) jdJ
fUj;Jf;fisj; njhptpj;jhh;. ,e;jpa gpujpepjpfis Ml;rpf; FOtpy;
Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;tjpd; mtrpaj;ijAk; njspthf vLj;Jiuj;jhh;.
fhdpq;gpuGtpd; fUj;Jiufspd; mbg;gilapy; fhkd;]; rigapy; rh;y];Tl;
1861> [Pd; 6k; Njjp xU kNrhjhit mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;. kNrhjh
epiwNtw;wg;gl;L 1861 Mf];l; 1y; murpapd; rk;kjk; ngw;W „,e;jpa
fTd;rpy; rl;lk;‟ vd;w murpapd; rk;kjk; ngw;W „,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk;‟
vd;w ngahpy; eilKiwf;F te;jJ.
1861-k; tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;:-
1) itrpuhapd; eph;thff; FOtpy; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wq;fs;:-
itrpuhapd; eph;thff; FO tphpthf;fg;gl;lJ. mjd; cWg;gpdh;fspd;
vz;zpf;if ehd;fpypUe;J Ie;jhf cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. mjd;gb Gjpjhf
epjpj;Jiw ty;Yeh; xUth; epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;. ,jpy; rl;l ty;Yeh;>
epjpj;Jiw ty;Yeh; Mfpa ,U cWg;gpdh;fSk; murhy; epakpf;fg;gLth;.
kPjp %d;W Ngiu ,e;jpah mikr;rh; epakpg;ghh;. ,th;fsJ gjtpf;fhyk;
Ie;J Mz;Lfs; MFk;.
2) itrpuhapd; mjpfhuq;fs; tphpTgLj;jg;gl;lJ:-
eph;thff; FOtpd; rl;ljpl;lq;fist Ff;Fk; chpik itrpuha;f;Fk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpfhhpfis epakpf;Fk; chpikAk; mtUf;Ff;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. rl;lkpaw;Wk; gzpiaj; jtpu kw;w gzpfspy; mtuJ
eph;thff; FOtpd; cj;juT ,d;wp vijAk; nra;ayhk; vd;W mtUf;F
mjpfhuk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; jhd; ,y;yhj Neuq;fspy; eph;thff;
FOtpw;Fj; jiyik jhq;f xU jw;fhypf; jiytiu epakpf;Fk;
mjpfhuKk; mtUf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ.
3) ,yhf;fh xJf;fPL nra;Ak; Kiw mwpKfk; (Portfolio System):-
,e;j rl;lg;gb eph;thff;FO cWg;gpdh;fSf;F xd;W my;yJ
xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l ,yhf;fhf;fs; xJf;fPL nra;AK; mjpfhuk; itpuha;f;Ff;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;thW jw;fhyj;jpy; epyTk; mikr;rh;fSf;F
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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,yhfhf;fs; xJf;fPL nra;ag;gLk; KiwahdJ Kjd; Kjyhf 1861-k;
tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lg;gbjhd; mKYf;F nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. ,jd;gb
me;je;j ,yhf;fh rk;ge;jg;gl;l rhjhuzg; gpur;ridfis me;je;j
cWg;gpdh;fNs KbT nra;th;. ,jdhy; me;j cWg;gpdh;fspd; eph;thfj;
jpwik mjpfhpj;jJ. fhyjhkjkpd;wp nrayhw;wTk; Kbe;jJ.
4) ika rl;lkd;wj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wq;fs;:-
1861-k; tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lk; ika rl;lkd;wj;jpy; gy
khw;wq;fisr; nra;jJ. rl;lkd;wj;jpy; Gjpjhf MW cWg;gpdh;fSf;Ff;
FiwahkYk; gd;dpnuz;L cWg;gpdh;fSf;F Nkw;glhkYk; itrpuha;
epakpj;Jf; nfhs;syhkk;. ,jpy; ghjpg;Ngh; mYtyh; my;yhjth;fshf
(non-official) ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; rl;lkpaw;Wk; gzpapy; ,e;jpah;fs;
fye;J nfhs;Sk; tha;g;G Vw;gl;lJ. (,e;jpah;fs; rpyh; cWg;gpduhf
epakpf;fg;glyhk; vd;W rl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy). ,th;fsJ
gjtpf;fhyk; ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; MFk;.
5) ika rl;lkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
rl;lk; ,aw;WtJ xd;Wjhd;. ,e;j rl;lkd;wj;jpd; gzp vd;W
njs;sj; njspthff; Fwpg;gplg;gl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;J ,e;jpah KOikf;Fk;
,r;rl;lkd;wk; rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wyhk;. vy;yh eph;thfj;Jiwf;Fk; rl;lk;
,aw;wyhk;. Mdhy; rl;lkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fSf;F fPof ; ;fz;l %d;W
fl;Lg;ghLfs; tpjpf;fg;gl;ld.
a) nghJf; fld;fs;> nghJ tUkhdk;> ,e;jahpd; rkar; rlq;Ffs;l>
gilf;fl;Lg;ghL> ,e;jpa RNjr murh;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l nfhs;iffs;
Nghd;w rpy Fwpg;gpl;l Jiwf;s rk;ge;jkhf rl;lkpaw;w Ntz;Lkhdhy;
itrpuhapd; mDkjpia Kd;djhfNt ngw Ntz;Lk;.
b) ,e;j rl;lkd;wk; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wk; ,aw;Wk;
rl;lq;fSf;F cl;gl;Nl rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
c) rl;lkd;wk; ,aw;Wk kNrhjhf;f;s itrpuhapd; ifnahg;gk; ngw;w
gpd;Ng rl;lkhf KbAk;. epiwNtw;wg;gl;l kNrhjhf;fis ve;j epiyapYk;
kWg;ghiz nra;Ak; mjpfhuk; itrpuha;f;F cz;L. NkYk; ,q;fpyhe;J
murhq;fKk; mr;rl;lj;ij ve;j epiyapYk; jil nra;a KbAk;.
6) khepy rl;lkd;wq;fSf;F kPz;Lk; rl;lkpaw;Wk; chpik:-
1833-k; tUl gl;lar; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; khepyq;fs; jhq;fs; ,oe;j
rl;lkpaw;Wk; mjpfhuj;ij 1861-k; tUl rl;lg;gb kPz;Lk; ngw;Wf;
nfhz;ld. nrd;id> gk;gha; khepy fth;dh;fs; jq;fs; eph;thff; FOtpy;
rl;lkpaw;Wtjw;fhf jiyik tof;fwpQUld; ehd;F cWg;gpdh;fSf;Ff;
FiwahkYk; vl;L cWg;gpdh;fSf;F kpfhkYk; epakdk; nra;J
nfhs;syhk;. epakpf;fg;gl;l ,e;j cWg;gpdh;fspy; ghjpg;Ngh; mjpfhhpfs;
my;yhjth;fshf (non-official) ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,th;fspd; gjtpf;fhyk;
,uz;L Mz;Lfs; vd;W eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


30
7) khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspd; mjpfhuhq;fs;:-
khepy rl;lkd;wk; me;j khepyj;jpd; ey;y eph;thfk;
eilngWtjw;fhd rl;lq;fis ,aw;wyhk;. Mdhy; gil> ehzak;>
Rq;fthp> ntspcwT> jghy; je;jp Mfpait gw;wp rl;lkpaw;w KbahJ.
khepy rl;lkd;wk; ,aw;wpa kNrhjhf;fs; rl;lkhtjw;F fth;dhpd;
ifnahg;gk; ngw Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; itrpuhapd; xg;GjYk; mtprak;
Njit. ,Wjpapy; murhpd; rk;kjj;Jld; ,r;rl;lq;fis ,e;jpah mikr;rh;
js;Sgb nra;aTk; mjpfhuk; cz;L. jw;fhypf „mtru rl;lq;fs;‟
(ordinances) gpwg;gpf;f fth;dUf;F mjpfhuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
8) itrpuhapd; rpy Kf;fpakhd mjpfhuq;fs;:-
1861-k; tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lg;gb khepyq;fspd; vy;iyfis
khw;wTk;> jpUj;jp mikf;fTk;> Gjpa khepyq;fis cUthf;fTk;
itrpuha;f;F mjpfhuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
NkYk; rpwpa khepyq;fspy; rl;lkd;wq;fis mikf;fTk;>
Jizepiy fth;dh;fis epakpf;fTk; itrpuha; mjpfhuk; ngw;whh;.
9) ePjpj;Jiwapy; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wq;fs;:-
1861-k; tUl rl;lk; ePjpj;JiwapYk; rpy Kf;fpakhd khw;wq;fisr;
nra;jJ. ePjpkd;wq;fisAk;> jiyik ePjpkd;wj;ijAk; ePf;fptpl;L
nrd;id> gk;gha;> fy;fj;jh khepyq;fspy; cah;ePjpkd;wq;fis (Hign
Courts) Vw;gLj;jpaJ. khtl;l ePjpgjpapd; Mizg;gb (District magistrate)
khtl;lq;fspy; xOq;Fk; mikjpAk; epiy ehl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W
$wg;gl;lJ. ,r;rl;lg;gb fhtw;gil (Police) ed;F khw;wp mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
1) 1864-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs; ahit?

1892-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk;


(Indian Councils Act of 1892)
1861-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l Fiwfisj;
jPh;f;fTk;> NkYk; Gjpa rYiffis ,e;jpah;fSf;F mspf;fTk; 1892-k;
tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
1892-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;l #o;epiyfs;
1) ,e;jpa kf;fsplk; fhzg;gl;l Njrpa czh;r;rp:-
1861-k; tUlj;jpw;Fk; 1892-k; tUlj;jpw;FkpilNa cs;s Kg;gJ
Mz;L fhyj;jpy; eilngw;w gy epfo;r;rpfs; kf;fspilNa Njrpa
czh;itj; J}z;bd. uh[huhk; Nkhfd;uha;> Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjp>
Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh; Nghd;Nwhh; jiyikapy; r%f> rkar; rPh;jpUj;jq;fs;
Vw;gl;L kf;fspilNa fhzg;gl;l %lg;gof;fq;fs; ePq;fpd. Nkdhl;L fy;tp
GFj;jg;gl;lJ. Nkiy ehl;Lg;gz;ghL nry;thf;F ngw;wJ. Njrpak;
tsh;e;jJ. Njrpaj; jiyth;fspd; fUj;Jf;fs; gug;gg;gl;ld. ,jdhy;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
31
kf;fspilNa Njhd;wpa Njrpa czh;r;rpahdJ murpay; czh;r;rpahf
khwp murpay; chpikfisf; Nfl;gjpy; Kbe;jJ.
2) hpg;gd; gpuGtpd; fUj;Jiufs;:-
,e;jpahtpy; itrpuhahf ,Ue;j ypl;ld;gpuG mlf;FKiwf;
nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;wp ,e;jpa kf;fSf;F tpNuhjkhd gy
eltbf;iffspy; <Lgl;lhh;. Mdhy; mtUf;Fg; gpwF te;j hpg;gd;gpuG
jhuhsf; nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;wpdhh;. ,e;jpah;fSf;F murpay; gapw;rp
nfhLf;fTk; rl;lkd;wq;fis rPuikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mg;NghJ
,e;jpah mikr;ruhf ,Ue;j `hhpq;ld; gpuGTf;F vLj;Jiuj;jhh;. gj;J
,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfs; kf;fshy; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;
mth;fspy; %d;W Ngh; nrd;id> gk;gha;> fy;fj;jh efu rigfs; %yk;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;jpdh;. Mdhy; hpg;gd; gpuGtpd;
fUj;Jiufis `hhpq;ld; gpuG Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy.
3) ,e;jpa Njrpaf; fhq;fpurpd; Nfhhpf;iffs;:-
1885-y; njhlq;fg;gl;l ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; gy Nfhhpf;iffis
murhq;fj;jpd; Kd; itj;jJ. nrd;id> gk;gha;> tq;fhsk; Mfpa
khepyq;fisg; NghyNt kw;w khepyq;fspYk; rl;lkd;wq;fis epWt
Ntz;Lk;. rl;lrigapy; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia
mjpfhpf;f Ntz;Lk;. rl;lkd;wj;jpw;F mjpf mjpfhuq;fs; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;
Nghd;w gy Nfhhpf;iffspy; rpytw;iwahtJ epiwNtw;Wk; tifapy;
1892-k; tUl fTd;rpy; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
4) lg;hpd; gpuGtpd; eltbf;iffs;:-
hpg;gd; gpuGtpd; fUj;Jiufis mg;Nghija ,e;jpah mikr;rh;
Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iynad;whYk;> fhq;fpurpd; fUj;Jiufis itrpuha;
lg;hpd; gpuG Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhh;. fhuzk; jdJ mjpfhuq;fis
mjpfhpg;gjw;F ,e;jpa gpujpepjpfspd; Mjuitg; ngw tpUk;gpaNjahFk;.
vdNt 1882-y; ,e;jpah; epiyiag; Ghpe;J nfhs;sTk;> rl;lkd;wq;fspy;
rPh;jpUj;jq;fis GFj;jTk; FO xd;iw mikj;jhh;. me;jf; FOtpd;
mwpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; jdJ fUj;Jiufis ,q;fpyhe;J muRf;F
mDg;gpdhh;. Mdhy; muR kpf nkJthfNt nray;gl;L ,Wjpapy; 1892
[Pd; 20k; Njjp ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lj;ij ,aw;wpaJ.
1892-k; tUl ,e;jpa fTd;rpy; rl;lj;jpd; \uj;Jf;fs;
1) ika rl;lkd;wj;jpd; tphpthf;fk;:-
1892-k; tUl rl;lg;gb ika rl;lkd;wj;jpd; vz;zpf;if
cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if gj;Jf;Ff; FiwahkYk;
gjpdhWf;F Nkw;glhkYk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,th;fspy; MW NgUf;F
Nkw;glhjth;fs; mjpfhhpfshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. kPjp cs;s mjpfhhpfs;
my;yhj cWg;gpdh;fs; gj;J Nghpy; ehd;F Ngh; khepy rl;lrig
gpujpepjpfshfTk;> xUth; fy;fj;jh tzpf kd;wj;jpd; gpujpepjpahfTk;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. kPjp Ie;J Ngh; itrpuhahy; epakpf;fg;gLth;. ,jpy; ngU
epyf;fpohh;fs;> njhopyjpgh;fs; Nghd;wth;fSf;F gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
nfhLf;fg;gLk;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


32
2) khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspd; tphpthf;fk;:-
khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspd; cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;ifAk; cah;j;jg;gl;lJ.
nrd;id> gk;gha; Mfpa khepyq;fspd; rl;l rig cWg;gpdh;fspd;
vz;zpf;if Fiwe;jJ vl;L MfTk; mjpf msT ,UgJ MfTk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;W jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ. tlNkw;F> mNahj;jp khepyq;fSf;F
cah;e;jgl;rk; gjpide;J cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Uf;fyhk; vd;Wk;
jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;tpjk; cah;j;jg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fspy; xU gFjpapdh;
Njh;en; jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ.
3) rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l chpikfs;:-
1892-k; tUl rl;lg;gb rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;F rpy chpikfs;
nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. nghJ eyd;fs; gw;wpf; Nfs;tp Nfl;Fk; chpik
mspf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; rigj; jiytUf;F MW ehl;fSf;F Kd;Ng
Nfs;tp Nfl;gJ gw;wpa nra;jpiaj; njhptpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; ,e;jf;
Nfs;tpfSf;F gjpy; mspf;Fk; mtrpaNkh mijj; njhlh;e;J cghpf;
Nfs;tp Nfl;Fk; chpikNah toq;fg;gltpy;iy.
NkYk;> cWg;gpdh;fSf;F tuT nryTj; jpl;lj;ij tpthjpf;Fk;
chpik nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mjd; kPJ thf;fspf;Fk; chpik
fpilahJ. NkYk; me;j tpthjk; itrpuhapd; eph;thf rigapdiuf;
fl;Lg;gLj;jhJ. tpthjj;ij jd; ,\;lg;gb Vw;fNth xJf;fNth ,aYk;.
4) rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fspd; epakdk;:-
rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; midtUk;> itrpuha;> khepy fth;dh;fs;>
Jiz epiy fth;dh;f;s MfpNahuhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gLth;. xU
cWg;gpdh; njhlh;e;J ,uz;L khjk; rig $l;lj;jpw;F tuhky; ,Ue;jhNyh>
uh[pdhkh nra;jhNyh> ,we;Jtpl;lhNyh me;j cWg;gpdh; gjtp
fhypahdjhf mwptpf;fg;gLk;. me;jf; fhyp ,lj;jpw;F ika rl;lkd;wk;
vd;why; itrpuhapdhYk;> khepy rl;lnkd;why; fth;duhYk; epakdk;
nra;ag;gLth;.
cWg;gpdh;fs; epakdk; nra;ag;gLtjw;fhd rl;l jpl;lq;fis
,e;jpah mikr;rhpd; mDkjp ngw;W cUthf;fp eilKiwg;gLj;Jthh;.
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; 1909
(Minto Morley Reforms, 1909)
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; ,e;jpahtpy; kf;fshl;rpiag;
GFj;jpajpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. gpujpepjpj;Jt epWtdq;fspd;
tsh;r;rpapy; xU Kf;fpa epiyia ,r;rl;lk; cz;lhf;fp ,e;jpa
murpayikg;gpid tsh;j;jJ. Kjy; Kiwahf Njh;jy;fs; %ykhf
Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gLfpd;w cWg;gpd;fh;fisf; nfhz;l rl;lkd;wq;fs; mika
,r;rl;lk; top nra;jJ. NkYk; ,e;jpah;fSf;F rl;lkd;wq;fspy; mjpf
mstpy; gq;F ju Ntz;Lk; vd;w nfhs;ifapd; mbg;gilapy;
rl;lkd;wq;fs; tphpTgLj;jg;gl;ld. ghuhSkd;w KiwahdJ NeubahfNth
kiwKfkhfNth ,e;jpahtpy; Vw;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F kpd;Nlh khh;yp
rPh;jpUj;jq;fNs fhuzkhFk;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
33
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; ,aw;wg;glf; fhuzq;fs;
1) fh;rhd; gpuGtpd; mlf;F Kiw Ml;rp:-
,e;jpahtpy; itrpuhahf ,Ue;j fh;rd; gpuGtpd; Ml;rpapy; kf;fspd;
chpikfs; eRf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jpa kf;fs; kPJ mth; nfhz;bUe;j
ek;gpf;ifapd;ik kf;fsplk; ntWg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mj;Jld; tpiythrp
cah;T> gQ;rk;> gpNsf;> kNyhpah Nghd;wit kf;fspd; Jd;gq;fis
mjpfhpj;jJ. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf fh;rd; gpuGtpd; tq;fhsg; gphptpid
(1905) ,e;jpa kf;fsplk; gphpT kdg;ghd;ikia Vw;gLj;Jtjhf
mike;Jtpl;lJ. vdNt mtuJ Ml;rpf;nfjpuhf ,e;jpa kf;fs; mjpUg;jp
nfhz;ldh;. mtuJ Mw;wy; tha;e;j Ml;rp ,e;jpa Njrpa rf;jpfisj;
jLg;gjw;Fg; gjpyhf murpaypy; Kd;Ndw;wk; fhz;gjw;fhd Mtiy
,e;jpah;fsplj;jpy; Njhw;Wtpj;jJ.
2) Mq;fpy murpd; Gjpa nfhs;if:-
Mq;fpy muR ,e;jpah;fis Ml;rpapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;s tpUk;gpaJ.
,jw;F Kf;fpa fhzk; Mq;fpy murpd; kPJ ,e;jpah;fs; nfhz;Ls;s
vz;zq;fisAk;> muR nra;fpd;w rPh;jpUj;jq;fis kf;fs; ve;j msTf;F
Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpwhh;fs; vd;W njhpe;J nfhs;tjw;FNkahFk;. mJ
kl;Lky;yhky; jPtputhjpfspd; Nghf;fpidAk; vjph;g;GfisAk; rkhspf;f
kpjthjpfspd; MjiuAk;> K];yPk;fspd; MjyitAk; ngw tpUk;gpaJ
muR.
3) khh;yp gpuGtpd; Kw;Nghf;F fUj;Jf;fs;:-
mg;NghJ ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ypguy; fl;rp (Liberal Party) Ml;rpapy;
,Ue;jJ. ,f;fl;rpapd; ,e;jpah ke;jphpahf gjtp tfpj;j khh;yp gpuGTk;
Kw;Nghf;Ff; fUj;Jf;fisf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;. „,e;jpah;fSf;F NkYk; rpwpJ
murpay; Rje;jpuKk;> eph;thfj;jpy; gq;Fk; mspf;fpw tifapy; rPh;jpUj;jk;
nra;tJ ey;y gaidj; jUk;‟ vd;W ek;gp rPh;jpUj;jj;jpw;F MjuT
mspj;jhh;.
4) itrpuha; kpd;Nlh gpuGtpd; nfhs;if:-
NkYk; itrpuha; kpd;Nlh gpuGTk; khwptUk; ,e;jpa #o;epiyf;F
jFe;jthW Mq;fpy murpd; nfhs;iffs; jsh;j;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;whh;.
muRf;F neUf;fb Vw;gLj;jpdhy; jhd; murpay; rPh;jpUj;jq;fs;
nra;ag;gLfpd;wd vd;w vz;zk; ,e;jpahplk; Vw;glhky;> jhdhfNt muR
rPh;jpUj;jq;fis nra;fpwJ vd;w vz;zk; Vw;gl;lhy; mJ ey;y gyidf;
nfhLf;Fk; vd;W kpd;Nlh fUjpdhh;.
mjd;gb ,e;jpa murpay; gpur;ridfisg; gw;wp Muha ehd;F Ngh;
nfhz;l xU FOit mikj;jhh;. me;jf; FOtpdh; ,e;jpa murpay;
gpur;ridfis Muha;e;J jq;fs; fUj;Jf;fisj; njhptpj;jdh;. me;jf;
fUj;Jf;fspd; mbg;gilapy; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; kNrhjh
mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 1909-k; Mz;L Nk 25-k; Njjp mJ rl;lkhdJ.
,e;j rl;lkhdJ kpd;Nlh> khh;yp Mfpath;fspd; Kaw;rpahy;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;ljhy; mJ „kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs;‟ vd;w ngah;
ngw;wJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
34
1909-k; tUl kpd;Nlh khh;yp rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs;
1) ika rl;lkd;wj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l Kf;fpa khWjy;fs;:-
1909-k; tUl kpd;Nlh khh;yp rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rk;
vd;dntd;why; ika> khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspd; mikg;gpYk;>
mjpfhuq;fspYk; nra;ag;gl;l khWjy;fNsahFk;.
ika rl;lkd;wkhdJ ehd;F tifg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fisf;
nfhz;bUe;jJ. mit:
a) jq;fs; gjtpapdpkpj;jk; cWg;gpdh;fshf ,Ue;jth;fs;. ,jpy;
itrpuha;> gilj;jiyth;> khepyg; gpujpepjpfs; mlq;Fth;.
b) epakpf;fg;gl;l mjpfhhpfsp> ,e;j tifapy; murhq;fj;jpy;
gzpGhpAk; rptpy; mjpfhhpfs; epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;.
c) epakpf;fg;gl;l mjpfhhpfs; my;yhjth;fs;. ,jpy; nghJ tho;tpy;
Kf;fpag;gq;F nfhz;l gpuKfh;fs; epakpf;fg;gl;ldh;.
d) Njh;jy;fs; %yk Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLfpw gpujpepjpfs;> ,th;fs;
efuhl;rpfs;> khtl;l thhpaq;fs;> tzpf kd;wq;fs; Mfpaitfshy;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLfpwth;fshth;.
Vw;fdNt ika rl;lkd;wj;jpy; xd;gJ cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Ue;jdh;.
mth;fs; itrpuha;> gilj;jiyth;> MW cWg;gpdh;fs;> xU khepyg;
gpujpepjp MfpNahh; Mth;. 1909-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb ika rl;lkd;wj;jpy;
mjpfkhf epakpf;fg;gl;;l cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if gjpdhwpypUe;J
mWgJ Mf cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. Mf> nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if
69 Mf cah;e;jJ. ,jpy; Vw;fdNt ,Ue;j 9 cWg;gpdh;fis Nrh;j;J
nkhj;jk; 37 Ngh; mjpfhhpfshf ,Ug;gh;. 5 Ngh; mjpfhhpfs;
my;yhjth;fshf (nominated non-officials) ,Ug;gh;. kPjp ,Uf;Fk; 27
,lq;fspy; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fs; epug;gg;gLth;. ,e;j 27 Nghpy;
5 Kfkjpah;fs;> 6 ,e;J epyf;fpohh;fs;> xU K];yPk; [kPd;jhh;>
fy;fj;jhtpYk; gk;ghapYKs;s thzpgf; FOf;fs; rhh;gpy; jyh 1
cWg;gpdh; MfpNahh; Njh;en; jLf;fg;gl;ldh;. kPjp 13 cWg;gpdh;fis xd;gJ
khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspy; ,Uf;Fk; mjpfhhpfs; my;yhj cWg;gpdh;fs;
Njh;en
; jLj;J mDg;Gth;.
2) khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspy; mjpfhhpfs; my;yhjth;fspd; ngUk;ghd;ik:-
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rl;lg;gb nrd;id> gk;gha;> tq;fhsk; Mfpa nghpa
khepyq;fspy; cs;s rl;lkd;wq;fspy; mjpfg;gbahd ,Uf;f Ntz;ba
cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if Ik;gjhf cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. khepy
rl;lkd;wq;fspy; mjpfhhpfspd; ngUk;ghd;ik ePf;fg;gl;lJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;
rpwg;gk;rkhFk;. Mdhy; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fspd; ngUk;ghd;ik
Vw;gltpy;iy. mjpfhhpfisAk;> epakdk; nra;ag;gl;l mjpfhpfs; my;yhj
cWg;gpdh;fisAk; Nrh;j;jhy; mth;fsJ vz;zpf;if Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;l
cWg;gpdh;fistpl rpwpJ mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;gb mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,th;fs;
murhq;fj;jpw;Fr; rhjfkhfNt ele;J nfhz;lhh;fs;. NkYk;
Njh;en; jLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fsplk; xw;Wik fhzg;gltpy;iy.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
35
3) tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;JtKiw mky; nra;ag;gl;lJ:-
gy;NtW ,dj;jhYk;> kjj;jhYk;> nfhs;iffshYk; Kuz;gl;Lg;
gphpe;J fplf;fpw ,e;jpahtpy; ,lthhpahf (Territorial vise) njhFjpfisg;
gphpf;f ,ayhj fhuzj;jpdhy; ,dq;fisAk;> th;f;fq;fisAk;>
epWtdq;fisAk; njhFjpfshff; fUjp gpujpepjpj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ.
mjd;gb jhd; epyf;fpohh;f;s> Njhl;l Kjyhspfs;> K];yPk;fs; vd;w
r%fq;fSk;> Cuhl;rp kd;wq;fs;> tzpf kd;wq;fs;> gy;fiyf;fofq;fs;
vd;w epWtdq;fSk; njhFjpfshapd.
K];yPk; ,dj;jth;fSf;F jdpahf mth;fspd; gpujpepjpfis
mth;fNs Njh;e;njLf;f tif nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W K];yPk; ,dk;
tpLj;j Nfhhpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapNy ,e;j tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;Jtf;
nfhs;if mky; nra;ag;gl;lJ. K];yPk;fspd; murpay; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
fUjpNa mth;fSf;F ,e;j gpujpepjpj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. mth;fspd;
[dj;njhif tpfpjj;jpw;F mjpf mstpy; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; toq;fg;gl;lJ.
4) rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;F mjpf mjpfhuk;:-
1909-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb ika rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;F mjpf
mjpfhuq;fs; mspf;fg;gl;ld. murpd; tuT nryTj;jpl;lk; gw;wp
tpthjpf;fTk;> jPh;khdq;f;s nfhz;L tuTk; cWg;gpdh;fSf;F chpik
mspf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; Jizf; Nfs;tpfs; Nfl;gjw;Fk;> ];jy Ml;rp
epWtdq;fSf;F fld; toq;Fjy;> Gjpa thpfs; tpjpg;gJ Mfpait
njhlh;ghf jPh;khdq;fs; nfhz;L tuyhk;. nghJ eyd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
fhhpaq;fisAk; tpthjpf;f KbAk;. Mdhy; ,Wjpahd jPh;gG
;
itrpuhapdhNyNa vLf;fg;gLk;.
rl;lkd;wj;jpy; jPh;khdq;fisf; nfhz;L te;J tpthjpf;fyhNk jtpu
mitfisj; js;sNth> xg;Gf; nfhs;sNth itrpuha;f;F kl;LNk
mjpfhuk; cz;L. NkYk; uhZtk;> may; ehl;Lf; nfhs;if> ,e;jpa
rk];jhdq;fs; Nghd;wit gw;wp tpthjpf;fTk; jPh;khdq;fs; nfhz;L
tuTk; rl;lkd;wj;Jf;F mjpfhuk; ,y;iy. ,J Nghy; jhd; khepy
rl;lkd;wq;fspd; nray;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuk; fth;dUf;F
toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; rl;lkd;wq;fspd; mjpfhuk; ntWk; ngausTf;Fj;
jhd; mjpfkhf;fg;gl;lNj jtpu cz;ikahfNt rl;lkd;wj;jpw;F
toq;fg;gltpy;iy.
5) Njh;jy; Kiw:-
1909-k; tUlr; rl;lk; mjpfhhpfs; my;yhj cWg;gpdh;fs;
epakdj;jpw;F Njh;jy; Kiwia mq;fPfhpj;jJ. Njh;jy; Kiw gw;wp
rl;ljpl;lq;fs; cUthf;f itrpuha;f;F mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gllJ.
thf;Fhpik vy;NyhUf;Fk; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy. nrhj;J> fy;tp
Mfpaitfspd; mbg;gilapy; thf;fhsh;fspd; jFjp eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ.
,e;j jFjpfSk;> khepyj;jpw;F khepyk;> ,dj;jpw;F ,dk; NtWgl;Lf;
fhzg;gl;lJ.
NkYk; Njh;jy; Kiw Neuhf mikahky; Rw;whd topapy;
mikf;fg;gl;ld. cjhuzkhf> thf;fhsh;fs; Cuhl;rpf;fhd
cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;e;njLj;jdh;. Cuhl;rp cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;jy; FO
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
36
cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;enjLj;jdh;. ,e;j Njh;jy; FO cWg;gpdh;fs;
rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;en
; jLj;jdh;.
6) itrpuhapd; eph;thf rigapd; cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;G:-
1909-k; tUl kpd;Nlh khh;yp rl;lg;gb itrpuhapd; eph;thff; FOtpy;
eilKiwapy; ,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;fSf;fhf xU ,lk; xJf;fg;gl;lJ.
mt;thW Kjy; ,e;jpa rl;l cwg;gpduhf Mf;fg;gl;lth; rj;jpNae;jpu
gpurd;d rpd;`h vd;gtuhthh;. ,r;rl;lg;gb nrd;id> gk;gha; fth;dh;fspd;
eph;thff; FOf;fspd; cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if ehd;fhf
cah;j;jg;gl;lJ.
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fisg; gw;wpa kjpg;gL
P :-
kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fspd;gb eph;thfj;jpy; ,e;jpah;fisr;
Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;tjpy; jPtpukhf mf;fiu fhl;lg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; ika>
khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspy; ,e;jpah;fspd; vz;zpf;if $baJ. ,e;j tha;gG ;
kpfTk; gad; juf;$ba murpay; gapw;rpiaAk; mwpitAk; ,e;jpah;fSf;F
mspj;jJ.
,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;fspd; mjpfhuq;fis mjpkhf;f ,r;rl;lk; tif
nra;jJ. Nfs;tpfs;> Jizf;Nfs;tpfs;> murhq;f tuT nryT jpl;lk; kPJ
tpthjq;fs; Mfpa vy;yhNk tuNtw;fj; jf;f Kd;Ndw;wq;fshFk;.
Njh;jy;Kiw mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJk; ,r;rl;lj;jpd; rpwg;gk;rkhFk;.
Mdhy; ,itnay;yhNk rpwg;ghditjhd; vd;whYk;> mit eilKiwf;F
te;j NghJ gy FiwghLfs; ntspg;gl;ld.

1) kpd;Nlh khh;yp rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; ,aw;wg;glf; fhuzq;fs; ahit?


2) 1909-k; tUl kpd;Nlh khh;yp rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs; ahit?

1919k; tUl khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;l; rl;lj;jpd;


Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs;
1) Kfg;Giu (Preamble):-
khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;l; rl;lj;jpd; Kfg;Giu ,e;jpahtpy; gbg;gbahf
nray;gLj;jg;glg; NghFk; rPh;jpUj;jf; nfhs;iffisg; gw;wpf; $WfpwJ.
Kfg;Giuapy; fhzg;gLk; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs; tUkhW: “,e;jpahtpy;
nghWg;Gs;s Ml;rpia Vw;gLj;JtNj Mq;fpy murpd; nfhs;if.
nghWg;Gs;s Ml;rp gbg;gbahf Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;. Ml;rpj;Jiw
xt;nthd;wpYk; mjpf mstpy; ,e;jpah;fs; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLthh;fs;.
,e;jpahtpy; Rahl;rpia Vw;gLj;j cjTk; Ml;rpj;Jiw epWtdq;fs;
gbg;gbahf tsu MjuT mspf;fg;gLk;” vd;W Kfg;Giu $WfpwJ. ,J
khz;NlFtpd; mwpf;ifapy; fhzg;gll mk;rq;fis kPz;Lk;
typAWj;Jtjhf mike;Js;sJ.

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37
2) ,e;jpah mikr;rh; rk;ge;jkhf nra;ag;gl;l khWjy;fs;:-
m) ,e;jpah mikr;rhpd; Cjpak; ,Jtiuapy; ,e;jpa epjpapypUe;J
nfhLf;fg;gl;L te;j tof;fj;ij ePf;fp ,q;fpyhe;J epjpapypUe;J mtuJ
Cjpaj;ijf; nfhLf;Fk;gb ,r;rl;lk; tif nra;jJ. ,e;jpah mikr;rhpd;
mjpfhuq;fSk; kpfTk; Fiwf;fg;gl;ld. gil> may; ehl;Lj; njhlh;G>
murpay;> fld;fs;> ehza nrythzp Nghd;w Fwpg;gpl;l fhhpaq;fSf;F
kl;LNk itrpuhAk; mtuJ MNyhrid FOTk; ,e;jpah mikr;riuf;
fye;J nray;gl;lhy; NghJkhdJ vd;W ,r;rl;lk; mwptpj;jJ.
M) ,e;jpah fTd;rpy; (India Council) cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if
vl;Lf;Ff; FiwahkYk; gd;dpnuz;Lf;F Nkw;glhkYk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lnkd;W eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ. ,th;fspy; ghjp cWg;gpdh;fs; Fiwe;jJ
gj;J Mz;Lfs; ,e;jpa eph;thfj;jpy; mDgtk; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
,th;fspd; gjtpf;fhyk; Ie;J Mz;Lfs;. ,e;j FOtpy; ,Ue;j
,e;jpah;fspd; vz;zpf;if ,uz;bypUe;J %d;whf cah;j;jg;gl;lJ.
,) ,e;jpah mikr;rhpd; mjpfhuq;fs; NkYk; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.
,q;fpyhe;jpy; cs;s ,e;jpah;fspd; Njitfisf; ftdpf;Fk; nghUl;L
,e;jpah cah; Mizah; vd;w Gjpa mjpfhhpia ,r;rl;lk; epakpj;jJ.
,th; itrpuhapdhy; Ie;J Mz;L fhyj;jpw;F epakpf;fg;gLthh;. ,e;jpah
rk;ge;jg;gl;l vy;yhf; fhhpaq;fSf;Fk; Mq;fpy muRf;F nghWg;ghspahf
,th; tpsq;fpdhh;. ,tuJ Cjpak; ,e;jpa epjpapypUe;J nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
3) kj;jpa khepy muRfSf;fpilNa mjpfhug; gq;fPL:-
1919-k; tUlr; rl;lk; gphpl;b\; ,e;jpahit xd;gJ khepyq;fshfg;
gphpj;jJ. mitfs; nrd;id> gk;gha;> tq;fhsk;> If;fpa gpuNjr khepyk;>
m];]hk;> gPfhh;> xhprh> kj;jpa khepyk;> gQ;rhg; vd;gdthFk;. kj;jpa
khepyq;fspd; mjpfhuq;fis ,e;jr; rl;lk; njspthfg; gphptpid nra;jJ.
m) kj;jpa murpd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
gphpl;b\; ,e;jpah KOtjw;Fk; nghJ eyd; tpistpf;Fk; xNu rPuhd
eph;thfk; Vw;gl cjTk; tifapy; kj;jpa murpd; mjpfhuq;fs; ,Ue;jd.
ghJfhg;G> may;ehl;L tptfhuq;fs;> gilg; Nghf;Ftuj;J> jghy; je;jp>
ehzak;> nghJf;fld; thzpgk;> fhg;Gthp> tUkhdthp> fg;gy;
Nghf;Ftuj;J> kf;fs; njhif fzf;fPL> Gs;spapay;> Ntiy tha;g;G
epWtdq;fs;> rptpy; fphpkpdy; rl;lq;fs;> kj rk;ge;jg;gl;l eph;thfk; Mfpa
midj;Jk; kj;jpa murpd; mjpfhug; gl;baypy; cs;sitahFk;.
M) khepy murpd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
khepy mstpy; epyTk; gpur;ridfisj; jPh;j;Jf; nfhs;s cjTk;
KiwapYk;> me;j khepy kf;fspd; eyd;fisg; Ngzf;$ba tifapYk;
khepy mjpfhuq;fs; ,Ue;jd. mitfs;> cs;ehl;L rl;lk;> mikjp.
ePjpghpghydk;> rpiwr;rhiyfspd; eph;thfk;> ePh;gg
; hrdk;> fhLfs;> fy;tp>
kUj;Jtk;> nghJ Rfhjhuk;> nghJg; gzpj;Jiw> kuhkj;J Ntiyfs;>
Ntshz;ik> Maj;jPhi ; t> $l;LwT rq;fq;fs;> fhl;L tsk;> fhy;eil>
kPd;tsk;> gpwg;G> ,wg;G gjpT Mfpait khepy murpd; mjpfhug;gl;baypy;
cs;sitahFk;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
38
,) vQ;rpa mjpfhuq;fs;:-
kj;jpa murpd; mjpfhuq;fs; khepy murpd; mjpfhuq;fs; vdj;
jdpj;jdpahf gphpj;j gpd;dUk;> mg;NghJ Fwpf;fg;glhky; Nghd
mjpfhuq;fs;> khwptUk; murpay; rKjha nghUshjhu #o;epiyapy;
Njhd;Wk; Gjpa gpur;ridfis jPh;f;f Njhd;Wk; Gjpa mjpfhuq;fs; Nghd;w
vQ;rpa mjpfhuq;fs; midj;Jk;> mjhtJ kj;jpa khepy muR gl;baypy;
Fwpg;gplg;glhj kw;w Jiwfs; midj;Jk;> kj;jpa muRf;F
nfhLf;fg;gl;ld.
4) kj;jpa murpd; eph;thf rigapy; nra;ag;gl;l khWjy;fs;:-
m) eph;hf rigapd; mikg;G:-
fth;dh; n[duypd; eph;thf rigapy; ,e;j rl;lkhdJ ve;j tpjkhd
mbg;gil khw;wq;fisAk; nra;atpy;iy. fth;dh; n[duypd;
fl;Lg;ghby;yhj vNjr;rjpfhuq;fspYk; vt;tpj khw;wKk; nra;ag;gltpy;iy.
Mdhy; ,e;jpa eph;thfj;jpy; ,e;jpah;fis mjpfkhfr; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk; vd;w nfhs;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; fth;dh; n[duypd; eph;thf
rigapy; mjpf mstpy; ,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;fs; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;ldh;.
(fth;dh; n[duYk;> itrpuhAk; xUtNu! ,e;jpa RNjr
rk];jhdq;fs; gw;wpa eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;Sk; NghJ itrpuha;
vd;Wk;> gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa khepyq;fs; njhlh;ghf mjpfhuk; nrYj;Jk;
NghJ fth;dh; n[duy; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;lhh;).
fth;dh; n[duypd; eph;thf rigapy; ,Jtiu xU ,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;
kl;LNk ,Ue;jhh;. ,e;j rl;lj;jpd;gb eph;thf rigapy; ,e;jpa
cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if %d;whf cah;j;jg;gl;L nkhj;jk; MW
cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Ue;jdh;. ,t;thW MW cWg;gpdh;fs; Nrh;j;Jf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ MFk;. cWg;gpdh;fspd; gjtpf;fhyk;
Ie;J Mz;Lfs; MFk;.
M) eph;thf rigapd; eltbf;iffs;:-
fth;dh; n[duYk;> mtuJ eph;thf rigAk; ,e;jpah mikr;rUf;Fk;
,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;FNk nghWg;G tha;e;jth;fshf
itf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,e;jpa rl;lrigf;F nghWg;G tha;e;jth;fshf ,y;iy.
,e;j eph;thf rigapd; eltbf;iffspy; fth;dh; n[duypd; Mjpf;fNk
NkNyhq;fp ,Ue;jJ. rig eltbf;iffs; kPJ jdJ KO fl;Lg;ghl;bid
Vw;gLj;jpapUe;jhh;. ,jw;F Kf;fpaf; fhuzk; cWg;gpdh;fs; muruhy;
epakpf;fg;gl;lhYk;> me;j epakdq;fspy; fth;dh; n[duypd; tpUg;gq;fNs
epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld. NkYk; eph;thf cWg;gpdh;fSf;F chpa nghWg;Gfis
fth;dh; n[duNy gphpj;jspj;jhh;.
,e;j eph;thf rigapy; ve;j jhkhdKk; ngUthhpahd
cWg;gpdh;fspd; thf;F ngw;Nw epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rkepiy thf;F
Vw;gLk; NghJ fth;dh; n[duy; jdJ KbT thf;if cgNahfg;gLj;jyhk;.
eph;thf rigapd; vy;yh KbTfSk; fth;dh; n[duypd; xg;Gjy; ngw;w
gpd;Ng nray;gLj;j KbAk;. eph;thf rigapd; KbTfis fth;dh; n[duy;
Vw;Wf; nfhs;s kWf;fyhk;. vdNt eph;thf rigapd; mjpfhuq;fs; vy;yhk;
fth;dh; n[duy; Kd;G nrayw;Wg; Ngha;tpLfpwJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
39
5) kj;jpa rl;lkd;wk; (Central Legislature):-
1919-k; tUl rl;lg;gb kj;jpa rl;lkd;wj;jpy; rpwg;ghd khw;wq;fs;
nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. ,Jtiu kj;jpa rl;lkd;wkhdJ> xU rigiaf;
nfhz;ljhfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb „<uq;f rl;lkd;w Kiw‟
(Bi-cameral legislature) nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. mjhtJ kj;jpa
rl;lkd;wkhdJ ,uz;L rigfisf; nfhz;ljhf mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
uh[;arig (Council of state) vd;w Nky;rigAk;> kj;jpa rl;lkd;wk;
(Central Legislative Assembly) vd;w fPo;rigAk; mikf;fg;gl;ld.
m) uh[;a rig:-
mikg;G:-
,q;fpyhe;jpYs;s Nky;rigahd gpuGf;fs; rigiag; Nghd;W uh[;a
rigia mikf;f tpUk;gpdh;. uh[;a rigapd; cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;if
mWgJ MFk;. ,jpy; Kg;gj;jp %d;W cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;jy; %yk;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;ldh;. kPjp ,Ugj;NjO cWg;gpdh;fs; epakdk;
nra;ag;gl;ldh;. Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gLk; 33 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 16 Ngh; nghJj;
njhFjpfspypUe;Jk;> 3 Ngh; INuhg;gpah;fspd; njhFjpapypUe;Jk;> 1
cWg;gpdh; rPf;fpah;> kw;w 2 cWg;gpdh; epyf;fpohh;> th;j;jff;FO>
gy;fiyf;fofk; Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;Jk; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;ldh;. epakdk;
nra;ag;gLk; 27 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 17 Ngh; mjpfhhpfshfTk; 10 Ngh;
mjpfhhpfs; my;yhjth;fshfTk; ,Ue;jdh;.
uh[;arigapd; gjtpf;fhyk; Ie;J Mz;Lfs; MFk;. ,r;rigapd;
jiytiu fth;dh; n[duNy epakpg;ghh;. ,r;rigiaf; $l;LgtUk;>
fiyg;gtUk;> xj;jp itg;gtUk; jiyik MSeNu Mthh;.
mjpfhuq;fs;:-
epjp rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhuk; jtpu kw;w vy;yhtw;wpYk; fPo;rigf;Fr;
rkkhd mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. vy;yh kNrhjhf;fSk; uh[;a
rigapd; xg;Gjy; ngw;w gpd;dNu rl;lkhf KbAk;. fPo;rigahd kj;jpa
rl;lkd;wj;jpy; gl;n[l; rkh;gg ; pf;fg;gLk; mNj ehspy; uh[;a rigapYk;
rkh;gg; pf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. gl;n[l; kPJ uh[;a rigapy; tpthjq;fSk;>
ghpe;JiufSk; nra;ag;gLk;> fPo;rigapy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L
tpthjpf;fg;gl;L epiwNtwpa epjp kNrhjhf;fs; uh[;a rigapd; xg;Gjiy
ngWtjw;fhf mDg;gp itf;fg;gLk;. mjd;kPJ tpthjq;fs; elj;jp>
rl;lkd;wj;jpduhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk; tifapy; jpUj;jq;fis
nra;ayhk;. epjp xJf;fPl;L kNrhjhtpy; uh[;arig ve;j jpUj;jj;ijAk;
nra;a KbahJ.
,t;thW Nky; rigahd uh[;argh cWg;gpdh;fs; jq;fSf;F
mDg;gp itf;fg;gLk; tuT nryT jpl;lk;> epjp kNrhjh Mfpaitfisg;
gw;wp mwpe;J nfhs;sTk; xg;Gjy; mspf;fTk; cs;s mstpy; kl;LNk
mjpfhuk; ngw;wpUe;jdh;. Gjpa kNrhjhf;fis ,aw;Wk; mjpfhuk;
nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


40
M) kj;jpa rl;lrig (Central Legislative Assembly):-
mikg;G:-
kj;jpa rl;lkd;wk fPo;rigahFk;. ,jpy; 145 cWg;gpdh; ,Ug;gh;.
,th;fspy; 104 Ngh; Neubahfj; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLth;. kPjp 41 Ngh; epakdk;
nra;ag;gLth;. Neubahf Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLgth;fspy; nghJj; njhFjp %yk;
52 NgUk;> Kfkjpah;fshy; 30 NgUk;> rPf;fpah;fs; 2 NgUk;
INuhg;gpah;fshy; 9 NgUk;> epyf;fpohh;fshy; 7 NgUk;> tzpf;f;
FOtpduhy; 4 NgUk; Mf nkhj;jk; 104 Ngh; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLth;. epakdk;
nra;ag;gLk; 41 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 26 Ngh; mjpfhhpfshfTk;> 15 Ngh;
mjpfhhpfs; my;yhjth;fshfTk; ,Ug;gh;.
kj;jpa rl;lkd;wj;jpd; gjtpf;fhyk; %d;W Mz;Lfs; MFk;. ,jd;
jiyth; fth;dh; n[duypdhy; epakpf;fg;gLthh;. rl;lkd;wj;ijf;
$l;Ltjw;Fk;> fiyg;gjw;Fk;> ePl;bg;gjw;Fk; fth;dh; n[duy; mjpfhuk;
ngw;wpUe;jhh;.
Njh;jy; Kiw:-
kj;jpa rl;lrigapd; cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;e;njLf;Fk; thf;fhsh;
jFjpfSk; tiuaiw nra;ag;gl;ld. nrhj;Jhpikapd; mbg;gilapNyNa
thf;fhsh;fspd; jFjpfs; tiuaWf;fg;gl;ld. efuhl;rpf;F gjpide;J
&gha; thp nrYj;jg;gth;fs;> tUlj;jpw;F ,uz;lhapuk; tUkhdk;
cilath;fs;> Ik;gJ &gha; epythp nrYj;Jfpwth;fs; Nghd;wth;fSf;Nf
thf;Fhpik toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; nkhj;j thf;fhsh;fspd; vz;zpf;if
FiwthfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j nrhj;Jhpik jFjpAk; khepyj;jpw;F khepyk;
khWgl;bUe;jJ. NkYk; kj;jpa rl;lkd;wj;jpd; njhFjpfSk;
khepyq;fSf;fpilNa rPuhd Kiwapy; gq;fPL nra;ag;gltpy;iy.
mjpfhuq;fs;:-
kj;jpa rl;lrigapd; mjpfhuq;fs; kpfTk; tphpTgLj;jg;gl;ld.
Mq;fpNya ,e;jpah KOtjw;Fk; rl;lkpaw;Wk; chpik kj;jpa
rl;lrigf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. kj;jpa murhq;fj;jpw;nfd;W xJf;fg;gl;l
mjpfhuq;fs; gw;wpa rl;lq;fis ,aw;WtjpYk;> eph;tfpg;gjpYk; ngUk;gq;F
ngw;wJ. ,e;j rigapy; rkh;gg; pf;fg;gl;L> tpthjpf;fg;gl;L> epiwNtw;wg;gl;l
kNrhjhf;fs; fth;dh; n[duypd; (itrpuha;) xg;GjYld; rl;lkhfpwJ.
Mdhy; rl;lkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fs; gy topfspy; fth;dh; n[duypdhy;
fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
khepy mjpfhuq;fs;> khepy rl;lkd;wq;fs; ,aw;wp rl;lq;fis uj;J
nra;jy;> fth;dh; n[duypd; mtrug; gpufldq;fspy; jpUj;jq;fs; nra;jy;>
ghJfhg;G> may; cwT> rka tptfhuk; Mfpait njhlh;Gila
kNrhjhf;fs; nfhz;L tUk; NghJ fth;dh; n[duypd; Kd; mDkjpiag;
ngw Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; murpayikg;Gfis khw;Wk; mstpw;Nfh>
,q;fpyhe;J rl;lq;fSf;F Kuz;ghlhd tifapNyh rl;lq;fis ,aw;w
KbahJ. epjp njhlh;ghd mjpfhuq;fSk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;jd. tuT
nryT jpl;lk; rkh;g;gpf;fg;gLk; NghJ mjpy; thf;fspf;fg;gl Ntz;ba
gFjp> thf;fspf;fg;gl Kbahj gFjp (votable and non-votabble items)
vd;W ,uz;lhfg; gphpf;fg;gl;ld. thf;fspf;fg;glf;$ba gFjpfs; gw;wp
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
41
jhd; tpthjk; elj;jTk;> thf;fspf;fTk; rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;F
chpik cz;L.
,Wjpahf rl;lkd;wk; ,aw;Wk; vy;yhr; rl;lq;fSk; fth;dh;
n[duypd; xg;Gjy; ngw Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; fth;dh; n[duy; jdf;F
mspf;fg;gl;l „jd;crpj mjpfhuk;‟> „uj;J mjpfhuk;‟> „ehl;bd; mikjp
kw;Wk; Nguurpd; eyk; fhf;Fk; flik‟ Mfpa mjpfhuq;fisg; gpuNahfpj;J
rl;lkd;wj;jpid KOikahf fl;Lg;gLj;jpdhh;.
uh[;a rigf;Fk;> kj;jpa rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fk;> ,ilapy; VNjDk; xU
gpur;ridapy; Kl;Lf;fl;il (dead lock) Vw;gl;lhy; fth;dh; n[duy; ,uz;L
rigfspypUe;Jk; vz;zpf;ifapy; khWglhky; cs;s gpujpepjpfis
mioj;J $bg;Ngrp KbT fhz;ghh;. mjpy; gpur;rid jPutpy;iynad;why;
,uz;L rigfisAk; xNu Neuj;jpy; $l;b (Joint sitting) gpur;ridfSf;Fj;
jPh;T fhzg;gLk;.
khepyq;fspy; ,ul;il Ml;rpKiw (Diarchy in the Provinces)
1919-k; tUl khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;l; rl;lj;jpd; kpfr; rpwg;ghd
mk;rk; vd;dntd;why; khepyq;fspy; nghWg;Gs;s Ml;rpia (Responsible
government) cUthf;Ftjw;fhf mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l „,ul;il Ml;rp
KiwNaahFk;‟.
tpsf;fk;:-
,e;j ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwapd;gb khepyq;fSf;nfd;W xJf;fg;gl;l
mjpfhuq;fs; Mq;fpNyah;fSf;Fk;> ,e;jpah;fSf;FkpilNa gq;fPL
nra;ag;gl;ld. mjhtJ khepyj;jpd; eph;thfg; nghWg;G ,U$Wfshfg;
gphpf;fg;gl;L Ml;rp nra;ag;gl;ljhy; ,e;j Gjpa khw;wj;jpw;F „,ul;il
Ml;rp‟ vd;W ngahplg;gl;lJ.
khepy mjpfhuq;fs; ,uz;lhfg; gphpf;fg;gl;ld. mit xJf;fg;gl;l
Jiwfs; (Reserved Subjects) vd;Wk;> khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs; (Transferred
Subjects) vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;ld.
xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwfs;:-
fhtw;gil> ePjp eph;thfk;> epy tUtha;> ePh;gg; hrdk;> gQ;r epthuzk;>
gj;jphpf;if> mr;rfk;> Gj;jff; fl;Lg;ghL> tptrhaf; fld;> tdq;fs;>
rpiwr;rhiy> njhopy; jfuhW jPh;j;jy; Nghd;w Njr mgptpUj;jpj;
Jiwfis (Nation Building departments) fth;dUk; ehd;F
cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l mtuJ eph;thf rigapdUk; epUtfpg;gh;.
khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs;:-
fy;tp> nghJg;gzpj;Jiw> tptrhak;> kPd;tsk;> jyRahl;rp> nghJ
Rfhjhuk;> $l;LwT rq;fq;fs;> njhopy; EZf;ff; fy;tp> njhopw;rhiy
tsh;r;rp> njhopy; Muha;r;rp Mfpait khw;wg;gl;l JiwfshFk;. ,e;j
Jiwfis kf;fshy; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fspypUe;J fth;duhy;
epakpf;fg;gl;l mikr;rh;fs; epUtfpj;jdh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
42
,t;thW ,uz;L tifg;gl;l mjpfhu mikg;Gfisf; nfhz;l khepy
eph;thf rPhj
; pUj;jNk ,ul;il Ml;rp vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ.
,ul;il Ml;rp nray;gl;l tpjk;:-
1919-k; tUl khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;l; rl;lj;jpd; %yk;
mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l ,ul;il Ml;rpKiw nrd;id> tq;fhsk;> gk;gha;>
If;fpa khfhzk;> gQ;rhg;> gPfhh;> kj;jpa khfhzk;> m];]hk; Mfpa vl;L
khepyq;fspy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mjd;gb rl;lkd;wj;Jf;fhd
Njh;jy;fs; 1920-21y; eilngw;wd. ,e;j Njh;jypy; xj;Jioahik
,af;fj;jpd; fhuzkhf fhq;fpu]; Nghl;bapltpy;iy. 1923-y; eilngw;w
Njh;jypy; Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdh; fyeJ nfhz;L ntw;wpaile;jdh;.
Mdhy; ntw;wp ngw;W rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fs; nrd;w Rauh[;af;
fl;rpapdh; murhq;f eltbf;iffSf;F Kl;Lf;fl;ilahf ,Ue;jdh;.
rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fs; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl murhq;fj;jpw;F jPuhj gpur;ridfis
Vw;gLj;jpdh;. kj;jpa khfhz rl;lkd;wj;jpy; Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdh;
ngUk;ghd;ik gyk; ngw;wpUe;jjhy; mq;F eph;thfj;ijNa Klf;fp
tpl;ldh;. NkYk; If;fpa khfhzj;jpYk;> gk;gha; rl;lkd;wj;jpYk;
Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdh; muir fLikahf tpkh;rpj;jdh;. khw;wg;gl;l
Jiwapd; nray;gl Kbahj epiy gw;wp tpkh;rpj;jdh;.
Mdhy; nrd;id khfhzj;jpy; ,ul;il Ml;rpKiw rpwg;ghf
nray;gl;lJ. ,jw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; ,q;F Ml;rpiag; gpbj;j ePjpf;fl;rp
murhq;fj;jpw;F Mjuthf nray;gl;lNjahFk;. 1920-k; tUlk; eilngw;w
rl;lkd;wj; Njh;jypy; ePjpf;fl;rp (Justice Party) 98 ,lq;fspy; Nghl;bapl;L
68 ,lq;fspy; ntd;W Ml;rp mikj;jJ. Mdhy; mjd;gpwF 1921> 1923>
1926-y; eilngw;w Njh;jy;fspy; Fiwe;j ,lq;fspNyNa ntw;wp ngw;whYk;
ePjpf;fl;rpNa MSk; fl;rpahf ePbj;jJ. ,ul;il Ml;rp fhyj;jpy;
khz;NlF nrk;]; Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jk; nrd;id khepyj;jpy; KO
ntw;wpaila ePjpf;fl;rp Jiz Ghpe;jJ.
,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwapd; rhjidfs;:-
fpl;lj;jl;l gjpdhW Mz;L fhyk; eilKiwapypUe;j ,ul;il
Ml;rp Kiw ,e;jpa murpayikg;G tsh;r;rpapy; rpwg;gplk; ngWfpwJ. xU
Kf;fpa jpUg;G KidahfTk; mike;jJ. ,jd;gb kfs; gpujpepjpfs;
khepy eph;thfj;jpy; Neubahf gq;Nfw;f Kbe;jJ. ,jdhy;
cWg;gpdh;fSf;F rl;lkd;w eltbf;iffspy; ey;y Njh;r;rpAk;> gapw;rpAk;
fpilj;jJ. murhq;fk; nray;gLk; Kiwiaf; ftdpf;fTk;> jpwdha;T
nra;aTk; re;jh;gg ; k; fpilj;jJ. Mq;fpNyah;fspd; ty;yhl;rp Kiwf;Fk;
kf;fspd; nghWg;ghl;rp Kiwf;FkpilNa xU ghykhf nray;gl;lJ. ,e;j
,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw> khepy Rahl;rp Kiwf;F toptFj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ.
,e;jpa mikr;rh;fs; rpwg;ghfr; nray;gl;L> gy ey;tho;Tj; jpl;lq;fis
mwpKfg;gLj;jpdh;. nghWg;ghl;rp Kiwf;F jhq;fs; jFjpahdth;fNs
vd;gij ep&gpj;Jf; fhl;bdh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


43
,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwapd; Fiwfs;:- (Njhy;tp)
,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw 1921-k; Mz;bypUe;J 1937-k; Mz;L tiu gy
khepyq;spy; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j Kiwapdhy; gy ed;ikfs;
fpilj;jhYk; gy fhuzq;fshy; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy.
m) ,aw;iff;F Kuzhd mjpfhu tiuaiw:-
khepy mjpfhuq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiw> khw;wg;gl;l Jiw vd;W
,uz;lhfg; gphpf;fg;gl;L jtwhdJ> ,aw;iff;F KuzhdJ MFk;. ,jid
nrd;id khepyj;jpy; mikr;ruhf gjtpapypUe;j rh;.Nf.tp.nul;b vd;gth;
$WtjpypUe;J ehk; Ghpe;J nfhs;syhk;.
ehd; tsh;r;rpj;Jiw (Development) mikr;ruhf ,Ue;Njd;. Mdhy;
fhl;ilg; guhkhpf;Fk; gzpahdJ mjd; fPo; rhuhky; xJf;fg;gl;l
Jiwapy; ,Ue;jJ. ehd; Ntshz;ik (agriculture) mikr;ruhf ,Ue;Njd;.
Mdhy; ePh;gg ; hrdk; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwf;F Ngha; tpl;lJ. NkYk;
coth;fspd; fld; cjtp rl;lj;jpw;Fk; vdf;Fk; njhlh;gpy;iy. gQ;r
epthuz mjpfhuj;ij ehd; njhlf;$l KbahJ. gpwF ehd; njhopy;
mikr;ruhNdd;. Mdhy; njhopw;rhiy> kpd;rhuk;> Ruq;fj; njhopy;
vy;yhNk khw;wg;gl;l Jiwapy; ,aq;fpd‟. ,t;thW ,uz;lhf mjpfhuk;
gphpf;fg;gl;ljhy; eilKiwapy; Njhy;tpia Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
M) JiwfSf;fpilNa xw;Wikapy;iy:-
xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwf;Fk; khw;wg;gl;l Jiwf;FkpilNa xw;WikAk;
xUq;fpizg;Gk; ,y;yhky; Ngha; tpl;lJ. nghJthf fth;dh; xJf;fg;gl;l
JiwiaNa Mjhpj;jhh;. ,jdhy; ntspg;gilahfNt nghJ ,lq;fspy;
,t;tpU Jiwiar; Nrh;e;jth;fs; xUtiu xUth; jhf;fp Ngrpf; nfhz;ldh;.
,) mikr;rh;fspd; ghpjhgepiy:-
fth;duhy; Njh;T nra;ag;gl;l rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fNs
mikr;rh;fshf ,Ue;jgbahy; mth;fshy; Rje;jpukhfr; nray;gl
Kbatpy;iy. kf;fspd; gpujpepjpfshf gzpahw;w ,aytpy;iy.
fth;dUf;Nf nghWg;ghdth;fs; vd;w vz;zk; mth;fs; kdjpy; epytpaJ.
vdNt fth;dUf;F MNyhrfh;fs; Nghd;Nw nray;gl;ldh;. NkYk; ,e;j
mikr;rh;fs; rl;lkd;wk;> fth;dh; Mfpa ,uz;L v[khd;fSf;Fk;
fl;Lg;gl Ntz;bajhapw;W. vdNt mth;fspd; epiy ghpjhgfukhf
,Ue;jJ.
<) mikr;rh;fsplk; xw;Wik fhzg;gltpy;iy:-
mikr;rh;fspilNa xw;Wik fhzg;gltpy;iy. Vnddpy; mth;fs;>
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fl;rpiar; Nrh;e;jth;fshfTk; ,y;iy. nghWg;Gzh;r;rpAk;
mth;fsplk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. NkYk; mth;fSf;fpilNa Nghl;bAk;
nghwhikAk; fhzg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwapd; Nehf;fk;
nray;gltpy;iy.
1) khz;NlF nrk;];NghL rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;l #o;epiyia tpthp?
2) 1919-k; tUl khz;NkF nrk;];Nghh;L rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs;
ahit?
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
44
myF - II
irkd; FO 1927-1929
fhq;fpu]; jiytuhf Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;lbUe;j v];.rPdpthr
Ia;aq;fhiur; (1926) rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ijj; Jtf;FkhW
v];.rj;jpah%h;j;jp Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. jpUg;jpfukhd jPh;T fhzhjtiu
murhq;fg; gjtp vijAk; Vw;gjpy;iy vd;W nfsfhj;jp fhq;fpu]; (1926)
jd; Kbit kPz;Lk; typAWj;jpaJ Rauh[;af; fl;rpdh; ,ul;il
Ml;rpf;nfjpuhfr; rl;l kd;wj;Jf;Fs; Xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpy;
<Lgl;bUe;jdh;. me;jf; #o;epiyapy; irkd;FO (Simon Commission)
mikf;fg;gl;l nra;jp mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.
irkd;FO mikf;fg;gly;
,e;jpahtpy; cUthfp te;j murpay; #o;epiyiaf; ftdpj;j
gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wk; ,e;jpah;fsJ tpUg;gj;ij xusthtJ g+h;j;jp
nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpaJ. ,q;fpyhe;jpy; tpiuthfg; gutp te;j
jptpukhf njhopyhsh; ,af;fj;jpdh; ,e;jpahTf;F nlhkpdpad; me;j];J
mspf;f ntz;bajd; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jp te;jdh;.
,j;jifa #o;epiyfspd; fl;lhaj;jhy; 1919 ,e;jpa murhq;fr;
rl;lg;gb gj;jhz;L Kbtpy; mikf;fg;gl Ntz;ba ,e;j uhay; fkp\d;
1927 etk;gh; 26 Mk; NjjpNa mikf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ.
,f;FOtpd; jiytuhf gphpl;b\; tpguy; fl;rpiar; Nrh;e;j rh; [hd;
irkd; (Sir John Simon) epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;. mf;FOtpy; NkYk; VO
cWg;gpdh;fs; ,lk; ngw;wdh;. mth;fs; midtUk; Mq;fpNyah;fNs! 1919
rl;lg;gb cUthf;fg;gl;l murpay; mikg;G vt;thW nray;gLfpd;w
njd;gijAk;> ,ul;il Ml;rpapd; epiwFiwfisg;gw;wp mwptJk; kf;fs;
gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l epWtdq;fs; vt;thW ,aq;Ffpd;wd vd;gijg;
gw;wp njhptpg;gJk;> me;epWtdq;fSf;F NkYk; nghWg;ghl;rpia toq;FtJ
tpUk;gj;jf;fjh vd;gijg; gw;wpg; ghpe;Jiu nra;tJk; ,f;FOtpd;
Nehf;fq;fshFk;.
irkd; FO Gwf;fzpg;G
irkd; FOtpy; ,e;jpah; vtUf;Fk; ,lk; nfhLf;fhjJ ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fSf;F tUj;jj;ijAk;> Vkhw;wj;ijAk; Nfhgj;ijAk;
cz;lhf;fpw;W. gphpl;b\; gpuGf;fs; mitapd; cWg;gpduhd ,e;jpah; fpd;qh
gpuG (Lord Sinha) $l ,f;FOtpy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy.
1927 brk;gh; khjk; nrd;idapy; $ba fhq;fpu]; KOtJk;
Mq;fpNyah;fisf; nfhz;Nl mikf;fg;gl;l irkd; FOitf; fLikahff;
fz;bj;jJ.
nrd;id fhq;fpu]; jhd; irkd; fkp\d; Gwf;fzpg;gJ jPh;khdk;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. irkd; fkp\dpd; tUifapd;NghJ kf;fs; mijg;
Gwf;fdpf;f Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; mg;Gwf;fzpg;Gf;Fr; rhjfkhf kf;fspd;
Mjuitg; jpul;l Ntz;Lnkd;Wk;> mf;FONthL ahUk; xj;Jiof;fyhfhJ
vd;Wk; mj;jPhk
; hdk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
45
yh$hpy; yhyh y[gjpuhapd; jiyikapy; khngUk; Mh;gg ; hl;lk;
ele;jNghj vt;tpj Kfhe;jpuKK; ,d;wp yhyh NghyP]; mjpfhhp rhz;lh;];
(Saundars) vd;gtuhy; nfh^ukhfj; jhf;fg;gl;lhh;. mJNt mtuJ
kuzj;Jf;Ff; fhuzkhapw;W (1928 et.17) yf;Ndhtpd; [t`h;yhy;
NeUTk; gpw njhz;lh;fSk; NghyP];rhuhy; jhf;fg;gl;ldh;. ghl;dhtpy;
gyj;j Mh;gg; hl;lk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.. nrd;id> by;yp> yh$h; yf;Ndh>
ghl;dh Mfpa ,lq;fspy; Vw;gl;l td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfs; jtpug; gpw
,lq;fspy; irkd; FO mikjpahfNt nrd;W te;jJ. 1929 khh;r; 31 Mk;
ehs; gk;ghia tpl;L Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;wJ irkd;FO.
irkd; FO mwpf;if
1. ,ul;il Ml;rpf;F gjpy; (Dyarchy) khepy Rahl;rp (Provincial
Autonomy) nfhz;Ltug;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2. khepy eph;thfj;jpy; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfshd mikr;rh;fSf;F NkYk;
mjpf mjpfhuq;fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
3. khepyr; rl;l kd;wq;fs; tphpTgLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
4. khepyr; rl;l kd;wj;jpy; murhq;f rhh;Gila epakd cWg;gpdh;fs;
,Uf;ff;$lhJ.
5. K];yPk;fSf;Fr; rpwg;ghd Nghjpa tFg;Gthhpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
6. cah;ePjp kd;wq;fs; kj;jp murpd; fl;Lghl;bd;fPo; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
7. kj;jpapy; gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa gFjpfSk; kd;dh; khepyg; gFjpfSk;
xd;whf ,ize;j $l;lhl;rp (Federation) Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;.
8. Gj;jhz;LfSf;nfhU Kiw murpay; mikg;Gr; rl;lj;ijg; gh;rPyid
nra;Ak; rl;lf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fg; gjpy; NjitahdNghJ ghprPyid
nra;tjw;Fhpa tifapy; Gjpa rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
9. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J gh;khitj; jdpehlhfg; gphpj;Jtpl Ntz;Lk;.
10. tlNkw;F vy;iy khepyj;jpy; rl;lkd;wk; mikf;fg;gl Ntz;baJ
mtrpak;.
1) irkd; FO Vd; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;lJ?
2) irkd; FOtpd; mwpf;ifia tpthp?

tl;lNki[ khehLfs;
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk;
epiyikapd; jPuj;ij czh;e;j itrpuha; ,h;tpd; gpuT fhe;jpAk;
gpw fhq;fpu]; nraw;FO cWg;gpdh;fSk; tpLjiy nra;ag;gLth; vd;W
mwptpj;jhh;. 1931 [Pd; 25> mt;twpg;gpd;gb fhe;jpAk; gpw fhq;fpu];
jiyth;fSk; tpLtpf;fg;gl;ldh;. fhq;fpu]; kPJ tpjpfg;gl;bUe;j jil
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l Kf;fpa tpjpshtd:
1. murpay; rl;l rPjpUj;jq;fs; gw;wp vy;iyfs; njstpfh
tiuaWf;fg;gLk;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
46
2. tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fhq;fpu]; fye;J nfhs;tjw;fhd Kaw;rpfs;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
3. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
4. RNjrpj; njhopw;rhiyfis Cf;Ftpf;f murhq;fk; xg;Gf;nfhz;ljhy;
tpNjrpg; nghUs; Gwf;fzpg;g iftplg;gLk;.
5. fs;Sf;fil kwpay; mikjpahf eilngWk;
6. NghyP]; mj;JkPwy; gw;wpa tprhuiz typAWj;jg;gl khl;lhJ.
7. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk;gw;wp murhq;fk; gpwg;gpj;J Mizfs; midj;jk;
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.
8. Fw;wr;rl;lj; jpUj;jk; rl;lk; iftplg;gLk;
9. murpay; tof;Ffs; thg]; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
10. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; rk;ge;khff; ifJ nra;ag;gl;Nlhh; midtUk;
tpLjiy nra;ag;gLth;.
11. mguhjj; njhif t#ypf;fg;gl khl;lhJ.
12. Mh;gg
; hl;lf;fhuh;fis jz;bg;gjw;fhf nfhz;Ltug;gl;l NghyPrhh;
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLth;.
13. ifg;gw;wg;gl;l efUk; nrhj;Jf;fSk; jpUg;gpaspf;fg;gLk;.
14. gpw efuhl;rp nrhj;Jf;fSk; jpUk;g toq;fg;gLk;.
15. gjtpiaj; Jwe;Njhh; kPz;Lk; Ntiyapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.
16. cg;G thpr;rl;lk; tpsf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl khl;lhJ. Mdhy;
flNyhug;gFjp kf;fs; tPl;Lj; Njitf;fhd cg;ig cw;gj;jp nra;J
nfhs;syhk;.
17. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ijj; fhq;fpu]; filgpbf;fj; jtwpdhy; nghJ
kf;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd eltbf;ifia murhq;fk;
vLf;fyhk;.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk; gu];gu ek;gpf;ifapd; kPJ nra;J
nfhs;sg;gl;l rkhjhd cld;ghlhFk;. Kjd;Kiwahf Mq;fpNya
murhq;fk; fhq;fpuirj; jd;fF rkkhf kjpj;j> mjd; gpujpepjpahd
fhe;jpAld; nra;J nfhz;l rkur cld;gbf;ifahFk;.
,e;jpa murpay; rl;l tsh;r;rp tuyhw;wpy; ,t;nthg;ge;jk; xU
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f iky; fy;yhFk;. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpisthf murhq;f
mlf;FKiw jw;fhypfkhf epd;wJ. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; tpyf;fpf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. fhq;fpu]; NghuhLtjw;fhd GJg;gyk; ngw;wJ. fhq;fpurpd;
Vfg;gpujpepjpahf fhe;jp ,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J
nfhz;lhh;.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;Jf;Fg; gutyhd tuNtw;G ,Ue;;jNghjpYk;
[t`h;yhy; NeU> Rgh]; re;jpuNgh]; Nghd;wth;fs; ,t;Tld;ghl;lhy;
,e;jpahtpd; kPJ ,q;fpyhe;Jf;fpUe;j fl;Lg;ghL vt;tifapYk;
Fiwatpy;iy vd;W Fiw $wpdh;.
fuhr;rpapy; $ba fhq;fpu]; 1931 khh;r;r fhe;jp ,h;tp xg;ge;jj;ij
mq;fPfhpj;jJ> mJkl;Lky;y fhe;jpiaj; jdJ Vfg;gpujpepjpahf
,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J nfhs;s mDg;gp itj;jJ
fhq;fpu];

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


47
,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehL 1931
,uz;lhtJ tl;l Nki[ khehL 1931 nrg;lk;gh; 7 ypUe;J brk;gh; 7
tiu eilngw;wJ. khehL Jtq;fp Ie;J ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF nrg; 12
fhe;jp fye;J nfhz;lhh;. nkhj;jk; 107 gpujpepjpfs; mk;khehl;by;
gq;Nfw;wdh;. gphpl;b\; gpukh; jiyikNaw;whh; ,e;jpahtpy; tUq;fhy
murpay; rl;l mikg;Gk; rpWghd;ikapdhpd; tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;JtKk;
gpujhdkhf tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJ.
mk;Ngj;fhUk;> [Pd;dhTk; jdpj;njhFjpj; jpl;lj;ij Mjhpj;jdh;.
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSf;fpilNa ,Jgw;wpa fuj;Jld;ghL ,d;ikahy;
rpWthd;ikaduf;F mspf;f Ntz;ba ghJfhg;Gfs; gw;wp gphpl;b\;
murhq;Nk KbT nra;Ak; vd;W mwptpj;jhh; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kh;nlhdhy;L
mjd; tpisNt tFg;G jPh;T (Communal Award) MFk; jdJ kfj;jhd
Kaw;rpapy; Njhy;tpfz;l fhe;jp Njhy;tpia Vw;Wf;nfhz;L
ntWq;ifNahL ,e;jpah jpUk;gpdhh;.
kPz;Lk; Nghuhl;lk;
,h;tpd; gpuGTf;Fg; gpd; itrpuhahf te;j tpypq;ld; gpuG (Lord
Willington 1931-36) fhe;jp - ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;ijf; iftpl;lhh;
mlf;FKiwiaf; ifahz;lhh;. If;fp khfhzj;jpy; thpnfhlhf
fpsh;r;rpapy; <Lgl;l NeU. n\h;thdp> GUN\hj;jk;jh];> jhz;ld;
Nghd;Nwhh; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;. tq;fhsj;jpy; Rgh\; re;jpuNgh];
jiyikapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l murhq;f vjph;g;G eltbf;iffs;
fLikahf mlf;fg;gl;ld. tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpy; fhd;mg;Jy;
fghh;fhd; fkp\dh; elj;jpa jh;ghhpy; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gjw;fhf
ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhh;! mij vjph;j;J Mh;gg ; hl;lk; nra;j mtuJ
njhz;lh;fs; kpUfj;jdkhfj; jh;f;fg;gl;ldh;. <tpuf;fkpd;wpr; Rlg;gl;ldh;.
,itahTk; fhe;jp yz;ldpy; tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J
nfhz;bUe;jNghJ epfoe;jitahFk;.
fhe;jp ,e;jpah jpUk;gpaTld; (1931 brk;gh; 28) ,e;jpahtpy; ele;j
mj;JkPwy;fs; gw;wp mwpe;jhh;.
fhe;jp rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ij kPz;Lk; Jtf;fj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;. 1932
[dthp 3Mk; ehs; Nghuhl;lk; jpUk;gTk; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. murhq;fk; ehd;F
neUf;fbr; rl;lq;fisg; gpwg;gpj;Jg; Nghuhl;lj;ij mlf;fj; Jzpe;jJ.
Nghuhl;lk; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;l kWehNs ([d 4) fhe;jp ifJ nra;ag;gl;L
vuthlh rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;lhh;.
tFg;Gthhpj; jPhT
;
,e;jpahtpy; rl;lkWg;g ,af;fk; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy;
gphpl;b\; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kf;nlhdhy;L jdJ tFg;Gthhpj; jPh;it
(Communal Award) 1932 Mf];L 17 Mk; ehs; mwptpj;jhh;. ,uz;lhtJ
tl;lNki[ khehl;by; tFg;Gthhpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; gw;wp ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fs; xUKbTf;F tuKbahikahy; gphpl;b\; gpujkh; jd;dpirahf
,j;jPh;it toq;fpdhh;. mt;tFg;Gthhpj; jPht
; pd;gb.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


48
1. K];yPkfs;> ,e;jpahtpYs;s INuhg;gpah;> rPf;fpah;fs; MfpNahUf;Fj;
jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gLk;.
2. jdpj;njhFjpfs; ,lk;ngwhj gpw jFjpAila thf;fhsh;fs; nghJj;
njhFjpapy; thf;fspg;gh;.
3. gk;ghapy; gytif cWg;gpdh; njhFjpfs; (Plural Member
Constituencies) rpytw;wpy; kuhj;jpah;fSf;nfd VO ,lq;fs;
xJf;fg;gLk;.
4. jhoj;jg;gl;NlhUf;fhd (Depressed Classes)
jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gLk;.
5. Mq;fpNyh - ,e;jpah;fs; jq;fsJ tFg;GthhpahfNt thf;fspg;gh;.
6. th;j;jfk;> njhopy;> Njhl;lj;njhopy; Mfpatw;Wf;Fg; gpujpNafg;
gpujpepjpj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gLk;.
gphpl;b\; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kf;nlhdhy;L toq;fpa tFg;Gj; jPh;T ,e;jpa
rKjhaq;fSf;fpilNa GFj;jg;gl;l ntWg;Gj; jPht ; hFk;.
g+dh cld;ghL:-
nkf;nlhdhy;bd; tFg;Gj; jPh;T ,e;jpah;fis mjph;r;rpf;Fs;shfpaJ
vuthlh rpiwapypUe;j fhe;jp jdJ capiug; gzak; itj;jhtJ
tFg;Gj; jPhi
; t vjph;g;gnjd;W KbT nra;jhh;;.
,e;Jf;fsplkpUe;J epue;jukhfg; gphpf;Fk; Nehf;fj;NjhL
jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;Fj; jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gl;ld. ,J jtph;f;fg;gl
Ntz;ba jpzpg;G vdf; fUjpa fhe;jp mjw;nfjpuhfr; rhFk;tiu
cz;zhtpuj;ij (fast Unto Death) j; Jtf;fpdhh;.
khstpahtpd; Kaw;rpfs; gpujhd ,e;Jj; jiyth;fs; G+dhtpy;
$bdh;. khstpah> rhg;&> uhN[e;jpu gpurhj;> mk;hpj;yh]; jf;fhh;>
uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhp> gph;yh> ty;ygha; gl;Nly;> rNuh[pdp ehAL> Fd;];&
mk;Ngj;fhh;> vk;.rp.uh[h Nghd;Nwhh;. tphpthf tpthjpj;j gpd;dh; xU
cld;ghLf;F te;jdh;. me;j cld;ghNl g+dh cld;ghL (Poona Pact)
vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
g+dh cld;ghl;bd; gb
1. jho;j;jg;gl;l kf;fSf;nfd jdpj;njhFjpay; ,Uf;fhJ.
2. gpw ,e;Jf;fisg; NghyNt nghJj; njhFjpfspy; thf;fspg;gh;!
3. nghJ njhFjpfspy; jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;nfd Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy;
xJf;fg;gLk;.
4. xt;nthU xJf;fg;gl;l ,lj;Jf;Fk; jho;j;jg;gl;Nlhh; ehd;F
Ntl;ghsh;fis jq;fSf;Fs;spUe;J Njh;en ; jLg;gh;.
5. jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;f mspf;fg;gLk; Ntl;ghsh; Njh;T gw;wpa njhlf;fj;
Njh;jy;fs; (Primary Election) Ie;jhz;LfSf;F ePbf;Fk;.
6. jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;F cs;shl;rp kd;wq;fspYk;> nghJg;gzpfspYk;
Nghjpa ,lq;fs; mspf;fg;gLk;.
%d;whtJ tl;lNki[ khehL 1992
,e;jpa jiyth;fs; tFg;Gthjr; rpf;fiyj; jPh;gg
; jpYk; gytPdg;
gl;Lg;Nghd rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ij elj;JtjpYk; <Lgl;bUe;jNghJ
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
49
%d;whtJ tl;lNki[ khehL $l;lg;gl;lJ. mJ 1932 etk;gh; 12 ypUe;J
brk;gh; 24 tiu eilngw;wJ. mk;khehl;bw;f 46 njhpe;njLf;fg;gl;l
gphpl;b\; murhq;f tpRthrpfs; kl;LNk gpuepjpfshf miof;fg;gl;bUe;jdh;.
fhq;fpu]; ,jpy; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy. ,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[
khehl;by; NghJ mikf;fg;gl;l Jizf;FOf;fspd; mwpf;iffs; gw;wpNa
tpthjk; eilngw;wJ. Fwpg;ghf ghJfhg;G tpjpfs; $l;lhl;rpapy; kd;dh;
khepyq;fs; ,izf;fg;gLtjw;fhd epge;jidfs; vQ;rpAs;s
mjpfhuq;fis vt;thW gfph;ej ; spg;gJ Mfpa gpur;ridfs; tphpthf
tpthjpf;fg;gl;ld. %d;W tl;l Nki[ khehLfSk; tPz; Kaw;rpfs; vd
$w KbahJ ,e;jpaf; $l;lhl;rp $l;lhl;rpr; rl;lkd;wk; ePjpkd;wk;> kd;dh;
khepyq;fs; ,iztJ Nghd;w gy murpay; rl;lg; gpur;ridfs; gw;wpa
KbTfs; vLf;fg;gl;ld ,k;KbTfisnay;yhk; cs;slf;fpa nts;is
mwpf;if (White Paper) jahhpf;fg;gl;L 1933 khh;r; khjk; gphpl;b\;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rkh;gg
; pf;fg;gl;lJ. me;j nts;is mwpf;ifapd;
mbg;gilapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ jhd; 1935 ,e;jpa murhq;fr; rl;lkhFk;.

1) tl;l Nki[ khehLfisg; gw;wp xU fl;Liu tiuf?


2) fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk; gw;wp xU Fwpg;G vOJf?

1935-k; tUl rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;l #o;epiy


%d;W tl;lNki[ khehLfspd; tpisthf Gjpa
murpayikg;Gf;fhd mbj;jsk; mikf;fg;gl;;lJ. khehl;L KbTfis
cs;slf;fpa „nts;is mwpf;if‟ (white paper) gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wj;jy;
rkh;gg; pf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j nts;is mwpf;ifiag; ghprPypg;gjw;fhf
ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; $l;L cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l nghWf;FO xd;W
ypd;ypj;Nfh gpuG jiyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa murpay; tho;tpd;
tsh;r;rpapy; Mh;tKk; ek;gpf;ifAk; nfhz;l ,e;jpah;fs; ,f;FOtpy;
Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;ldh;.
,e;jf;FO gjpndl;L khjq;fs; tphpthfg; ghprPypj;j gpd;dh; 1934
etk;gh; 11-k; Njjp jdJ mwpf;ifiar; rkh;gg ; pj;jJ. ,e;j FOtpd;
ghpe;Jiwfspd; mbg;gilapy; jahhpf;fg;gl;lJ. kNrhjh brk;gh; 19-k; Njjp
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rkh;gg
; pf;fg;gl;lJ. nghJkf;fs; rigapYk;> gpuGf;fs;
rigapYk; eilngw;w tphpthd tpthjj;jpw;Fg; gpwF epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ.
1935 Mf];l; 4y; kd;dhpd; xg;Gjiyg; ngw;Wr; rl;lkhdJ. ,JNt 1935-k;
tUl ,e;jpa murhq;f rl;lk; vdg;gLfpwJ. ,r;rl;lk; 1937 Vg;uy; 1k;
Njjp (!) eilKiwf;F te;jJ.
1935-k; tUl rl;lj;jpd; rpwg;G mk;rq;fs;:-
kpfTk; ePskhdJk;> tphpthdJkhd 1935-k; tUl ,e;jpa murhq;fr;
rl;lk; 321 tpjpfisAk; 10 ml;ltizfisAk; nfhz;lJ MFk;. ,jd;
Kf;fpa \uj;Jf;fs; gpd;tUkhW.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


50
1) khepy Rahl;rp:- (Provincial Autonomy)
khepyq;fspy; eilngw;W te;j ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw (Dyarchy)
xopf;fg;gl;lJ. khepyq;fspy; Rahl;rpKiw GFj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jd;gb khepy
mjpfhuq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiw> khw;wg;gl;l Jiw vd;w mjpfhug; gq;fPL
Kiw xopf;fg;gl;lJ. khepyq;fspy; vy;yh mjpfhuq;fSk; ,r;rl;lg;gb
,e;jpa mikr;rh;fsplNk xJf;fg;gl;ld. khepyq;fSf;F xJf;fg;gl;l
mjpfhuq;fs; kPJ fth;dh; n[duypd; fl;Lg;ghLk; XusT Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.
Mdhy; mikr;rh;fs; KO Rje;jpukhf nray;gl Kbatpy;iy. fth;dhpd;
mjpfhuq;fs; mikr;rh;fis fl;Lg;gLj;jpNa itj;jd.
2)mfpy ,e;jpaf; $l;lhl;rp:- (All India Federation)
gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa khepyq;fisAk; ,e;jpa RNjr muRfisAk;
nfhz;l xU mfpy ,e;jpa $l;lhl;rp mikf;fg;gl ,r;rl;lk; toptFj;jJ.
RNjr muRfs; jq;fs; tpUg;gg;gb $l;lhl;rpapy; NrUtjw;Fk;> Nruhky;
,Ug;gjw;Fk; chpik cz;L. $l;lhl;rpapy; Nru KbT nra;j muRfs;
ve;j mstpw;F jhq;fs; mjpfhuq;fis $l;lhl;rp muRf;F tpl;Lf;
nfhLf;fpNwhk; vd;W xU „,izg;Gg; gj;jpuj;jpy;‟ cWjpnkhop nfhLf;f
Ntz;Lk;. $l;lhl;rpapy; Nrh;e;j xt;nthU cWg;G ehl;bw;Fk; cs;ehl;L
tptfhuq;fspy; KO Rje;jpuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
3) kj;jpapy; ,ul;il Ml;rp:- (Dyarchy at the centre)
khepyq;fspy; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwia xopj;Jf; fl;ba ,r;rl;lk;
mjid kj;jpapy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ. mjd;gb> kj;jpa murpd;
mjpfhuq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwfs; khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs; vd;W ,uz;lhfg;
gphpf;fg;gl;lJ. Njrpa Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j mjpfhuq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;l
Jiwiar; rhh;e;jit. ,jid fth;dh; n[duYk; mtuhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l
%d;W cWg;gpdh;fSk; eph;thfk; nra;jdh;. khw;wg;gl;l JiwahdJ
fth;dh; n[duypdhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l gj;Jf;Fk; Nkw;glhj mikr;rh;fspd;
gpujpepjpfisAk;> rpWghd;ikapdiuAk; fth;dh; n[duy; epakpj;Jf;
nfhs;syhk;. Mdhy; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiw> khw;wg;gl;l Jiw Mfpatw;wpd;
xl;L nkhj;j fl;Lg;ghL fth;dh; n[duyplNk nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
4) rpWghd;ikapdUf;Fg; ghJfhg;G:-
,r;rl;lg;gb rpWghd;ik rKjhaq;fSf;fhd Njh;jy; ghJfhg;GfSk;
,l xJf;fPLfSk; nra;ag;gl;ld. ngUk;ghd;ik ,dj;jthplkpUe;J
rpWghd;ikapdiug; ghJfhg;gjw;fhfNt ,t;thW nra;ag;gl;ljhf
$wg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; cz;ikapy; ,e;j \uj;jpd;gb fth;dh; n[duYk;>
fth;dh;fSk; Nrh;e;J ke;jphpfisAk;> rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fisAk; NkYk;
fl;Lg;gLj;j toptFf;fg;gl;ljhfj;jhd; fUjg;gl;lJ.
5) ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; Nkd;ik:-
1935-k; tUl rl;lkhdJ nefpo;r;rp ,y;yhj rl;lkhFk;. $l;lhl;rp
rl;lkd;wNkh my;yJ khepy rl;lkd;wq;fNsh ,r;rl;lj;ij khw;wNth>
jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;L tuNth KbahJ. ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wk; kl;LNk
,r;rl;lj;ij jpUj;j KbAk;. murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jq;fs; Ntz;Lnkd;W

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


51
murhplk; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;s ,e;jpa rl;lkd;wq;fSf;F chpik
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
6) $l;lhl;rp ePjpkd;wk; (Federal Court):-
rl;l mikg;G rk;ge;jg;gl;l rpf;fy;fisNah> kj;jpa muRf;Fk; xU
khepyj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa vof;$ba NtWghLfisNah my;yJ xU
khepyj;jwp;Fk; ,d;ndhU khepyj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa Vw;glf;$ba
jfuhiwNah jPh;j;J itg;gjw;fhf $l;lhl;rp ePjpkd;wk; mikf;fg;gl top
nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,JNt ,Wjpahd ePjpkd;wk; fpilahJ.
,q;fpyhe;jpYs;s gphpT fTd;rpYf;F Nky; KiwaPL nra;ayhk;.
7) thf;Fhpik tphpTgLj;jg;gl;lJ (Extention of Franchise):-
1935-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb thf;Fhpik tphpTgLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk;
nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; gj;J rjtPjk; kf;fs; thf;Fhpik ngw;wdh;.
Mdhy; tFg;G thhp gpujpepjpj;Jt Kiw NkYk; tphpTgLj;jg;gl;ljhy;
mJ ,e;jpa xw;Wikia NkYk; Fiyj;Jg; NghLtjhf mike;jJ.
kj;jpa Nky;rig cWg;gpdh;fs; 260 MfTk;> fPo;rig cWg;gpdeh;fs; 375
MfTk; cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. nkhj;jk; cs;s gjpndhU khepyq;fspy; MW
khepyq;fspy; <uq;f rl;lkd;wk; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
8) mjpfhug; gq;fPL (Division of powers):-
khepy muRfSf;Fk; kj;jpa $l;lhl;rp muRf;FkpilNa mjpfhuq;fs;
gfph;ej
; spf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j mjpfhug; gq;fPL gw;wp %d;W gl;bay;fs;
jahhpf;fg;gl;ld. mit> $l;lhl;rp mjpfhug; gl;bay;> khepy mjpfhug;
gl;bay;> ,uz;L muRfSf;Fk; nghJthd mjpfhug; gl;bay; vd;gdthFk;.
$l;lhl;rp mjpfhug; gl;baypy; 59 ,dq;fSk;> khepy mjpfhug;
gl;baypy; 36 ,dq;fSk; ,lk; ngw;wd. ,e;j %d;whtJ gl;baypy;
cs;s ,dq;fs; gw;wp $l;lhl;rp muRk;> khepy muRk; Kuzhd
rl;lq;fis ,aw;wpdhy; $l;lhl;rp murpd; rl;lq;fNs nry;YgbahFk;.
,e;j %d;W gl;bay;fspYk; fhzhj mjpfhuk; VNjDk; ,Ue;jhy; mij
khepy muRf;Nfh kj;jpa $l;lhl;rp muRf;Nfh fth;dh; n[duy;
toq;fyhk;.
9) ,e;jpah fTd;rpy; xopf;fg;gl;lJ:- (Abolition of India Council)
,e;jpah mikr;rhpd; ,e;jpah fTd;rpy; ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb
xopf;fg;gl;lJ. mjw;F gjpyhf ,e;jpah mikr;rh; %d;W NgUf;F
Fiwahj MW NgUf;F mjpfg;glhj cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;l
MNyhridf; FO xd;iw mikj;Jf; nfhs;s ,r;rl;lk; toptFj;jJ.
NkYk; ,r;rl;lg;gb khepy Rahl;rp toq;fg;gl;ljhy; ,ejpa mikr;rhpd;
mjpfhuq;fs; ntFthff; Fiwe;J Ngha;tpl;ld.
10) tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;Jt Kiw tphpTgLj;jg;gLjy; :
1935k; tUl rl;lg;gb tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;Jt KiwahdJ NkYk;
tphpTgLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;Jf;fspy; jho;j;jg;gl;l ,dkf;fSf;Fk;
ngz;fSf;Fk; ,l xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl;lJ. K];yPk;fSf;F $l;lhl;rp
rl;lkd;wj;jpy; %d;wpy; xU gq;F ,lk; xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,J Njr
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
52
eyd;fSf;F tpNuhjkhdjhfTk; tsh;e;J tUk; Njrpa czh;Tfis
eRf;Fk; tpjkhfTk; mike;jJ.
11) gh;kh ,e;jpahtpypUe;J gphpf;fg;gl;lJ.
1935-k; tUl rl;lg;gb gh;kh ,e;jpahtpypUe;J ghpf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk;
,Jtiu i`juhghj;jpd; xU gFjpahf ,Ue;j Nguhh; (Berar) eph;thf
trjpapd; nghUl;L kj;jpa khfhzj;Jld; ,izf;fg;gl;lJ.
,t;thW 1935-k; tUl ,e;jpa murhq;f rl;lk; gy rpwg;g
mk;rq;fisf; nfhz;L tpsq;fpaJ. ,dp ,e;j rl;lj;jpd;gb kj;jpa
mikf;fg;gl;l $l;lhl;rp mur gw;wpAk; khepyq;fspd; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l
khepy Rahl;rp gw;wpAk; tphpthff; fhzyhk;.
1.mike;jpe;jpaf; $l;lhl;rp (All India Federation)
$l;lhl;rp mikg;G cUthf;fg;gLjy;:-
1935-k; tUl rl;lk; gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa khepyq;fSk;> ,e;jp RNjr
muRfSk; Nrh;e;j xU $l;lhl;rp murpid Vw;gLj;j cjtpaJ. gphpl;b\;
khepyq;fs; midj;Jk; kj;jpa $l;lhl;rpapy; fl;lhakhf Nru Ntz;LK;.
Mdhy; RNjr murh;fs; ,iwik Ailatuhf ,Ug;gjhy; mth;fis
$l;lhl;rp murpy; Nruf; fl;lhag;gLj;j KbahJ. $l;lhl;rp murpy;
NrUtJk;> tpyfp ,ug;gJk; mth;fspy; nrhe;j tpUg;gj;jpw;F tplg;gl;lJ.
$l;lhl;rp murpy; Nruhj RNjr muRfs; Mq;fpy murpd; %yk; mjd;
Nkyhz;ikapd; fPo; njhlh;e;J ,Ue;J tUk; $l;lhl;rp apy; Nrh;e;j RNjr
muRfs; rpy Fwpg;gpl;l mjpfhuq;fis $l;lhl;rpf;F tpl;Lf; nfhLf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
$l;lhl;rpapy; NrUk; RNjr murh;fs; xt;nthUtUk; xU „,izg;G
xg;ge;jj;jpid‟ (Instrument of Acession) Kjypy; nra;J
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. xg;ge;j tpjpfis Vw;Wf; nfhz;l gpd;dNu
$l;lhl;rpapy; Nru mDkjpf;fg;gLth;. me;j xg;ge;j tpjpfs; tUkhW
fth;dh; n[duy; $l;lhl;rp murpd; rl;l kd;wk;> ePjpkd;wk; kw;Wk;
$l;lhl;rp murpd; eph;thf mjpfhhpfs;> Ml;rp ,ae;jpuk; Mfpait
jilapy;yhky; RNjr rk];jhdq;fspy; nray;gl xj;Jiof;f Ntz;Lk;
vd;gNjahFk;.
khepy muRfs; kPJk;> RNjr muRfs; kPJk; $l;lhl;rp muR
nrYj;Jk; mjpfhuk NtWgl;bUe;jJ. vy;yh khepyq;fspd; kPJk; xNu
khjphpahd mjpfhuj;ijf; $l;lhl;rp muR nrYj;Jk;> Mdhy; RNjr
muRfisg; nghWj;j tiuapy; $l;lhl;rpapd; mjpfhuq;fs; muRf;F muR
NtWgl;bUf;Fk;. rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; mjpfhuk; $l;lhl;rpf;F ,Ue;jJ. vdpDk;
RNjr muRfs; xg;Gjy; njhptpf;fhtpby; $l;lhl;rpapd; rl;lq;fs;
nry;yhky; Ngha;tpLk;.
kj;jpa rl;lkd;wq;fSf;f gpujpepjpfis mDg;GtjpYk;
khepyq;fSf;Fk; RNjr muRfSf;FkpilNa NtWghL ,Ue;jJ.
khepyq;fspypUe;J cWg;gpdh;fs; kf;fs; njhifapd; mbg;gilapy;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. Mdhy; RNjr muRfs; jq;fs; gpujpepjpfis
jhq;fNs tpUg;gk; Nghy; epakpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. NkYk; RNjr muRfspd;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
53
cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;if. mtw;wpd; gug;g kf;fs; njhif Mfpait
mbg;gilapy; eph;zapf;fg;gltpy;iy. (Mdhy; ,e;j mide;jpe;jpa
$l;lhl;rp muR cUthftpy;iy nad;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.)
II. $l;lhl;rp eph;thfk; (Federal Executive)
kj;jpa murpy; ,ul;il Ml;rp : (Diarchy in the Centre)
1935-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb khepyq;fspy; xopf;fg;gl;l ,ulil Ml;rp
Kiw kj;jpapy; GFj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; $l;lhl;rp murpd; mjpfhuq;fs;
xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwfs; vdTk; khw;wg;gl;lJiwfs; vdTk; ,uz;L
tifahfg; gphpf;fg;gl;ld.
a) xJf;fg;gl;l Jiw :
xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwapy; (REservd Subject) ehl;bd; ghJfhg;g
may;ehl;L cWTfs;> rka tptfhuq;fs;> epjp nrythzp ehzaKiw>
mfpy ,e;jpa gzpfs;> hprh;t; Ngq;f;> uapy; ghijfs; Nghd;wit
mlq;fpapUe;jd. ,j;Jiwfis fth;dh; n[duYf;F nghWg;ghd %d;W
MNyhrfh;fs; eph;tfpj;J tUthh;fs;. ,j;Jiwfspy; fth;dh; n[duy; KO
mjpfhuk; nfhz;bUe;jhh;. khw;wg;gl;l JiwfspYk; fth;dh; n[duy; jd;
tpUg;gg;gb elf;f chpik cz;L. ,t;thW $l;lhl;rp murpd; cah;e;j
jiytuhf tpsq;fpath; fth;dh n[duNyahthh;.
b) khw;wg;gl;l Jiw – mikr;rh;fs; :
xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwfspy; Fwpf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fs; Nghf kw;w
Jiwfs; midj;J khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs; MFk;. ,j; Jiwfis
gj;JNgUf;F Nkw;glhj mikr;rh;fisj; rl;lkd;wj;jpYs;s
cWg;gpdh;fspypUe;J fth;dh; n[duyhy; epakpf;fg;gLth;. mikr;ruhf
epakdk; nra;ag;gLgth;fs; $l;lhl;rp rl;l kd;wj;jpy; cWg;gpduhf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb cWg;gpduhf ,y;yhj xUth; mikr;ruhf epakdk;
nra;ag;gl;lhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gl;l ehspypUe;J MWkhj fhyj;jpw;Fs;
$l;lhl;rp rl;l kd;wq;fspy; VNjDk; xd;wpy; cWg;gpduhjy; Ntz;Lk;.
,y;iynad;why; mikr;ruhf gjtpapy; ePbf;f KbahJ.
,e;j khw;wg;gl;l JiwapYk; fth;dh; n[duy; jd; tpUg;gg;gb
elf;f mjpfhuk; cz;L ehl;bd; rl;lk; xOq;F kj;jpa ,wf;Fkjp> RNjr
muRfspd; ghJfhg;g Nghd;wtw;wpy; jk; tpUg;gg;gb elf;f fth;dh;
n[duYf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L. jiyik MSehpd; ,e;j mjpfhuk;
rl;lkd;wj;jpd; chpikfisf; Fiwg;gjhf mike;jJ. NkYk;
mikr;ruit Rje;jpukhf ,aq;Ftijf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; ,e;j
mjpfhuk; gad;gl;lJ.
kj;jpa murpy; neLf;fbfs; Vw;gLkhapd; mikr;ruitiaf;
fiyj;J tpl;L fth;dh; n[duNy vy;yh mjpfhuq;fisAk; vLj;Jf;
nfhs;syhk;. ,e;jepiy MWkhjq;fSf;F Nky; ePbf;ff; $lhJ mt;thW
ePbf;f Ntz;Lnkd;why; ,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; mDkjp Ntz;Lk;.
mJTk; %d;W Mz;LfSf;F Nky; toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ ,t;thW kj;jpapy;
,ul;il Ml;rp Vw;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


54
kj;jpa $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wk; (Federal Legislative)
kj;jpa $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wkhdJ ,uz;L rigfisf; nfhz;ljhf
mikf;fg;gl;lJ. khepyq;fsit (Council of State) vd;gJ Nkyit MFk;.
$l;lhlrp rl;lkd;wk; (Federal Assombly) vd;gJ fPo; rigahFk;.
,e;j ,uz;L rigSf;Fk; jiyth; fth;dh; n[duNyathh;.
a)khepyq;fsit (Council of State)
,J xU epue;jukhd rigahFk;. ,J $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wj;jpd; Nky;
rigahFk;. ,jd; cWg;gpdh;fs; 260 Ngh; ,th;fspy; khepyq;fspd;
gpujpepjpfs; 156 Ngh; RNjr muRfspd; gpujpepjpfs; 104 Ngh; Mth;.
Nky;rig cWg;gpdh;fspy; %d;wpy; xU gFjpapdh; %d;whz;LfSf;f xU
Kiw gjtp tpyFth;. mNj vz;zpf;ifAila Gjpa cWg;gpdh;fs;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLth;. khepyq;fspd; gpujpepj;Jtk; tFg;gth; mbg;gilapy;
xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ. mjd;gb ,e;Jf;fSf;F 75 ,lq;fs;>
jho;j;jg;gl;lth;fSf;Fk;> rPf;fpah;fs; 4> K];yPk;fs; 49> Mq;fpNyh
,e;jpah;1> INuhg;gpa r%fj;jpdh; 7> ,e;jpa fpwp];jth;gd; 2> ngz;fs; 6>
fth;dh; n[duypdhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gLgth; 6 vd;W gphpf;fg;gl;ld.
nrhj;J> gbg;G> thp nrYj;Jjy; Mfpaitfspd; mbg;gilapy;
thf;fhsh;fspd; jFjp eph;zapf;fg;gl;ljhy; thf;Fhpik ngw;Nwhhpd;
vz;zpf;if kpfTk; Fiwe;jpUe;jJ. NkYk; vy;yh khepyq;fSf;Fk; rPuhd
KiwapYk; ,l xJf;fPL nra;ag;gltpy;iy.
b) $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wk; (Federal Assembly)
,J kj;jpa $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wj;jpd; fPo; rigahFk;. ,jd; nkhj;j
cWg;gpdh;fs; 375 Ngh; ,th;fs; Ie;J Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLth;. nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspy; khepyq;fspd; cWg;gpdh;fs;
250 Ngh;. RNjr muRfSf;F kPj 125 ,lq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;lJ.
cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;e;njLg;gjpy; Neub Njh;jy; jtph;f;fg;gl;lJ.
cWg;gpdh;fis khepy rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; xw;iw khw;W thf;F
Kiw (Single transferrable Vote) tof;fk;Nghy; tFg;G
thhpahf gy;NtW ,dq;fSf;Fk; gphpf;fg;gl;ld. murh;fspd; gpujpepjpfis
kd;dh;fs; epakpj;J mDg;gp itj;jhh;fs;.
c) mjpfhuq;fSk; rl;lkpaw;Wk; KiwAk;
rl;lkpaw;Wtjpy; ,U rigfSf;Fk; rk mjpfhuk; cz;L $l;lhl;rp
muR nfhz;LtUk; kNrhjh rl;lkhf Ntz;Lnkd;why; mJ kj;jpa
$l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wj;jpd; ,U rigfspYk; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,U
rigfspy; ve;j rigapYk; kNrhjhf;fis mwpKfg;gLj;jyhk;. Mdhy;
epjp kNrhjhf;fs; fPo; rigapy;jhd; Kjypy; nfhz;L tuNtz;Lk;.
$l;lhl;rp muRf;nfd;W xJf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fspy; rl;lq;fis
,aw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;. mNj Nghy kj;jp khepy muRfSf;Fg; nghJthd
JiwfspYk; rl;lk; ,aw;w KbAk; mtrufhq;fspy; khepy mjpfhug;
gl;baypYs;s mjpfhuq;fs; kPJk; rl;lk; ,aw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;.
kNrhjhf;fs; ,U rigfspYk; epiwNtwpa gpd;dh; fth;dh; n[duypy;

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


55
xg;Gjy; ngw;Nw rl;lkhFk;. jdJ tpN\ mjpfhuq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp
me;j rl;lq;fis epuhfhpf;f fth;dh; n[duYf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L.
xU kNrhjh Fwpj;J ,U rigfSf;FkpilNa fUj;J NtWghL
Vw;ghLkdhy; fth;dh n[duy; ,U rigapd; $l;Lf; $l;lj;ijf; (Joint
Sitting) $l;b mjpy; ngUk;ghd;ik thf;Fg;gb KbT nra;ayhk;.
fth;dh; n[duy; tpUk;gpdhy; xU kNrhjhTf;F xg;Gjy; mspf;fhky;.
mij rl;lkd;wj;jpd; kW Ma;Tf;F jpUg;gp mDg;gyhk;. may; ehl;LwT>
RNjr muRfspd; epiy Nghd;wtw;iwg; gw;wp fth;dh; n[duypd;
mDkjpapd;wp rl;lkd;wk; tpthjpf;f KbahJ. fth;dh; n[duypd; Cjpak;
gw;wpAk; RNJr muRfspd; nrytpdq;fs; gw;wpAk; tpthjpf;f
rl;lkd;wj;jpw;F chpik ,y;iy. ghJfhg;G> ntspcWT rkak; Mfpait
gw;wpa epjpkNrhjhf;fis rl;lkd;wk; tpthjpf;fyhk;. Mdhy; kd;wk;
tpthjpf;Fk; kNrhjh ehl;bd; rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fk; xOq;fpw;Fk; fth;dh;
n[duy; jLf;fyhk;. ,t;thW $l;lhl;rp rl;lkd;wq;fspd; mjpfhuq;fs;
kpfTk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l epiyapypUe;jd.
khepy Ml;rp
a) eph;thfj;Jiw : (Executive)
1935-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb khepyq;fspy; rl;lrigapy; ngUk;ghd;ik
ngw;Nwhhpd; Mjut ngw;w nghWg;ghd muRfs; miktjw;F top tFj;jJ.
khepy eph;thfk; nghJthf xU mikr;ruit %ykhf nray;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
mikr;rh;fs; khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspYs;s Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;l
cWg;gpdh;fspypUe;J fth;duhy; epakpf;fg;gl;lth;fshth;. khepyj;jpd;
rl;lk; xOq;F Kjypa Jiwfs; jtpu gpw Jiwfspy; mikr;rh;fspd;
MNyhridg;gbNa fth;dh; elf;f Ntz;Lk;. 1935-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb
khepyq;fspy; khepy Rahl;rp mwpKfgLj;jg;gl;lJ.
b) fth;dhpd; mjpfhuq;fs; :
,q;fpyhe;J kd;dhpd; gpujpepjp vd;w KiwapYk;> Nguurpd;
nfhs;iffis khepy mstpy; nray;gLj;Jfpwth; vd;w tifapYk;>
fth;dh; rpwg;ghd mjpfhuq;fisg; ngw;wpUe;jhh;. rl;lrigf;f jiyik
jhq;Fjy;> rigia $l;Ljy;> fiyj;jy;> mikr;rh;fis epakpj;jy;>
ePf;Fjy;> fth;dh; n[duypd; Mizfis epiwNtw;Wjy; Mfpaitfs;
fth;dhpd; rpwg;g mjpfhuq;fs; MFk;. NkYk; uj;J mjpfhuk;> khepy ePjp
kd;wj; jiytiu epakpj;jy;> mtru rl;lq;fisg; gpufldg;gLj;Jjy;
Mfpa mjpfhuq;fisAk; ngw;wpUe;jhh;. khepyj;jpy; murpay; neUf;fb
Njhd;wpdhy; fth;dh; n[duypy; mDkjp ngw;W> khepy rl;lrigiaak;
mikr;ruitiaAk; fiye;J tpl;L fth;dNu khepy eph;thfj;ij
Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.
,t;thW fth;dh; ngw;wpUe;j rpw;gg mjpfhuq;fs; fhuzkhf mth;
khepy rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Nfh> mikr;ruitf;Nfh ePjpkd;wj;jpw;nfh $l
nghWg;ghdth; my;y. vdNt mtuJ nry;thf;Fk; mjpf;fKk; khepy
mstpy; vy;yhj;JiwfspYk; kpFe;J fhzg;gl;ld.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


56
c) khepy Nky;rig : (Legislative Council)
1935-k; tulr; rl;lg;gb nrd;id> gk;gha;> tq;fhsk;> If;fpa
khepyk;> gPfhh;> m];]hk; Mfpa khepyq;fspy; ,U rigfisf; nfhz;l
rl;lkd;wq;fs; mike;jd kw;w khepy;fspy; xNu rigiaf; nfhz;l
rl;lkd;wq;fs; mike;jd.
khepy Nky;rig epue;jukhdJ fiyf;f KbahjJ ,jd;
cWg;gpdh;fspy; %d;wpy; xU gFjpapdh; %d;whz;LfSf;F xUKiw
gjtpapypUe;J tpyFth;. mth;fspd; ,lj;jpw;Fg; Gjpa cWg;gpdh;fs;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLth;. vdNt xU njhlh;r;rp ,Ue;jJ. Nky;rig
cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if me;je;j khepy kf;fs; njhif epakdq;fs;
%ykhfTk; cWg;gpdh;fs; rigf;F te;jdh;. tFg;Gthhpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;>
ngz;fSf;Fg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;> gpw;gLj;jg;gl;Nlhh; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
Mfpatw;wpy; ftdk; jiyth; Jizj; jiyth; ,Ue;jdh;. jiytUf;F
KbT nra;Ak; thf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ.
d) khepy fPo;rig (Legislavie Assembly):
khepy fPo;rig cWg;gpdh;fs; Ie;jhz;LfSf;f xU Kiw
Njhe;njLf;fg;gth; ,e;j fPo; cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;ifAk; me;je;j
khepy kf;fs; njhif mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUe;jJ epakdKiw
Kw;wpYk; xopf;fg;gl;L Neub Njh;jy; Kiw typAWj;jg;gl;lJ. vdNt
Njh;jy; njhFjpfs; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngw;wd. K];yPk;fs;> Mq;fpNyah;
,e;jpah;> INuhg;gpah; gpw;gLj;jg;gl;l tFg;gpdh;> tzpfh;> epy
clikahsh;fs; gy;fiyf;fofq;fs;> ngz;fs; Nghd;w gjpNdO
tifahd gphptpdh;fspd; gpujpepjpfs; ,lk;ngw tif nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ.
thf;fhsh;fspd; jFjpfis eph;zak; nra;tjpy; gjpy; rYiffs;
mspf;fg;gl;ljhy; thf;fhsh; vz;zpf;if %d;W tjtPjj;jpypUe;J
gjpdhd;F rjtPjj;jpw;F cah;e;jJ. Mdhy; thf;fshpd; jfjpfs;
khepyj;jwpF khepyk; NtWgl;L ,Ue;jJ. nghJthf nrhj;Jhpikapd;
mbg;gilapNyNa thf;Fhpik eph;zak; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ngz;fSf;f
thf;Fhpik mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ngUk;ghYk; gbj;j ngz;fs;> nrhj;Js;s
ngz;fNs thf;fhsh;fshf ,Ue;jdh;.
c) khepy rl;lkd;wfspd; mjpfhuq;fs; :
khepy rl;lkd;wq;fs; khepy muRf;F xJf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fs;
kPJk;> kj;jpa khepy muRfSf;F nghJthf nfhLf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fs;
kPJk; rl;lk; ,aw;wyhk;. gphpl;b\; Nguurpd; kw;w nlhkpdpad;fisg;
ghjpf;Fk; tifapNyh> eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J tUk; rl;lq;fisj; jpUj;Jk;
tifapNyh> Mq;fpy kf;fis Ntw;Wikg;gLj;Jk; tifapNyh rl;lk;
,aw;Wjy; $lhJ.
NkYk;> gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wk; ,aw;wpa rl;lq;fis jpUj;Jjy;>
fth;dh; n[duypd; mturg; gpufldq;fisj; jpUj;Jjy;> fth;dh;
n[duypd; RaKT mjpfhuq;fs; Mfpait rkge;jg;gl;l tptfhuq;fspy;
rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; Kd;dh; fth;dh; n[duypd; Kd; mDkjp ngw Ntz;Lk;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


57
Xh; Mz;bw;fhd tut nryT jpl;l mwpf;if rl;l kd;wj;jpy;
itf;fg;gLk;. Mdhy; tuT nryTj; jpl;lk; thf; nfLg;gpd; %yk; KbT
nra;ag;gLk; nrytpdq;fs; thf;nfLg;G ,y;yhkNyNa KbT nra;ag;gLk;
nrytpdq;fs; vd;W ,uz;L gFjpahfg; gphpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. fth;dhpd;
rk;gsk;> mikr;rh;fspd; rk;gsk;> ml;tNfl; n[duypd; rk;gsk;>
cah;ePjpkd;w ePjpgjpfspd; rk;gsk; Mapfit thf;nfLg;gpw;F tplKbahJ
nrytpdq;fs; MFk;.
khepy Rahl;rp (Provincial autonomy)
1935-k; tUlr; rl;lg;gb khepy ,ul;il Ml;rp xopf;fg;gl;L Rahl;rp
kyUk; ehis kf;fs; vjph;ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. 1935 Vg;uy; 29-y;
[tfh;yhy; NeUtpd; jiyikapy; yf;Ndhtpy; $ba fhq;fpu]; 1935-k;
tUl rl;lj;ij td;ikahff; fz;bj;jJ mNjrkak; khepy rl;l
kd;wq;fSf;fhd Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapl KbT nra;jJ. Njh;jy; mwpf;if
xd;iwAk; jahhpj;J ntspapl;lJ.
nghJj; Njh;jy;fs; :
1935-k; tulr; rl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lgb khepyq;fspy; Rahl;rpapid
kyur;nra;aj; NJitahd eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;ldh;. mjd;gb
khepy rl;lkd;wq;fSf;fhd Njh;jy; 1937 gpg;guthp khjk; ehL KOtJk;
eilngw;wJ. Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapl;l Kf;fpa murpay; fl;rpfs; fhq;fpu];>
K];yPk; yPf;> ePjpf;fl;rp MfpaitfshFk;. ,f;fl;rpfs; ek;gpf;ifAlDk;
Mh;tj;JlDk; Njh;jy;fspy; <Lgl;ld. ngUthhpahd thf;fhsh;fs; vOjg;
gbf;fj; njhpahjth;fshf ,Ue;jjhy; kQ;rs;> ePyk;> rptg;G th;zk;
G+rg;gl;l Xl;Lg;ngl;bfNs fl;rpapd; rpd;dq;fshfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld.
Njh;jypy; fhq;fpu]; mNkhf ntw;wp ngw;wJ. nkhj;jk; cs;s 1585
njhFjpfspy; 711 njhFjpfspy; fhq;fpu]; ntd;wJ. ,t;tsT
nghpa ntw;wp fpilj;jjw;Ff; fhuzk; kf;fs; fhe;jpapd; kPJ itj;j
ek;gpf;ifNa MFk;. Njh;jypd; NghJ fhe;jpapd; fl;rpf;Nf vq;fs; Xl;L
vd;W nrhy;ypNa kf;fs; thf;fspj;jdh;.
eilKiwapy; khepy Rahl;rp:
nrd;id> kj;jpa kfhzk;> If;fpa khfhzk;> gPfhh;> Xhprh Mfpa
Ie;J khepyq;fspy; fhq;fpu]; ,Wjpg; ngUk;ghd;ik ngw;wjhy; jdpahf
mikr;ruitia epWtpaJ. gk;gha; kw;Wk; tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpy;
jdpg;ngUk; fk;rpahf tpsq;fpajhy; gpw fl;rpfspd; cjtpAld;
mikr;ruit mike;jJ. mjhtJ nkhj;jk; cs;s 11 khepyq;fspy; VO
khepyq;fshd tq;fhsk;> gQ;rhg;> m];]hk;> rpe;J Mfpatw;wpy; K];yPk;
yPf; mikr;ruit mike;jJ.
,t;thW 1935-k; tUl rl;lg;gb khepy mstpy; nghWg;Gs;s „,e;jpa
Ml;rpia‟j; njhlq;fpdh;. ,t;tpjkhf khepy Rahl;rp kyh;e;jJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


58
khepyq;fspy; fhq;fpu]; Ml;rpapd; nray;ghLfs;:
Njh;jypy; ntw;wp ngw;w fhq;fpu]; cWg;gpdh;fs; nly;ypapy; 1937>
khh;r;r khjk; $b NjrtpLjiyf;fhfg; ghLgLtnjd;Wk;> murpay; rl;l
mikg;G kd;wj;ij (Constituent Assembly) mikf;f toptif nra;a
Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; Rje;jpu [dehaf Ml;rpia Vw;gLj;j Kay
Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; jPh;khdk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;ldh;.
fhq;fpu]; fl;rpahdJ 1935-k; tUl rl;lj;ij „cs;spUe;Nj jfh;f;f
Ntz;Lk;‟ vd;w Nehf;fj;jpy;jhd; Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapl;lJ. Mdhy;
Njh;jypy; ngw;w khngUk; ntw;wpapdhy; jdJ vz;zj;ij
khw;wpf;nfhz;lJ. ntw;wp ngw;w khepyq;fspy; mikr;ruitia mikj;J
Rahl;rpg;gFjpia rpwe;j Kiwapy; eilKiwg;gLj;j KbT nra;jJ.
mjd;gpd; khepy fth;dh;fs; jq;fspd; tpNr\ mjpfhuq;fisg;
gad;gLj;jpr; Rahl;rpapd; md;whl mYty;fspy; jiyaPL nra;tijj;
jtph;j;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> mikr;rh;fspd; ghpe;JiufSf;Nfw;gNt
fth;dh;fs; nray;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w cWjpnkhopfis itrpuha;
ypd;ypj;Nfh gpuGtplkpUe;J ngw;Wf; nfhz;L Mlrpg; nghWg; gpid Vw;Wf;
nfhz;lJ. Mk; 1937 mf;Nlhgh; khjk; khepyq;fspy; khepy Rahl;rp
kyh;e;jJ.

1) 1935-k; tUl rl;lj;jpd; rpwg;G mk;rq;fs; ahit?

19. ,e;jpa murpayikg;G tsh;r;rp


1935 Kjy; 1947 tiu
( Constitutional Development between 1935 and 1947)
1.Mf];L rYif
(August offer)
1935 – k; tUl rl;lg;gb khepyq;fSf;F Rahl;rp toq;fg;gl;lhYk;
$l> fth;dh; n[duYf;F ,Ue;j jdpg;gl;l mjpfhuk;> nghJ mjpfhuk;
Mfpait khepy Rahl;rpf;F kjpg;gpy;yhky; nra;J tpl;ld. 1939- k;
tUlk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;l xU jpUj;jk kNrhjhtpd; gb neUf;fbahd
fhyq;fspy; khepyq;fspd; eph;thfj;jpy; ika muR jiyaplyhk; vd;w
epiy Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; 1939- y; ,uz;lhtJ
cyfg;Nghhpy; ,e;jpahTk; <Lgl;Ls;sjhf khepy rl;lkd;wq;fis fye;J
nfhs;shky; itrpuha; mwptpj;J tpl;lhh;. fhq;fpu]; nraw;FO
itrpuhapd; ,e;j xUjiyg;gl;l rkhd mwptpg;igf; fz;bj;jJ. Mdhy;
rpy epge;jidfspd; Nghpy; ,e;jpah;fs; jq;fs; cjtpiaAk; MjuitAk;
mspf;f Kd; te;jdh;.
mjd;gb 1) NghUf;Fg;gpd; ,e;jpahtpd; Rahl;rpf;nfhs;if
gprpwpy;yhky; njspthf mwptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 2).,e;jpahtpYs;s
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
59
Kf;fpa murpay; fl;rpfspd; gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l jw;fhypf Njrpa
muR xd;W kj;jpa murpy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 3) me;j jw;fhypf
muR ,e;jpa rl;lkdwq;fSf;Fg; nghWg;Gs;sjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; ,e;jpah;fshy;> ,e;jpah;fSf;fhf
nghWg;Gs;s $l;luR xd;W kj;jpa murpy; Vw;g;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;whh; fhe;jp.
nts;is mwpf;if: (White Paper, 1939)
,e;j #o;epiyapy; itrpuha; ypd;j;Nfh gy mikg;Gfisr; Nrh;e;j
gpujpepjpfisf; fye;jhNyhrpj;j gpd;dh; xU nts;is mwpf;if
ntspapl;lhh;. mjd;gb> 1) ,e;jpah gpw nlhkpdpad;fSf;fpilNa chpa
,lj;ijg; ngWtjw;Nfw;g gphpl;b\; NguuRf;Fs; gphpl;lDf;Fk;
,e;jpahTf;FkpilNaahd gpizg;ig gyg;gLj;JtNj murpd;
nfhs;ifahFk;;. 2) Nghh; Kbe;j gpd;dh; ,e;jpahtpd; murpayikg;G
Kiwia KOikahfg; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; kWghprPyid nra;Ak;;. 3)
cldbahf ,e;jpahTf;F mjpf msT mjpfhu khw;wk; nra;tJ vd;gJ
,ayhJ. 4) midj;J murpayikg;Gfs; toq;Fk; MNyhridfSf;Fk;>
cjtpfSf;Fk; chpa kjpg;G mspf;fg;gLk;. 5) Nghh;f;fhyj;jpy;
itrpuha;f;F cjtpahf ,Uf;f xU MNyhridf;FO mikf;fg;gLk;.
Mdhy; ,e;j nts;ismwpf;if fhq;fpuRf;F jpUg;jp mspf;ftpy;iy.
“nuhl;b Nfl;ljw;F fy;jhd; fpilj;jJ”.nuhl;b Nfl;ljw;F fy;jhd;
fpilj;jJ‟. vd;whh; kfhj;kh fhe;jp.
Mf];L rYif: 8> Mf];L 1940.
,jw;fpilapy; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; Gjpa mikr;ruit gpw; Nghf;Fthjpahd
tpd;];ld; rh;r;rpy; jyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Gjpa murhdJ
,e;jpah Rje;jpuk; ngWtij nfhQ;rKk; tpUk;ghj goik thjpfisf;
nfhz;l muR MFk;. Mdhy; 1940 –k; tUl kj;jpapy; ,q;fpyhe;J
,uz;lhk; cyfg;Nghhpy; ,f;fl;lhd epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt Nghh;
Kaw;rpapy; ,e;jpah;fspd; Mjuitg; ngUk; nghUl;L 1940 Mf];L vl;lhk;
Njjp itrpuha; ypd;j;Nfh Gjpa murpay; nfhs;iffisf; nfhz;l
mwptpg;G xd;iw ntspapl;lhh;. mJNt “Mf];L rYif”
vd;wiof;fg;gl;lJ. mjd;gb>
1. ,e;jpahTf;F nlhkpdpad; jFjpia nfhLg;gNj ,q;fpyhe;jpd;
Nehf;fkhFk;.;
2. ,e;jpa murpay;> r%f> nghUshjhu kuGfs;> jd;ikfs;
Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; Gjpa murpay; rl;lj;ij cUthf;f
,e;jpah;fisf; nfhz;l kd;wk; xd;W Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;.
3. itrpuhapd; eph;thf rigapy; ,e;jpa gpujpepjpfs; mjpfkhfr;
Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLth;.
4. ,e;jpa RNjr muRfspd; gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l Nghh;
MNyhrid kd;wk; xd;W Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;.
5. murpayikg;G khw;wk; nra;ag;gLk;NghJ rpWghd;ikapdhpd;
fUj;JfSf;F KOf;ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLk;.
6. xU fl;rpf;F mjpfhu khw;wk; nra;tij mLj;j nghpa fl;rp
Mjhpf;Fkhdhy; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; ve;jf; fl;rpf;Fk; mjpfhu
khw;wk; nra;ahJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
60
,e;j Mf];L rYif %yk;jhd; Kjd;Kjyhf ,e;jpah gphpl;b\;
fhkd;nty;j; ehLfSf;F ,izahdJ vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
murpayikg;igj; jPh;khdpf;Fk; chpik ,e;jpah;fSf;N;f toq;fg;gLk;
vd;W cWjpaspf;fg;gl;lJ. Nghh; Kbe;jTld; nlhkpdpad; jFjp
nfhLg;gjw;fhd cj;jputhjk; toq;fg;gl;lJ.
2. fphpg;]; JhJf; FOtpd; jpl;lk;>1942
(Cripp’ s proposals,1942)
Mf];L rYiffspd; tpisthf eilKiwapy; ve;j ed;ikAk;
fpilf;ftpy;iy. ,uz;lhtJ cyfg;Nghh; Jtq;fpajpypUe;J ,q;fpyhe;J
,e;jpahitg; Nghhpy; <LgLj;jpaikf;fhf fhq;fpu]; jdJ vjph;g;ig
njhlh;e;J njhptpj;J te;jJ. K];yPk;yPf;Fk; jdJ „jdpghfp];jhd;‟
Nfhhpf;ifia jPtpukhf typAWj;jp te;jJ. ,q;fpyhe;jpYk; „Nghh;
Kaw;rpf;F ,e;jpah;fspd; g+uz xj;Jiog;ig ngw Ntz;Lk;‟ vd;w
Nfhhpf;if tYtile;jJ. fpskz;l; ml;yp> ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpy;
mbg;gil khw;wk; nra;a Ntz;bajpd; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jpdhh;.
,q;fpyhe;J ghuhSkd;wKk; ml;ypapd; nfhs;iffis Mjhpj;jJ.
,jw;fpilapy; njd;fpof;fhrpahtpy; [g;ghd; tpaj;jF ntw;wp
ngw;wJ. [g;ghdpd; ntw;wp Mq;fpNyah;fSf;F fyf;fj;ij mspj;jJ. 1942
khh;r; 8-y; uq;$d; tPo;e;jJ. ,e;jpahTk; [g;ghdhy; jhf;fg;gLk; gPjp
epytpaJ. vdNtjhd; fhq;fpu]pd; vjph;g;igr; rkhspf;fTk; ,e;jpah;fspd;
KOikahd xj;Jiog;igg; ngwTk; rh;.; ];Nghh;l; fphpg;](; Sir. Srafford
Cripps) jdJ FOtpdUld; 1942 khh;r; 22-y; ,e;jpah te;jhh;. mth;
itrpuha;> kw;Wk; ,e;jpa murpay; fl;rpfspd; jiyth;fisr; re;jpj;J
Ngr;Rthh;j;ij elj;jpdhh;;. jhd; elj;jpa Ngr;R thh;j;ijfspd;
mbg;gilapy; jahhpj;j mwpf;ifia khh;r; khjj;jpNyNa ntspapl;lhh;.
mjw;F „fphpg;]; Vw;ghLfs;‟ (Cripp’ s proposals) vd;W ngah;;. fphpg;];
Vw;ghLfspy; fhzg;gl;l ,e;jpa murpayikg;G rk;ge;jg;gl;l
fUj;Jf;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
1) ,e;jpahtpw;F gphpl;b\; fhkd;nty;j;jpypUe;J gphpe;J Nghff; $ba
mjpfhuj;Jld; $ba nlhkpdpad; jFjp toq;fg;gLk;.
2) Nghhh; Kbe;jTlNdNa ,e;jpa murpay; rl;lj;ij tiutjw;fhd
„murpayikg;G rl;lkd;wk;‟ xd;W mikf;fg;gLk;. ,jpy; ,e;jpah;fs;
kl;LNk cWg;gpdh;fshf ,Ug;gh;. ,r;rigapy; cWg;gpdh;fs; „Njh;jy;
FO‟ %yk; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gLth;
3) Gjpa murpayikg;G rl;lk; gpd;tUk; epge;jidf;Fl;gl;L
nray;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,e;jpa khepyq;fSk; RNjr muRfSk;> me;j
rl;lj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk; my;yJ epuhfhpf;fyhk;. epuhfhpf;Fk;
khepyk; jdf;nfd;W Xh; murpayikg;G rl;lj;ij jahhpj;Jf; nfhz;L
Rje;jpukhf nray;glyhk;. mjpfhuk; nghWg;G khw;wk; rk;ge;jkhf
gphpl;b\; murhq;fKk; murpayikg;G eph;zarigAk; fye;J Ngrp Xh;
cld;gbf;ifiar; nra;J nfhs;Sk;.
4) ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; ghJfhg;Gj;Jiw gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;jplNk ,Uf;Fk;.

1) Mf];L rYif vd;why; vd;d?

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61
,e;jpa Rje;jpur; rl;lk;> 1947 (Indian Independence Act,1947)
mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lj;jpd;gb ,e;jpa murpayikg;G
eph;za rigf;fhd Njh;jy; 1946 [Pd; 29-y; ntw;wpfukhf ele;jJ. mjpy;
fhq;fpu]; mNkhf ntw;wp ngw;wJ. gpd;dh; ,ilf;fhy murhq;fk;
mikf;Fk;gb itrpuha; Ntty; gpuT [tfh;yhy; NeUit 1946 Mf];L
12y; Nfl;Lf;nfhz;lhh;. mt;tiog;ig NeU Vw;Wf; nfhz;L ,ilf;fhy
murhq;fj;ij mikj;jhh;. mJ nrg;lk;gh; 2-k; NjjpapypUe;J nray;glj;
njhlq;fpaJ. ,ilf;fhy murhq;fj;jpy; K];yPk; yPf; cWg;gpdh;fs; 12Ngh;
,lk; ngw;wdh;.
NkYk; ,ilf;fhy murpay; Nrh;e;j yPf; „murpayikg;G eph;za
rigapy; Nru kWj;J tpl;lJ. mjd; eltbf;iffisg; Gwf;fzpj;J.
yPf;fpd; xj;Jiog;G ,y;yhky; murpayikg;G eph;za rig mjd;
gzpfis xOq;fhr; nra;a Kbatpy;iy.
kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lk; 1947> [Pd;>3:-
ehL KOtJk; fytuq;fSk; mikjpapd;ikAk; Vw;gl;ld. itrpuha;
Ntty; gpuGgtpdhy; ,e;j murpay; Njf;f epiyapidg; Nghf;f
Kbatpy;iy. ,e;j Neuj;jpy; jhd; gphpl;b\; gpujkh; ml;yp ,q;fpyhe;Jg;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j mwptpg;ig 1947 gpg;
29-y; ntspapl;lhh;. mjd;gb
1) 1948 [Pd; Kjy; Njjpf;Fs; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; ,e;jpahTf;F
khw;wk; nra;JtpLk;.
2) ahUf;F mjpfhuj;ij khw;wk; nra;J nfhLg;gJ vd;gij gphpl;b\;
murhq;fNk KbT nra;Ak;.
3) NttYf;Fg;gpwF itrpuhahf kTz;l; Ngl;ld; gpuG
epakpf;fg;gLthh;. Gjpa itrpuha; ,e;jpah;fSf;F mjpfhuj;ij
khw;wpf;nfhLg;ghh;.
gpujkh; ml;ypapd; mwptpg;igj; njhlh;e;J kTz;l; Ngl;ld; gpuG 1947
khh;r; 22y; ,e;jpahTf;F te;jhh;. fhyj;ij tPzhf;fhky; ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fSld; Ngr;Rthh;j;ij elj;jpdhh;. ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fspd;
fUj;Jf;fisAk;> ghpe;JiufisAk;> nfhs;iffisAk;> nghWikAld;
Nfl;lhh;. mjd; gpwF jdJ jpl;lq;fis cUthf;fpf;nfhz;lhh;.
,q;fpyhe;J murpd; ,iritg;ngw ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;whh;. murpd;
,iritg;ngw;W> ,e;jpah jpUk;gp te;J 1947 [Pd; 3-k; Njjp jd;
jpl;lj;ij ntspap;l;lhh;. mjd; gb>
1) ,e;jpag;gphptpid cWjp nra;ag;gl;L tpl;lJ. ,e;jpahit gphpj;J
,uz;L jdpj;jdp ehLfs; cUthf;fg;gLk; ,uz;L ehLfSk; mtuth;
tpUg;gj;jpw;g murpyikg;gpid cUthf;fpf; nfhs;syhk;.
2) eilKiwapy; by;ypapy; nray;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; murpay;
mikg;G eph;za rigapd; Ntiy ,ilA+wpd;wp eilngWk;.
3) Gjpjhf vOjg;gLk; murpayikg;G rl;lk; mij ngw;Wf;
nfhs;shj gFjpfSf;Fg; nghUe;jhJ. eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk;
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murpaikg;G rl;lkd;wj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;shj gFjpfspd; gpujpepjpfisf;
nfhz;l jdpkd;wj;jpd; %yk; mg;gFjpfspd; tpUg;gk; mwpag;gLk;.
4) rpe;J rl;lkd;wk; ahh; gf;fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjid mJNt
jPh;khdpj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
5) tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpy; ,g;gpur;rid thf;nfLg;gpd; %yk;
jPh;khdpf;fg;gLk;. gYrp];jhd; kf;fSila fUj;ij mwptjw;fhd
Kiwia itrpuha; nra;thh;.
6) gQ;rhg;> tq;fhsk;> rpy;n`l; Mfpa gFjpfspy; Njh;jy; elj;jp
murpayikg;G rl;l cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;en; jLf;fg;gLth;.
7) ,e;jpa RNjr muRfisg;; nghWj;jtiu mikr;ruitj;
J}Jf;FO jpl;lj;jpy; fz;Ls;s tpjpfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLk;.
8) ,e;jpahit ,uz;lhf gphptpid nra;tjhy; Vw;glf;$ba eph;thf
tpisTfis rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhhpfSld; tpthjpj;Jff; nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
9) ,e;jpa murpay; fl;rpfs; R%fkhd Kiwapy; ,e;jpa murpay;
gpur;ridfSf;F KbT nra;ANkahdhy; mjpfhu khw;wk; 1948 [Pd;
khjj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf 1947 Mf];L 14 es;sputpy; epfof;$Lk;.
,e;jpahit ,uz;lhfg; gphpf;Fk; $WNghLk; kTz;l; Ngl;ldpd;
jpl;lk; 1947 [Pd; 3-k; Njjp thndhyp %yk; mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. fhq;fpuRk;
yPFk; kTz;l; Ngl;ld; jpl;lj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;ld. vdNt cldbahf
mj;jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;j eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld.
,e;jpa Rje;jpur;rl;lk; 4> [{iy 1947:-
,e;jpag; gphptpid gw;wp KbthdJk; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; Ntfkhfr;
nray;gl;lJ. gphptpidj; jpl;lj;jpw;F tbtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
tpLjiy “kNrhjh” xd;W jahhpf;fg;gl;L 1947 [Piy 4-k; Njjp
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. nghJkf;fs; rig> gpuGf;fs;
rigfspy; epiwNtwpa gpd; murhpd; Xg;GjYld; rl;lkhdJ. mjd;gb
1947k; Mz;L Mf];L 15y; Mq;fpy Ml;rp Kbtile;jJ. ,e;jpah>
ghfp];jhd; vd;w ,uz;L Rje;jpu ehLfs; cUthapd. ,e;jpa Rje;jpur;
rl;lj;jpd;gb>
1) Mq;fpyg;NguuR ngw;wpUe;j ,e;jpa Ml;rp mjpfhuq;fs;
midj;Jk; ,e;jpah. ghfp];jhd; Mfpa nlhkpdpad;fsplk;
xg;gilf;fg;gLk;.
2) ,t;tpU nlhkpdpad;fSk; jdpj;jdpNa vy;iyfshf
tiuaWf;;fg;gl;Ls;s epyg; gFjpfis Vw;gjw;Fk;> kWg;gjw;Fk; me;j
nlhkpdad;fSf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L.
3) xt;nthU nlhkpdpaDk;> jiyik MSeh; xUtiug;
ngw;wpUf;Fk;. mth; murpayikg;gpd; jiytuhf tpsq;Fthh;. mth;
rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fk; nghWg;Gs;s mikr;ruitapd; ghpe;Jiufspd; Nghpy;
eph;thfk; nra;thh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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4) ,uz;L nlhkpdpad;fspd; murpayikg;G eph;za rigfSk;
me;je;j nlhkpdpad;fspd; tpUg;gq;fs;> Njitf;fSf;Nfw;g
murpayikg;gpid cUthf;Fk;. ,e;j murpayikg;G eph;za rigfNs
me;je;j nlhkpdpad;fspd; kj;jpar; rl;lkd;wkhfTk; nray;gLk;.
5) ,uz;L nlhkpdpad;fspYk; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J tUfpw
rl;lq;fs;> me;je;j nlhkpdpadpd; rl;lkd;wq;fspdhy;
jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gLk; tiu ,Uf;fpwgbNa nray;gLk;.
6) 1935k; Mz;L ,e;jpa murhq;fr; rl;lj;jpd; mikg;Gfs;>
nray;Kiwfs; nray;gLk;. MapDk;> jiyik MSeUf;F
mr;rl;lj;jpd;gb mspf;fg;gl;bUe;j mjpfhuf; ftrq;fSk;> jdp
mjpfhuq;fSk; ePf;fg;gLk;.
7) ,e;jpa rptpy; rh;t]
P ; mjpfhhpfSf;F mspf;fg;gl;bUf;fpw jdpr;
rYiffSk;> mjpfhuq;fSk; njhlh;eJ
; eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk;.
gjtpf;fhyk; Kbfpw tiu gjtpapypUf;Fk; chpik mth;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk;.
8) ,e;jpa rk];jhd muRfspd; kPJs;s Mq;fpyg; Nguurpd;
Mjpf;fk; ePf;fg;gl;L tpLk;. Mjpf;fj;jpypUe;J tpLgl;l rk];jhd muRfs;
mitfspd; tpUg;gq;fSf;Nfw;g ,e;jpa A+dpadpNyh> ghfp];jhDlNdh
Nrh;e;J nfhs;syhk;.
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; rpwg;Gj; jd;ikfs;
(Salient features of Indian constitution)
Rje;jpu ,e;jpahtpd; murpaikg;gpd; „murpay; eph;zarigapdhy;
cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fhgpdl; J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lj;jpd;gb murpay;
eph;zarig Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;lJ.
murpay; eph;za rigapd; $l;lj;njhlh;fs;:
,e;jpahtpw;Fj; Njitahd murpay; rl;lk; xd;iw cUthf;Fk;
nghUl;L>murpay; eph;za rigapd; Kjy; $l;lk; 1946 brk;gh; 9-y; lhf;lh;.
rr;rpjhde;j rpd;`h vd;gthpd; jiyikapd; fPo; $baJ. ,f;$l;lj;jpd;
lhf;lh; uhN[e;jpu gpurhj; murpay; eph;za rigapd; epue;juj; jiytuhfj;
Njhe;njLf;fg;gl;lhh;. ,ilf;fhy murpd; jiyik mikr;ruhd NeU
„Fwpf;Nfhslq;fpa jPh;khdk; kf;fspd; vz;zq;fs;> tpUg;gq;fs;
Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUe;jJ. ,e;j jPh;khdk;
tpthjj;jpw;Fg;gpwF epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ.
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; rpwg;Gj; jd;ikfs;
1. cyfpd; kpf ePz;l murpayikg;G: (Lenthiest consititution)
,e;jpa murpayikg;G cyfpd; kw;w murpayikg;G cyfpd;
kw;w murpayikg;Gfis tpl ePskhdJ. tphpthdJ. ,J 395
gphpTfisAk;>12 ml;ltizfisAk;> gpd;dpizg;GfisAk;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. jw;NghJ(khh;r; 2001) ,e;jpa murpayikg;G 445
gphpTfis nfhz;Ls;;sJ. ,g;gb ,e;jpa murpayikg;G tphpthf
,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzk;> ,jpy; kj;jpa muR> khepy muRfs;> kj;jpa
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Neub Ml;rpf;Fl;gl;l gFjpfspd; mikg;G mjpfhuq;fSk; tphpthff;
nfhLf;fgl;Ls;sNj fhuzk;. ,e;jpahtpy; gy;NtW gpd;jq;fpa
tFg;gpdh;fSf;Fk; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s rYiffs; mbg;gil
chpikfs;> flikfs;>topfhl;b newpfs; Mfpait ,lk;
ngw;Ws;sd.
2. vOjg;gl;l murpayikg;G ( written constitution)
,e;jpa murpayikg;ghdJ vOjg;gl;l murpayikg;ghFk;. xU
$l;lhl;rp ehl;bw;fhd Kjy; jFjp> me;j ehl;bd; murpayikg;G
vOjg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
kj;jpa khepy muRfSf;fpilapyhd mjpfhug; gq;fPL kpfTk;
njspthf tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
3. rpwg;ghd Kfg;Giu (Preamble)
,e;jpah rh;t mjpfhuq;fisAk; ngw;w xU [dehaf>Nrh\ypr> kj
rhh;gw;w ehL vd;W Kfg;Giuapy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jpy; Nrh\ypr>
kjrhh;gw;w Mfpa thh;j;ijfs; 42-tJ murpayikg;G jpUj;jpd;gb
1976 –y; Nrh;f;fg;gl;lJ.
,e;j Kfg;Giu murpaiyikg;ig cUthf;fpath;fspd;
cs;sf;fplf;ifiaAk;> Nehf;j;jijAk; njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ.
4. ghuhSkd;w Kiwapyhd murhq;fk;
[dhjpgjpAk;> Nyhf;rig> ,uh[;a rig vd;w ,U rigfs;
mlq;fpa ghuhSkd;wKNk rl;lkpaw;Wk; mjpfhuKk; gilj;Js;sJ.
Nyhf;rig cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if 545-f;F mjpfg;glhky;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,th;fspd; 535 Ngh; khepyq;fspypUe;Jk; 8 Ngh;
A+dpad; gpuNjrq;fspypUe;Jk;; kf;fshy; Neubahfj;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLth;. ,uz;L Mq;fpNyh ,e;jpah;fis
FbauRj;jiyth; epakdk; nra;thh;. ,jd; Mal;fhyk; Ie;J
Mz;Lfs; MFk;. uh[;a rigapy; khepy rl;lkd;wq;fshy; Njh;T
nra;ag;gl;l 238 cWg;gpdh;fSk;> [dhjpgjpahy; epakdk;
nra;ag;gl;l 12 cWg;gpdh;fSk; cz;L.
,e;j ghuhSkd;wNk cz;ikahd Ml;rpj;Jiwahf
nray;gLfpwJ. ehl;bd; gpujk ke;jphpAk;> mtuJ mikr;rh;
mitapd; gpw cWg;gpdh;fSk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpypUe;Nj epakdk;
ngWfpwhh;fs;. ,th;fs; ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;Fg; nghWg;G cilath;fs;.
5. $l;lhr;rp Kiw (Federal Polity)
$l;lhr;rp murpayikg;Gf;Fj; Njitahd Fz;lhd %d;W
jd;ikfSk; ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. KjyhtJ>
kj;jpa murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; khepy murhq;fq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd
mjpfhuq;fs;> kj;jpa muR gl;bay;> khepy muR gl;bay;> nghJ
mjpfhug; gl;bay; vd;W %d;W gphpthf njspthf gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
,uz;lhtjhf murpayikg;gpd; Nkyhz;ik fhzg;gLfpwJ.
vOjg;gl;l murpayikg; ghfTk; murpay; ikg;igj; jpUj;JtJ
rpwpJ f\;lkhdjhfTk; cs;sJ. $l;lhl;rpapd; %d;whtJ mk;rkhd
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Nkd;ikAk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. murpayikg;gpd;gb
Rje;jpukhfr; nray;gLk; ePjpkd;wq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

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6. mbg;gil chpikfs; (Fundamental rights):
,e;jpa murpayikg;G jdJ %d;whtJ gphpit mbg;gil
chpikfSf;fhf xJf;fpAs;sJ. kf;fspd; mbg;gil chpikfis
MW gphpTfshfg; gphpj;Jj; je;Js;sJ. mit 1. rkj;Jt chpik 2.
Ngr;Rhpik 3. Rje;jpukhfr; nray;gLk; chpik 4. kjtop ghl;L
chpik 5. Ruz;lYf;nfjpuhd chpik> 6. ePjpkd;wq;fspd; %yk;
ghJfhg;G ngWk; chpik Mfpaitfs; MFk;.
7. muR topfhl;L newpfs; (Directive Principles State Policy):
,e;j newpKiwfs; murpayikg;gpd; ehd;fhk; ghfj;jpy;
mlq;fp cs;sJ. ,e;j newpfs; murpayikg;gpy; Nrh;f;fg;gLftjw;F
%y Mjukhf ,Ue;jJ mah;yhe;J ehl;L murpayikg;gpy;
fhzg;gLk; newpfshFk;. kj;jpa murk;> khepy muRfSk;> jq;fs;
nfhs;iffisAk;> rl;lq;fisAk; cUthf;Fk;NghJ> ,e;j topfhl;L
newpfis fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j topfhl;L newpfis
%d;W tiffshfg; gphpf;fyhk;. mitNrhrypf; nfhs;iffis
nray;gLj;Jtjw;F Jiz epw;git> fhe;jpaf; nfhs;iffs;> cyf
mikjpia tsh;gg ; jw;F cjTgit MfpaitahFk;.
8. rka rhh;gw;w muR :
,e;jpahtpy; rka rhh;gw;w muR mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 42-tJ
murpayikg;G jpUj;jj;jpd; tpisthf murpayikg;gpd;
Kfg;Giuapy; „rkjh;k‟> „rkarhh;gw;w‟ vd;w ,uz;L thh;j;jijfs;
Nrh;f;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ve;j KiwapYk; topghL nra;a chpik
mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
9. ePjpg;Gduha;T :
mbg;gil chpikfisg; ghjpf;Fk; ve;j xU rl;lKk;
jiyik ePjpkd;wj;jhy; js;Sgb nra;ag;gLk;. NkYk; ghuhSkd;wk;>
khepy rl;lrigfs; Mfpait epiwNtw;Wk; rl;lq;fisAk;>
murhq;f cj;juTfisAk; murpayikg;gpYs;s tpjpfNshL xg;gpl;L>
Gduha;T nra;J> mit murpayikg;gpw;F cl;gl;ljh ,y;iy
Kuzhdjh vd;W jPh;g;Gf; $Wtjw;F ,e;jpa ePjpkd;wq;fSf;F
mjpfhuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy; murhq;fj;jpd;
rh;thjpfhuj;jpypUe;J jdp eghpd; Rje;jpuk; fhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

murpayikg;igj; jpUj;Jk; Kiw


(CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT)
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; rpwg;gpay;Gfspy; xd;W Njit Vw;gl;lhy;
murpayikg;gpd; rpy gFjpfis khw;wpaikf;f KbAk; vd;gNjahFk;.
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; 368k; tpjp murpayikg;igj; jpUj;Jk; Kiwia
tpthpf;fpwJ. nghJthf $l;lhr;rp murpayikg;Gfnsy;yhk; nefpoh
tifiar; Nrh;e;jitfshfTk; vspjpy; khw;w KbahjitfshfTk;
,Ug;gJ ,ay;G. mnkhpf;f murpayikg;igj; jpUj;JtJ kpfTk;
fbdkhdJ> rpf;fy; epiwe;jJ. mNj Neuk; ,q;fpyhe;J murpayikg;igj;
jpUj;JtJ kpfTk; vspJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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,e;jpa murpayikg;igj; jpUj;JtJ kpfTk; vspjhfTk; ,y;iy.
kpfTk; fbdkhdjhfTk; ,y;iy. jpUj;j Kiwapy; ,e;jpah eLtopiag;
gpd;gw;WfpwJ. ,e;jpa murpayikg;G kpfTk; tphpthdjhfTk; gue;Jk;
cs;sjhy;> mjid nefpoh murpayikg;G vd;fpwhh;fs;. vy;yh
#o;epiyf; Nfw;gTk; kpfTk; tphpthd gFjpfis murpayikg;gpy;
Nrh;e;Js;sjhy; mbf;fb jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;Ltu Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy
vd;W rpyh; fUJfpwhh;fs;. Mdhy; 2000 Mz;Ltiu 83 murpayikg;Gj;
jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lLs;sJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
,e;jpa murpayikg;igj; jpUj;Jtjw;Ff; fPo;fz;l %d;W topfs;
nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sd.
1) murpayikg;gpd; $l;lhr;rp Vw;ghLfs; jpUj;jg;gLk; Kiw:(Federal
Provisions)
murpayikg;gpd; rpy $l;lhl;rp tpjpfis fbdkhd Kiwiag;
gpd;gw;wpj;jhd; jpUj;j KbAk;. ,jd;gb murpayikg;G jpUj;j kNrhjh
xd;W ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ve;j rigapy; Ntz;LkhdhYk; jhf;fy;
nra;ag;glyhk;. mj;jifa kNrhjh ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; xt;nthU rigapYk;
nkhj;jk; cs;s cWg;gpdh;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ikNahuhYk;> thf;nfLg;gpy;
fye;J nfhs;gthpd; nkhj;j vz;zpf;ifapy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L gq;F
cWg;gpdh;fspd; MjuTld; epiwNtw;wg;gl;Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l kNrhjh ,e;jpa khepyq;fspy; ghjp
khepyq;fspd; xg;Gjy; Ntz;Lk;. mjd;gpwF mJ FbauRj; jiytUf;F
mDg;gg;gl;L mth; ,irT fpilj;jTld; rl;lkhfptpLk;. ,k;Kiwapy;
khw;wg;glf; $ba murpayikg;gpd; gFjpfs; tUkhW.
1. FbauR jiythpd; Njh;jy;
2. kj;jpa> khepy eph;thfj;Jiw mjpfhuj;jpd; tuk;G
3. jiyik ePjpkd;wk;> kw;Wk; cah;ePjpkd;wq;fs;
4. kj;jpa> khepy muRfSf;fpilNa rl;lkpaw;Wk; mjpfhug;
gq;fPL
5. ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; khepyq;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
6. murpayikg;igj; jpUj;Jk; Kiwiaf; $Wk; 368-k; tpjp>
Mfpait MFk;.
2. murpayikg;gpy; rhjid tpjpfisj; jpUj;Jk; Kiw:
murpayikg;gpYs;s rpy tpjpfis vspa Kiwapy; rhjhuzg;
ngUk;ghd;ikAld; jpUj;jpaikg;gJ> ,uz;lhtJ KiwahFk;.
ghuhSkd;wj;jhy; rhjhzr; rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wtjw;F gpd;gw;wg;gLk;
Kiwjhd; murpayikg;gpd; rpy tpjpfisj; jpUj;Jtjw;Fk;
gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ,U rigfspd; ngUk;ghd;ik
MjuTld; epiwNtw;wg;glyhk;. ,jw;F khepyq;fspd; ,irT
Njitapy;iy. ,t;tpj khw;wq;fis murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jq;fshfNt
nfhs;Stjpy;iy. NkYk; ,e;j mbg;gilapy; khw;wg;glf;$ba gFjpfs;
kpfr;rpyNtahFk;.
1) Gjpa khepyq;fis cUthf;Fjy;
2) ,Uf;fpd;w khepyq;fis khw;wpaikj;jy;.
3) khepyq;fspy; Nky;rig Vw;gLj;Jjy; my;yJ xopj;jy;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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4) ,e;jpaf; FbkfDf;fhd jFjpfs;.
5) gl;baypYs;s gFjpfs;> goq;Fapdh;> eph;thfk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
Vw;ghLfs;.
6) kj;jpa muR gFjpfspd; murpayikg;igj; jPh;khdpj;jy;.
Mfpaitfis ghuhSkd;wk; rhjhuzr; rl;lq;fs; ,aw;Wk;
KiwapNyNa jpUj;jyhk;.
3. murpayikg;gpd; ,ju gFjpfs;:
murpayikg;gpd; ,jutpjpfisj; jpUj;j ghuhSkd;wj;jpd;
,UrigfspYk; jdpj;jdpahf xt;nthU rigapd; nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fsp;y;
ghjpg;NgUf;F Nkyhdth;fspd; ,irTk; rigf; $l;lj;jpy; te;J
thf;fspg;gpy; gq;F nfhs;Nthhpy; %d;wpy; ,Ugq;F cWg;gpdh;fspd;
,irTk; ,d;wpaikahjJ.
murpayikg;igj; jpUj;Jk; Kiwfspy; fPo;fz;l eilKiwfs;
gpd;gw;wg;gLtJ ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
1) murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jq;fs; midj;Jk; kj;jpa ghuhSkd;wj;jhy;
kl;LNk nfhz;Ltu KbAk;. khepy rl;lrigfs; jpUj;j kNrhjhf;fisf;
nfhz;Ltu KbahJ.
2) ghuhSkd;wj;jhy; epiwNtw;wg;l;l jpUj;j kNrhjhf;fis
khepyq;fs; Vw;fpd;dwdth my;yJ kWf;fpd;wdth vd;gij vt;tsT
fhyj;jpw;Fs;shfj; njhpag;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gij murpayikg;G
Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.
3) ,Ugj;jp ehd;fhtJ murpay; mikg;Gj; jpUj;jj;jpd;gb> (1971)
murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;j kNrhjhf;fis Vw;f kWf;Fk; mjpfhuk; FbauRj;
jiytUf;F ,y;iy.
4) murpayikg;gpd; tpjpfis %d;whfg; gphpj;J xt;nthU gphpTf;Fk;
xt;nthU tpjkhd jpUj;j Kiwia eph;zapj;jpUg;gJ Nghd;w Vw;ghl;il
cyfpy; NtW ve;j murpayikg;gpYk; ehk; ghh;f;f KbahJ.

1) ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; rpwg;Gj; jd;ikfs; ahit?


khepyq;fsit
uh[;a rgh (RAJYA SABHA)
,e;jpag; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; Nky; rig khepyq;fsit my;yJ uh[;a
rgh vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; 80-k; tpjpg;gb
,r;rigapd; mjpfgl;r cWg;gpdh;fs; 250 Ngh; Mth;. ,th;fsp;y; 238-Ngh;
khepyq;fspd; gpujpepjpfs;. kPjp 12 cWg;gpdh;fs; fy;tp fiy> tpQ;Qhdk;>
r%f Nrit Mfpa Jiwfspy; rpwe;J tpsq;Fgth;fshf ghh;j;J FbauR
jiyth; epakdk; nra;fpwhh;. khepyq;fs; jq;fs; kf;fs; njhifapd;
tpfpjhr;rhug;gb cWg;gpdh;fisj; Njh;en; jLf;fpd;wd.

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khepyq;fisitapd; mikg;G:-
khepyq;fis gpujpepjpfis fPo; rigahd khepy rl;lkd;wNk
(Legislative Assembly) Njh;en; jLf;Fk;. ,j;Njh;hjypy; khepy rigahd
(Legislative council gq;F ngUtjpy;iy. Njh;jypy; xw;iw khw;Wthf;Fg;gb
tpfpjhr;rhu gpujpepjpj;Jt Kiwf;Nfw;g eilngWk;. Mdhy; vy;yh
khepyq;fSf;Fk; nghpaNjh rpwpaNjh> mitfspd; kf;fs; njhif
FiwNth> mjpfNth ve;j tpjkhd NtWghLfSk; ,d;wp rkgpujpepjpj;Jtk;
,e;jpahtpy;nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,J $l;lhl;rpj; jj;Jtj;jpw;F KuzhdJ
MFk;.
cWg;gpdutjw;F Ntz;ba jFjp:-
khepyq;fsit cWg;gpduhtjw;Fr; rpy jFjpfs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mth; ,e;jpa FbkfdhfTk; Kg;gJ twJs;stuhfTk;> ve;j
khepyj;jpypUe;J Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl tpUk;GfpwhNuh me;j khepyj;jpd;
thf;fshh; gl;baypy; ngah; Nrh;f;fg;gl;L thf;fspf;Fk; jFjp
cilatuhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
khepyq;fspd; rig epiyahd rigahFk;. ,jd; cWg;gpdh;fs;
Mwhz;L gjtpf; fhyj;jpw;Fj; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLfpwhh;fs;. %d;wpy; xU
gq;F cWg;gpdh;fs; ,uz;L Mz;LfSf;F xU Kiw Xa;T ngWfpwhh;fs;.
,e;j fhypaplq;fis epug;g ,uz;lhz;LfSf;F xU Kiw
cWg;gpdh;fis khepy rl;lrigfs; Njh;en ; jLj;J mDg;Gk;. gjtpapypUe;J
tpyFgth;fs; kPz;Lk; Njh;en; jLf;fg;glyhk;. khepyq;fisitf; $l;lk;
elj;j Fiwe;j msT gj;jpy; xU gq;F cWg;gpduhtJ rigf;F
te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. khepyq;fsitiaf; fiyf;Fk; mjpfhuk; FbauRj;
jiytUf;Ff; fpilahJ.
,uz;lhz;LfSf;F xU Kiw khepyq;fsitapy; fhypahFk;
,lq;fSf;F Njh;jy; eilngWk;. xU Ntl;ghsUf;F Fiwe;jJ 10 MLA-
f;fs; Kd;nkhopa Ntz;Lk;. Ntl;ghsh;fs; jq;fs; kPJ vt;tpj fphpkpdy;
tof;Fk; ,y;iy vd;gjw;fhd rhd;wpjo; rkh;gg ; pf;f Ntz;Lk;. nlghrpl;
njhif &gha; 5000 nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. jkpof vk;.vy;.Vf;fspy; 34 Ngh;
MjuT ,Ue;jhy; xU uh[;a rgh cWg;gpdh; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
khepyq;fsitapd; jiyth;:-
murpayikg;gpd; 89-k; tpjpg;gb ,e;jpa Jizf; FbauRj; jiyth;
khepyq;fsitapd; jiytuhfg; (rghehafh;) gzpahw;Wfpwhh;. ,th;
rigapd; $l;lq;fSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;Ffpwhh;. ,tiuj; jtpu khepy
rigapd; cWg;gpdh;fspy; xUth; Jidj;jiytuhfj;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLfpwhh;. jiyth; ,y;yhjNghJ ,th; rig $l;lq;fSf;Fj;
jiyik jhq;Ffpwhh;. khepyq;fsitapd; mYty;fs; rhpahd gb
eilngw cjTtJk;. rigapy; xOq;ifAk; mikjpiaAk; Vw;gLj;jp
cWg;gpdh;fs; tpthjq;fspy; gq;nfLj;Jf; nfhs;Skhw nra;tJk;>
thf;nfLg;G elj;jp Kbait mwptpg;gJk; rigapd; jiyth;>
Jizj;jiyth; MfpNahhpd; mjpfhuq;fshFk;. khepyq;fsitapd;
jiytUk;> Jizj;jiytuk; kf;fs;rig rghehafUf;Fk; Jiz
rghehafUf;Fk; vd;ndd;d rYiffSk; rpwg;GfSk;

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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toq;fg;gLfpd;wdNth mNj rYiffisAk; rpwg;GfisAk; ngWfpd;wdh;.
jw;NghJ khepyq;fsitapd; jiytuhf ,Ug;gth; fpU\;zfhe;j; Mthh;.
jiytiuAk; Jizj; jiytiuAk; tprhuiz nra;J ePf;Fk;
mjpfhuk; rigf;F cz;L. rigapy; mg;NghJs;s nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspy;
ngUk;ghd;ikNahhpd; gjtp MjuTld; ePf;f jPh;khdj;ij epiwNtw;w
Ntz;Lk;. mth;fisg; gw;wpa tprhuiz ele;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ
jiytNuh> Jizj; jiytNuh jiyik jhq;ff; $lhJ.
cWg;gpdh;fspd; rYiffs;:-
khepyq;fsit cWg;gpdh;fSf;F ghpG+uz Ngr;R Rje;jpuk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Rigapy; epfo;j;jpa Ngr;RfSf;fhf mth;fisf;
ifJ nra;a KbahJ. mNj Nghy; rig $l;lg;gLtjw;F ehw;gJ ehs;
Kd;Dk; $l;lj;jpd; filrp ehspypUe;J ehw;gJ ehl;fs; gpd;Dk; mth;fs;
ifJ nra;ag;gl KbahJ.
khepyq;fs; rigapd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
1. rl;lkpaw;Wk; mjpfhuk;: (rhjhuzkNrhjh)
rhjhuzr; rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wtjpy; khepyq;fs; rig kf;fs;
rigAld; rk mjpfhuk; nfhz;Ls;sJ. kf;fs; rigapy; epiwNtwpa
kNrhjh khepy rigf;F mDg;gg;gLk;. khepy rig mij epiwNtw;wyhk;.
My;yJ ve;jtpjkhd eltbf;ifAk; vLf;fhky; ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mjpf
gl;rk; MWkhj fhyj;jpw;Fj;jhd; eltbf;if vLf;fhky; kNrhjhit
epWj;jp itf;fyhk;. gpwF ,U rigfspd; ,izg;Gf; $l;lj;ij FbauRj;
jiyth; $l;Lthh;. ,e;j ,izg;Gf; $l;lj;jpy; ,U rigfspd;
cWg;gpdh;fSk; gq;F nfhz;L gpur;ridf;Fhpa kNrhjhit ngUk;ghd;ik
MjuTld; epiwNtw;Wfpwhh;fs;. kf;fs; rig cWg;gpdh;fNs
vz;zpf;ifapy; mjpfk; ,Ug;gjhy; Nky;rigapd; vjph;g;G vLglhky; Ngha;
tpLfpwJ.
2. gz kNrhjhit epiwNtw;Wjy;:-
gz kNrhjhf;fis epiwNtw;wtjpy; khepy rigf;F ve;j tpjkhd
mjpfhuKk; fpilahJ. tuT nryTj; jpl;lk;> XJf;fPL kNrhjh (Budget
Appropriation Bill) Nghd;w gz kNrhjhf;fis kf;fs; rigapy;jhd;
rkh;gg; pf;f KbAk;. kf;fs; rigapy; epiwNtw;wpa gpwF Nky; rigf;F
mGd;dg;gLk;. Nky; rigapy; gz kNrhjhf;fs; epiwNtw Ntz;Lk; vd;w
mtrpak; ,y;iy. gz kNrhjh te;j ,uz;L thuj;Jf;Fs; tpthjpj;J
mjd;Nky; ghpe;Jiu kl;Lk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. khepy rigapd;
ghpe;Jiufis kf;fs; rig Vw;fNth> kWf;fNth nra;ayhk;. vJ
vt;thwhapDk; gz kNrhjhit ,uz;L rigfSk; epiwNtw;wpajhff;
fUjg;gl;L FbauRj; jiythpd; xg;GjYf;F mDg;gg;gLk;. NkYk;
khdpaq;fs; (Grants) kf;fs; rigahy; kl;LNk mq;fPfhuk;
nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. ,jdhy; epjpr;rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjpy; khepyq;fs; rig
rf;jpaw;wJ vd;Nw $wyhk;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


70
3. eph;thfj; Jiwia fl;Lf;fLj;JfpwJ:-
mikr;rh;fs; kf;fs; rigf;F kl;Lk;jhd; nghWg;Gs;sth;fs; my;yJ
fl;Lg;gl;Ls;sjhy; mikr;rh;fs; kPJ khepyq;fs; rigf;F gpbg;G ,y;yhky;
Ngha;tpLfpwJ. ,Ue;jhYk; eph;thfj; Jiwiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjpy;
khepyq;fsit XusT mjpfhuk; ngw;Ws;sJ. mikr;rh;fs; tpthjq;fspy;
fye;J nfhs;Sk; NghJ Nfs;tpfs; %ykhfTk;> thjq;fs; thapyhfTk;>
xj;jpitg;Gg;gpNuhiz %ykhfTk; murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;iffis XusT
fl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ.
4. murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jk; nra;Ak; mjpfhuk;:-
murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jq;fis nra;tjpy; khepy rigapd; xg;Gjy;
mtrpak; Njit. jpUj;jk; xd;iw khepy rig Vw;ftpy;iynad;why;
,Urigfspd; ,izg;Gf; $l;lj;ij FbauR jiyth; $l;Ltpj;J
ngUk;ghd;ik MjuTld; jpUj;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gLk;.

1) ,e;jpa ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; Nky;rigia tpthp?

kf;fs; rig
Nyhf;rig (LOK SABHA)
,e;jpa ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; fPo; rigapd; ngah; Nyhfr;rig my;yJ
kf;fs; rigahFk;. ,jpy; nkhj;jk; 545 cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;.
,jpy; 413 njhFjpfs; nghJthdth;fSf;F xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,uz;L
cWg;gpdh;fs; Mq;fpNyh ,e;jpa rKjhaj;jpdUf;F gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
nfhLg;gjw;fhf FbauRj; jiytuhy; epakpf;fg;gLth;.
gjtpf;fhyk;:-
kf;fs; rig cWg;gpdh;fspd; gjtpf;fhyk; Ie;J Mz;Lfs; vd;W
eph;zapf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Ie;J Mz;Lfs; Kbtiljw;F Kd;ghfNt
FbauRj; jiyth; kf;fs; rigiaf; fiyf;fyhk;.
rghehafh;: (Speaker)
1. rghehafh; Njh;T:-
kf;fs; rigapy; rghehafh;> Jizrghehafh; Mfpa ,uz;L
mYtyh;fs; ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;. Rig jdJ cWg;gpdh;fspy; xUtiu
rghehafuhfTk; kw;nwhUtiuj; Jiz rghehafuhfTk; Njh;en ; jLj;Jf;
nfhs;fpwJ. nghJthf rgh ehafh; vjph;fl;rpiar; Nrh;e;jtuhfTk;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg; gLfpwhh;fs;. ,th;fis gpujk ke;jphp vjph;fl;rpfSld;
Ngr;R thh;j;ij elj;jp Vfkdjhfj; Njh;en
; jLf;f top nra;fpwhh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


71
2. gjtpf; fhyk;:-
rghehafUk;> cjtp rghehafUk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; Mal;fhyk;
tiu gjtpapypUfg;ghh;fs;. mth;fs; jhq;fshfNt gjtpia uh[pdhkh
nra;ayhk;. my;yJ rig mth;fsplk; ek;gpf;if ,y;iynad;w
jPh;khdj;ij epiwNtw;wpdhYk;. Mth;fs; gjtp tpyf Ntz;Lk;. kf;fs;
rig fiyf;fg;gl;L kPz;Lk; Njh;jy; Kbe;J Gjpa kf;fs; rigapd;
rghehafh; Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gLk; tiu Ke;ija kf;fs; rigapd; rghehafh;
gjtpapy; njhlh;e;J ,Ue;J tUthh;.
3. gjtp ePf;fk; nra;Ak; Kiw:-
rghehafiug; gjtpapypUe;J ePf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; gjpdhd;F
ehl;fs; Kd; mwptpg;Gf;Fg; gpd; kf;fs; rig$Lk; NghJ rigf;F
te;Js;s nkhj;j cWg;gpdUs; ngUk;ghd;ikNahhpd; thf;Ffs; Njit.
gpd;G FbauRj; jiythpd; ,irTld; gjtp ePf;fk; nra;ag;gLth;.
4. rghehafhpd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
a) rigapd; chpikfisg; ghJfhj;jy;:-
kf;fs; rigapd; jPh;khdq;fisAk; cj;jufisAk; epiwNtw;Wk;
nghOJ rigapd; jdp chpikfisg; ghJfhf;fpwhh;.
b) rigf; $l;lq;fSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;Fjy;:-
rghehafh; kf;fs; rig $l;lq;fSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fp njd;
eltbf;iffis tpjpKiwfSf;Nfw;g elj;jp itf;fpwhh; rigapd;
mYtyfs; vd;ndd;d> cWg;gpdh;fs; vt;tsT Neuk; Ngr Ntz;Lk;
vd;gijNay;yhk; mtNu KbT nra;thh;. Rigapd; mikjpiaAk;
XOq;ifAk;. Ghukhpg;gJk;> cWg;gpdhh;fs; fz;zpakhf NgRk;gb ghh;j;Jf;
nfhs;tJ mtuJ gzpfSs; xd;whFk;. Rigapd; tpthjq;fspy; gq;F
nfhs;s tpUk;Gfpwth;fis mDkjpj;J tpthjq;fis rpwe;j Kiapy;
elj;jp itf;fpwhh;. vdNt rghehafiu „tpthjq;fspd; ehafh;‟ (Lord of
debater) vd;W miof;fyhk;.
c) rl;lkpaw;Wk; gzpfspy; gq;F:-
kNrhjhf;fspy; vit gy kNrhjhf;fy; vd;W KbT nra;tJ
rghehafh;jhd;.
e) gpw mjpfhuq;fs;:-
,t;thW kf;fs; rigapd; vy;yh murpay; fl;rpfSf;Fk;
rghehafNy eLehafk; Mthh;.
kf;fs; rigapd; mjpfhuq;fs;:-
1. rl;lkpaw;Wk; gzp:(rhjhuz kNrhjhf;fs;)
xU rhjhuz kNrhjh kf;fs; rigapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l gpd;dh;
khepy rig ve;j tpjkhd rltbf;ifAk; vLf;fhky; MW khjj;jpw;F
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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fhyk; jho;j;jpdhy;> ,U rigfSf;FkpilNa Vw;gl;Ls;s Kl;Lf;
fl;ilaj;l jPh;f;f Fbaurj; jiyth; ,Y rigfspd; ,izg;Gf;
$l;lj;ijf; $l;Lthh;.Fwpg;gpl;l ehspy; $l;lg;gLk; ,izg;Gf; $l;lj;jpw;F
kf;fs; figapd; rghehafNu jiyik jhq;Fthh;. ,Urigapd;
cWg;gpdh;fSk; fye;J nfhz;L gpur;ridf;Fhpa kNrhjhit
ngUk;ghd;ik MjuTld; epiwNtw;Wfpwhh;fs;. ,e;j ,izg;Gf; $l;lj;jpy;
kf;fs; rig cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;ifNa mjpfk; ,Ug;gjhy; Nky;
rigapd; vjph;g;G vLglhJ.
2. gz kNrhjhf;fis ,aw;Wjy;:-
gz kNrhjhf;fs; Kjypy; kf;fs; rigapy; jhd; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. tuT nryT fzf;F> xJf;fPL kNrhjh Mfpait kf;fs;
rigapy; jhd; Kjypy; rkh;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; murhq;fNk gz
kNrhjhf;fis rkh;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
kf;fs; rigapy; epiwNtwpa gz kNrhjf;fs; khepyq;fspd;
rigf;F mDg;gg;gLk;. khepyq;fs; rig me;j kNrhjhit gjpdhd;F
ehl;fSf;Fs; jdJ ghpe;JiuAld; jpUg;gp mDg;g Ntz;Lk;. kf;fs; rig
me;jg; ghpe;Jiufis Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhy; mj;jpUj;jq;fSld; mk;kNrhjh
epiwNtwpajhff; fUjg;gLk;. kf;fs; rig me;jg; ghpe;Jiufis Vw;Wf;
nfhs;s kWf;Fkhdhy; kf;fs; rig epiwNtw;wpa tbtpNyNa me;j
kNrhjh ,UrigfshYk; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ljhff; fUjg;gLk;.
3. mikr;ruit kPJ fl;Lg;ghL:-
mikr;rh;fs; $l;lhf kf;fs; rigf;Fj;jhd; nghWg;Gs;sth;fs;.
mth;fSilNa nfhs;iffis kf;fs; rig Vw;Wf;
nfhs;stpy;iynad;why; gjtpapypUe;J tpyf Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW
murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;isfisAk; md;whl eltbf;iffisAk; kf;fs; rig
njhlh;e;J fl;Lg; gLj;JfpwJ.
4. murhq;fj;jpd; kPJ fl;Lg;ghL:-
a) md;whlk; Nfs;tp Nfl;gjpd; %yk; murhq;fj;jpd;
eltbf;iffisg; gw;wpa nra;jpfisAk;> Gs;sp tpguq;fisAk;
mikr;rh;fsplkpUe;J tutiof;fpwJ. kf;fs; rigapy; Nfs;tp Neuk;
kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ.
b) murhq;fj;jpd; kPJ ek;gpf;ifapy;yhj; jPh;khdk; nfhz;L tUtjd;
%yk; mjd; nfhs;iffSk; eltbf;iffSk; fz;bf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd ek;gpf;ifapy;yhj; jPh;khdk; kf;fs; rigapy;
Kf;fpa epfo;r;rpahFk;.

1) ,e;jpa ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; kf;fs; rigapd; mjpfhuq;fis tpthp?

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


73
myF - III
njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp> 1800-1801
Mq;fpy Mjpf;f vjph;g;G
1600 brk;gh; 31Mk; ehs; Mq;fpNyaf; fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdp
th;j;jfj;jpw;fhf ,e;jpahtpDs; Eioe;jJ. $lhuj;Jf;Fs; Eioe;j
xl;lfk; Nghy gbg;gbahf th;j;jfj;NjhL jd;idAk; tsh;j;Jf; nfhz;lJ.
gjpNdhohk; E}w;whz;by; ,e;jpa kz;zpy; cWjpahff; fhY}d;wpaJ
th;j;jff; flq;if Vw;gLj;jaJ.mijr;Rw;wp Mq;fpNyah; FbNawpdh;. %d;W
fh;ehlfg; Nghh;fs; (1746-1763)> ehd;F ik#h;g; Nghh;fs; (1767-1799)
Mfpatw;wpd; tpisthf Mq;fpNyah;fs; njd;dpe;jpahtpy; jq;fsJ
Mjpf;fj;ij epiyehl;bdh;.
Gypj;NjtUf;Fg; gpd;dh; Mq;fpNya Mjpf;fj;Jf;nfjpuhff; fpsh;r;rp
nra;jth; ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpg; ghisaj; jiytuhd tPughz;ba fl;lnghk;k
ehaf;fh; Mthh;. mth; jpUney;Ntypf; $l;lzpiag; gyg;gLj;jp
fk;ngdpNahL jPuj;;Jld; Nghuhbdhh;. Mdhy; mth; Nk[h; ghdh;kdplk;
fl;lnghk;kdJ fpsh;r;rpAk; eRf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. fl;lnghk;kd;
nfhy;yg;gll mLj;j Mz;Nl gutyhd ngUq;fpsh;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ. mijg;
Nguhrpah; F.uh[a;ad; „njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp‟ vd;Wk; „Kjy;
Rje;jpug;Nghh;‟ vd;Wk; th;zpj;Js;shh;.
fpsh;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;
murpay; fhuzq;fs;:
gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd; Jtf;fj;jpNyNa Jtf;fg;gl;lNj
njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rpahFk;. Kfyhag; Nguurpd; tPor ; ;rpf;Fg; gpd;
njd;dpe;jpah Fog;gj;Jf;Fk;> nfhe;jspg;Gf;Fk; cs;shapw;W. vdpDk;>
murh;fSk; ghisaf;fhuh;fSk; fpuhkf; Fbahl;rp KiwAk; murpay;
fl;Lf;Nfhg;Gk; FiyahJ rkepiyiag; ghJfhj;jdh;.me;j mikg;G Kiw
Mq;fpNyahpd; Mf;fpukpg;Gf; nfhs;iff;F ,yf;fhdNghJ vjph;g;G
Vw;gl;lJ. Mw;fhL ethg; re;jh rhNfg;> jQ;rhT+h; gpujhg;rpq;> kJiu
fhd;rhfpg; MfpNahh; fk;ngdp Mjpf;fj;Jf;F mbgzpe;jdh;. ik#h;
kd;dh;fshd i`jh; mypAk;> jpg;GRy;jhDk; mt;thjpf;fj;ij vjph;j;J
kbe;jdh;. fk;ngdpNahL cld;gbf;if ,Ue;Jnfhz;L kf;fisr;
Ruz;bdh;@ nfhLikg;gLj;jpdh;. murh;fs; fk;ngdpf;F mlq;fp kf;fis
mlf;fpaikahy; kf;fspilNa kdf;frg;G tsuyhapw;W.
murh;fis mlf;fpaJ Nghd;W fk;ngdpahy; ghisaf;fhuh;fis
mbgzpa itf;f Kbatpy;iy. fh;ehlfj;jpYk;> kyghhpYk;> jkpoj;jpYk;
fk;ngdp gy;NtW cj;jpfisf; ifahz;L mth;fisg; gytPdg;gLj;jpw;W.
vdpDk; cWjpahd ghisaq;fhuh;fs; xd;W Nrh;e;J fk;ngdp Ml;rpia
vjph;f;fj; Jzpe;jdh;. fpuhkq;fspd; Nflkhf ,Ue;j mth;fs; jq;fsJ
ghuk;ghpa chpikfSk; rYiffSk; gwpNghtijf; nfhQ;rKk;
tpUk;gtpy;iy.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


74
nghUshjhuf; fhuzq;fs;:
murpay; mlq;Fkiwg; Nghd;Nw nghUsjhur; Ruz;lYk;
njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rpf;Ff; fhuzkhapw;W. kf;fs; eyidg;
NgZtijaplf; fk;ngdp jdJ tUthiag; ngUf;FtjpNyNa Fwpahf
,Ue;jJ. thpfis tuk;gpd;wp cah;j;jpaJ. cjhuhzkhf> jpz;Lf;fy;ypy;
jpg;Gry;jhd; t#ypj;jjw;F Nkyhf ,Ugj;ije;J tpOf;fhl;Lf;F mjpfkhf
thp t#ypf;fg;gl;lJ. fd;dlg; gFjp> #d;lh> Nryk;> NfhaKj;J}h;>
jpUney;Ntyp Mfpa ,lq;fspy; njhz;Z}W tpOf;fhL mjpfkhf thp
t#y; nra;ag;gl;lJ. jd;dpr;irg;gb cah;j;jg;gl;l thpfshy; tptrhapfs;
nghpJk; ghjpf;fg;gl;ldh;. mJkl;Lky;y> mth;fs; mDgtpj;J te;j gy
rYiffs; gwpf;fg;gl;ld. Tptrha epyq;fSf;F tpjpf;fg;gl;l jPh;itNa
mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ.
kUJ ghz;bad; $wpa fhuzk;
rptfq;if kUJ ghz;bad; njd;dpe;jpahtpd; jho;r;rpf;Fhpa
fhuzj;ij mwpTg;G+h;tkhf Ma;e;jwpe;J $wpdhh;. mthpd; Ma;tpd;gb
murh;fspd; murpay; rhJh;akw;w nfhs;if> FO Nfh\;;b kdg;ghd;ik>
Mq;fpNyahpd; tQ;rfj;jd;ik> kf;fspd; xU gFjpapdhpd; me;epa
mjpfhuj;Jf;F mbgzpAk; tof;fkhd Nghf;F MfpaitNa
njd;dpe;jpaUld; cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz;L jd;khdf;Fiwthd
jho;ej
; epiyNa mile;jij mth; td;ikahff; fz;bj;jhh;.
njd;dpe;jpah;fspilNacs;s xw;Wikapd;ikia Mq;fpNyah;fSf;fpilNa
,Ue;j xw;WikNahL xg;gpl;Lf; fhl;bdhh;.
gpuhe;jpaf; $l;likg;Gfs; (Regional Leagues)
Mq;fpNyaf; fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdp Ml;rpapd; tpisthf
njd;dpe;jpahtpy; murpay; mlf;FKiw> nghUshjhur; Ruz;ly;> eph;thff;
nfLgpb Nghd;wit mjpfhpf;fyhapw;W. kf;fs; nrhy;nyhdh
,d;dy;fSf;F Ml;gl;ldh;. vjph;g;Gzh;r;rpNa fpsh;r;rpf;F MzpNth;.
Mdhy; tbtkw;w vjph;g;Gzh;r;rp tPz;Kaw;r;rpahFk;. tpoYf;fpiwj;j
ePuhFk;. vdNt> kf;fspd; jiyth;fSf;F chpa tbtk; nfhLj;jdh;.
mt;tbtk; Kjypy; gpuhe;jpaf; $l;likg;Gf;fhf cUntLj;jJ.
1795ypUe;J 1799 tiu ,uhkehjGuk;> jpUney;Ntyp> jpz;Lf;fy;> kyghh;>
NfhaKj;J}h; Mfpa ehd;F gpuhe;jpa $l;likg;Gfs; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld.
,uhkehjGuk; $l;likg;G
,f;$l;likg;gpd; fh;j;jh rptfq;if nts;sk; kUJghz;bad; Mthh;.
,tuJ ,sty; rpd;dkUJ. kUJ rNfhjuh;fs; rptfq;if kd;duhd Kj;J
tLfehjj; Njthplk; rhjhuz Copah;fshfj; jq;fsJ gzpiaj;
Jtq;fpdhh;. jq;fsJ gad; fUjhg; gzpahYk;> Neh;ikj; jpwj;jhYk;
v[khd gf;jp tpRthrj;jpYk; fLikahd ciog;ghYk; cah;e;jdh;@
mikr;rh;fshapdh;. murhpd; kiwTf;Fg; gpwF mur FLk;gj;ijf; fhj;j
ngUik ,th;fSf;F cz;L. rptfq;iffF mLf;fLf;fhf te;j
Nrhjidfisr; rkhspj;jdh;.
Kj;JfUg;gNjth; MfpNahh; kUJghz;badpd; Kaw;r;rpf;F Mf;fKk;
Cf;fKk; je;jdh;. jQ;rhT+h; QhdKj;JTk; rptfphp khg;gps;is
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
75
td;dpaDk; kJiuf; fs;sh;fSk; kUJ ghz;bad; mikj;j ,uhkehjGuk;
$l;likg;Gf;F Mjutspj;jdh;. kUJ ghz;badJ jiyikapy;
,f;$l;likg;Gf;F nray;gl;lJ.
jpUney;Ntyp $l;likg;G
kUJ ghz;badhy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;L ehfyhGuk; kd;dh;: Nfhl;il>
Nghthyp> Nfhyhh;gl;b> nrd;dhy;Fb ghisaf;fhuh;fs; Nrh;e;J
cUthf;fpaJjhd; jpUney;Ntypf; $l;likg;G. ,f;$l;likg;gpy; Nrh;e;J
mjw;F GJg;nghypitAk; tYitAk; nfhLj;jhh; ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpg;
ghisaf;fhuhd tPughz;ba fl;lnghk;kd;. kUJ ghz;badhy; ftug;gl;L>
mtNuhL neUq;fpa njhlh;G nfhz;L> mtiuNa Kd;khjphpahff;
nfhz;L nray;gl;lhh; fl;lnghk;kd;. mth; rhg;^h;> Vohapuk; gz;iz>
fhly;Fb> Fsj;J}h; ghisaf;fhuh;fisAk; $l;L Nrh;j;Jf;nfhz;L
jpUney;Ntyp $l;likg;igg; gyg;gLj;jpdhh;.
jpz;Lf;fy; $l;likg;G
jpz;Lf;fy; $l;likg;ig cUthf;fpath; Nfhghy ehaf;fh; Mthh;.
tpUg;ghl;rpg; ghisaf;fhuhd Nfhghy ehaf;fh; rpwe;j uh[je;jphp@
Nghh;f;fsq;fs; gy fz;lth;@ jpwikahd mikg;ghsh;.me;epa mlf;FKiw
Mjpf;fj;jplkpUe;J tpLgl vz;zpNahUf;F mtuJ jiyik fyq;fiu
tpsf;fkhfj; jpfo;e;jJ. jpz;Lf;fy;> kzg;ghiw fs;sh;ehL> NfhgKj;J}h;>
Nryk; Mfpa ,lq;fSf;Fj; jdJ J}Jth;fis mDg;gp MjuT Njbdhh;
Nfhghy ehaf;fh;.
kyghh;-NfhaKj;J}h; $l;likg;G
,e;j mikg;G Vw;gLtjw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jth; Nfusth;kh
Mthh;. kf;fs; nry;thf;F kpfg; ngw;wth; ,th;. gpw $l;likg;Gfs;
cUthfpf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy; fk;ngdpg; gilNahL fLikahfg; Nghuhbf;
nfhz;bUe;jth; Nfusth;kh. tptrhapfspd; gf;fgyk; mtUf;F vg;NghJk;
,Ue;jJ. Nfusth;kh gpw ghisaf;fhuh;fSf;F mDg;gpa Xiyr; Rtb
fbjq;fs; ey;y gydspj;jd@ mth;fspd; MjuT fpilj;jJ. itehL>
Nfhl;lahl;L> Fug;guehL> gug;gehL Mfpatw;wpd; jiyth;fSk; ,Utp
ehl;L ek;G+jphpfSk; rNkhhpd; FLk;gj;jpdUk;> kyghh; khg;gps;isfSk;
Nfusth;khit Mjhpj;jdh;. Mq;;fpNyah;fspd; Nehf;Fk; Nghf;Fk; gpbf;fhj
NfhaKj;J}h; fTz;lh;fSk; kyghh; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fNshL Nrh;e;J
nfhz;ldh;. kyghh;> jpz;Lf;fy; $l;likg;Gfs; $Lk; ikakhf
tpsq;fpaJ NfhaKj;J}h;.
njd;dpe;jpaf; $l;likg;G (Peninsular Confederacy)
gpuhe;jpaf; $l;likg;Gfs; fhyj;jpd; fl;lhaj;jpy; jd;dpr;irahfj;
Njhd;wpaitahFk;. ,t;tikg;Gfspd; ,izg;Gg; ghykhf tpsq;fpath;
kUJghz;bad;. ehd;F $l;likg;GfSf;Fk; nghJthd Fwpf;Nfhs;
,Ue;jJ. ,it njd;dpe;jpahtpd; gue;j epyg;gFjpapy; nray;gl;ld.
mijj; jq;fsJ nry;thf;fpd; fPo; itj;jpUe;jd. jpz;Lf;fy; kyghh;
$l;likg;Gfs; ik#h; jpg;GRy;jhDld; cld;ghL nfhz;bUe;jd. Mdhy;
1799y; jpg;GRy;jhd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd;dh; gpuhe;jpf; $l;likg;Gfs;
gykpoe;jd.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
76
fpsh;r;rpapd; Nghf;F
fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lk;
Mq;fpNyauJ Ml;rpia mfw;wp> ehl;il me;epa Mjpf;fj;jpypUe;J
tpLtpg;gNj njd;dpe;jpaf; $l;bizg;gpd; Fwpf;NfhshFk;. ,f;Fwpf;Nfhis
epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd jpl;lj;ijj; jPl;Lk;nghUl;L $l;bizg;Gj; jiyth;fs;
tpUg;ghl;rpapy; $b rjpahNyhrid nra;jdh;(1800 Vg;uy;).tphpthd
MNyhridf;Fg; gpd;dh; mth;fs; gpd;tUk; %d;W Kf;fpa KbTfis
Nkw;nfhz;ldh;.
1. xNu rkaj;jpd; gy gFjpfs; fpsh;r;rpiaj; Jtf;FtJ>
2. fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; xw;Wikahf ,Ue;J NghuhLtJ>
3. Mq;fpNyag; gilNahL Neubahf Nkhjhky;> kiwe;jpUe;J jhf;Fk;
nfhhpy;yh Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wy;. kUJ ghz;bad; kJiug; gFjpapYk;
Nfhghy ehaf;fh; jpz;Lf;fy;-jpUr;rp gFjpapYk;> fhd;-,-[`hd;
fpU\;zg;g ehaf;fh; Nkw;F ik#h; gFjpapYk;> J}z;lh[p thf; fd;dl
ehl;bd; tlf;Fg; gFjpapYk; fpsh;r;rpf;Fg; nghWg;Ngw;gJ vd;W
Kbthapw;W.
fpsh;r;rp Jtf;fk;
tpUg;ghl;rp jpl;lj;ijg;gw;wp VJk; mwpahj fk;ngdpg;gil fpU\;zg;g
ehaf;fhpd; Nfe;jpu ikakhd ngy;yk;(Bellum) vd;w ,lj;ijf; ifg;gw;w
Kad;wJ (1800 khh;r; 30). nghWik ,oe;j J}z;lh[p thf; jdJ
gilapdiu ngy;yj;Jf;F mDg;gpdhh;. mtNuhL mtuJ rfhf;fSk;
fpsh;r;rpapyPLgl;ldh;. fpsh;r;rp jpl;lkpl;jw;F ,uz;L khjq;fSf;F Kd;dNu
Jtf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. Nk khj Jtf;fj;jpy; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs;
NfhaKj;J}iu neUf;fpdh;. eurpq;fuhtpd; jiyikapy; NfhaKj;J}h;
thrpfs; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F cw;rhf tuNtw;gspj;jdh;.
ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpapg; Nghh;fs;
200 fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; jpUr;nre;J}h; nry;Yk; gf;jh;fs; Nghd;W
Ntlkpl;Lr; nrd;W ghisaq;Nfhl;ilapy; rpiwg;gl;bUe;j nrtj;ijah>
Cikj;Jiu cs;spl;l gyiu tpLtpj;jdh;. mth;fs; kiyehL kiy
topahfg; ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpia mile;jdh;. ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpf; Nfhl;il
Gjpjhff; fl;lg;gl;lJ. kUJghz;bad; mDg;gpa30>000 fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs;
mth;fSld; Nrh;e;J nfhz;ldh;. kwth;fSk;> guth;fSk;> ehlhh;fSk;>
Njhl;bahd;fSk; mth;fSf;Ff; ifnfhLj;jdh;. ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpf;Fk;
=itFz;lk; Mo;thh;jpUefhpf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l gFjpfis mth;fs;
Mq;fpNyahplkpUe;J ifg;gw;wpdh;. tpypikkpf;f Nfhnkhpf; Nfhl;il
fpsh;r;rpf;fhu;fs; iftrkhapw;W. Nkyg;gd; gy ,lq;fis kPl;lhh;.
rptfq;ifapypUe;J te;j fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; nel;^hpy; fk;ngdpg; giliar;
rpjwbj;jdh;. vdpDk; fhypd; nkf;fhNyAk;> fh;dy; mf;DTk;
ghQ;rhyq;Fwpr;rpg; Nfhl;ilia Kw;Wifapl;ldh;.
fhisahh;Nfhtpy; fpsh;r;rp
ghQ;rhyq;fwpr;rpapd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd;dh; rptfq;if fhisahh;Nfhtpy;
fhL fpsh;r;rp ikakhw;W. jpUg;gj;J}h;> ej;jk;> jpUk;NtY}h;> NkY}h;>
ntuk;G+h; Mfpa ,lq;fpspy; fk;ngdpg; gil fLe;jhf;FjYf;F
,yf;fhapw;W. nghk; ehaf;fh; ntug;G+hpypUe;J fk;ngdpg; gilapdiu
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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tpul;bdhh;. Cikj;Jiu gioa ehl;il tpLtpj;jhh;. fs;sh;fs; kJiuapd;
Nkw;Fg; gFjpia tpLtpj;jdh;. fhisahh;Nfhtpy; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs;
trkhapw;W.
jpUr;rpg; gpufldk;
njd;dpe;jpaf; $l;bizg;Gg; gilapdh; ntw;wpthif #bf;
nfhz;bUe;j rkaj;jpy;jhd; kUJghz;bad; jdJ tuyhw;W
Kf;fpaj;Jtkpf;f jpUr;rpg; gpufldj;ij (Trichy proclamation)
ntspapl;lhh;. mg;gpufldk; jpUr;rp Nfhl;il Eiotha;r; Rtw;wpYk;>
=uq;fk; nghpaNfhtpy;; Rtw;wpYk; xl;lg;gl;bUe;jJ. rhjp> rka> ,d
NtWghbd;wp ,e;jpahtpYs;s midj;J kf;fSf;Fk;> miw$ty; tpLj;jJ
me;jg; gpufldk;. mJ kf;fSf;Fj; jd;dk;gpf;ifia mspj;jJ@
tPo;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:
njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rpapd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gy fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jd.
1. fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lk; nrt;tNd jPl;lg;gl;lhYk; mJ jpl;lkpl;lgb
nray;gLj;jg; gltpy;iy. J}z;lh[pthf; ,uz;L khjq;fSf;F
Kd;dNu fpsh;r;rpiaj; Jtf;fptpl;lhh;@
2. fpsh;r;rp gy ,lq;fspy; xNu Neuj;jpy; Jtf;fg;gltpy;iy. gy
gFjpfs; fpsh;r;rpapy; jPtpukhf <Lgltpy;iy@
3. gy rkaq;fspy; „nfhhpy;yh Nghh;‟ Kiwiag; gpd;gw;whky; Neub
Nkhjypy; <Lgl;ldh;@
4. J}z;lh[p thf;fpd; mfhy kuzj;jhy; gy kuhj;jpaj; jiyth;fspd;
Mjuitf; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; ngw KbahJ Nghapw;W@
5. GJf;Nfhl;il> jQ;rhT+h;> jpUthq;$h;> ik#h; kd;dh;fs;> i`juhghj;
ep[hk;> G+dhtpd; Ng\;th MfpNahh; fk;ngdpapd; Mjuthsh;fshf
,Ue;jdh;@
6. Vkd;ehah;> rl;Lehah;> uhkd; ehah; Nghd;w fUq;fhypfs; fpsh;r;rpj;
jiyth;fisf; fhl;bf; nfhLj;J tpl;ldh;@
7. fpsh;r;rpj; jiyth;fsplk; Nghjpa Nghh;j; jsthlq;fs; ,y;iy.
mth;fsJ Nghh; cj;jpfSk; rpwg;ghapy;iy@
8. Nghuhl;lj; jiyth;fspilNa xw;Wik ,Ue;jhYk;>
fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fspilNa xw;Wik ,y;iy@
9. nghJkf;fspd; MjuT G+uzkhf fpilf;ftpy;iy@

1) njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs; ahit?


2) jpUr;rp gpufldk; vd;why; vd;d?

NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp 1806


njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp mlf;fp xLf;fg;gl;l Mwhz;Lf; fhyj;jpy;
NtY}hpy; kw;nwhU fpsh;r;rp ntbj;jJ. Ke;jpaf; fpsh;r;rpapy;
fye;Jnfhz;L jg;gpte;j gy fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F NtY}h; rpwe;j
nfhj;jshkhfg; gad;gl;lJ. ghisaf;fhuh;fsplk; gzpahw;wpa gy tPuh;fs;
fk;ngdpg; gilapy; Nrh;e;jpUe;jdh;. NtY}h;f; Nfhl;ilapy; rpiwg;gl;bUe;j
jpg;G Ry;jhdpd; Gjy;th;fs;> Fwpg;ghf mtuJ %j;jkfd; gl;Nl i`jh;
Mq;fpNyaUf;nfjpuhff; fpsh;r;rp nra;tjw;fhd jf;f jUzj;ij
vjph;ghh;j;jpUe;jhh;. fk;ngdpapd; Mf;fpukpg;Gf; nfhs;ifahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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i`juhgj;Jk;> ik#Uk; fpsh;r;rpia Mjhpf;f tpUk;gpd. ,r;rhjfkhd
#o;epiyiag; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L fpsh;r;rp nra;jdh;.
fpsh;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;
NtY}h; fpsh;r;rpf;fhd cz;ikf; fhuz;q;fisg;gw;wp xUkpj;j
fUj;jpy;iy. xd;Wf;nfhd;W khWgl;l Kuz;gl;l fhuzq;fs;
$wg;gl;Ls;sd. vdpDk; NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp Njhd;wpajw;fhd fPof;fz;l
tpsf;fq;fis $wyhk;.
1. Mq;fpNya Ml;rpia mfw;WtNj NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpapd; Kf;fpa
Nehf;fkhFk;. njd;dpe;jpaf; fpsh;r;rp Kwpabf;fg;gl;l gpd; vQrpj;
jg;gpa fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fspy; gyh; fk;ngdp ,uhZtj;jpy; Nrh;e;jdh;.
gyh; NtY}iur; Rw;wp FbNawpdh;. mth;fs; mt;tg;NghJ re;jpj;J>
,ufprakhff; fUjJg; ghpkhw;wk; nra;Jf;nfhz;L kPz;Lk; xU
fpsh;r;rp nra;J Mq;fpNya Ml;rpia mfw;w KbT nra;jdh;.
,Uf;fUj;ij Nguhrphpah; F.uh[a;ad; typAWj;Jfpwhh;.
2. ik#h; Kbahl;rpia kPl;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W jpg;G Ry;jhdpd; thhpRfs;
rjpj; jpl;lk; jPl;bdh;. jpg;G ,we;jgpd; mtuJ gd;dpuz;L
gps;isfisAk;> MW ngz;fisAk; NtY}h; Nfhl;ilapy; rpiw
itj;jpUe;jdh;. mth;fspy; Fwpg;ghf jpg;Gtpd; %j;j ike;jd; gl;Nl
i`jh; gpwuJ JizAld; fpsh;r;rp nra;aj; jpl;lkpl;lhh; mtuJ
Kaw;rpahy; fpl;lj;jl;l 3000 fd;dlf; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; NtYiur;
Rw;wp FbNawpdh;. fk;ngdp gilj;jsgjp N[.vg;.gpuNlhf; ik#h;
kPz;Lk; K];yPk; Kbahl;rpia Vw;gLj;JtNj NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpapd;
Nehf;fk; vd;W Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;.
3. Mq;fpNyauJ Mf;fpukpg;Gf; nfhs;ifahy; jd;Dila Rje;jpuj;ij
,oe;j i`juhghj; ep[Pk; kPz;Lk; jdJ Ml;rpia epiyehl;l
ehl;lk; nfhz;bUe;jhh;. i`juhghj; rpf;fhNfhy; kf;fSk; kdtUj;j
Kw;wpUe;jdh;. mth;fs; fpsh;r;rp nra;aj; Jbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;.
NtY}hpapypUe;J fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; i`juhghj; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSld;
njhlh;G nfhz;bUe;jdh;. mr;#o;epiyiag; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l
i`juhghj; ep[hk; jdJ Ml;rpia kPl;f Kad;whh;.
4. fk;ngdpg; gilapy; Nrh;e;j rpg;gha;fSf;F ,uhZtf; fl;Lg;ghL
Nghh;f;fUtpfs;> gapw;rpKiw> Nghh; Kiwfs; gof;f tof;fq;fs;
Mfpa midj;Jk; GJikahapUe;jd. mtw;Wf;Nfw;gj; jq;fis
khw;wpf; nfhs;s Ntz;bapUe;jJ. mJ kl;Lky;y> rpg;gha;fs;
Mq;fpNya tPuh;fSf;F rkkhf elj;jg;gltpy;iy. mJ
rpg;gha;fspilNa ,dNtw;Wikia tsh;j;jJ mjd; fhuzkhf
mth;fs; me;epaiu mfw;w Ntz;Lnkd;W tpUk;gpdh;.
5. 1806y; nrd;id ,uhZtg; gphpty; rpy rph;jpUj;jq;fs; nra;ag;gl;ld.
nrd;id ,uhZtj; jsgjpahd rh; [hd; fpuNlhf;> nrd;id
fth;duhf ,Ue;j tpy;ypak; ngz;bq; gpuGtpd; rk;kjj;NjhL rpy
khw;wq;fisr; nra;jhh;. mjd;gb rpg;gha;fs; INuhg;gpa giltPuh;fs;
mzptJ Nghd;w jiyg;ghifia mzpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;>
gzpapy; ,Uf;ifapy; rpg;gha;fs; fhjzpfis mzptNjh> new;wpapy;
jpUe;J my;yJ ehkk; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;tNjh $lhJ. Kfj;ij ed;F
kopj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. kPiria ed;whf eWf;fg;gl;bUf;f
Ntz;Lk;. rpg;gha;fs; rpYitr; rpd;dk; nfhz;l gl;ilia mzpa

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


79
Ntz;Lk;. ,r;rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; rpg;gha;fspilNa Mq;fpNyah; kPJ
ntWg;Gzh;r;rpia Vw;gLj;jpd.
6. Mq;fpNyah;fs; jq;fis fpwpj;Jt kjj;Jf;F khw;w
Kaw;rpf;fpd;wdh; vd;W rpg;gha;fs; re;Njfg;gl;ldh;. me;j
Nehf;fj;NjhL jhd; ,uhZtr; rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; nra;ag;gl;ld. vd;W
mth;fs; fUjpdh;. Fwpg;ghf „mf;D Fy ;yh‟ apy; ,Ue;j Kbr;R
gR> gd;wpj; Njhyhy; MdJ vd;w re;Njfk; ,e;J K];yPk;
rpg;gha;fspilNa rpd%l;baJ. mf;Fy;yha;fs; fpwpj;Jt kjj;Jf;F
khwpath;fs; mzpe;jijg; Nghd;wpUe;jd. rpYitr; rpd;dkpl;l
milahsg; gl;ilia mzpa Ntz;Lnkd;w cj;juT
rpg;gha;fspilNa ,Ue;j kjkhw;w mr;rj;ij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjhf
,Ue;jJ.
fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lk;
Nkw;fz;l fhuzq;fshy; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSk; jpg;GRy;jhd;
ike;jh;fSk; rpg;gha;fSk; fpsh;r;rpf;fhfj; jpl;lkpl;ldh;. NtY}h;f;
fpsh;r;rpf;fuh;fs; Mw;fhL> ik#h;> i`juhghj; fyf;fhuh;fNshL njhlh;G
nfhz;ldh;. gpypnfhz;lh kf;fSk;> thyh[hghj;jpy; ,Ue;j rpg;gha;fSk;
NtY}h; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F cjt Kd; te;jdh;. rpj;J}h; rpg;gha;fSk;
fpsh;r;rpia Mjhpj;jdh;. i`juhghj;> rpf;fhNfhy; rpg;gha;fs; mg;gFjp
kffNshL ,ufrpaj; njhlh;G nfhz;ldh;. i`juhghj; fpsh;r;rpia
mLj;J rpf;fhNfhtpy; fpsh;r;rp nra;a KbT nra;jdh;. mr;rjpjjpl;;lj;ij
ep[hk; fz;Lk; fhzhky; ,Ue;J tpl;lhh;. kdf;frg;gile;jpUe;j ik#h;
kf;fSk; fpsh;r;rpapy; fye;J nfhs;sj; jahuhapUe;jdh;. 1806 [Piy 13
Mk; Njjp mjpfhiyapy; NtY}h; Nfhl;ilia ifg;gw;Wtnjd;Wk; mijj;
njhlh;e;J ik$hpYk;> i`juhghj;jpYk; fpsh;r;rp Jtf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ.
fpsh;r;rpapd; Nghf;F
Gjpa Fy;yha;fs; GFj;jg;gl;l NghNj fpsh;r;rpf;fhd mwpFwpfs;
fhzg;gl;ld. Jtf;fj;jpy; rpg;gha;fs; vjph;g;ig ntspf;fhl;lhJ mzpe;J
nfhz;ldh;. Nfhl;ilf;F ntspNa $ba kf;fs; Fy;yhazpe;j
rpg;gha;fisf; Nfyp nra;jdh;. mth;fs; tpul;babf;fg;gl;ldh;. vdpDk;
$l;lj;jpdh; nra;j Nfyp rpg;gha;fspilNa mlq;fpf; fple;j jd;khd
czh;itj; J}z;btpl;lJ. gy rpg;gha;fs; Nfhgj;Jld; Fy;yha;fisf;
fow;wp tprp Vwpe;jdh;. Mdhy; me;j rpg;gha;fs; jz;bf;fg;gl;L> xOq;F
epiyehl;lg;gl;lJ.
jpl;lg;gb fpsh;r;rp 1806 [Piy 13Mk; Njjp Jtf;fg;gl;bUf;f
Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; Ie;J ehl;fSf;F Kd;dNu Jtf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. gy
Fjpiug;gil tPuh;fs; gzpahl;fSld; NtY}Uf;Fs; Eioe;jdh; ([Piy 9)
mLj;j ehs; NtY}h;f; Nfhl;ilapypUe;J rpg;gha;fs; Mq;fpNyah;fs;
trpj;j FbapUg;Gg; gFjpia Nehf;fpr; Rl;ldh;. mth;fsJ jsgjp fh;dy;
ngd;Nfhh;l; (Col Fencourt) bd; tPl;ilr; #o;e;J nfhz;ldh;.
mtiur; Rl;Lnfhd;wdh;. mtud;wp ,uhZt mjfhhpfshd nkf;fhuRk;>
Nk[h; Mk;];lluhq;Fk; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. gpd;dh; gil ,Ug;gplj;jpypUe;J
gpw mjpfhhpfisAk; ,uhZtj;jpdiuAk; nfhy;y Kw;gl;ldh;.
Nfhl;ilapy; gpujhd Eiothapypy; gy Mq;fpNyah;fisf; nfhd;W
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Ftpj;jdh; ntbkUe;Jf; fplq;Ff; fhtyUk; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;.
gphpl;b\; Njrpaf; nfhb ,wf;fg;gl;lJ mjw;F gjpy; rpfg;g gpd;dzpapy;
gr;irf; NfhLfs; Nghlg;gl;L. kj;jpapy; #hpad; tbtk; nghwpf;fg;gl;l
jpg;GRy;jhdJ nfhb Vw;wg;gl;lJ. jpg;GRy;jhdJ %j;j kfdhd gl;Nl
i`jh; murnud mwptpf;f;gg; l;lhh;.
fpsh;r;rpapd; Njhy;tp
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp jpl;lkplg;gl;ljw;F Kd;ghfNt Jtf;fg;gl;L
tpl;ljhy; tYtpoe;jJ ik#Uk; i`juhghj;Jk; xNu rkaj;jpy; fpsh;r;rp
nra;atpy;iy. NtY}h; Nfhl;ilapy; ele;j fpsh;r;rpiag; gw;wp mwpe;j
fh;dy; rpy;ny];gp (Col Gillelspie) typik tha;e;j kPl;Gg; gilAld;
Mw;fhl;bypUe;J tpiue;J te;jhh;. %lg;gl;bUe;j NtY}h; Nfhl;ilapd;
Eiothapiy ntbitj;Jj; jfh;j;Jtpl;L cs;Eioe;jhh; ,th; fpy;y];gp
Nfhl;ilf;Fs;spUe;j fpsh;r;rpf;fhu rpg;gha;fis %h;f;fkhfj; jhf;fpdhh;.
rpg;gha;fSk; JzpTld; Nghhpl;ldh;. mk;Nkhjypy; 350 rpg;gha;fs;
nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. 113 INuhg;gpah; capuoe;jdh;. 500 fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs;
ifJ nra;ag;gl;L. rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;ldh;. NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp
KOtJkhf mlf;fg;gl;lJ.
Njhy;tpf;fhd fhuzq;fs;
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpf;fhd nghJf;Fwpf;Nfhs; vJTkpy;iy. fpsh;r;rp
ed;F fzpf;fg;gl;L jpl;lkplg;gl;L> xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;L. jpwikahf
elj;jg;gltpy;iy. NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F kUJghz;bad; Nghd;w
xU uh[je;jhp fpilf;ftpy;iy. mjdhy; mth;fs; $l;likg;G vijAk;
cUthf;ftpy;iy. fpsh;r;rpf;fhd Njjp Fwpg;gpl;lhYk; Fwpg;gpl;l Njjpfp;F
Kd;dNu fpsh;r;rp Jtf;f;gg; l;Ltpl;lJ. NtY}h;f; Nfhl;iliaf;
ifg;gw;wpaJ fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fspd; Jzpfukhd rhfr; nray;jhd; vd;gjpy;
Iakpy;iy. vdpDk; mJ jdpg;gl;l epfo;r;rpahfNt ,ue;Jtpl;lJ.
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpianahl;b ik#hpYk;> i`juhghj;jpYk; fpsh;r;rpfs;
Njhd;wtpy;iy. NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F chpa fhyj;jpy; Nghjpa
cjtpfs; fpilf;ftpy;iy. gzk;> nghUs;> Ma;j trjpfSk;
mth;fSf;Ff; FiwT. NkYk; vy;yhr; rpg;gha;fSk; ,f;fpsh;r;rpapy;
fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy. gyh; Mq;fpNya mjpfhhpfSf;F tpRthrj;Jld;
,Ue;jdh;. mf;D Fy;yh mzpe;j rpg;gha;fisf; Nfyp nra;tjw;fhff;
$ba $l;lj;ijj; jtpu kf;fs; ,f;fpsh;r;rpapyy; gq;F nfhs;stpy;iy.
fpy;nyd;gpapd; nfh^uj; jhf;FjYf;F Kd; fpsh;r;rpf;fhu rpg;gha;fshy;
<LnfhLf;f Kbatpy;iy.
fpsh;r;rpapd; ,ay;Gk; rpwg;Gk;
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpapd; ,ay;igg; gw;wpAk; rpwg;igg; gw;wpAk;
gythwhff; $wg;gl;Ls;sd. NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp mlf;fg;gl;lgpd; mjd;
cz;ik epiyiaf; fz;lwpa Ma;Tfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld.
[p.`hh;Nfhh;l; Mh;.fpy;ny];gp> I.nfd;db> I.kd;Nwh MfpNahh; nfhz;l
tprhuizf; FO xd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ. jpg;G Ry;jhdpd; ike;jh;fs; rjp
nra;J J}z;btpl;ljhy; tpisthfNt NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ vd;w
KbTf;F te;jJ me;j tprhuizahfNt NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp vw;gl;lJ vd;w
KbTf;F te;jJ me;j tprhuizf; FO Nk[h; n[duy; Ngl;lh;
jiyikapyhd rpwg;Gf; fkp\d; xd;Wk; epakpf;fg;gl;lJ. Gjpjhfg;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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GFj;jg;gl;l ,uhZtr; rPh;jpUj;jq;fSk; jpg;Gtpd; nry;thf;Fk; Nrh;e;Nj
fpsh;r;rpiaj; Njhw;Wtpj;jJ vd;W fz;Lgpbj;jJ me;jf; fkp\d; Kfyha
Ml;rpNa NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpf;fhd fhuznkd;whh; N[.vg;.fpuNlhf; kjkhw;w
gaNk fpsh;r;rpf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;whh; rh;.jhk]; kd;Nwh ,e;J
K];yPk;fspd; rka czh;r;rp Gz;gl;ljhy;jhd; rpg;gha;fs; fpsh;r;rp
nra;jdh; vd;whh; tpy;ypak; ngz;bq; gpuT. gy;NtW fUj;Jf;fisAk;
ghprpypj;J ,af;Fdh;fs; kd;wk; (Court of Directors) Gjpa ,uhZt
khw;wq;fshy; rpg;gha;fs; mjpUg;jpAw;wdh;. me;j mjpUg;jpia NtY}h;f;
Nfhl;ilapy; rpiwg;gl;bue;j jpg;GRy;jhdpd; ike;jh;fs; jq;fSf;Fr;
rhjfkhfg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;ldh; vd;w KbTf;F te;jJ.
NtY}h;f; fpsh;rpr fk;ngdp Ml;rpf;nfjpuhd rpg;gha; fyfNk
vd;fpwhh; Nguhrphpah; N[hrg;jpypad;. 1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rpf;fhd xj;jpifNa
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp vd;W vOjpAs;shh; tp.b.rthh;f;fh; njd;dpe;jpaf;
fpsh;r;rpahy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;L fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fs; Nkw;nfhz;l tpLjiyg;
Nghuhl;l Kaw;rpNa NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp vd;gJ Nguuhrphpah; F.uh[a;adJ
thjk; NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp NjdPhf ; ; Nfhg;igapy; vOe;j Gayy;y khwhf>
mJ gy tifapYk; 1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rpf;fhd Kd;NdhbahFk; vdf;
fUJtjpy; jtwpy;iy.
tpisTfs;
NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rp tpisTfsw;w tpo;rrpad;W mjd; tpisthfg; gy
khWjy;fs; Vw;gl;ld. nrd;id fth;dh; tpy;ypak; ngz;bq; gpuGTk;
nrd;id jsgjp rh; [hd; fpuNlhf;Fk; gjtpapdpd;Wk; tpyf;fpf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ (1807) cldb tpisthFk;. Gjpjhfg; GFj;jg;gl;l
,uhZt khw;wq;fs; ePf;fg;gl;ld. NtY}h;f; Nfhl;ilapy; rpiw
itf;fg;gl;bUe;j jpg;G Ry;jhdpd; fLk;gj;jpdh; tq;fshj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;L
nry;yg;gl;ldh;. Gjpa fth;duhf te;j ghh;Nyh (Barlow) kf;fspd; rka
czh;Tfis kjpg;gjd; mtrpaj;ij czh;e;J nray;gl;lhh;. fk;ngdp
mjpfhhpfs; fpwpj;Jt rkag; gpur;rhj;jpy; <LgLtJ fzprkhff; Fiwe;jJ
MapDk; gphpl;b\; Nkyjpfhhpfs;. gpnuQ;R g+h;ghd; murh;fisg; Nghd;>
njd;dpe;jpa NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpfspypUe;J ve;jg; ghlj;ijAk;
fw;fTkpy;iy! kwf;fTkpy;iy!

1) NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rpapd; Nghf;if tpsf;Ff.


2) NtY}h; fpsh;r;rpapd; Njhy;tpf;fhd fhuzq;fs; ahit?

rKjha rkar; rPh;jpUj;j ,af;fq;fs;


,e;Jf;fs; gpd;gw;Wk; kjKiwfs; mth;fsJ murpay; eyd;fisg;
ghJfhg;gjhapy;iy. mNjNghd;W rhjpNtWghLfs; vz;zpwe;j
gphpTfisAk; cl;gphpTfisAk; Vw;gLj;jp tp;l;lJ. ,J mth;fspilNa
ehl;Lg;gw;iw tsu tplhky; nra;Jtpl;lJ.
-uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uha;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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1857 ngUq;fpsh;r;rpf;F gpd; Ik;gjhz;Lfspy; ,e;jpa Njrpa
czh;r;rp tpiuthf tsuyhapw;W. gy rKjha> rkar; rPh;jpUj;jthjpfs;
Njrpa czh;r;rpfhz mwpT> Md;kf
P czh;r;rp mbj;jsq;fis
mikj;Jf; nfhLj;jdh;. mth;fs; midtUf;Fk; rhjpKiw> Foe;ijj;
jpUkzk;> Foe;ijf; nfhiy> tpjitfis xJf;fp itj;jy;> r%f
NtWghLfs; rPh;jpUj;jthjpfs;> rKjhaf; NfLfSf;Fk;> nfhLikfSf;Fk;
Ntjq;fspYk;> cgepljq;fspYk; ghpfhuk; Njbdhh;fs;. NtW rpyh; mwptpd;
Jiznfhz;L> rKjha rkag; gpur;rpidfisg; gFj;jhuha;e;J ghpfhuq;
$wpdh;. rPh;jpUj;jk;(Reform) gioik kPl;G (Revival) gFj;jwpT
(Rationalism) Mfpa %d;W topfspy; gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd;
gpw;gFjpapy; ,e;jpa rKjha rPh;jpUj;jthjpfs; jq;fsJ ,af;fq;fis
elj;jpdh;. gpuk;k rkh[k;> gpuhj;jdh rkh[k;> Mhpa rkh[k;> uhkfpU\;z
,af;fk;> gpuk;kQhd rig Mfpait ,e;jpa Njrpa czh;T mUk;g
mUk;ghLgl;ld.
gpuk;k rkh[k;
uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uha;
gpuk;k rkh[j;ijj; (Brahmo Samaj) Njhw;Wtpj;jth; uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uha;
(1772-1883) Mthh;. trjpahd gpuhkzf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;j uhk;Nkhfd;
,stajpNyNa Kw;Nghf;F vz;zq; nfhz;ltuhf ,Ue;jhh;. cUt
topghl;il vjph;j;jhh;. mwpahik> nghiwapd;ik> %lg;gof;f tof;fq;fs;
Mfpatw;Wf;nfjpuhfg; Nghuhbdhhh;. cld;fl;il VWk; tof;fj;jpw;F
vjpuhfg; Nghh; njhLj;jhh;. rhjp Kiwiar; rhbdhh;. ngz;fs;
tpLjiyf;fhg; ghLgl;lhh;. vz;zr; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; vOj;Jr;
Rje;jpuj;ijAk; ,U fz;fshfg; ghtpj;jhh;. eph;thfj; JiwAk; epjpj;
JiwAk; jdpj;jdpNa ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;whh;. khngUk; kdpjhgpkhdpahd
uh[h uhk;Nkhfd;uha; midj;Jf; JiwfspYk; kdpj tpLjiyf;fhg;
ghLgl;lhh;. gy flTl; nfhs;ifiag; Gwf;fzpj;J xNu flTs;
nfhs;ifiag; Nghw;wpdhh;. ,iwtd; kdpj Fyj;Jf;Fg; nghJthdth;;
mNjNghd;W rkaKk; kdpj Fyj;Jf;Fg; nghJthapUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
mtuJ Nfhl;ghL. „rh;trka rkur rd;khh;f;fk;‟ uh[h uhk;Nkhfd;uha;
fhl;ba Md;kpf topahFk;. mth; Kw;Nghf;F ,e;jpahtpd; Kd;Ndhbj;
jiyth; Mthh;. gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd; rKjha> rkaf; rPh;j;jpUj;j
,af;fj;jpd; je;ij mth;. mjdhy;jhd; uh[h uhk;Nkhfd;uha; „Gjpa
,e;jpahtpd; tpbnts;sp‟ vd;Wk;> „Kw;Nghf;F Md;kpff; fz;lk; fz;l
,e;jpaf; nfhyk;g];‟ vd;Wk;> Nghw;wg;gLfpwhh;.
gpuk;k rkh[k;
1828 Mf];L 20Mk; ehs; gpuk;k rkh[k; uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uhahy;
Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. 1830 [dthp 23Mk; ehspypypUe;J mJ Kiwg;gb
nray;gl Muk;gpj;jJ. mJ gpuk;k rig my;yJ xNu flTs; rq;fk; vd;W
Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpuk;k rkh[k; gFj;jwpT r%f rPh;jpUj;jjpd;
mbg;gilapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpahtpy; xNu flTs; nfhs;ifia
(Monotheism) epiy ehl;LtNj mjd; Nehf;fk;> gpuk;k rkh[j;jpd;
cWg;gpdh;fs; „gpuNkhf;fs;‟ (Brahmos) vd;wiof;fg;gl;ldh;. ,th;fs;
topgl;l flTSf;Fg; ngaNuh> gl;lNkh> cUtNkh> rpiyNah fpilahJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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midtUf;Fk; nghJthd guk;nghUis topgl vt;tpj NtWghLkpd;wp
kf;fs; gpuk;k rkh[j;jpd; mDkjpf;fg;gl;ldh;. fy;tpngw;w kj;jpaju
kf;fs; ngUthhpahf gpuk;k rkh[j;jpy; Nrh;e;jdh;. uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uhapd;
,k;Kw;Nghf;F Md;kpfg; ghpNrhjidia tq;fhs itjPfh;fs; fLikahf
vjph;j;jdh;. gpuk;k rkh[j;Jf;nfjpuhfj; „jh;krig‟ (Dharma Sabha) vd;w
Nghl;b mikg;ig mth;fs; Vw;gLj;jpdh;. ,e;J rKjhak;
nfhe;jspg;Gf;Fs;shapw;W. Kfyhag; Nguurh; mf;giug; Nghd;Nw
uhk;Nkhfd; uhAk; ,e;jpa kf;fis vspa Md;kPf ek;gpf;if%yk; xd;W
Nrh;j;Jtplyhk; vd;W fz;lhh;; mf;giug; Nghd;Nw mtUk; kf;fspilNa
,Ue;j %lek;gpf;ifiaf; Fiwj;J kjpg;gpl;L tpl;lhh; vd;W tpy;^uz;l;
$wpAs;shh;.
Mjpgpuk;k rhk[k;
uh[h uhk;Nkhfd;uha; ,we;j gpd;dh; (1833) gpuk;k rkh[k;
eyptile;jJ. Mdhy; mjd; eypitg; Nghf;fp ,jw;Fg; GJg;nghypitf;
nfhLj;j ngUik NjNte;jpuehj; jh$iu (1817-1905) rhUk;. mth; 1859y;
Jtf;fpa jj;JtNghjpdp rigia gpuk;k rkh[j;NjhL ,izj;jhh; (1838).
mtuJ MjutpYk; mutizg;gpYk; mr;rig rpwe;j r%fr; rPh;jpUj;jf;
fUtpahfg; gad;gl;lJ. gy mwpnthspkpf;f ,e;Jf;fs; rq;fj;jpy;
Nrh;e;jdh;. rq;fj;jpd; fUj;Jg; gpur;rhuKk;> r%f rPh;jpUj;j
eltbf;iffSk; fpuhkq;fSf;nfy;yhk; CLUtpr; nrd;wd. r%fr;
rPh;jpUj;jjpy; jh$h; Nghjpa jPtpuk; fhl;ltpy;iy vd;gjhy; mtuJ gpujk
rPluhd Nfrt; re;jpunrd; (keshab Chandra Sen) gpuk;k rkh[j;ij
tpl;Lg; gphpe;J nrd;whh;. jh$hpd; jiyikapy; ,aq;fpa rq;fk; Mjp gpuk;k
rkh[k; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lJ.
Kw;Nghf;F gpuk;k rkh[k;
gpuk;k rkh[j;jpypUe;J gphpe;Jte;j Nfrt; re;jpunrd; (1829-1884)
Kw;Nghf;F gpuk;k rkh[j;ij Njhw;Wtpj;jhh;. gpuk;kNkhf;fd; rhjpiaf;
iftpl Ntz;Lk;> cUt topghl;il mwNt tpyf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;whh;
mth;. fpwpj;Jtf; Nfhl;ghl;lhy; nghpJk; ftug;gl;l Nfrt; re;jpuh
kf;fspilNa %lg;gof;fq;fisAk;> mwpahikiaAk; gug;gp te;j
jfh;j;njwpag;gl Ntz;Lnkd;whh;. kdpjDf;Nfh my;yJ Gdpj <if kw;Wk;
r%f xOf;f kWkyh;r;rpf;fhfg; ghLgl;lhh; Nfrt; re;jpu nrd;. mtuJ
mfpy ,e;jpa Rw;Wg; gazk; mtuJ rkh[j;Jf;F ,e;jpaf;
fz;Nzhl;lj;ijf; nfhLj;jJ. Njrpa xw;Wikia tsh;j;jJ. gy;NtW
gFjpfisr; Nrh;e;jth;fis xNu Nkilapy; $l;Ltpj;jJ. gpd;dh;
RNue;jpuehj; ghdh;[p Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpf;F Nfrt; nrd;dpd; eltbf;if
jpfo;e;jhh;. mth; ,we;jNghJ (1884) ,e;jpah mtUf;F mQ;ryp
nrYj;jpaJ. gpd;dh; ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lgpd; mjpy;
gy gpuk;Nkhf;fs; gpujhd gq;Nfw;wdh;.
gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[k;
Nfrt; re;jpu nrd;dpd; gk;gha;g; gazj;jpd; (1861) tpisthfr;
Jtf;fg;gl;lNj gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[khFk;. me;j rkh[k; Mj;kuhk;
ghz;Luq;fhtpd; jiyikapy; 1867 khh;r; 31Mk; ehs; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ.
kfhNjt Nfhtpe;j uhdNl> uhkfpU\;z Nfhghy; ge;jh;fhh; Nghd;w
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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gpuKfh;fs; gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[j;jpy; Nrh;e;jdh;. „rj;aNkt n[aNj‟ my;yJ
„tha;ikNa nty;Yk;‟ vd;w thrfj;ij jdJ Fwpf;NfhSiuahff;
nfhz;lJ gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[k;.
xNu flTs; nfhs;ifAk; rKjha rPh;jpUj;jKk; gpuhj;jdh
rkh[j;jpd; ,uz;L Fwpf;NfhshFk;. cUkw;w ,iw topghl;il rkh[k;
gpd;gw;wpaJ. ,e;J rkaj;jpy; GiwNahbg; NghapUe;J Coy;fis mJ
td;ikahff; fz;bj;jJ.rkar; rlq;Ffis vjph;j;jJ. Gdpj E}y;fspy;;
$wg;gl;Ls;sit midj;Jk; cz;ik vd;gij Vw;f kWj;jJ. flTs;
mtjhuq;fisAk; mw;Gj mjprar; nra;iffisAk; fz;bj;jJ.
gf;jh;fSf;Fk; gukDf;FkpilNa cs;s ,ilj;jufh;fSf;F
,r;rkh[j;jpy; ,lkpy;iy.gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[k; E}w;wf;fzf;fhd Jtf;f
,ilepiyg; gs;spfs;; ,uTg; gs;spfs;> mehij ,y;yq;fs;; kfpsh
rkh[q;fs;> jho;j;jg;gl;Nlhh; kp\d; rq;fq;fs; Mfpatw;iw elj;jpw;W.
Foe;ijj; jpUkz jLg;G> tpjit kWkzk;> fyg;Gj; jpUkzk; Nghd;w
r%fr; rPh;j;jpUj;jq;fisAk; ,e;j rkh[k; jPtpukhf Nkw;nfhz;lJ.
vk;.[p.uhdNl mfpy ,e;jpar; rPh;jpUj;j ,af;fj;jpw;fhd jpl;lk; tFj;jhh;.
,e;jpa Njrpa r%f khehL mtuJ Vw;ghLjhd;. ,e;jpa Njrpa
fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;jth;fspy; mtUk; xUth;> gf;jh;fs;> ehuhazd;
re;jthh;fs;. Nfhghy fpU\;z NfhfNy Nghd;Nwhh; gpuhh;j;jdh rkh[j;jpy;
gpw gpuKfh;fshfj; jpfoe;jhh;fs;.
Mhpa rkh[k;
Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjp
jahde;j ru];tjp (1824-1883) xU F[uhj;jp itjpf gpuhkzf;
FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;. ,stajpy; mth; %y rq;fuh; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lhh;.
cz;ik> mwpT> tha;ik> tpNtfk; Mfpatw;iwj; Njb miye;jhh;.
Nkw;fj;jpa mwpthYk;> gz;ghl;lhYk; rpwpJk; ghjpf;fg;glhjth; jahde;jh;.
mth; xU Ntj tpj;jfh;>tpthj ty;Yeh;> Ntj rka kPl;ghsh;> jahde;jh;.
mth; xU Ntj tpj;jfh;> tpthj ty;Yeh;> Ntj rka kPl;ghsh; r%f
rPh;jpUj;jthjp> Ntjj;Jf;Fj; jpUk;G vd;gij mth; jhuR ke;jpukhff;
nfhz;lhh;. Ntjj;jpy; ,y;yhj NtnwjpYk; ,y;iy vd;gJ mtuJ JzpG.
Ntjk; mwpTr; Ruq;fk;. jw;fhy tpQ;Qhd tpsf;fq;fs; midj;J
Ntjq;fspy; fhzf;fplf;fpd;wd. rhjp NtWghlw;w th;zhrpuk jh;kj;ij
mth; tuNtw;whh;. gpwg;G xUtdJ rhjpia eph;zapf;fpwJ vd;w
msTNfhiy jahde;jh; Vw;ftpy;iy. fpuhkj;ij mbj;jskhff; nfhz;L
murpayikg;G mika Ntz;Lnkd;whh;. murpaypy; Njitahd
td;Kiwiag; gpuNahfpf;fyhk; vd;whh;. guk;giu rhjpKiw> jPz;lhik gy
flTs; nfhs;if> cUt topghL> Foe;ij jpUkzk;> cld;fl;il Vwy;
Nghd;wtw;wf;F Ntjq;fspd; mDkjp ,y;iy vd;W Mzpj;jukhff;
$wpdhh; jahde;jh;. ,e;jpahit „Mhpa th;j;jh‟ vdf; $wpa jahde;jh;
xU jPtpu Njrpathjp. Njrj;jpd; xOf;fj; J}a;ikapd;
,d;wpaikahidia typAWj;jpdhh;. kf;fspilNa mr;rkpd;iik>
Rarhh;Gilik> Rakhpahij Mfpat;wiw gw;wpg; gpur;rhuk; nra;jhh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


85
rkh[k;
1875Mk; Mz;L Mhpa rkh[k; Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjpahy;
gk;ghapy; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. mNj Mz;by; me;j rkh[k; gQ;rhg;gpYs;s
yh$hpYk; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mhpa rkh[k; gQ;rhgpy; Ntfkhf
tsh;e;jJ. Ntjq;fs; jtwpy;yhjit vd;gJk; kWgpwg;G cz;L vd;gJk;
Mhpa rkh[j;jpd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffs;. rkh[ cWg;gpdh;fs;
Ntjq;fisf; fl;lhakhfg; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mfpa rk[k; ,];]hk;>
fpwpj;Jt rkaq;fSf;F vjpuhfj; Jtf;fg;gl;ljhy; mJ ,e;J rkaj;ij
thDawg; Nghw;wpg; Gfo;e;jJ. mJ Mz;-ngz; rkj;Jtk;> rKjhar;
rkj;Jtk;> midtUf;Fk; nghJtha;g;Gfs;> vy;NyhUf;Fk; md;Gld; $ba
<if Mfpait gw;wpg; Nghjpj;jJ. Mhpa rkh[k; xU rKjahr; rPh;jpUj;j
,af;fkhFk;.
rkh[j;jpd; rhjidfs;
kf;fSf;F Fwpg;ghfg; gpw;gLj;jg;gl;l kf;fSf;Fj; njhz;L
nra;tijNa Mhpa rkh[k; jdJ flikahff; nfhz;lJ. mwr;nray;
mjd; MzpNth;. rkh[k; jpUkzj;Jf; nfjpuhfg; Nghh; njhLj;jJ. 1929y;
„rhujhr; rl;lk;‟ epiwNtw;wg;gLtjw;Fr; fhuzkhapUe;j „`h;gpyh]; rhh;jh‟
(Harbilas Sarda) xU Mfpa rkh[f;fhuh; vd;gJ epidT$wj;jf;fJ.
tpjit kWkzj;Jf;fhf rkh[k; jPtpug; gpur;rhuk; nra;jJ. ngz;
fy;tpf;fhfg; gs;spfisj; Jtf;fpw;W. jho;j;jg;gl;Nlhhpd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;fhf Mhpa rkh[k; Gul;rpfukhf gzpfspy; <Lgl;lJ. Rj;jp
(Shuddhi) Kiwapd; %yk; fpwpj;Jt kjj;Jf;F khwpa
gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhNdhiu kPz;Lk; ,e;J kjj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;Ltu Mhpa
rkh[k; fhuzkhapUe;jJ. fhaj;jphp ke;jpuk; n[gpj;J> G+Z}y; Nghl;L
jPz;lj;jfhNjhh; vdf; fUjg;gl;Nlhh; gpw ,e;Jf;fSf;Fr; rkkhff;
nfhz;L tug;gl;ldh;! „,e;jpa kWkyh;r;rpapd; je;ij‟ vdf; fUjg;gLk;
Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjp ,e;jpa murpay; tpLjiyf;fhd tpijiaAk;
tpijj;Jr; rpuj;jhde;jh> yhyh y[gjpuha;> Kd;\puhkh> uhkNjth
MfpNahh; Mhpa rkh[j;jpdNu. mth;fs; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy;
jPtpu gq;F nfhz;lNlhuhth;.
,uhkfpU\;z ,af;fk;
uhkfpU\;z guk`k;]h;
=uhkfpU\;z guk`k;rh; (1836-1886) Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjpapd;
rkfhyj;jth;. jahde;jiug; Nghd;Nw uhkfpU\;zUk; Nkiyehl;L
Nkhfj;jhy; rpwpJk; ghjpf;fg;glhjth;. uhkfpU\;zh; flTisf; fhsp
tbtpy; fz;lth;. gz;zpuz;lhz;L fhyr; rhjidf;Fg;gpd; fpU\;zDk;>
my;yhTk;> VRTk; xNu flTspd; gy;NtW tbtq;fNs vd;w cz;ikia
czh;e;jhh; mth;. midj;Jr; rkaq;fspd; mbg;gil xd;Nw vd;gij
uhkfpU\;zh; Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;bdhh;. gy;NtW rkaf;Nfhl;ghLfs; midj;Jk;
xNu flTis miltjw;fhd ghijfNs vd;gij mth; typAWj;jpdhh;.
rkaj;jpd; Nguhy; kf;fs; gphpf;fg;gl;l NghJ uhkfpU\;zh; jdJ ,iw
xUikg;ghl;L mZFKiwahy; kf;fis xUq;fpizj;jhh;. uhkfpU\;zh;
gbj;jtuy;yh;; MapDk; gbj;jNjhnuy;yhk; mtiu ehbr; nrd;W Md;k
mikjp ngw;wdh;. mth; xU kiw nka;ahsuhf (Mystic) tpsq;fpaNghJk;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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kdpj eydpy; Mo;e;j mf;fiw nfhz;bUe;jhh;. kdpj NritNa kNfrd;
Nrit vdf; fUjpath; uhkfpU\;zh;. [Ptdpy; rptidf; fz;lth; mth;.
xU kdpjDf;F cjt KbAkhdhy; mtuhy; kdpjdplk; flTisf;
fhZk; nghWg;igr; Rthkp tpNtfhde;jhplk; xg;gilf;f Kbe;jJ.
jw;fhyr; #o;epiyapy; uhkfpU\;z guk`k;riug; gyUk; Ghpe;J nfhs;tJ
fbdk;;@ mth; ,iwaUs; ngw;wth; vd;gijg; gyUk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;
vd;W [t`h;yhy; NeU Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;.
Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh;
eNue;jpehj; jj;jh Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh; (1863-1902) =uhkfpU\;z
guk`k;rUf;F Neh;khwf ,Ue;jhYk; mtuJ Md;kPf rhjidahy;
<h;f;gg
; l;lth;. uhkfpU\;zuJ kiwTf;Fg;gpd; (1886 Mf];L) Rthkp
tpNtfhde;jh; ,e;jpah KOtJk; Rw;Wg;gazk; nra;jhh;. 1893y; mth;
mnkhpf;f ehl;L rpf;fhNfhtpy; eilngw;w cyfr; rka khehl;by; Mw;wpa
ciu Md;kPf cyif Ml;nfhz;lJ. me;j „#whtsp ,e;J‟> „,e;J
neg;Nghypad;‟ jdJ fhe;jf; fUj;Jf;fshy; Nfhilapbg; Ngr;Rf;fshy;
fd;dpahFkhpapypUe;J fh\;kPh; tiu Md;kf P Kb#lh kd;duhfj;
jpfo;e;jhh;. mtuJ tPu ciufs; cwq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j ,e;jpaiu
tpopj;njor; nra;jd. kdpjid kdpjdhf;Fk; rkaNk> fy;tpNa>
nfhs;iffNs jw;fhy ,e;jpahTf;Fj; Njit vd;gij typAWj;jpdhh;.
kdpjUf;Fs;Ns kiwe;J fplf;Fk; msg;gwpa Mw;wy;fis ntspf;nfhzu
Ntz;Lnkd;whh;. ,isQh;fs; ,e;jpahtpd; ngUik czh;e;J mjd;
tPo;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fisr; fz;lwpe;J> ehl;bd; vOr;rpf;fhf Xahky;>
xopahky; coif;f Ntz;Lk;nkd;whh; Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh;.
„tpop>vO>cio‟ vd;w ke;jpuj;ij mth;fSf;Fg; Nghjpj;jhh;. ngz;fs;
tpLjiyf;fhfTk;> ghkuh;fspd; Gdh;tho;Tf;fhfTk; ghLgl;lhh;. ,e;jpa
Njrpa ,af;fj;jpd; Njhw;Wthia Rthkp tpNtfhde;jhpd; tPuthh;j;ijspy;
fhzyhk;.
uhkfpU\;z klKk; kp\Dk;
uhkfpU\;z guk`k;rh; ,we;j gpd;dh;> Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh;
uhkfpU\;z klj;ijAk;> kp\idAk; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh; (1887). klk; Md;kPf
ikak;> mjpy; re;jpahrpfSf;F Md;kPff; fy;tpAk;> gapw;rpAk;
mspf;fg;gl;lJ. mth;fs; kf;fs; eyk;NgZk; gilapdh;. kp\d; gy;NtW
r%f Nrit eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhf Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l
mikg;ghFk;. nts;sk;> Gay;> twl;rpahy; kf;fs; ghjpf;fg;gLk;NghJ
klj;ijAk; kp\idAk; rhh;e;Njhh; jPaizg;G gilapdiug;Nghy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W Jah;Jilg;Gg; gzpfspy; <LgLth;.
uhkfpU\;z klk;> kp\d; fpisfs; ,e;jpahtpYk;> ntspehLfspYk;
epWtg;gl;ld. ,itfspd; fy;tpg; gzpAk;> Rfhjhu nghJ eyg;gzpfSk;
Nghw;Wjw;Fhpad. fhe;jp> NeU> Ngh]; Nghd;wth;fs; tpNtfhde;jhpd;
ehl;Lg;gw;why; <h;f;fg;gl;lhh;fs;.
gpuk;kQhd rig
vr;.gp.gpshtl;];fp vd;w u];a mk;ikahUk> fh;dy; vr;.v];. Mh;fhl;
vd;w mnkhpf;fUk; ,ize;J epA+ahhh;f;fpy; 1875 Mk; Mz;L Jtq;fpa
rq;fNk gpuk;kQhd rig(Thesophical Society) MFk;. 1879y; ,e;jpahTf;F
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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te;j mth;fs; Rthkp jahde;j ru];tjpapd; JizNahL
gpuk;kQhdrigapd; jiyik ikaj;ij mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J nrd;id
milahUf;F khw;wpdhh;. gpshtl;];fp mk;ikahh; jd;id ,e;J
rkaj;NjhL If;fpag;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lhh;. Md;kPf Jiwapy; ,e;Jf;fs;
INghug;gpah;fistpl Mapuk; klq;F cah;e;jth;fs; vd;W mth; $wpdhh;.
fh;dy; My;fhl; gz;ila ,e;jpa Md;kPfg; ngUikapy; jdJ kdijg;
gwpnfhLj;jhh;. ,UtUk; ,e;jpah Gj;Japh; ngWtjpy; Nguhh;tk; fhl;bdhh;.
cyf rNfhjuj;Jtij tsh;j;jy;> goq;fhy Mhpa rkak;> ,yf;fpak;>
jj;Jtk;> tpQ;Qhdk; Mfpatw;iw Mo;e;J fw;wy;@ ,aw;if epajpfis
Muha;e;J kdpjDf;Fs;Ns kiwe;J fplf;Fk; Md;kPf Mw;wy;fis
ntspf;nfhzuy; Mfpait gpuk;kQhd rigapd; Nehf;fq;fshFk;.
jpUkjp lhf;lh; md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh; gpuk;kQhd rigapy;
Nrh;e;J mij kf;fs; nry;thf;Fg;ngw;w ,af;fkhf;fpdhh;. ,e;J
,jak;nfhz;l Ihp\; khJ mth;. ,e;Jitg;Nghhpy; cilazpe;J>
,e;Jitg;Nghy; tho;e;J ,e;Jf;fspd; kWkyh;r;rpf;fhfg; ghLgl;lhh;.
Nfl;lhh;g; gzpf;Fe; jifathaf; NfhshUk; Ntl;g nkhopAk; nrhy;yhw;wy;
kpf;fth; md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh;. gftj; fPijia Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhop
ngah;j;jhh;. rpWkp jpUkzj;ijAk;> tpjit Klf;fj;ijAk; fz;bj;jhh;.
1898y; fhrpapy; ,e;J fy;y}hp Jtf;fg;gLtjw;Ff; fhuzkhapUe;jth;fSs;
,tUk; xUtuhthh;. ,e;J kjk; ,d;Nwy; ,e;jpah ,y;iy vd;W ek;gpa
md;dpngrz;k; mk;ikahh; ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpurpy; Nrh;e;J> jd;dhl;rp
rq;fj;ijj; Njhw;Wtpj;J RNjrp ,af;fj;ij Cf;Ftpj;J> ,e;jpa
tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; rpwg;ghf gq;Nfw;whh;. ,e;jpa Njrpaf;
fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;j v.X.`_A+k;> gpshtl;];fp mk;ikahhpd; gpujkf;
$l;lhsp vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. RUq;ff;$wpd;> gpuk;kQhd rig ,e;jpa
Njrpaj;jpd; cw;J rf;jpahfTk; Cf;fr; rf;jpahfTk; ,Ue;jJ vd;why;
kpifahfhJ.
mypfhh; ,af;fk;
rh; raJ mfkJfhd; (1817 – 98) ,e;jpa K];yPk;fspilNa rkar;
rPh;jpUj;jj;ijAk; rKjhaf; rPuikg;igAk; xOf;f tpopg;Gzh;itAk;
Vw;gLj;jpdhh;. ,th; ,];yhkpa Nghjidfis etPd fhyj;
NjitfSf;Nfw;g ,zf;Ftpf;f Kad;whh;. rkaf; Nfhl;ghLfs; khw;w
Kbahjitay;y vd;W $wpdhh;. rkak; rKjha Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;F cjt
Ntz;LNkad;wp Kl;Lf;fl;ilahf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ vd;gij typAWj;jpdhh;.
fhyj;jpd; Njitfisg; g+h;j;jp nra;ahj rkak; ,e;jpa ,];yhk; Nghd;W
gadw;w goQ;rpd;dkhfptpLk; vd;W vr;rhpj;jhh;. vy;yh jPh;f;fjhprpfSk;
xNu ,iw ek;gpf;ifiaj;jhd; gpujpgypj;jhff; $wpdhh;. ,tuJ ghh;it
mwpTg+h;tkhd> rkar;rhh;gw;w> kdpjhgpkhdg; ghh;itahFk;.
raj; mfkJfhd; ,e;jpa K];yPk;fs; %lg;gof;f tof;fq;fisAk;
rkag; nghiwapd;ikAk;> rhukw;w rk;gpujhaq;fisAk; iftpl;L tpQ;Qhd
kdg;ghd;ikia tsh;j;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;W tpUk;gpdh;. ,th;
jpuf;Fuid cUJtpy; nkhop ngah;j;jhh;. mJkl;Lky;y mk;kiw E}Yf;f
mwptpay; g+h;tkhd tpsf;fkspj;jhh;. ,th; gh;jh Kiwiar; rhbdhh;.
rkaf; fUj;J NtWghLfs; Njr eyDf;F CWtpistpf;ff; $lhJ
vd;gij mbf;Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;bdhh;. kf;fspilNa kj tpj;jpahrq;fs;

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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,UIg;gpDk; midthpilNaAk; xU Njrkf;fs; vd;w czh;T NkNyhq;fp
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; ,d;wpaikahikia typAWj;jpdhh;.
raj; mfkJjfhd; Mq;fpyf; fy;tpapd; mtrpaj;ij Mjhpj;jhh;.
kf;fspilNa Fwpg;ghf K];yPk;fspilNa Mq;fpyf; fy;tpiag; gug;g gy
Kaw;rpfis Nkw;nfhz;lhh;. 1860fspy; K];yPk;fisAk; ,e;Jf;fisAk;
nfhz;l gy mwptpay; fofq;fis cUthf;fpdhh;. ,th; 1876k; Mz;L
mypfhh; K];yPk; Mq;fpNyah; xhpaz;ly; fy;Y}hpia epWtpdhh;
mfkJfhd; ,f;fy;Y}hapy; ,Ur;rhuUf;Fk; rk Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLJ;jhh;.
,e;jf; fy;Y}hpNa gpd;dh; Gfo;ngw;w mypfhh; K];yPk; gy;fiyf;fofkhf
tphptile;jJ. ,th; Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpNa mypfhh; ,af;fk; vd;W
mwpag;gLfpwJ.
rh; raj; mfkJfhDf;Fg; gy jpwikAk; nry;thf;Fkpf;f
gpuKfh;fspy; Mjut fpilj;jJ. ,th; $l;ba K];yPk; fy;tp khehL
gy;NtW njhopy;fspy; <Lgl;bUe;j K];yPk; eLj;ju thf;fj;jpdiu xd;W
Nru itj;jJ. mfkJfhd; K];yPk;fspilNa Mq;fpyf;fy;tp gutf;
fhuzkhf ,Ue;jhh;. ,tuJ rkar;rhh;gw;w> mwptpay; hPjpahd gFj;jwpT
mZFKiw mjprpapf;fj;jf;fJ. vdpDk; fhdpd; Kw;Nghf;F rka –
rKjhar; rPh;jpUj;jf; fUj;Jf;fs; K];yPk; Nky;jl;L kf;fNshL
epd;Wtpl;ldh;. mbj;jl;L ,af;fj;jpypUe;J kdkhw;wk; nra;tjpy; ntw;wp
ngw;whh;. rhd;W Gfohuk; #l;bAs;shh; NeU. raj; mfkJfhd;
re;Njfj;Jf;F ,lkpd;wp 19k; E}w;whz;bd; jiyrpwe;j ,e;jpah;fspy;
xUth; vd;W kjpg;gL P nra;fpwhh; gpgd; re;jpuh.
rhjpr; rph;jpUj;jk;
rhjp mikg;G Kiw ,e;J fyhr;rhuj;jpd; fsq;fkhFk; jpz;lhik
tUzhrpuk jh;kj;jpd; tp\tpj;jhFk;. jPz;lhikf;Ff; fhuzkhd>
th;zj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l rhjp thpirg;gbKiw ,e;jpa
rKjha mikg;gpy; Mokhf Nt&d;wptpl;lJ. cah;rhjp ,e;Jf;fs;
jPz;lj;jfhNjhhpd; tUifia Kd;dwptpg;G nra;tjw;fhf kzp mbj;Jf;
nfhz;ljhff; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;. ,e;jpahTf;F te;j rPdahj;h;fh; gh`pahd;
rhjp mikg;G Kiw rKjhaj;ijg; gytPdg;gLj;jptpl;lJ. rhjp
NtWghLfis rhRtjkhf;fptpl;lJ. Njrg;gw;W Njhd;wtplhky;
jLj;Jtpl;lJ. rKjha rKj;Jt [dehafj;Jf;Fj; jilahf ,Ue;jJ
vdNt> kf;fis kf;fshff; fUjhky; Nky;rhjpapdh;. fPo;rhjpapdh; vd;W
ghFgLj;jp NtWgLj;jpa rhjpKiwiar; rPuikf;f uh[h uhk;Nkhfd; uha;>
jahde;jh;> Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh; Nghd;Nwhh; rhjpr; rPh;NfLfisf;
fLikahfr; rhbdhh;. rhjpr; rPh;jpUj;jk; gw;wpg; Ngrpdh;> fPo;r;rhjpj;
jiyth;fs; rhjpj; rPh;jpUj;jj;ij Nkw;nfhz;ldh;.
N[hjpgh g+Ny 1827-1890
N[hjpgh 1827k; Mz;L kuhl;ba khepyj;jpy; g+dhtpy; rPo;rhjpahff;
fUjg;gl;l „khyp‟ tFg;gpy; gpwe;jhh;. ,th; g+j;njhLf;Fk; FLk;gj;jpy;
gpw;ejikahy; „g+Ny” vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhh;. cah;rhjpapduhff;
fUjpf;nfhz;l gpuhkzh;fs; kjj;jpd; ngauhy; gpw tFg;ghiuf;
nfhLikgLj;jp mbikfshf;fp tpl;ldh; vd;W fUjpdhh;. N[hjpgh> vdNt>
N[hjpgh gpuhkz Mjpf;f vjph;g;ghsh; Mdhh;. ,th; fy;tpapy; %yk;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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jho;j;jg;gl;l kf;fis Kd;Ndw;w KbAk; vd;W ek;gpdhh;. mjw;fhd
Kaw;rpfis Nkw;nfhz;lhh;.
N[hjpgh g+Ny 1848k; Mk; Mz;L gj;thh;Ngj; vd;w Chpy;
cah;rhjpapdhpd; vjph;g;ig vjph;nfhz;L ngz;fs; gs;spiaj; Jtf;fpdhh;.
mijj;njhlh;e;J gy Ch;fspYk; gs;spfis Muk;gpj;jhh;. ];fhl;b\;
gs;spapy; Mrphpauhfr; Nrh;e;j N[hjpgfh (1854) jd; kidtpapd;
JizAld; ,uT Neug; gs;sp xd;iwAk; Jtf;fpdhh;. N[hjpghtpd;
fy;tpg;gzpiag; ghuhl;b gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; mtUf;F MW Vf;fh; epyk;
nfhLj;J Cf;ftpj;J (1857).
murhq;fk; Mjuthy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;l N[hjpgh rj;jpa N\hlf;
rkh[k; my;yJ tha;ikiaj; NjLk; rq;fk; vd;w mikg;ig
cUthf;fpdhh;. (1860). midj;Jr; rhjpapdUf;Fk; nghJthd mdhij
,y;yq;fisf; fl;bdhh;. N[hjpghtpd; Nritiag; ghuhl;ba kf;fs; ,tiu
g+dh efuhl;rp kd;w cWg;gpduhfj; Njh;en ; jLj;jdh;. (1876), N[hjpgh
`z;lh; fy;tpf; fkpl;baplk; jho;j;jg;glNlhUf;Ff; fy;tp mspf;fg;gl
Ntz;bajd; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jpdhh;. (1882) jh;k jphpa uj;dh (Guhzg;
Gul;Lfisg; gw;wpaJ). ,\huh (vr;rhpf;if)> rpth[p Nghd;w E}y;fis
N[hjpgh vOjpAs;shh;. ngz; fy;tp> Foe;ijj; jpUkzj;jil> tpjitfs;
kWkzk;> rlq;Ffsw;w rPh;jpUj;jj; jpUkzk;> mdhijfs; ghJfhg;>
jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;Fr; rkchpik Mfpatw;Wf;fhfj; jd;id mh;gzpj;Jf;
nfhz;l N[hjpgh g+Ny „kfhj;kh‟ vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhh;.
ehuhaz FU. 1854-1928
ehuhaz FU Nfuhshtpy; jpz;lj;jfhj fPo;r;rhjpahff; fUjg;gl;l
<ot tFg;igr; Nrh;ejth;. ,th; Ntjq;fspYk; cgepljq;fspYk;
Guhzq;fspYk; ngUk;Gyik ngw;wth;. ,th; gpuhkzh; Mjpf;fj;Jf;F
vjpuhfg; Nghh;nfhb cah;j;jpdhh;. gpuhkzuy;yhjhhpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;fhfg;
Nghuhbdhh;.
ehuhaz FU „fPo;r;rhjpapdh; NfhapUf;Fs; Eioaf;$lhJ vd;w
rKfj;jilia cilf;f cWjpg+z;lhh;. jpUtde;jGuk; mUNf mUtpGuk;
vd;w Chpy; xU Nfhapiyf;fl;b> mjpy; rhjpNtWghbd;wp midtUk;
topglr; nra;jhh;. rpwe;j nrhw;nghopthsuhd ,th; rhjprka NtWghlw;w
rkjh;k rKjhaj;ij cUthf;fg; gpur;rhuk; nra;jhh;. Nghuhbdhh;. ,tUk;>
,tuJ rfhf;fSk; jPz;lhikf; nfhLikiaf; fisa Kad;wdh;.
jpUkzk;> rka topghL> rtm lf;fk; Mfpatw;Wf;fhd rlq;Ffis
vspikg;gLj;jpdhh;> rkj;Jt rKjhak; mikag; ghLgl;lhh;. ahtw;Wf;Fk;
Nkyhf> ehuhazFU „kdpj Fyj;Jf;F xd;Nw rkak;> xd;Nw rhjp> xd;Nw
flTs;‟ vd;w Nfh\j;ijf; nfhLj;jhh;. ,tuJ rPluhd rfhjud; Iag;gd;
xU gb NkNynrd;W „kdpjFyj;Jf;F kjkpy;iy> rhjpapy;iy>
flTs;,y;iy vd;w Gjpa ke;jpuj;ijj; je;jhh;.
ehah; ,af;fk; 1891
19k; E}w;whz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; Nfus ehah;fs; ek;g+j;jphp
gpuhkzh;fspd; Mjpf;fj;Jf;F vjpuhff; fpsh;enjOe;jdh;. ek;g+jphp
gpuhkzh;fs; rKjha kw;Wk; mrpay; Jiwfspy; Mjpf;f Mjhak;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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ngWtij vjph;j;jdh; rp.tp.uhkd; gps;is vd;gth; 1891k; Mz;L „kiyahs
epidTr; rpd;dk;‟ xd;iw epWtpdh;. ,tUila „khh;j;jhz;lth;kh‟ vd;w
ehty; ehah;fspd; tPuj;ijAk;> gok;ngUikiaAk; cah;thff; fhl;baJ.
gj;kehg gps;is vd;gth; „ehah; Nrth rq;fk;‟ vd;w mikg;ig
Vw;gLj;jpdhh;.
19k; E}w;whz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; uh[h uhk;Nkhfd;uha;> jahde;jh;>
Rthkp tpNtfhde;jh;> N[hjpgh g+Ny> ehuhaz FU> rp.tp.uhkd;
Nghd;Nwhhpd; gq;fspg;ghy; rhjpr; rPh;jpUj;j ,af;fj;Jf;fhd mbj;jsk;
mikf;fg;gl;ld. ,th;fs; Jtf;fpa ,g;gzp 20k; E}w;whz;by; mk;Ngj;fhh;
rhjp xopg;g ,af;fkhf> ePjpf;fl;rpapdhpd; gpuhkzuy;yhjhh; Kd;Ndw;w
,af;fkhf> ehlhh; Nghuhl;lkhf> itf;fk; rj;jpahfpufkhf> FUtha+h;
Nfhapy; EioTg; Nghuhl;lkhf> Nthf;fypfh; ,af;fkhf cUntLj;jJ.

1) uh[huhk; Nkhfd; uhapd; rPh;jpUj;jq;fis tpthp?


2) rKjha rPh;jpUj;jj;jpd; tpisthf ,e;jpahtpy; Vw;gl;l tpisTfs;
ahit?
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; 1880-1905
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; xU tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;Gkpff
epfor;rpahFk;. Nkw;fj;jpag; gz;ghl;Lj; jhf;fk; ,e;jpa rKjha> rka
kWkyh;r;rp> gj;jphpf;if> ,yf;fpa tsh;r;rp> Mq;fpNya mjpfhu th;f;fj;jpd;
Mjpf;fg; Nghf;F murhq;fj;jpd; nghUshjhur; Ruz;ly; nfhs;if
Mfpatw;wpd; tpisthf; ,e;jpahf;fspilNa Njrpa czh;r;rp cUthdJ.
tq;fhsk;> gk;gha;> nrd;id uh[jhdpfspy; Jtf;fg;gl;l murpay; rhh;e;j
mikg;Gfs; ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wkhFk;. fhq;fpu];
Jtf;fg;gl;l gpd;dh; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;l tuyhw;wpy; xU Gjpa
jpUg;gk; Vw;gl;lJ.
fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk;
,e;jpa murpay; thdpy; ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; Njhd;wpajw;fhd
#o;epiyfs;> fhuzq;fs; gw;wpa xU kpj;j fUj;jpy;iy. tuyhw;W
Muha;r;rp;ahsh;fs; fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wj;ijg; gw;wpg; gy;NtW
tpsf;fq;fisf; nfhLj;Js;shh;fs;. mtw;Ws; Kf;fpa tpsf;fq;fs;
tUkhW.
,ay;ghd Njhw;wk;
fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; ,ay;ghdJ. gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd;
gpw;gFjpapy; ,e;jpahtpd; gy;NtW ,lq;fspy; Jtf;fg;gl;l murpay; rhe;j
mikg;Gfspd; jtph;f;f KbahJ ,aw;ifahd tpisNt fhq;fpurpd;
Njhw;wkhFk;. Mq;fpNya Ml;rpapd; Mjpf;fg; Nghf;f> mjw;nfjpuhf Vw;g;l
fpsh;r;rpfs;> ,e;jpa kWkyh;r;rp> Njrpak; gy;NtW uh[jhdp mikg;Gfs;
Mfpait fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;fhd #o;epiyia cUthf;fpd. hpg;gd;
gpuGtpd; jhuhsf; nfhs;iffis INuhg;gpah;fs; jPtpukhf vLj;jjhy;
Njrpa czh;Tkpf;f ,e;jpah;fs; mfpy ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;gpd;
,d;wpaikahikia czh;e;jdh;. mj;jifa mikg;igj; Njhw;Wtpj;jdh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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fhyj;jpd; fl;lhak; mJ. md;id ,e;jpah ,ay;ghf <d;nwLj;j Njrpaf;
Foe;ijNa fhq;fpu]; MFk;.
l/ghpd; gpuGtpd; gq;F
fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;f ,e;jpa itrpuha; l/ghpd; gphpG (Lord
Dufferin, 1884 -88) fhuzfh;j;jh vd;W yhyh y[gjpuha; fUjpdhh;.
fhq;fpu]; mtuJ „fUj;J Foe;ij‟ vd;Wk; mtNu „fhq;fpurpd; Qhdj;
je;ij‟ vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ. murhq;fj;Jf;Fk; kf;fSf;FkpilNa xU
,izg;Gg; ghykhf ,Uf;ff;$ba Njrpa mikg;ig mikf;FkhW l/ghpd;
gpug jd;idf; fye;jhNyhrpj;j Myd; Mf;Nltpad; `pA+k; (A.O.Hume)
$wpajhfTk;> me;j MNyhridiar; rpuNkw;nfhz;L `pA+k;,e;jpa Njrpa
fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mj;jifa
mikg;gpd;%yk; kf;fSf;F murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;iffisAk; vLj;Jf;$w
KbAk; vd;Wk;> mit gw;wpa kf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fis mwpaTk; cjtpahf
,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; fUjpajhNyNa mfpy ,e;jpa mikg;G cUthdJ
vd;gNj ,e;j thjj;jpd; rhukhFk;.
`pA+kpd; gq;F
Myd; Mf;Nltpad; `pA+k;jhd; fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;F KO
Kjw;fhuzk; vd;W gutyhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. fhq;fpurpd; Kjy;
jiytuhd lgps;A.rp. ghdh;[p (W.C.Bonnarjee) `pA+ikf; „fhq;fpurpd;
je;ij‟ vd;W th;zpj;jhh;. ,e;jpa muR gzpapypUe;j `pA+ikf; murhq;fr;
rhh;gw;w Mjhuq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; ,e;jpahtpy; 1857y; Vw;gl;l
fpsh;r;rpiatpl Nkhrkhd nfhe;jspg;G Vw;glf;$Lk; vd;W mwpe;J>
mj;jifa Mgj;ijj; jtph;f;fNt fhq;fpuirr; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh; vd;W
fUjg;gLfpwJ. 1877 gQ;rhj;Jf;Fg;gpd; kf;fspilNa vOe;j Vkhw;wKk;>
fw;Nwhhpd; me;epag;gl;l epiyAk; mtuJ Kbit cWjp nra;jd.
kf;fspd; rPw;wj;Jf;Fj; jf;f tbfhyikg;gNj gphpl;b\; Nguurpd; eyDf;F
cfe;jJ vd;Wzh;ej ; `pA+k; fhq;fpuirj; Jtf;fpdhh;. NkYk; mj;jifa
mikg;G ,q;fpyhe;jpy; cs;sJ Nghd;w murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;ghd vjph;f;
fl;rpahfr; nray;glyhnkd;Wk;> ,e;jpa rKjhag; gpur;ridfis
tpthjpf;fyhnkd;Wk; murhq;fr; rhh;gw;NwhUf;FkpilNa ey;ypzf;fj;ij
Vw;gLj;jyhnkd;Wk; `pA+k; epidj;Nj fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh;.
u\;ag; gilnaLg;Gg; gak;
l/ghpd; gpuG ,e;jpa itrpuhahfg; nghWg;Ngw;w NghJ u\;ah
,e;jpahit ve;j Neuj;jpYk; jhf;ff;$Lk; vd;w gakpUe;jJ. u\;ah
`Pul;ilj; jhf;ff;$Lk; vd;W vjph;g;ghh;f;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpah;fs;
,e;jpahtpypUe;J INuhg;gpah;> gj;jphpf;ifahsh;fs; u\;a mghak; fz;L
mQ;rpdh;. u\;a jhf;Fjiy Kwpabf;fj; jq;fsJ KO Mjuit
murhq;fj;Jf;Fj; je;jdh;. u\;ag; gilnaLg;Gf;F vjpuhf ,e;jpahtpy;
„njhz;lh; gil ,af;fk;‟ (Volunteer Corps Movement) jPtpukhfj;
Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. vdNt u\;ag; gilnaLg;G gw;wpa gaNk (Russophobia)
fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;fhd cldbahd ce;J rf;jpahf ,Ue;jJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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fw;wwpe;Njhh; murhq;ff; $l;L Kaw;rp
1870fspYk;> 1880 Jtf;fj;jpYk; ,e;jpahtpy; Gul;rp Vw;gLtjw;fhd
#o;epiy ,Ue;jJ. Mq;fpNya murhq;fj;Jf;nfjpuhf kf;fSk;
kdf;frg;gile;jpUe;jdh;. fw;NwhUk; ntWg;Gw;wpUe;jdh;. ,y;gh;l; kNrhjh
gw;wpa Nghuhl;lk; ,e;jpahtpy; gjl;l epiyiaj; Njhw;Wtpf;jpUe;jJ.
fw;Nwhh; $l;lk; kf;fs; ,af;fj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpg; Nghuhbdhy;;
,e;jpahtpy; Mq;fpNya Ml;rp Ml;lq; fz;LtpLk; vd;W mQ;rpa
murhq;fk; fw;wwpe;NjhUld; $l;Lr; Nrh;e;J> fhq;fpu]; Jtf;fg;gLtij
Mjhpj;jJ. mjhtJ fw;Nwhh; $l;lj;ijg; ghkuh;fsplkpUe;J gphpf;Fk;
Nehf;fj;JlNdNa fhq;fpu]; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. mk;Kaw;rpapy; mJ
ntw;wp ngwTk; nra;jJ. mjdhy;jhd;> Jtf;f fhyj;jpy; fhq;fpu];
Nky;jl;L kf;fspd; fUtpahfr; nray;gl;;lJ. vdyhk;. ,J xU rhuhpd;
thjk;.
gpuk;kQhd rigapd; gq;F
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;Fg; gpuk;kQhd rig
(Theosophical Society) nghpJk; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jJ vd;W
thjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. mr;rig ,e;jpahtpd; gy;NtW gFjpfspypUe;Jk;
gpuepjpfis xd;W$l;b ehl;bd; nghJg;gpur;ridfis tpthjpj;jJ
vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. 1884 brk;gh; khjk; nrd;idapypUe;J uFehjuhtpd;
,y;yj;jpy; mj;jifa xU $l;lk; eilngw;wJ. mf;$l;lNk ,e;jpa
Njrpa fhq;fpu]; gpd;dh; gk;ghapy; $Ltjw;Ff; fhuzkhapUe;jJ vd;W
chpik nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. gpuk;k Qhd rigapd; tpisNt fhq;fpu];
vd;W thjpl;lhh; md;dpngrd;l; mk;ikahh;. Nguhrphpah; F.uh[a;aDk;
,uFehj uht; ,y;yj;jpy; ele;j $l;lNk Njrpa fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zj;ij Vw;gLj;jpajhf fUJfpwhh;.
kjpg;gL
P
Njrj;jpd; Njitiag; G+h;j;jp nra;tjw;fhfj; Jtf;fg;gl;l mikg;Ng
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu];. mjw;FKd; Jtf;fg;gl;l gy murpay;
mikg;Gfspd; cr;rf;fl;lkhf cUthdJ fhq;fpu];. fhq;fpurpd;
tuyhw;iw vOjpa gp.gl;lhgp rPj;jhuhikah fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; xU
kh;kkhfNt cs;sJ vd;W vOjpAs;shh;. fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wj;jpy; vt;tpj
kh;kKk; ,y;iy. jw;fhy ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpd; jtph;f;f ,ayhj ,ay;ghd
tpisNt fhq;fpu];. mfpy ,e;jpa mikg;igj; Jtf;Fk; Nghl;bapy;
`pA+k; jdf;fpUe;j nry;thf;ifg; gad;gLj;jpf; fhq;fpuirj;
Njhw;Wtpg;gjpy; Ke;jpf; nfhz;lhh;> mt;tsNt.
`pA+k; gphpl;b\; NguuRf;Fk; tpRthrkhapUe;J nfhz;L
,e;jpaUf;Fk; ed;ik nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w ,urthj tpj;ijia
epfo;j;jg; ghh;j;jhh;. ,t;tpuz;Lk; kzYk; rh;f;fiuAk; Nghd;wit@
,uz;lwf; fyf;f KbahJ. vdpDk;> `pA+kpd; Kaw;rpahy;jhd; fhq;fpu];
Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gjpy; ,U NtW fUj;J ,Uf;f KbahJ. 1882y;
,e;jpa murhq;fg; gzpapypUe;J Xa;Tngw;w `pA+k; xU mfpy ,e;jpa
mikg;igj; Njhw;Wtpf;f mUk;ghL gl;lhh;. „Kjpathpd; ek;gpf;if‟ vd;w
E}ypy; ,e;jpah;fspd; ,d;dy;fidAk; ,lh;ghLfisAk; Mq;fpNya Ml;rp
mrl;il nra;af;$lhnjd vr;rhpj;jhh;. itrpuha; l/ghpidr; re;jpj;J
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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murpay; rhh;e;j mikg;ig Vw;gLj;JtJgw;wp MNyhrid elj;jpdhh;.
1883 khh;r; Kjy; Njjp fy;fj;jh gy;fiyf;fofg; gl;ljhhpfSf;F vOjpa
fbjj;jpy; fLF tpijfisg; Nghd;W Ik;gJ jd;dyq;fUjhj> jpahfk;
nra;af;$ba ,e;jpah;fisf; nfhz;l mikg;ig Vw;gLj;j Ntz;bajhy;
,d;wpaikahikia typAWj;jpdhh;. ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSld; njhlh;G
nfhz;lhh;. 1885 brk;gh; khjk; ,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l
$l;lj;ijf; $l;Ltnjd khh;r; khjNk KBT nra;jhh;. ,jw;fpilNa
`pAk; ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;W hpg;gd; gphpG [hd; gpiul;> MH;.b.hPl;
Nghd;Nwhiur; re;jpj;Jj; jd; Kaw;rpf;F mth;fsJ Mjuit ehbdhh;.
,e;jpahtpy; elf;ftpUe;j khehLgw;wpa tptuqfis ,q;fpyhe;jpd;
gj;jphpf;iffspy; gpuRhpf;f Vw;ghLfisr; nra;jhh;. ,e;jpah jpUk;gpa
`Pa+k; ntw;wpfukhf ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpuirj; Jtf;fpdhh;. vdNt
fhq;fpu]; Njhd;Wtjw;F `Pa+k; jdpg; nghWg;Ngw;whh; vd;gjpy;
re;Njfj;Jf;fplkpy;iy. fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wj;Jf;fhf; $wg;gLk; gnpw
fhuzq;fs; midj;Jk; Njrpa murpay; mikg;G Vw;gLtjw;fhd
#o;epiyiaAk;> gpd;Gyj;ijAk; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLj;jd.
fhq;fpurpd; Kjy; $l;lk;> 1985
,e;jpa Njrpa a+dpad; (Indian National Union) vd;w ngah;
jhjhgha; nesNuh[papd; Nahridg;gb ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; (Indian
National Congress) vd;W khw;wg;gl;lJ. mjd; Kjy; $l;lk; 1885 brk;gh;
28k; ehs; gk;gha; NfhFy;jh]; Nj];ghy; rk];fpUjf; fy;Y}hpapd;
kz;lgj;jpy; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. fy;fj;jhtpd; gpugy tof;fwpQuhd cNk\;
re;jpu ghdh;[p (W.C. Bonnerjee) fhq;fpurpd; Kjy; jiytuhf xU
kdJld; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;lhh;. Myd; Mf;Nltpad; `pa+k; mjd; nghJr;
nrayhsuhfj; njhpT nra;ag;gl;lhh;. mg;gjptpay; mth; 1906 tiu
ePbj;jhh;. fhq;fpurdp; Kjy; $l;lj;jpy; Mq;fpyj; Njh;r;rp ngw;w 72
Neh;ikahd> tpRthfKs;s> mf;fiwAs;s ,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfs; fye;J
nfhz;ldh;. Njrg;gw;W kpf;f ,e;jpah;fspd; Kjy; kfhrig mJ.
fhq;fpu]; cWg;gpdh;fspilNa el;Gwit Vw;gLj;Jjy; Njrpa
czh;r;rpfis xUq;fpizj;jy;: ,e;jpahtpd; Kf;fpag; gpur;ridfs; gw;wpa
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fspd; fUj;Jf;fis Nrfhpj;jy; fhq;fpurdp; Nehf;fq;fis
epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd topKiwfisj; jPh;khdpj;jy; Mfpait fhq;fpurpd;
Fwpf;Nfhs;fshapUe;jd.
tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;G
fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wk; ,e;jpa tpLjiy ,af;f tuyhw;wpy; xU
Kf;fpa iky; fy;yhFk; itrpuha; l/ghpd; gphpGtpd; Mrph;thjj;Jld;
`pA+khy; Jtf;fg;gl;l fhq;fpu]; murhq;fj;jpd; Mjuitg; ngw;wjpy;
tpag;gpy;iy. rh; n`d;wp fhl;ld;> rh; tpy;ypak; ntlh;gh;d; Nghd;;w ,e;jpa
murpd; cah; mjpfhhpfs; fhq;fpurpd; Kjy; $l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;ldh;.
mjpfhu th;f;fjjpd; vjph;g;igAk; kpwp Mq;fpNya murhq;fk; fhq;fpurd;
Njhw;wj;ij mq;fPfhpj;jJ. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J midj;J murpay;
mikg;Gfspd; gpujpepjpfSk; fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;ldh;.
tof;fwpQh;fs;> th;j;jfh;fs;> tq;fpajpgh;fs;> njhopyjpgh;fs;>
kUj;Jth;fs;> fy;Y}hp Kjy;fh;fs; Nguhrpah;fs;> gj;jphpf;if mjpgh;fs;>
rl.;lkd;w cs;shl;rp kd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; MfpNahh; mf;$l;lj;jpy;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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gq;Nfw;wdh;. ,e;Jf;fs;> K];yPk;fs;> fpwpj;Jth;fs;> rpf;fpah;fs;> ghh;rPf;fs;
vd;w NtWghbapd;wp fhq;fpu]; xU Njr mikg;ghfj; jpfo;e;jJ>
fhq;fpurpd; tUifahy; kf;fspilNa kpFe;j cw;rhfk; Vw;gl;lJ.
fjputidf; fz;l tpz;kPd;fs; Nghd;W fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dh;
gpw murpay; rhh;e;j mikg;Gfnsy;yhk; nry;thf;fpoe;jd> fhq;fpuNrhL
If;fpakhapd.
fhq;fpurpd; tsh;r
; ;rp 1885-1905
fhq;fpu]; $l;lq;fs;
1885 ypUe;J 1905 tiu fhq;fpu]; Mz;Lf; $l;lq;fs; ,e;jpahtpd;
Kf;fpa efuq;fspy; eilngw;wd. gk;gha; (1885> 1889> 1904) fy;fj;jh
(1886>1890>1896>1901)> nrd;id (1887> 1894> 1898> 1903)> myfhghj; (1888>
1892)> ehf;g+h; (1891)> yh$h; (1893> 1900)> G+dh (1895) mk;Nuhjp (1897)>
yf;Ndh(1899) mfkjhghj; (1902)> gdhu]; (1905) Mfpa efuq;fspy;
fhq;fpu]; $bw;W Mz;LNjhWk; fpwpj;Jk]; tpohitnahl;b %d;W
my;yJ ehd;F ehl;fs; $l;lk; elf;Fk;. ,e;jpahtpy; nghJg; gps;isfs;
tpthjpf;fg;gl;L> jPh;khdq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gLk;. mf;$l;lq;fs; „Mz;L
jkh\h‟> „Mz;Lf; nfhz;lhl;lk;‟. „%d;W ehs; mjprak;‟ vd;W
tpkh;rpf;fg;gl;lJ. fw;Nwhh;fs; Mz;LNjhWk;. Xhplj;jpy;$b jq;fsplkpUe;J
tpiyAh;e;j cilfis mzpe;J nfhz;L> tpLKIw xt;ntLj;J> Ch;
Rw;wpg; ghh;j;J> ez;gh;fisf; fz;LNgrp> tpthjq;fs; gynra;J>
cwtpdh;fSf;Fk; ez;gh;fSf;Fk; ghpRg; nghUs;fis thq;fpf; nfhz;L
jq;fs; Ch;fSf;Fj; jpUk;gpr; nrd;wdh; vd;W yhyh y[gjpuha; fhq;fpu];
$l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;Nlhiug;gw;wp th;zpjjhh;. 1901 fy;fj;jh
fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;l fhe;jp %d;W ehl;fs; $bg;gpd;
J}q;fr; nrd;WtpLk; mikg;Ng fhq;fpu];‟ vd;W $pwdhh;.
Njrpa mikg;G
fhq;fpu]; cz;ikahd Njrpa mikg;igj; jpfo;e;jJ. Rh;
ngNuh];\h Nkj;jh> jhjhgha; nesNuh[p Nghd;w ghurPfh;fSk;> gj;UjPd;
jpahg;[p Nghd;w K];yPk;fSk; lgps;A rp.ghdh;[p Nghd;w fpwpj;jth;fSk;
fhq;fpurpd; J}z;fshf ,Ue;jdh;. gk;gha; uh[jhdpf; fofk; g+dh
rh;t[dpf; rig> nrd;id kfh[d rig> ,e;jpaf; fofk; Nghd;w gpuhe;jpa
mikg;Gfs; fhq;fpuNrhL neUq;fpa njhlh;G nfhz;bUe;jd. RNue;jpuehj;.
ghdh;[papd; jiyikapy; nray;gg ; l ,e;jpaf; fofk; 1806 y; fhq;fpuNrhL
,ize;jJ. ,e;jpahtpy; nry;thf;Fkpf;f jiyth;fs; fhq;fpurpy;
Nrh;e;jdh;. fhq;fpu]; Njhd;wpa ehspypUe;J ,e;jpa Njrpaj;ijj; jdJ
Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;bUe;jJ.
fhq;fpu]; jiyik
fhq;fpu]; Jtf;fg;gl;lgpd; ,Ugjhz;L fhyj;Jf;F Nkl;Lf;Fb
kf;fshy; Mq;fpyf; fy;tp ngw;w nry;tUk; nry;thf;f kpf;fth;fshy;
jiyikNaw;w elj;jg;gl;lJ> mth;fsidtUk; gpuhj;jpa murpay>
gf;ftKk; mDgtKk; ngw;wth;fs;. mth;fspd; kpfg;ngUk;ghd;ikNahh;
efuq;fisr; Nrh;e;jthfs;. mth;fs;jhd; fhq;fpu]; $l;lq;fSf;Fj;
jiyik jhq;fpdh;. Kf;fpag; gjtpfis trpj;jdh;. ,q;fpyhe;Jf;Fr;
nrd;w J}Jf;FOf;fspy; ,lk;ngw;wdh;. fhq;fpuRf;Fk; murhq;fj;JkpilNa
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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eilngw;w rkurg; Ngr;Rf;fspy; gq;Nfw;wdh;. kpjthjpfshd fhq;fpu];
jiyth;fs; jq;fsJ Mo;ej mwpthw;wyhYk; gOj;j mDgtj;jhYk;
eilKiwj; jpwikahYk;> r%fr; nry;thf;fhYk; fhq;fpuir topelj;jpr;
nrd;wdh;. vdpDk; Jtf;f fhy fhq;fpurpy; tptrhapfs;> fpuhkf;
iftpidQh;fs;> njhopyhsh;fs;> jho;j;jg;gl;Nlhh; MfpNahUf;Fj; jiyik
gPj;jpy; ,lkpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
fhq;fpurpd; Nfhhpf;iffs;
,Ugjhz;L fhy (1885-1905) fhq;fpu]; $l;l tpthjq;fisAk;
jPh;khdq;fisAk; ghprPypj;Jg; ghh;j;jhy; gpd;tUk; Nfhhpf;iffSf;F
fhq;fpu]; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;jijf; fhzyhk;
1. itrpuha;> fth;dh; MfpNahuJ Ml;rpf;FOf;fis tphpTg;gLj;jp
mtw;wpy; ,e;jpah;fSf;F mjf ,lq;fisf; nfhLj;jy;.
2. ,uhZtr; nryitf; Fiwj;jy;
3. ,e;jpa tptfhur; nrayh; gjtpia ePf;fy;
4. ,e;jpa eph;thfj;ijg;gw;wp kjpg;gL P nra;a xU “uhay;fkp\id‟
epakpj;jy;.
5. nghJg;gzpj; Njh;Tfis ,q;fpyhe;jpYk;> ,e;jpahtpYk; xNu
rkaj;jpy; elj;Jjy;.
6. nghJg; gzpfspy; ,e;jpah;fSF;F mjpf ,lq;fis xJf;Fjy;.
7. Rahl;rp epWtdq;fSf;F mjpfkhd mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhLj;jy;.
8. Ml;rpj; JiwapypUe;j ePjpj;Jiwiag; gphpj;jy;.
9. Jizf;Nfs;tpfis vOg;gTk;> tuT nryTj; jpl;lj;ij
tpthjpf;fTk; chpikg;ngw;w gpujpepj;Jtr; rl;l kd;wj;ij
Vw;gLj;Jjy;.
10. kpjkhd thpfs;
11. el;Gwthd NghyP];
12. gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; ,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfSf;F ,lkspj;jy;.
13. ,e;jpaj; njhopw;rhiyfSf;F Cf;fkspj;jy;.
14. fy;tp kw;w Ntiytha;g;Gfis mjpfhpj;jy;.
15. epythpiaf; Fiwj;jy;.
16. gj;jphpf;ifr; Rje;jpuj;ijg; ghJfhj;jy;
17. fpuhk tq;fpfis Vw;glj;Jjy;
18. epyr;Rthd;jhh;fspd; Ruz;lypypUe;J tptrhapfisg; ghJfhj;jy;
19. cg;G thpiaf; Fiwj;jy;.
20. nghJthf kf;fspd; nghUshjhu epiyia cah;j;jy;.
murhqfj;jpd;Nghf;F
,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fp]; itrpuha; l/ghpd; gpuGtpd;
tho;j;Jf;fNshLjhd; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. ,uz;lhtJ fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpy;
fye;J nfhz;l gpujpepjpfis itrpuha; mur ,y;yj;jpy; Njhl;l
tpUe;Jf;fioj;J rpwg;gpj;jhh; (1886). mNj Nghd;W nrd;id fth;dh;.
fd;dpkhuh gpuGTk; nrd;idf; fhq;fpurpy; fye;Jnfhz;l gpujpepjpfSf;f
tuNtw;gspj;jhh; (1887). gpugy Mq;fpNyah;fs; fhq;fpu]; $l;lq;fSf;Fj;
jiyik jhq;fpdh;. Mdhy; fhq;fpurpd; nry;thf;F tpiue;J tsh;e;jNghJ
murhq;fk; jdJ Nghf;if khw;wpf;nfhs;sj; Jtq;fpaJ. itrpuha;
l/ghpNd mij „muR JNuhf mikg;G‟ vd;W fz;bj;jhh;. xU rpy
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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fw;wth;fspd; $l;lk; mJ vd;W fhq;fpuir cjhrPdg;gLj;jpdhh;.
mth;tlNkw;F khepy nyg;bdd;l; fth;duhapUe;j rh; Mf;yz;L Nfhy;tpd;
fhq;fpuir „ mghafukhd mikg;G‟ vd;W epe;jpj;jhh;. ,e;jpar;
nrayuhapUe;j `hkpy;ld; fhq;fpu];fhuh;fis „murhq;fj;Jf;nfjpuhd
,ul;il ,ay;G nfhz;lth;fs;‟ vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;bdhh;. mjpfhu
th;f;fj;jpdh; fhq;fpu];fhuh;fis „td;Kiw tpy;yd;fs; vd;W th;zpj;jdh;.
fh;]d; gpug fhq;fpuirj; „js;shbf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; mRj;jkhd mikg;G‟
vd;W rhbdhh;. murhq;fKk; mjpfhu th;f;fKk; ,e;jpaiug; gphpf;fr; #o;r;rp
nra;J> fhq;fpu]; tsuhky; ,Ug;gjw;Fg; gy jilfisAk; Vw;gLj;jpd.
fhq;fpurpd; rhjidfs;
,e;jpah;fis xd;W Nrh;j;J kf;fSf;F murpay; fy;tp mspj;J
mth;fspd; Njrpa czh;r;rpfisg; gpujpgypj;j xNu Njrpa mikg;G
fhq;fpu];jhd;. 1885 ypUe;J 1905 tiu fhq;fpu]; epiwNtw;wpa
jPh;khdq;fspd; %yk; ,e;jpauJ NjitfisAk; tpUg;gq;fisAk;
FiwghLfisAk; murhq;fj;Jf;F vLj;Jf; $baJ. murhq;fj;jpd; kf;fs;
tpNuhj nfhs;iffisAk;> eltbf;iffisAk;> rl;lq;fisAk;
fz;bf;fTk; vjph;f;fTk; jtwtpy;iy.. fhq;fpurpd; rl;lKiwahd
Nghuhl;lj;jpd; tpisthfj;jhd; 1892y; ,e;jpa kd;wq;fs; rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gl;lJ. murhq;fg; nghJg;gzpf;fhd Njh;Tfs; xNu rkaj;jpy;
,q;fpyhe;jpYk; ,e;jpahtpYk; eilngw Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
murpay; mikg;G Kiwapy; khw;w;qfs; Vw;gLtjw;Fr; rhjfkhf
,q;fpyhe;J kf;fspd; Mjuitj; jpul;Lk; nghUl;L fhq;fpu];
,q;fpyhe;Jf;F mDg;gpa J}Jf;FOf;fs; rpwe;j gzpahw;wpd. fhq;fpurpd;
Nfhhpf;ifapd; tpisthf murhq;f eph;thfg; gzpfspy; ,e;jpah;fSf;F
,lq;fs; mspf;fg;gl;ld. fhq;fpurp]; fw;Nwhuhy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ
vd;W Fiw $wg;gl;lNghJ. fw;wth;fs; ,d;W epidg;gij kw;wth;fs;
ehis epieg;gh; vd;W gjpyhf nfhLj;jhh; NfhfNy mg;Nghija
#o;epiyapy; fhq;fpurpd; rhjidfs; Nghw;WjYf;Fk; ghuhl;LjYf;Fk;
chpaitNa> Jtf;f fhy fhq;fpu]; rhjpf;fhjjw;Fk;> rhjpf;f
Kbahjjw;Fk;> rhjpf;f Kayhjjw;Fk; mijf;Fiw $Wtjpy; gadpy;iy.
Mys; Mf;Nltpad; `pa+k;. 1829-1912
„fhq;fpurpd; je;ij‟ vd;W miof;fg;gLk; Myd; Mf;Nltpad; `pA+k;
(Allen Octavian Hume) ,e;jpahtpy; gy;NtW murhq;fg; gjtpfis
tfpj;jth;. ,th; xd;gjhz;L fhyk; 1870-79) ,e;jpa murhq;fj;jpd;
tUtha; tptrhak; kw;Wk; th;j;jfj; Jiwr; nrayuhfg; gzpahw;wpaNghJ
,e;jpauJ epiy gw;wpAk; mth;fsJ epidg;G Fwpj;Jk; 30>000 ,ufrpa
mwpf;iffs; mlq;fpa 7 njhFg;Gf; Nfhg;Gfisg; ghh;f;ff;4ba tha;gG ;
mtUf;F Vw;gl;lJ. mNjNghd;W 1881k; Mz;L Nklk; gpstl;];fp %yk;
,e;jpauJ kdepiy gw;wpa jdJ fzpg;G rhpahdNj vd;gJ
cWjpahapw;W. ,tw;wpypUe;J `pa+k; kf;fspilNa „nfhjpj;Jf; FKWk;
Nfhgk;‟ ,Ug;gijAk;> mbj;jl;L kf;fs; td;Kiwf; fpsh;r;rp %yk;
gphpl;b\; Ml;rpia mfw;Wtjw;Fj; jahuhf cs;sdh;. vd;w KbTf;f
te;jhh;. mj;jifa #o;epiy cUthfhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis
Nkw;nfhz;lhh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


97
1882k; Mz;L murhq;fg; gzpapypUe;J tpyfpf;nfhz;l `pa+k;
1.,e;jpah;fs; murpaypy; gq;Nfw;f Ntz;Lk;. 2. ,th;fs; rKjhag;
gpur;ridfshy; gpsTglf; $lhJ vd;W ntspg;gilahfg; Ngrpdhh;.
„Kjpathpd; ek;gpf;if” vd;w E}ypy; ,e;jpahpd; ,d;dy;fisAk;>
,lh;g;ghLfisAk; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; Gwf;fzpf;ff;$lhJ vd;Wk;>
„gaKWj;jpa Ngughak;‟ gw;wpAk; vr;rhpj;jhh;. 1883 khh;r; Kjy; Njjp
fy;fj;jh gy;fiyf; fofg; gl;lj;jhhpfSf;F vOjpa fbjj;jpy; „fLF
tpijfisg; Nghd;W Ik;gJ jd;dyk; fUjhj „jpahf kdg;ghd;ikAila
,e;jpah;fisf; nfhz;l mikg;ig‟ Vw;gLj;j Ntz;bajd;
,d;wpaikahikia mbf;Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;bdhh;. ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fNshL
njhlh;G nfhz;lhh;.
`pa+k; ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;W hp;gg ; d; gpuG> [hd; gpiul;> b.hPl; Nghd;w
gpugyq;fisr; re;jpj;Jj; jd; Kaw;rpf;F MjuT Nfhhpdhh;. ,e;jpahty;
elf;ftpUe;j khehL gw;wpa jfty;fisg; gphpl;\; gj;jphpf;iffspy;
gpuRhpf;f Vw;ghLfisr; nra;jhh;. ,e;jpah jpUk;gp `Pa+k; ,e;jpa Njrpa
fhq;fpuir mikf;Fk; gzpapy; <Lgl;lhh;. `pa+kpd; tho;f;if tuyhw;W
vOjpa tpy;ypak; ntlh;ghd; (William Wedderburn) mr;RWj;Jk;
mghaj;ijj; jLg;gjw;fhfNt `pAk; fhq;fpuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh; vd;W
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;. mNj Nghd;W 1896y; „,e;jpa murpay; vd;w
gjjphpf;ifapy; lGs;A.rp. ghdh;[p ntspapl;l mwpf;ifapy; `pa+k; 1884
NyNa ,e;jpahtpd; Kd;dzpj; jiyth;fisf; $l;b ,e;jpa tptfhuq;fs;
gw;wp tpthjpf;fj; jpl;lkpl;bUe;jjhff;; $wpapUe;jhh;.
`pa+k; 1885 brk;gh; 28k; ehs; gk;ghapy; Jtf;fg;gl;l mfpy ,e;jpa
fhq;fpurpd; Kjy; nghJr; nrayhuhfg; nghWg;Ngw;whh;. mth; mg;gjtpapy;
1907 tiu ePbj;jhh;. fhq;fpurpd; Nfhl;ghLgw;wp kf;fspilNa gpur;rhuk;
nra;a `Pa+k; Mz;LNjhWk; mtuJ nrhe;j nrytpy; ,e;jpahtpy; gy
gFjpfSf;Fk; gazk; nra;jhh;. „`pa+Kld; njhlh;Gnfhz;l
nrayhw;wyw;w kf;fs;$l nraYf;fKs;s kf;fshf khw;wf;$ba trpa
Mw;wy; mthplkpUe;jJ vd;W ngUq;fpsh;r;rpf;Fg;gpd; ,e;jpa murpay;
E}yhrphpah; rp.xa;.rpe;jhkzp Gfohuk; #l;bAs;shh;.

1) ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpurpd; Njhw;wj;ij tpthp?

fhq;fpurpy; jPtputhj ,af;fq;fs;


1905 ypUe;J 1919 tiuahd fhyf;fl;lj;ijj; „jPtputhjpfspd;
rfhg;jk; (Era of the Extremists) vd miof;fyhk;. kpjthjpfisg; Nghd;wNw
jPtputhjpfSk; ehl;Lg;gw;W kpf;f fhq;fpu];fhuh;fs; jhd;. fhq;fpu];
kpjthjpfspd; Mjpf;fj;jpd;fo P ; ,Ue;jtiu (1885-1905) jPtputhjpfshy;
jiyJ}f;f Kbatpy;iy. tq;fg; gphptpidapd;NghJ (1905) jPtputhjpfs;
RNjrp ,af;fj;jpd; %yk; jq;fisj; njspthf milahsq; fhl;bf;
nfhz;ldh;. murpay; Fwpf;Nfhs;;;

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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mf;Fwpf;Nfhis miltjw;fhd topKiwfs;;;
kf;fspd; MjuNthL$ba ,af;fk; Mfpa %d;W tp\aq;fspYk;
kpjthjpfSk; jPtputhjpfSk; Kuz;gl;L epd;wdh;.
jPtpu Njrpaj;jpd; Njhw;wk;
mutpe;j Nfh\; (1872-1950)
,th; ,q;fpyhe;jpypUe;J ,e;jpah jpUk;gpaTld; (1893) ,e;jpa Njrpa
murpaypy; jPtputhj tpijfis tpijj;jhh;. gk;ghapypUe;J ntspahd
xU gj;jphpifapy; KjpNahUf;F Gjpa tpsf;Ffs; (New Lamps for old)
vd;w jiyg;gpy; fl;Liufs; vOjpdhh;. mtw;wpy; fhq;fpuirAk; fhq;fpu];
jiyikiaAk; Fiw $wpdhh;. fhq;fpuir „xU kj;ju ju tFg;ghhpd;
fUtp‟ vd th;zpj;jhh;. rpWrpW rPh;jpUj;jq;fSf;fhfj; jq;fsJ Mw;wiy
tpuak; nra;tjhff; fhq;fpu];fhuh;fisr; rhbdhh;. NjrtpLjiy. kf;fs;
Mjuitj; jpul;ly;> Gul;rpapd; %yk; khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;JtJ
gw;wpnay;yhk; mutpe;jh; vOjpdhh;. mjdhy;jhd; mtiu „jPtpu
,af;fj;jpd; jPh;f;fjhprp‟ (Prophet of militant nationalism) vd f; fud;rpq;
th;zpj;jhh;.
jPtpu Njrpak; Njhd;wf; fhuzq;fs;
,e;jpa Njrpa ,af;fj;jpy; jPtpu Njrpak; Njhd;w gy fhuzq;fSk;
R+o;epiyfSk; ,Ue;jd.
1. 1858y; ntspaplg;gl;l Nguurpapd; gpufldk; Vl;Lr; Riuf;fhahfNt
,Ue;jJ. mjpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l cj;jputhjq;fs;
nray;gLj;jgltpy;iy. 1861> 1892 Ftd;rpy; rl;lq;fs; kf;fSf;F
Vkhw;wj;ijna mspj;jd. kpjthjpfs; kjpg;gope;jdh;.
2. 1896-97y; jiytpjpj;jhba gQ;rj;ijf; fl;Lg;gj;jNth> gQ;rj;jhy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;NlhUf;F epthuzkspf;fNth murhq;fk; jf;f
eltbf;iffis vLf;fj; jtwptpl;lJ. Fwpg;ghf gk;gha;
uh[jhdpapy; gutpa nfhs;isNehia fl;Lg;gLj;j mjpfhhpfs;
Nkw;nfhz;l eltbf;iffs; kf;fisr; rpdq;nfhz;L vor; nra;jd.
jpyfh; mjpfhhpfspd; Nghf;ifr; rhbdhh;. G+dhtpd; nfhs;is Neha;f;
fkp\dh; uhz;Lk; (Rand) mtuJ cjtpahsh; nyg;bdd;l;
mah;]L ; k; (Ayerst) Rl;Lf;nfhs;sg;gl;ldh;.
3. kf;fs; gQ;rj;jhYk; nfhs;is NehahYk; mtjpg;gl;Lf;
nfhz;bUf;ifapy; murhq;fk; tpf;Nlhhpah kfuhzpahhpd;
gl;lkspg;gpd; itutpohitf; nfhz;lhLtjpy; gztpuak; nra;J.
mJ fz;L kf;fs; Mj;jpukile;jdh;.
4. mnkhpf;fh> fdlh> gphpl;b\; nfhyk;gpah> njd; Mg;gpf;fh Nghd;w
ehLfspy; xg;ge;jf; $ypfshfTk;> gpiog;Gf;fhfTk; nrd;W jq;fpa
,e;jpah;fSf;F ,iof;fg;gl;l ,d;dy;fs; gw;wp Mq;fpNya
murhq;fk; mrl;ilahf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fs; rpyuJ
Nfhgj;ijf; fpswptpl;lJ.
5. ,j;jhypia mgprpdpah Njhw;fbj;jJ (1896)> [g;ghd; u\;ahit
ntd;wJ (1905) Nghd;w epfo;r;rpfSk;> rPdh> JUf;f> vfpg;J>
mah;yhe;J Mfpa ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l Gul;rpfSk; gphpl;b];
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
99
Vfhjpgj;jpy; khiaia mfw;wpd. ,e;jpa ,isQh;fs; vOr;rp
ngw;wdh;. jPtputhjk; J}z;btplg;gl;lJ.
6. kpjthjpfs; Mq;fpNyag; gz;ghL> Gfo;> murpay; mikg;Gfs; gw;wp
Gfo;ghbf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy;> ghyfq;fhju jpyfh;> gpgpd; re;jpughy;
yhyh y[gjpuha; mutpe;jh;> md;dpngrd;l; mk;ikahh; Nghd;Nwhh;
,e;jpahtpd; fle;jfhyg; ngUikapd; mUik fz;L
mjd;mbg;gilapy; tUq;fhy ,e;jpahit cUthf;f kide;jdh;.
kuhl;ba khtPuh;fisAk;> 1857 fpsh;r;rpj; jiyth;fisAk;
Kd;khjphpahff; nfhz;ldh;.
7. gphpl;b\hhpd; ,e;jpa vjph;g;Gf; nfhs;is jPtpu vz;zq;nfhz;l
NjrpathjpfSf;F vhpr;rY}l;baJ.
8. Nkiy ehLfspy; vOe;j tpLjiy ,af;fq;fSk; fhpghy;b> kh[pdp
Nghd;w Nghuhl;lj; jiyth;fspd; jpahfr; nray;fSk; Gul;rpf;
fUj;JfSk; vOr;rpia Vw;gLj;jpd.
9. Mq;fpy murpd; fhydp mjpf;fg; nghUshjhur; Ruz;ly;
nfhs;ifapy; jPtputhj NjrpathjpfSf;F rw;Wk; cld;ghby;iy.
jpyfh; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ljhy; 1908y; Vw;gl;l gk;gha; njhopyhsh;
NtiyepWj;jk;> Njrpaf; fhw;W vj;jpir Nehf;fp mbf;fpwJ
vd;gijf; fhl;baJ.
10. ,e;jpa itrpuha; fh;rd; gpuGtpd; nfhs;if Fstpf; $l;by;
iftpl;l fijahapw;W! jPtputhjk; Njrpa mq;fPfhuk; ngw;wJ.
jPtputhjpfs; vd;gth;fs; ahh;?
Mq;fpNya Mjpf;f mlf;fKiwf; nfhs;ifahy; vhpr;ryile;J>
kpjtjpfspd; Njhy;tpahy; Vkhw;WKw;w fhq;fpu];fhuh;fNs
jptputhjpfshapdh;. fhq;fpurpd; Nehf;fpYk; Nghf;fpYk; mbg;gil khw;wk;
Vw;gl Ntz;Lnkd;W tw;GWj;jpdh;. Mq;fpNyauJ Ml;rp ,e;jpahtpy;
ePbg;gijj; jPtputhjpfs; vjph;j;jdh;. Mq;fpNyah;fs; mspf;Fk; rPh;jpUj;jg;
gpr;irfis Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy; Njrpa ,af;fj;jpd; jPtpuk; jsh;e;J tpLk;
vd;W mth;fs; mQ;rpdh;. Rauh[;aNk (Swarraj) mth;fs; Fwpf;Nfhs;
,e;jpah;fSf;Fj; jq;fis jhq;fNs Ml;rpnra;J nfhs;sf;$ba jpwik
,Ug;gjhy; Rahl;rp KiwNa rpwe;j murpay; Kiwnadj; jPtputhjpfs;
fUjpdh;. jd;dhl;rp mikg;gpy;jhd; kf;fs; jq;fsJ jpwikia
Rakhpahijia> jd;dk;gpf;ifia> jw;rhh;Gilikia> jpahf
kdg;ghd;ikia tsh;j;J nfhs;s KbAnkd mth;fs; ek;gpdh; VnJDk;
Rauh[;ak;> tpNjrpg; nghUs; Gwf;fzpg;G> Njrpaf;fy;tp MfpaitNa
mth;fsJ jpl;lq;fshf ,Ue;jd. ghyfq;fhju jpyfh;> gpgpd; re;jpughy;
MfpNahh; ngUikf;Fk;> GfOf;FKhpa jPtputhjj; jiyth;fshfj;
jpfo;e;jdh;.
#uj; fq;fpu]; gpsT 1907
fhrp fhq;fpu]; 1905
kpjthjpfSf;Fk; jPtputhjpfSf;FkpilNa ,Ue;j khWghLfSWk;
Kuz;ghLfSk; tsh;e;Jnfhz;Nl nrd;wdNtad;wpf; Fiwatpy;iy
mth;fSila kdg;ghd;ikAk;> mZFKiwAk;> Nghuhl;l KiwfSk;
,UrhuhiuAk; ,UJutq;fshf;fptpl;ld. mth;fSf;fpilNa ,Ue;j
,ilntsp fhq;fpuir ,uz;lhfg; gpsTgLtijj; jtph;f;f
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
100
Kbahjjhf;fptpl;lJ. tq;fhsj;jpy; RNjrp ,af;fk; #Lgpbj;J
Rod;wbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy;jhd; fhrpapy; fhq;fpu]; $baJ (1905)
mf;$l;lj;Jf;F NfhfNy jiyik jhq;fp RNjrp ,af;fj;jpd; ngUik
gw;wpg; Gfo;e;JNgrpa NghjpYk;> jhjhgha; nesNuh[p> RNue;jpuehj; ghdh;[p>
ngNuh];\h Nkj;jh Nghd;w gpw kpjthjj; jiyth;fs; fhyj;jpd;
khw;wj;Jf; Nfw;gj; jq;fis khw;wpf; nfhs;sj; jahuhapy;iy. jpyfh;
rh;j;tPfg;Nghuhl;lk; gw;wpf; nfhz;Lte;j jPh;khdk; kpjthjpfs;
jPuthjpfspilNa gyj;j rh;r;iria Vw;gLj;jptpl;lJ. Mdhy;
neUf;fbia cj;Njrpj;J Nkhjiyj; jtph;j;jdh;.
fy;fj;jh fhq;fpu]; 1906
mLj;j Mz;L (1906) fhq;fpu]; fy;fj;jhtpy; $baJ> mjw;FKd;
tq;fg;gphptpid Kbe;j KbT vd;w khh;yp gpuGtpd; mwptpg;G
jPtputhjpfis ntFz;nlor; nra;jJ. mNjNghd;W tq;fg; gphptpidia
vjph;j;j Mh;gg; hl;lf;fhuh;fs; kPJ fl;ltpo;j;J tplg;gl;l mlf;FKiw
kf;fspilNa kdf;FKwiy Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mg;gpd;dzpapy; jhd; fy;fj;jh
fhq;fpu]; $baJ “jpyfNu mf;fhq;fpurpd; jiytuhf Ntz;Lnkdj;
jptputhjpfs; tpUk;gpdh;. Mdhy; mij kpjthjpfs; vjph;j;jdh;.
„fhq;fpu]; jhj;jh‟ jhjhgha; nesNuh[p jiyik jhq;f
xg;Gf;nfhz;ljhy; jiyik gw;wpa rpf;fy; jPh;j;jJ nesNuh[p Mq;fpNya
murhq;fj;jpd; fhl;Lkpuhz;bf; nfhLq;Nfhyhl;rpiaf; fz;bj;jhh;.
Rauh[;aNk fhq;fpurpd; Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;whh; RNjrp>
tpNjrpg; nghUs; Gwf;fzpg;G Njrpaf; fy;tp gw;wpa jPh;khdq;fs;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld jPtputhjpfSf;Ff; fpilj;j ntw;wp mJ.
#uj; fhq;fpu];> 1907
vdpDk; kpjthjpfSf;Fk; jPtputhjpfSf;FkpilNa ,Ue;j
,ilntsp Fiwatpy;iy. ,U gphptpdUk; jq;fsJ gyj;ij Nrhjpj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;fhd Kaw;rpfspy; <Lgl;ldh;. fhq;fpu]; ehfGhpapy; (Nagpur)
$Ltjhf ,Ue;jJ. ehfGhp jPtputhjpfspy; Nfhl;il vdNt> fhq;fpu];
$Lkplk; kpjthjpfspd; muzhd #uj; (Surat) Jf;F khw;wg;gl;lJ! #uj;
fhq;fpu]; 1907 brk;gh; 26Mk; ehs; $bw;W. mf;$l;lk; FUN\j;jpug;
Nghh;f;fskhff; fhl;rpaspj;jJ. jpyfh; %d;W Kf;fpa Nfhhpf;iffisf;
#uj; fhq;fpurpd; ghprPyidf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jhh;.
1. fle;j Mz;L fy;fj;jh fhq;fpurpd; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l jPh;khdq;fis
midtUk; gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk;.
2. tp\ahNyhridf;FO (Subjects Committee) cWg;gpdh;fs;
Kiwahfj; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
3. fhq;fpu]; $l;lj; jiytiug; gpujpepjpfNs Njh;enjLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
jpyfhpd; mk;%d;W Nfhhpf;iffisAk; kpjthjpfs; epuhfhpj;J
tpl;ldh;. lhf;lh; uh\;gp`hhp Nfh\pd; (Dr.Rahs Behari Ghose) ngah;
Kd;nkhopag;gl;lJ. jptputhjpfs; mjph;r;rpaile;jdh;.
v];.vd;.ghdh;[p Nfh\pd; ngaiu topnkhopah; nrd;wNghJ
$l;lj;jpy; Fog;gk; Vw;gl;lJ. $l;lk; xj;jp itf;fg;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


101
mLj;j ehs; (27 brk;gh;) fhq;fpu]; $baNghJ v];.vd;.ghdh;[p jdJ
Ngr;ir tpl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J njhlh;e;jhh;. fhq;fpu]; $l;lj; jiyth;
Njh;enjLf;fg;gl;l Kiw gw;wpg; Ngr tpUk;gpdhh;. Mdhy; mth; ngr
mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy! jd; Ngr;Rhpikia epiyehl;l Nkilf;Fr; nrd;w
jpyfiug; Ngrtpltpy;iy. vdNt $l;lj;jpy; $r;rYk; Fog;gKk;
Vw;gl;ld. kpjthjpfSk;> jPtputhjpfSk; Nkhjpf;nfhz;ldh;. ehw;fhypfs;
J}f;fp vwpag;gl;ldh;! nrUg;Gfs; tpRg;gl;ld! xU nrUg;G Nkilapy;
tPw;wpUe;j RNue;jpuehj; ghdh;[p> ngNuh];\h Nkj;jh MfpNahiu curpr;
nrd;wJ vdW gp.gl;lhap rPj;jhuhikah vOjpAs;shh;! NghyPrhh;
ge;jYf;Fs; Eioe;J epiyikiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jp mikjpia Vw;gLj;jpdh;.
kWehs; (28 brk;gh;) kpjthjpfs; lhf;lh; uh\; gp`hhp Nfh\pd;
jiyikapYk;> jPtputhjpfs; mutpe;j; Nfh\pd; jiyikapYk;
jdpj;jdpahff; $bj; jPh;khdq;fis epiwNtw;wpf; nfhz;ldh;. fhq;fpu];
gpsTgl;lJ. ,JNt „#uj; gpsT‟ (Surat Split) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
kjpg;gL
P
#uj; fhq;fpuRf;Fg; gpd; fhq;fpu]; tPL ,uz;Lgl;lJ. xU gphptpdh;
NfhfNyapd; jiyikapYk;> kw;WnkhU gphptpdh; jpyfhpd; jiyikapYk;
nray;gl;ldh;. fhq;fpurpd; Nehf;fpYk; Nghf;fpYk; njspT cz;lhr; #uj;
gpsT top tFj;jJ. ,U mzpfspYk; ,Ue;Njhhpd; rpwe;j jpwikfs;
ntsptu tha;gG ; z;lhapw;W. ,e;jpa murpaypy; ,U fl;rp mikg;GKiw
(Tow party system) cUthapw;W. ,Ug;gpDk; #uj; gpsT fhq;fpuirAk;
Njrpa ,af;fj;ijAk; gytPdg;gLj;jptpl;lJ. Njrpa rf;jp rpjWz;L
Nghapw;W. Ch; ,uz;Lgl;lhy; $j;jhbf;F nfhz;lhl;lk; jhNd! Mq;fpNya
muR ,g;gpsitj; jdf;Fj; rhjfkhf;fpf; nfhz;lJ. mJ kpjthjpfis
Mjhpj;J jPuthjpfis mlf;fpaJ. yhyh y[gjpuhAk; m[pj; rpq;Fk;>
jpyfUk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L ghpkhtpYs;s khz;lNy
rpiwf;fDg;gg;gl;ldh;. gy mlf;FKiwr; rl;lq;fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;ld
gphpe;j fhq;fpu];fhuh;fs; kPz;Lk; 1916 yf;Ndh fhq;fpurpd; xd;W $bdh;.
jkpo;ehl;by; jptputhjk;
nghJthfj; jkpo;ehL kpjthjpfspd; g+q;fhthff; fhl;rpaspj;jJ
g+q;fhTf;Fs; GFe;j Gayhf te;jhh; gpgpd; re;jughy; (1907) Fwhthspr;
Rw;Wg;gazk; nra;jhh;. tPuKof;fkpl;lhh;. nrd;wtplnky;yhk; jPtputhj
tpijfisj; jtpu nrd;whh; gy jkpoh;fs; ePz;l cwf;fj;jpypUe;J
kPz;ldh;. jPtputhjpfshapdh;. t.c.rpjk;guk; gps;isAk; mtuJ ez;gh;
Rg;gpukzpa rpthTRk; jkpo;ehl;by; jPtputhj ,af;fj;Jf;Fj;
jiyikNaw;W elj;jpdh;. Fwpg;ghf t.c.rpjk;guk; gps;is RNjrp fg;gy;
fk;ngdp (Swadeshi Navigation Company) ia Mq;fpNyah; elj;jpa
„,e;jpa ePuhtp fg;gy; fk;ngdp (Indian Steam Navigation) f;Fg;
Nghl;bahfj; Jtq;fpdhh;. njhopyhsh; eydpy; mf;fiw nfhz;l mth;
„Nfhuy; njhopw;rhiy‟ (Coral mill) eph;thfpfSld; Ngrpj; njhoyhsh;
Ntiy epWj;jj;ij ntw;wpfukhfj; jPh;j;J itj;jhh;. rpiwkPz;l gpgpd;
re;jpu ghyiug; ghuhl;Lk; nghUl;L jilia kPwpg; nghJf;$l;lj;jpy;
Ngrpajw;fhf t.c.rp ifJ nra;ag;gl;L (1908 khh;r;8) ehd;fhz;LfSf;Fg;
gpd; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;lhh;. „jkpo;ehl;Lj; jpyfh; vd;wiof;fg;gl;l
t.c.rpiag; Nghd;Nw Rg;gpukzpa rpthTk; t.Nt.Rg;gpukzpa Ia;aUk;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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thQ;rpehjDk;> Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahUk; jq;fs; nrhy;yhYk;> nrayhYk;
jkpo;ehl;by; jPtputhjj;ij epiynfhs;sr; nra;jdh;.
tq;fg; gphptpidAk; RNjrp ,af;fKk;> 1905
tq;fg; gphptpid:-
tq;fhsk;> xhp];]h> gP`hh;> Nrhl;lh> ehf;G+h; Mfpa gFjpfs;
Nrh;e;Nj tq;fhs uh[jhdpahf mike;jpUe;jJ. gug;gstpy; nghpJk;
eph;thfj;Jf;Ff; fbdkhfTk; ,Ue;j mg;nghpa uh[jhdpiag; gphpg;gjw;fhd
Kaw;rpfs; ehw;gjhz;Lfshf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L vt;tpj KbTf;Fk; tuhky;
,Ue;jJ Mq;fpNya murhq;fk;. Mdhy; fh;rd; gpuG itrpuhahf te;j
clNdNa (1899-1905) gpw eltbf;iffNshL tq;fhsj;ijj; Jz;lhf;Fk;
Kaw;rpapy; jPtpukhf <Lgl;lhh;.
fhuzq;fs;:-
tq;fhs uh[jhdp jpwikahf Kbahj msTf;Fg; nghpjhf
,Ue;jJ. mjd; fhuzkhf murpay; khw;wq;fisr; nra;a ,aytpy;iy.
fpof;F tq;fhsk; tsh;r;rp Fd;wpNgha;tpl;lJ. mjd; Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;Fr;
rpwg;Gf; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;bajpy;iy. ,j;jifa fhuzq;fisf; fhl;b
tq;fg; gphptpidf;fhd jpl;lk; jahhpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; cz;ikahd
fhuzk; tq;fhsj;jpy; ,Ue;j ,e;jpa Njrpa Cw;iw milj;Jtpl
Ntz;Lk; vd;gJjhd;. tq;fhs ,e;J K];yPk;fSf;fpilNa gpsit
Vw;gLj;jptpl;lhy; mf;fhhpak; vspjpy; epiwNtwptpLk; vd;w jPh;khdj;NjhL
jhd; fh;rd;gpuG tq;fg;gphptpidj; jpl;lj;ij Jhpjg;gLj;jpdhh;. jdJ
gphptpidj; jpl;lj;Jf;F MjuT jpul;Lk; nghUl;L fh;rd;gpuG fpof;F
tq;fhsj;Jf;Fr; Rw;Wg;gazk; Nkw;nfhz;lNghJ (1904) mq;fpUe;j
K];yPk;fSf;F gy rYiffis toq;fpdhh;.
vjph;gG
; :-
fh;rdpd; tq;fg; gphptpidj; jpl;lj;ij tq;fj; jiyth;fs;
Jtf;fj;jpypUe;Nj vjph;j;J te;jdh;. nghJf;$l;lq;fs; Nghl;L gphptpid
jpl;lj;Jf;nfjpuhd jPh;khdq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld. #Siufs; vLj;Jf;
nfhs;sg;gl;ld.
RNjrp ,af;fk;:-
Jf;f jpdk;:-
tq;fhsk; gphpf;fg;gl;l ehshd 1905 mf;Nlhgh; 16 Njrpa
Jf;fjpdkhf tq;fhs KOtJk; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. md;W kf;fs;
cz;zhtpujkpUe;jdh;. fy;fj;jhtpy; „mh;j;jhy;‟ mD\;bf;fg;gl;lJ. md;W
ghLtjw;nfd gpuj;Nafkhf ,utPe;jpuehj; jh$uhy; Gidag;gl;l ghliy
kf;fs; ghbdh;. Ch;tykhfr; nrd;w Mh;g;ghl;lf;fhuh;fs; gq;fpk; re;jpuhpd;
„te;Nj khjuk;‟ ghliyg; ghbr; nrd;wdh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


103
ntspehLfspy; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lk;
,ufrpa rq;fq;fs;
,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;bd; Jtf;fj;jpypUe;Nj kpjthjpfSk;
jptputhjpfSk; gaq;futhjpfSk; jq;fsJ ,af;fq;fSf;FD MjuT
NjLk; nghUl;L ntspehLfspld; njhlh;G nfhz;ldh;. gaq;futhjpfs;
,q;fpyhe;J gpuhd;R> n[h;kdp> mnkhpf;fh> [g;ghd;> u\;ah Mfpa
ehLfSf;Fr; nrd;W ,ufrpar; rq;fq;fis mikj;J ,e;jpa tpLjiy
Nghuhl;l ntw;wpf;fhfg; ghLgl;ldh;. ntspehLfspy; FbNawpa ,e;jpah;fs;
,jpy; jptu gq;Nfw;wdh;.
,e;jpa Rahl;rp rq;fk;
\hk;[p fpU\;z th;kh ,yz;ldpy; ,e;jpa Rahl;rpf; rq;fj;ij
(Society of Indian Home Rule) j; Njhw;Wtpj;jhh;. (1905). mth; ,e;jpa
r%ftpayhsh; (The Indian Sociologist) vd;w gj;jphpf;ifia elj;jpdhh;
th;khTila „,e;jpa ,y;yk;‟ (Indian House) gphpl;b\;
gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; ,e;jpa khzth;fSf;Fg; Gfyplkhf ,Ue;jNjhld;wp
gaq;futhjpfspd; Gul;rpikakhfTk; gad;gl;lJ. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J
Nky;gbg;Gf;fhf ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;w tp.b.rthh;f;fh; ,e;jpa ,y;yj;jpy;
Nrh;e;J th;khtpd; neUq;fpa $l;lhspahsh;. tpNue;jpuehj; rl;Nlhghj;jpaha;>
v];.utgha;uhzh> kjd;yhy; jpq;uh.t.Nt.f.Iah; Nghd;Nwhh; gpw
gpuKfh;fshth;. ,yz;ld; NghyPrhhpd; nfLgpb jhq;fhky; mth;fs;
gpuhd;Rf;r; nrd;Wtpl;ldh;.
ghhp];FO
gpuhd;Rf;Fr; nrd;w ,e;jpag; gaq;futhjpfs; „ghhp]; FO‟ (Paris
Group) vd;w mikg;ig Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhz;L nray;gl;ldh;. u\;ag;
Gul;rpahsh;fSlDk; ,e;jpa ,ufrpa mikg;gfNshLk; njhlh;G
nfhz;bUe;jdh;. Vuhskhd gq;futhjg; gpuRuq;fs; ,e;jpahTf;f mDg;gp
itf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jpag; gaq;futhjpfs; n[h;kdpapYk; RWRWg;ghf
,aq;fpdh;. 1907y; mth;fs; elj;jpa rh;tNjrr; r%ftpayhsh; khehl;by;
(International Sociologists Conference) fhkh mk;ikahUk; (Madam
R.Gama) rh;jhh; rpq;uhzhTk; (Sardar Singh Rana) ghhPrpypUe;J Ngha;f;
fye;J nfhz;ldh;. mk;khel;by;jhd; ,e;jpa Njrpaf; nfhbia
Vw;wpitj;J ciuahw;wpdhh; fhkh mk;ikahh; cynfq;FKs;s tpLjiy
tpUk;gpfs; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;ij mjpfhpf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W
Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh; fhkh mk;ikahh;. ,e;jpa tpLjiyf;fhf ehw;gjhz;L
fhyk; cioj;jth;. ngh;ypdpy; ,e;jpa tpLjiyf;FO (Indian Independence
Committee) xd;Wk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. tPNue;jpuehj; rl;Nlhghj;jpahahTk;>
`hj;ahSk; mf;FOtpd; jPtpu cWg;gpdh;fshth;. Kjy; cyfg;Nghhpd;
NghJ ,e;jpag; gaq;futhjpfs; ,q;fpyhe;Jf;nfjpuhf n[h;kdpapd;
cjtpia vjph;ghh;j;jdh; fpilf;ftpy;iy.
fjhhp ,af;fk;
„fjhh;‟ (Ghadar) vd;why; „fpsh;r;rp‟ vd;W nghUs; fjhh; ,af;fk; tl
mnkhpf;fhit epiyf;fshdhff; nfhz;L ,aq;fpaJ gfthd; rpq;Fk;>
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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yhyh `h;jahYk; ,e;j ,af;fj;jpd; ,U J}z;fshth;> gfthd;rpq; xU
rpf;fpa kjFU. ,th; gQ;rhig tpl;Lr;nrd;W `hq;fhq;fpYk;> kyha;
ehLfspYk; fdlhtpYk; MAjf; fpsh;r;rpad; %yk; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J
gphpl;b\; Ml;rpia mfw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;W gpur;rhuk; nra;jhh;. yhyh
`h;jahy; ehL flj;jg;gl;lth;. ,th; 1911 Vg;uy; khjk; fypNghh;dpah
nrd;W> gpd;dh; ];Nlhd;Nghh;L gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; Mrphpauhfg;
gzpahw;wpdhh;. 1912 brk;gh; 23k; ehs; ,e;jpa itrpuha; `hh;bQ; gpuG
nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l epfo;r;rp ,tiu ntFkhf Cf;ftpj;jJ.
me;epfo;r;rpiag; ghuhl;b „Afhe;jh; rh;f;Fyh;‟ (Yugandar Circular) vd;w
Jz;Lg; gpuRuk; mr;rpl;L ntspapl;lhh;.
MAjf; fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lk;
mnkhpf;fhtpd; Nkw;ff; flw;fiug; gFjpapy; `h;jahy; jiyikapy;
,e;jpahTf;F Mjuthf td;Kiwg; Gul;rp ,af;fk; #Lgpbj;jJ 1913 Nk
khjk; Nk khjk; Nghh;l;yhe;jpy; „,e;jp rq;fk;‟ (Hindi Association)
Jtq;fg;gl;lJ. ,r;rq;fj;jpd; Kjy; $l;lk; fhd;\puhk; vd;gtuJ
,y;yj;jpy; eilngw;wJ. me;jf; $l;lj;jpy; `h;jahy; jdJ MAjf;
fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lj;ij mwptpj;jhh;. 1.mnkhpf;fh mspf;Fk; Rje;jpuj;ijg;
gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L gphpl;lDf;F vjpuhfg; Nghhpl Ntz;Lk; 2.,e;jpah
tpLjiy mile;jhy;jhd; mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,e;jpah; rk;khf elj;jg;gLth;
3.,e;jpahtpd; tWikf;Ff; fhuzkhd gphpl;b\; Ml;rpia MAjf;
fpsh;r;rp%yk; mfw;w Ntz;Lk;. 4. ,j;jplj;ij ,e;jpa kf;fspilNaAk;>
,e;jpa ,uhZt tPuh;fspilNaAk; gug;gp mth;fspd; MjuitAk;>
gq;Nfw;igAk; ngw Ntz;Lk;.
`hj;ahtpd; Ma;jf; fpsh;r;rpj; jpl;lk; mnkhpf;fhtho; ,e;jpaf;
FbNawpfsplk; cw;rhf tuNtw;igg; ngw;wJ. ,j;jpl;lj;ij
eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf xU „nraw;FO‟ mikf;fg;gl;L. gpu r;rhuk;
nra;tjw;fhf „fjhh; (The Ghadar) vd;w thu,jo; Jtq;fg;gl;L> ,ytrkhf
tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpuhd;rp];Nfhtpy; Afhe;jh; Mrpukk; epWtg;gl;lJ.
,e;j efuNk fjhh; ,af;fj;jpd; jiyikakhfj; jpfo;e;jJ. gy mnkhpf;f
efuq;fspy; fjhh; ,af;f tpsf;ff; $l;lq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld. ,e;j
,af;fk; Fwpg;ghf rPf;fpah;fspilNa kpFe;j nry;thf;ifg; ngw;wJ.
fjhh; thu ,jo;
mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J ntspaplg;gl;l fjhh; thu,jo;
ntspehLfspypUe;J ,aq;fpte;j Ma;jg; Gul;rp ,af;fj;jpd; gpur;rhu
gPuq;fpahfg; gad;gl;lJ. 1919 etk;gh; Kjy; Njjp fjhh; ,jo; cUJ
nkhopapYk; brk;gh; 9k; eh;s Fh;KfpapYk; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. gphpl;b\;
,e;jpa Ml;rpia tpNuhjpahff; fUjp> mjd; mlf;FKiwia
mk;gyg;gLj;jp me;j Ml;rpia mfw;WtNj fjhh; ,jopd; jiyaha;
Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. gphpl;b\; Ml;rpf;f vjpuhff; $wg;gl;l
Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisj; njhFj;J xt;nthU ,jopYk; ntspaplg;gl;lJ.
fjhh; ,jo; tlmnkhpf;fhtpy; thoe;j ,e;jpah;fs; kl;Lky;yhJ
gpypg;igd;];> `hq;fha;> rPdh> kyha; ehLfs;> rpq;fg;g+h;> bhpdplhl;>
N`hz;Luh]; kw;Wk; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J ,aq;fpa Gul;rpahsh;fisr;
nrd;wile;jJ ,th;fsplk; Ma;jf; fpsh;r;rpapd; %yk; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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me;epa Ml;rpia mfw;wptpl KbAk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifia Vw;gLj;jpaJ
Fwpg;ghf gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;Jf;F tpRthrkhf ,ue;j rPf;fpa ,uhZt
tPuh;fis murhq;f tpNuhjpfshf khw;w cjtpaJ. ,e;jpahit tpiutpy;
tpLtpf;Fk; cj;Ntfj;ij ,isQh;fspilNa cUthf;fpaJ. MAjf;
fpsh;r;rpapy; Ftpikakhf ,Ue;j `h;jahy; 1914 khh;r; 25k; ehs; ifJ
nra;ag;gl;L gpd;dh; [hkPdpy; tpLtpf;fg;gl;lhh;. mth; mnkhpf;fhit tpl;L
ntspNawpdhh;!.
fhkfl;lhkhW epfo;r;rp
fhkfl;lhkhW (Komagatamaru) vd;w ngaUila fg;gy; ,e;jpaf;
FbNawpfis Vw;wpf;nfhz;L 1914 khh;r; khjk; fl;lhkhW thd;$th;
JiwKfj;ij mile;jJ. FUjpj; rpq;f (Gurdit Singh) vd;w rpq;fg;g+hpy;
,Ue;j ,e;jpah;fis xd;Wjpul;b thd;$tUf;F mDg;gtjw;fhf
,f;fg;giy xg;ge;jk; nra;jhh;.
376 ,e;jpag; gazpfSld; nrd;w fhkfl;lhkhW thd;$th;
JiwKfj;ij milaf; fdlh murhq;fk; jil nra;jJ. me;epfo;r;rp
fdlh tho; ,e;jpah;fspilNa ngUk; gjl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;jpag;
gazpfspd; chpikf;fhfg; gy fz;ldf; $l;lq;fs; Nghlg;gl;ld. ePjp
jpul;lg;gl;lJ. mnkhpf;fh tho; ,e;jpah;fs; gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;Jf;F
vjpuhfg; Nghuhlj; jahuhf ,Uf;FkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;ldh;. ,jd;
tpisthf ,e;jpahtpy; MAjf;fpsh;r;rp gutf;$ba Mgj;J Vw;gl;lJ.
vdNt fhkfl;lhkw;W thd;$th; JiwKfj;ij tpl;L ntspNaw;wg;gl;lJ.
thd;$th; JiwKfj;ijtpl;L ntwpnaw;wg;gl;l fhkfl;lhkhW
fy;fj;jhit mLj:J gl;[; gl;[; (Budge Budge) vd;w ,lj;ij
mile;jNghJ gazpfSf;Fk; fhty; gilapdUf;FkpilNa Nkhjy;
Vw;gl;lJ. mjpy; 18 gazpfs; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. 202 Ngh; ifJ
nra;ag;gl;ldh;. vQ;rpNahh; jg;gpr; nrd;wdh;. ,jw;fpilNa Kjy;
cyfg;Nghh; Jtq;fptpl;ljhy; MAjg; Gul;rpahsh;fs; GJj;jpl;lk; jPl;bdhh;.
fpsh;r;rpapd; tPo;r;rp
fjhh; ,af;fj; jiyth;fs; ,e;jpahTf;F jpUk;gp ,e;jpa ,uhZt
tPuh;fspd; Jiznfhz;L gphpl;b\; Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf MAjg;Gul;rp nra;aj;
jpl;lkpl;ldh;. mjd;gb ntspehLfspd; tho;e;j ,e;jpag; Gul;rpahsh;fs;
jha;ehL jpUk;gyhapdh;. ,j;jpl;lj;ij Kd;$lbNa mwpe;j ,e;jpa
murhq;fk; ,e;jpa jpUk;gpNahiu tpopg;Gld; fz;fhzpj;jJ. gQ;rhGf;Fs;
Eioe;j Gul;rpahsh;fSf;F vjph;ghh;j;j MjuT fpilf;ftpy;iy. me;j
,f;fl;lhd $l;lj;jpy; tq;fhsg; Gul;rpahsh; uh\; gpfhhp Ngh];.
gQ;rhGf;F te;j fjhh; ,af;fj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;f Kd;te;jhh; (1915
[dthp). ,th;jhd; gpd;dh; Rgh\; re;jpuNghRf;F ,e;jpa Njrpa
,uhZtj;jpd; jsgjpg; nghWg;ig nfhLj;jth;.
uh\; gpfhhpNghy; MAjf; fpsh;r;rpf;fhf fjhhp ,af;fj;Jf;F mikg;G
tbtk; nfhLj;jhh;. mth;fs; gy gFjpfspypUe;J ,uhZt Kfhk;fSld;
njhlh;G nfhz;lhh;. 1915 gpg;uthp 19k; ehs; MAjf; fpshr;rp nra;Aj;
jpl;lkpl;bUe;jhh;. xw;wh;%yk; jfty; mwpe;j fhydp murhq;fk; gy fjhh;
,af;fj; jiyth;fisf; ifJ nra;jJ. gpfhhpNgh]; jg;gptpl;lhh;
rjpf;Fw;wj;Jf;fh 45 fpsh;r;rpf;fhuh;fSf;F kuz jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ.
200 NgUf;F rpiw jz;lid nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fjhh; fpshr;rp
tPo;r;rpaile;jJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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1) ntspehLfspy; ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; gq;if tpthp?

Kjy; cyfg;NghUk; Rahl;rp ,af;fKk;> 1914-1918


NghUf;F MjuT
Kjy; cyfg; Nghh; 1914 Mz;L Mf];l; nrg;lk;ghpy; Muk;gpj;jJ
me;j neUf;fbahd Neuj;jpy; ,e;jpa ,q;fpyhe;ij Mjhpj;J. nrd;idapy;
$ba fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpw;Fj; (1914) jiyik jhq;fpa rh; rj;Nae;jpu
rpd;`h ,e;jpah ,q;fpyhe;Jld; NjhNshL Njhs; epd;W NghhpLtijg;
gw;wpg; ngUikg;gLtjhfg; Ngrpdhh;. fhq;fpu]; gphpl;lDf;F tpRthrj;Jld;
,U;gjhfj; jPh;khdKk; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. xt;nthU ,e;jpaUk;
jd;dhypad;w msTf;F murhq;fj;ij Mjhpf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W
jPtputhjpfspd; jiytuhd jpyfh; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. kpjthjpfspd; Nghh;
MjuT mghpkpjkhf ,Ue;jJ. Nrhjidf; fhyej;Nj gphpl;lNdhL
xj;Jiog;gJ ,e;jpahtpd; flikand ,q;fpyhe;jpypUe;J Nkhfd;jh];
fuk;re;j; fhe;jp fUjpdhh;.
Rahl;rp ,af;fk;
Rahl;rp
1914Mk; Mz;L mah;yhe;J Rahl;rp rl;lk; (Irish Home Rule Act)
epiwNtw;wg;gl;L mah;yhe;J tpLjiy aile;jJ. Rahl;rp (Home Rule)
vd;w nrhy;yhy; ftug;gl;l md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh; mr;nrhy;iyNa
,e;jpa Njrpa Nghuhl;lj;jpd; jhuR ke;jpukhfg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s
tpUk;gpdhh;. mah;yhe;J tpLjiyg; nghuhl;l tPuh;fspd; caph; %r;rhf
,Ue;jNjhL kl;Lky;yhJ> mr;nrhy; Mq;fpNyah;fSf;F ed;F mwpKfkhd
,Ue;jNjhL kl;Lky;yhJ> mr;nrhy; Mq;fpNyah;fSf;F ed;F mwpKfkhd
nrhy;YkhFk;. gphpl;lhdpag; NguuRf;Fl;gl;l Rahl;rpiag; NguurpypUe;J
,e;jpah gphpe;J nry;tijf; Fwpg;gjhf Mq;fpNyah;fs; fUjg;gLk;
vd;nwz;zpa md;dpngrz;l; „Rahl;rp‟ vd;w nrhy;iyNa gad;gLj;jpdhh;.
nghz;bd; gq;F
Kjy; cyfg;Nghh; Jtf;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;Ng ,q;fpyhe;jpypUe;j
md;dpngrz;l; ,e;jpah Rahl;rp ngWtjw;fhd Kaw;rpia Nkw;nfhz;lhh;.
gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; „,e;jpa fl;rp‟ (Indian Party) ia cUthf;f
Kide;jhh;. ,yz;ldpy; „Rahl;rp rq;fk;‟ (Home Rule League) xd;iwj;
Jtf;fpdhh;. ,e;jpah jpUk;gpa mk;ikahh; „nrd;id ];lhz;lh;L‟ (Madras
Standard) vd;w gj;jphpf;ifia ntspapl;l epWtdj;ij tpiyf;F thq;fp>
mg;gj;jphpf;iff;F „epA ,e;jpah‟ (New India) vd;W khw;wk; nra;J Rahl;rp
gw;wpa jdJ fUj;Jf;fis ntspapl;lhh;. (1914 [Pd;). kpjthjpfisAk;
jPtputhjpfisAk; xd;W Nrh;f;Fk; Kaw;rpapy; ntw;wpngw Kbahikahy;
md;dpngrz;l; jd; Rahl;rp rq;fk; mikg;gJ gw;wpa tpUg;gj;ij
ntspapl;lhh;. Rahl;rp gw;wp jPh;khdnkhd;iwg; gk;ghapy; $ba fhq;fpurpy;
nfhz;L te;jhh; (1915 brk;gh;) Mdhy; mj;jPh;khdk; epuhfhpf;fg;gl;lJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


107
jpyfhpd; Rahl;rp rq;fk;
khz;lNy rpiwapypUe;J tpLjiy ngw;W te;j jpyfh; (1914 [Pd;
16) jdJ Mjuthsh;fisf; nfhz;L khepyf; $l;lnkhd;iwf; $l;b (1915
Nk) „Njrpa rq;fk;‟ xd;iw mikf;Fk; jdJ jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wp
tpthjpj;jhh;. 1916 Vg;uy; ehd; jpyfh; Rahl;rp rq;fj;ij (Home Rule
league) Jtf;fpdhh;. g+dh mjd; jiyikafkhapw;W ,e;jpahTf;f
Rauh[;j;ijg; ngw;Wf; jUtNj mr;rq;fj;jpd; Fwpf;Nfhs;. md;dpngrz;l;
mk;ikahhpd; ghjpg;ghy; jpyfh; jhd; Jtf;fp rq;fj;Jf;F Rauh[;a rq;fk;
vd;W ngah; #l;lhJ „Rahl;rp rq;fk;‟ vd;Nw ngahpl;lhh;!.
ngrz;bd; Rahl;rp rq;fk;
mNj Mz;L nrg;lk;gh; 3 Mk; ehs; md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh;
nrd;id NfhfNy kz;lgj;jpy; jdpNa xU Rahl;rp rq;fj;ijj;
Njhw;Wtpj;jhh;. milahW mjd; jiyikafkhapw;W. mr;rq;fj;jpd;
Nehf;fq;fshtd.
1. rl;lhPjpahd Kiwfis Nkw;nfhz;L ,e;jpahTf;Fr; Rahl;rpia
ngw;Wj; jUjy;
2. Rahl;rp ngw;w gpd;dUk; gphpl;b\; NguuRld; njhlh;g nfhz;bUj;jy;
3. fhq;fpuir Mjhpj;Jg; gyg;gLj;jy;
4. ,e;jpahTf;Fr; Rahl;rp Ntz;bajd; mtrpak; gw;wpj; njhlh;e;J
gpur;rhuk; nra;jy;
jpyfUk; ngrz;Lk; jdpj;jdpNa Rahl;rpr; rq;fq;fshfj; Jtf;fpaNjd;?
Rauh[;ak;> Rauhlrp gw;wpa fUj;J khWghL nfhz;lth;fs; ,Ujug;gpYk;
,Ue;jdh;. vdNt mth;fs; midtiuAk; Njrpa ,af;fj;jpy;
<Lglitf;fNt ,U rq;fq;fisAk; Muk;gpj;J ,UtUk; ,izj;J
NghuhLtnjd KbT nra;jjhf md;dpngrz;l; tpsf;fkspj;jhh;.
Rahl;rpg; Nghuhl;lk;
jpyfh; tl ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;jpah Rahl;rpf;fhfj; jPtpug; gpur;rhuj;jpy;
<Lgl;lijg; Nghd;w md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh; njd;dpe;jpahtpy;
#whtspr; Rw;Wg;gazk; nra;jhh;. Me;jpug; gFjpapy; kl;Lk; Rahl;rpr;
rq;fj;jpd; Ik;gJ fpisfs; Jtf;fg;gl;ld. nrd;id uh[;aj;jpd; tl;lhug;
gFjpfSf;nfy;yhk; Rahl;rp ,af;fk; gutpaJ. kpjthjpfSk;
,t;tpaf;fj;ij Mjhpj;jdh;! Vuhskhd gpuRuq;fs; ntspaplg;gl;ld.
nghJf;$l;lq;fspy; ,e;jpahTf;F Rahl;rpNfhhp nrhw;nghopTfs;
epfo;j;jg;gl;ld. nrd;idapy; Giftz;bapy; INuhg;gpah;fSf;nfd jdpNa
xJf;fPL nra;tij vjph;j;J khzth;fs; Mh;gg ; hl;lk; nra;jdh; (1916
[Piy 24) Nfhl;il Giftz;b epiyaj;jpy; khzth;fSf;Fk;
INuhg;gpah;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa Nkhjy; Vw;gl;lJ. nrd;id fth;dh;
ngz;l;yz;L gpuG (Lord Pentland) mjph;r;rpaile;jhh;. Rahl;rp ,af;fk;
kf;fspilNa kpFe;j nry;thf;Fg; ngw;w. Kjy; cyfg;Nghhpd;NghJ
fhq;fu]; Klq;fpf; fple;jNghJ jpyfUk;> md;dngrz;l; mk;ikahUk;
,e;jpa Njrpa ,af;fj;jpd; ,ul;ilf; Foy; Jg;ghf;fpahf ,Ue;J
Kof;fkpl;ldh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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cyfg;Nghhpy; Ko;rpf; fple;j gphpl;ld; ,e;jpahtpy; Rahl;rp ,af;fk;
fhl;Lj;jP Nghy guttijf;fz;L gjl;lkile;jJ. mt;tpaf;fj;ij
mlf;fj; jPh;khdpj;jJ. Rahl;rp rq;ff; $l;lq;fSf;Fr; nry;yf;$lhJ
vd;Dk; khzth;fs; jil nra;ag;gl;ldh;. rl;lj;ij kPWNthh; fLikahfj;
jz;bf;fg;gl;ldh;. tpUk;gj;jfhj me;epah;fs; ,e;jpahtpDs; Eioahky;
jLf;fg;gl;ldh;. Rahl;rp gw;wp gpur;rhuk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. gj;jphpf;ifr;
Rje;jpuk; gwpf;fg;gl;lJ. jpyfh;kPJ murj;JNuhff; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;J.
ed;ilj;ijf;fhf mthplkpUe;J &.20>000 gzag; gzkhff; Nfhug;gl;lJ.
jpyfUk; ngrz;Lk; gQ;rhGf;Fs; nry;y jil nra;ag;gl;ldh;.
Gjpa ,e;jpahtpy; muR tpNuhjf; fl;Liufs; vOjpdhh; vdf; Fw;wk;
Rkj;jp md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahiu &.2000 ghJfhg;Gg; gzkhff; fl;LkhW
fl;lisapl;lJ nrd;id muR fl;lg;gl;l mj;njhifia gwpKjy;
nra;Jnfhz;L NkYk; &.10>000 fl;LkhW gzpj;jJ. mj;njhifiaAk;
fl;bdhh; ngrz;lh; nrd;id murpd; mf;fpukj;ij ,e;jpahtpy; gYk;
fz;bj;jdh;. khstpah> rhg;&> rpe;jhkzp> [pd;dh Nghd;Nwhh; murhq;f
mlf;FKiwiaf; fLikahf vjph;j;jdh;. nrd;id uh[jhdpapd; gy
,lq;fspy; fz;ldf; $l;lq;fs; Nghlg;gl;ld. Gjpa ,e;jpah ghJfhg;G
epjp jpul;lg;gl;lJ. muRf;nfjpuhf md;dpngrz;l; nrd;id cah;ePjp
kd;wj;jpy; tof;Fj; njhLj;jhh;. ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy. Mdhy; mt;tof;F
mtUf;F khngUk; tpsk;guj;ijj; Njbj; je;jJ ngrz;Lk; mtuJ ,U
rfhf;fshd mUz;NlYk;> thbahTk; Cl;bapy; fhtypy; itf;fg;gl;ldh;.
mJ vhpAk; neUg;gpy; vz;nza; thh;j;jJ Nghyhapw;W. ,e;jpah
KOtjpYk; vjph;g;G vOe;jJ. nghJkf;fspd; rPw;wj;Jf;Fj; jiytzq;fp
mth;fis tpLtpj;jJ nrd;id muR. 1917y; ,e;jpa tpthfur; nrayh;
khz;NlFtpd; Mf];L gpufldj;Jf;Fg; gpd; Rahl;rp ,af;fk;
nry;thf;fpoe;jJ.
rhjidfs; :
Rahl;rp ,af;fk; gy rhjidfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
1. ,e;jpa Njrpa ,af;fj;Jf;F xU Gjpa ghij fhl;baJ Rahl;rp
,af;fk;. „Rahl;rp‟ vd;w njspthd> jpl;ltl;lkhd nray;jpl;lj;ij
ehl;Lf;fspj;jJ.
2. NfhfNy> ngNuh\h Nkj;jh Nghd;w murpay; Nkijfs; ,y;yhj
FiwiaePf;fp> fhq;fpu]; gpsTgl;ljhy; Vw;gl;l gytPdj;ijg;Nghf;fp>
Mq;fpNya Ml;rpf;F xUkpj;j vjph;g;igf; nfhLj;jJ Rahl;rp
,af;fk;.
3. ,t;tpaf;fk; ahrfg; Nghf;if tpLj;J. gpur;rhu> gj;jphpf;iffs;
Rje;jpu> ePjpkd;wg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,wq;fpaJ. Ngr;Rr;
Rje;jpuj;Jf;fhfj; jpyfh; Nkw;nfhz;l gpur;rhuKk; gj;jphpf;if
Rjje;jpuj;Jf;fhf ngrz;l; njhLj;j tof;Fk; Rahl;rpf;F rhjfkhf
nghJkf;fs; fUj;J cUthff; fhuzkhapUe;jd.
4. ,q;fpyhe;jpYk; mnkhpf;fhtpYk; ,e;jpa Rahl;rpf;F Mjuitj;
Njbj; je;jJ ,t;tpaf;fk; 1918 nrg;lk;ghpy; jpyfNu ,q;fpyhe;Jf;F
xU J}Jf;FOit mioj;Jr; nrd;whh;. mnkhpf;fhtpy; yhyh y[gjp
uha; `hh;jpfhh;> Nf.b.rh];jphp Nghd;Nwhh; rhd;gpuhd;rp];Nfhtpy;
Rahl;rp rq;fj;jpd; fpisiaj; Jtf;fpg; gy mnkhpf;fh;fspd;
Mjuitg; ngw;wdh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
109
5. ,e;jpah;fis mjpfkhf eph;thfj;jpy; gq;Fngwr; nra;J jd;dhl;rp
epWtdq;fis tsh;g;gJ. gw;wpa khz;NlFtpd; Mf];l gpufldk;
ntspaplg;gLtjw;Fr; Rahl;rg; Nghuhl;lk; nghpJk; fhuzkhapUe;jJ.
6. kf;fspd; mNkhf Mjuitg; ngw;w jpyfUk;> ngrz;Lk; fhq;fpuirf;
ifg;gw;wpdh;
7. nrd;id uh[jhzp Rahl;rp ,af;fj;jpd; ikakhapw;W
md;dpngrz;l; Njrpa ,af;fj;Jf;Fg; Gjpa ce;J rf;jpiaf;
nfhLj;jhh;. jdp Me;jpu khepy miktjw;fhd czh;it mth;
Vw;gLj;jpdhh;.
8. jpyfhpd; jpahf tho;f;ifapd; ngUikf;Fhpa njhz;lhfj; jpfoe;jJ
Rahl;rp ,af;fk;. Rauh[;ak; gpwg;Ghpikia epiy ehl;baj
Rahl;rpr; rq;fk; jpyfh; tpijj;jhh;. fhe;jp gpd;dh; mWtil
nra;jhh;.
kPz;Lk; xd;W $ba fhq;fpu];
#uj; gpsT (1907) f;Fg; gpd;dh; fhq;fpu]; Nfhl;il ,uz;Lgl;lJ.
kpjthjpfSk;> jPtputhjpfSk; kPz;lk; xd;W NruNt tpUk;gpdh;. vdpDk;
jpyfUk;> NfhfNyAk; Nkw;nfhz;l xw;Wik Kaw;rpfs; ntw;wp
ngwtpy;iy. jpyfh; rpiwapypUe;jNghJ jPtputhjpfs; nraypoe;J
jpd;wdh;. kpjthjpfs; rf;jpaw;Wg; Nghapdh;. `Pa+Kk; gpw NrpathjpfSkm;
fl;bf;fhj;j fhq;fpu]; rjwpg;NghtJ fz;L NfhfNy fyq;fpdhh;. xNu
Mz;by; NfhfNyAk; (1915 gpg;.19). ngNuh];\h Nkj;jhTk; (etk;gh;)
kiwe;jdh;. fhq;fpu]; Fiwf;Nfl;ilahfp (Rum up) tpl;lNjnad;W yhyh
y[gjp uha; tUe;jpdhh;. jPd;\h thr;rh> RNue;jpuehj; ghdh;[p khstpah>
rPdpthr rh];jphp Nghd;Nwhuhy; mth;fsJ ,lq;fis epug;g ,aytpy;iy.
fhq;fpu]; „jsgjp ,y;yhj gl;lhsk;‟ Nghy; ,Ue;jjhf Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;
gl;lhgp rPj;jhuhka;ah.
yf;Ndh fhq;fpu];> 1916
1916 brk;gh; khjk; mk;gpfh rpuz; k[Pk;jhh; jiyikapy; fhq;fpu];
$l;lk; yf;Ndhtpy; eilngw;wJ. mf;$l;lj;jpy; jpyfh; kw;Wk;
md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahh; jiyikapy; jdpj;jdpNa nray;gl;L te;j
Rahl;rpf; fl;rpapdh; Kiwg;gb fhq;fpurpy; Nrh;e;jdh;. 1916y; khz;lNy
rpiwapypUe;J tpLjiyahd jpyfh; kf;fspilNa kpFe;j nry;thf;F
ngw;wpUe;jhh;. fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpa k[Pk;jhh;
fpl;lj;jl;l gj;J Mz;Lfhy murpay; tdthrj;Jf;Fg; gpwF ,th;fs;
kPz;Lk; fhq;fpu]; Nghpaf;fj;jpy; gq;Nfw;gij kdepiwNthL tuNtw;whh;.
jpyfUk;> md;dpngrz;l; mk;ikahUk; uh\;gpfhhp Nfh\; RNue;jpuehj;
ghdh;[p MfpNahUld; xNu Nkilapy; tPw;wpUe;jJ fz;nfhs;shf;
fl;rpahFk;.
fhq;fpu]; $l;lk; eilngw;w ,lj;Jf;F mUfhikapNyNa K];yPk;
yPf;fpd; $l;lKk; $baJ 1916k; Mz;L K];yPk; yPf;fpd; jiyikg;
nghWg;Ngw;w KfkJ myp [pd;dh mf;$l;lj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpdhh;.
me;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; [pd;dh mfpy ,e;jpa fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL
rkar;rhh;gw;w ehl;Lg;gw;Wkpf;f Njrpathjpahf ,Ue;jhh; jd;idg;Nghd;Nw
gpw K];yPk; jiyth;fisAk; rkar; rhh;gw;w kdg;ghd;ikAilath;fshf
khw;w Kide;jhh;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
110
fhq;fpu]; $l;lKk; K];yPk; $l;lKk; yf;Ndhtpy; jdpj;jdpNa
eilngw;wjhYk; ,U ,af;fj; jiyth;fSk; ,f;$l;lq;fspy; fye;J
nfhz;L ciuahw;wpdh; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. fhq;fpuRk; K];yPk;
yPf;Fk; xNu kd miy thpirapy; ,Ue;jJ vdf; $wyhk; fhq;fpurpy;
,ize;j jpyfh; fhq;fpuirAk; K];yPk; yPf;ifAk; xUq;fpizf;Fk;
gzpapy; Kidg;Gld; nray;gl;lhh;. ,e;J K];yPk; xw;Wikapd;%yNk
,ejpa tpLjiyiag; ngw KbAk; vd;W fUjp jpyfh; mk;Kaw;rpapy;
,wq;fpdhh;. “,e;jpa ,e;Jf;fspd; gpujpepjpahff; $WfpNwd;. vjph;NahL
NghhpLk; NghJ midtUk; ,d> kj> murpay; NtWghbapd;wp xd;Wgl;Lg;
Nghuhl Ntz;bajhd; Kf;fpak; vd;W $wpdhh; jpyfh;.
ngUk;ghd;ikapdhpd; Nkyhjpf;fk; gw;wpa rpWghd;ikapdhpd; mr;rj;ijg;
Nghf;fNtz;bajd; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jpdhh;. yf;Ndh cld;ghL
Vw;gLtjw;F jpyfh; nghpJk; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jhh;.
yf;Ndh cld;ghL
yf;ndh fhq;fpurpd; khngUk; rhjid ,e;jpa murpay;
rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; gw;wp fhq;fpuRf;Fk; K];yPk; yPf;FkpilNa Vw;gl;l
cld;ghlhFk;. ,JNt fhq;fpu]; yPf; jpl;lk; (Congress League Scheme)
my;yJ yf;Ndh cld;ghL (Lucknow Pact) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
,t;Tld;ghlbd; tpjpfshtd.
,e;jpa gphpl;b\; Nguurpd; Rahl;rp ngw;w ehlhf Ntz;Lk;. gy;NtW
kd;wq;fSf;Fj; Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gLNthh; nkhj;j vz;zpf;ifapy; Ie;jpy;
ehd;F gFjp ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;L mikf;fg;gLk;
epWtdq;fspy; rpghd;ikapdUf;Fk; Nghjpa jdpg;gpujpepj;Jk; nfhLf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; xU ,dj;ij ghjpf;ff;$ba jPh;khdj;ij ve;j murhq;fr;
rhh;gw;w cWg;gpdUk; nfhz;L tuf;$lhJ. fth;duhy; ,uj;J nra;ag;glhj
xt;nthU kNrhjhTk; epiwNtw;wg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. epjp tptfhuq;fisf;
fl;Lg;gLj;jf; $ba mjpfhuq;fs; mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. itrpuha;fFk;>
fth;dUf;Fk; ntl;ljpfhuk; (Veto Poer) nfhLf;fg;glyhk; itrpuhapd;
Ml;rp FOtpd; cWg;gpdh;fspy; ghjp Ngh; kj;jpar; rl;l kd;wj;jpd;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;l gpujpepjpfshapUj;jy; mtrpak; khepyq;fSf;F mjpf
jd;dhl;rpAhpik toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. kj;jpar; rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;;
vz;zpf;if 150 Mf cah;j;jg;gl;L> mjpf $d;wpy; xU gFjpapdh;
K];yPk; gpujpepjpfshf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpa tptfhur; nrayhpd;
„,e;jpa fTd;rpy;‟ fiyf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk; gphpl;b]; NguuRf;Fs; ,e;jpah;
gpwUf;Fr; rkkhf elj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk; NguuR rk;ge;jkhd tp\aq;fis
tpthjpf;Fk; mikg;Gfspy; ,e;jpaUf;Fr; rktha;gg
; spf;f Ntz;Lk;
,uhZt flw;gilg; gzpfSf;F ,e;jpah;fs; jFjpahdth;fs; vd;W
Vw;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. mjpfhu th;f;fjpdhplkpUe;J ePjp rk;ge;jg;gl;l
mjpfhuq;fs; gphpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
„yf;Ndh fhq;fpurpd; nghpa rhjidNa fhq;fpu]; yPf; cld;ghL
vd;fpwhh; gl;lhgp rPj;jhuhikah Njrpa gpur;ridf;Fk; ,e;J K];yPk;
nghJ mZFKiwf;Fk; top tFj;jJ ,e;j cld;ghL Rahl;rpNa ,e;jpa
Njrpa ,af;fj;jpd; Fwpf;Nfhs; vd;gij yPf; Vw;Wf; nfhz;ljd; %yk;

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111
,e;Jf;fNshL ,ize;J nghJ Nehf;ffj;Jf;fhfg; NghuhLtjw;F
K];yPk;fs; Kd;te;jhh;fs;.

1) ,e;jpahtpd; jd;dhl;rp ,af;fj;ijg; gw;wp tpthp?


khz;l; - Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fSk; ,ul;il Ml;rpAk; 1919
,ul;il Ml;rp
1919 ,e;jpa murhq;fk;r; rl;lk; whq;gjNjO tpjpfisf; nfhz;l
MW gFjpfshfg; gphpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. mr;rl;lj;jpd; KbTiu (Preamble)
khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fSf;Fg; gpd;Gykhf ,Ue;j mbg;gilf;
nfhs;iffisg; gw;wp RUf;fkhff; $wpaJ. ,e;jpa tptfhur; nrayhpd;
mjpfhuq;fs;> itrpuhapd; eph;thf FO> kj;jpa rl;lkd;wk; khepy rl;l
kd;wk; Mfpatw;wpy; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wq;fisg; gw;wp mr;rl;lk; tphp;thff;
$wpaJ. ,e;jpa i`fkp\dh; gjtp Gjpjhf cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,it
ahtw;wpYk; mbg;gilahd khw;wk; khepyq;fspy; ,ul;il Ml;rp (Dyarchy)
Kiw GFj;jg;gl;l NeahFk;.
,ul;il Ml;rp vd;why; vd;d?
khepyj;jpd; ephthfg;nghWg;g ,U $Wfshfg; gphpf;fg;gl;L Ml;rp
nra;ag;gl;ljhy; ,g;Gjpa khw;wj;Jf;F “,ul;il Ml;rp” vd;W
ngahplg;gl;lJ. gphpf;fg;gl;l nghWg;Gfs; KiwNa khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs;
(Transferred Subjects) vd;Wk; xJf;fg;gl;l Jiwfs; (Reserved Subjects)
vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;ld. fy;tp> nghJg;gzpfs; tptrhak;> kPd;> tsj;Jiw>
jy Rahl;rp> Ma;j;jPh;it> nghJr;Rfhjhuk;> kUj;Jt eph;thfk;> njhopy;
EZf;ff; fy;tp> njhopw;rhiy tsh;r;rp> njhopy; Muha;r;rp Mfpait
khw;wg;gl;l JiwfshFk;. mtw;iw kf;fshy; Njhe;njLf;fg;gl;l rl;lkd;w
cWg;gpdh;fspypUe;J fth;zuhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l mikr;rh;fs; eph;tfpj;jdh;.
khwhf fhty;> ePjp> eph;thfk; epytUtha;> ePh;ghrdk; gQ;r epthuzk;
gj;jphpf;if mr;rfk;> Gj;jfk; fl;Lg;ghL> tptrhaf; fld;fs; tdq;fs;>
rpiwfs; njhopy; jfuhW jPh;j;jy; Nghd;w Njr mgptpUe;jpj; Jiwfs;
(Nation Building departments) fth;duhy; mtuJ eph;thff; FO
cWg;gpdh;fspd; Jiznfhz;L eph;tfpf;fg;gl;ld. ,t;thW ,UNtW
mjpfhu mikg;Gf;fisf; nfhz;l khepy ephthfr; rPh;jpUj;jNk ,ul;il
Ml;rp vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ.
,ul;il Ml;rp nray;gl;l Kiw
1921 Vg;uy; Kjy; NjjpapypUe;J nrd;id> tq;fshk;> gk;gha;>
If;fpa khfhdk;> gQ;rhg;> gpfhhp> kj;jpa khfhzk;> mrhk;> Mfpa vl;L
khepyq;fspy; ,ul;il Ml;rp mky; nra;ag;gl;lJ. mjd;gpd; gh;khTf;Fk;
tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpw;Fk; ,t;thl;rp tphpTgLj;jg;gl;lJ.
,ul;ilahl;rp Kiw 1920 ypUe;J 1937 tiu nray;gl;lJ. ,t;thl;rpapy;
Kjy; rl;lkd;wj;Jf;fhd Njh;jy;fs; 1920-21y; eilngw;wd.
xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpd; fhuzkhf fhq;fpu]; Njh;jypy; fye;J
nfhs;stpy;iy. vdpDk; tpguk; fl;rpapdh; Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapl;ldh; 1923

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Njh;jypy; Rauh[;af; fl;rpdh; (Swajists) Njh;jypy; fye;J nfhz;L
tpaj;jF ntw;wpaile;jdh;.
rl;l kd;wj;Jf;Fs;spUe;J nfhz;L xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ij
elj;jr; nrd;w Rauh[;ar; murhqfj;Jf;Fj; jPh;T jiytypahf ,Ue;jdh;.
khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs; nray;gl;l> nray;gl Kbahj epiygw;wpf;
fLikahf mth;fs; tpkh;r;rpj;jdh;. kj;jpa khfhzr; rl;lkd;wj;jpy;
Rauh[;af; fl;rpdh; ngUk;ghd;ik gyk; ngw;wpUe;jhy; mq;F eph;thfj;ij
eilngw KbahjthW Klf;fptpl;ldh;. tq;fhs rl;lkd;wj;ljpy; mth;fs;
RNar;irj; NjrpathjpfSld; Nrh;e;J nfhz;L Njf;fepiyia
cz;lhf;fptpl;ldh;. If;fpa khfhzj;jpy; Rauh[;af; fl;rpapd; nfhs;if
gy Mjuthsh;fisg; ngw;Wj; je;jJ gk;gha; rl;l kd;wj;jpy;
cWg;gpdh;fs; “murhq;f Mjh;thsh;fs;” Rauh[;a vjph;f;fl;rpapdh; vdg;
gphpe;J tpthjg; Nghhpl;ldh;. gQ;rhg;gpYk; m];]hkpYk; Rauh[;af;
fl;rpapdh; rpWghd;ikapduhf ,Ue;jikahy; murhq;fj;jhUf;F
Kl;Lf;fl;ilahf ,Uf;f Kbatpy;iy.
nrd;id uh[jhdpy; ,ul;il Ml;rp ntw;wpfukhf Ntiynra;jJ
mjw;Ff; fhuzk; ePjpf;fl;rp (Justice Party) murhq;fj;ij Mjhpj;J ePjpia
toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W jPh;khdkhf nray;gl;lJjhd;. 1920 brk;ghpy; ele;j
rl;lkd;wj; Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapl;l ePjpf;fl;rp 96 ,lq;fspy; 63 ,lq;fis
ntd;W Ml;rpia mikj;jJ. Kjy; rl;lrigf; $l;lk; fd;dhl;
Nrhkfdhy; (Duke of Connaught) Jtf;fp itf;fg;gl;lJ. (1921 [d12)!
,uz;lhtJ rl;lkd;wj; Njh;jypy; (1923) 44 ,lq;fis kl;LNk nty;y
Kbe;jJ. Rauh[;af; fl;rp 41 ,lq;fspy; ntw;wp ngw;wJ. vdpDk;
mf;fl;rp mikr;ruitia mikf;f rk;kjpf;fhjjhy; Kd;dhs; ePjpf;fl;rpj;
jiytuhd lhf;lh;.gp.Rg;guhad; jiyikapy; RNar;ir mikr;ruit
mikf;fg;gl;lJ. 1934 Njh;jypy; fhq;fpu]; Nghl;bapl;L ePjpf;fl;rpiaj;
Njhw;fbj;j NghjpYk; $l mf;fl;rp mikr;ruitg; nghWg;ig Vw;f
kWj;jjhy; ePjpf;fl;rpNa Ml;rpgPlj;jpy; mkh;e;jJ! 1937y;
uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhpahh; mikr;ruit Vw;gLtiu ePjpf;fl;rpNa
MSk;fl;rpahf ePbj;jJ! ,ul;il Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; khz;NlF
nrk;];Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jk; nrd;id khepyj;jpy; KOntw;wpaila ePjpf;fl;rp
JizGhpe;jJ. nrd;id uh[jhdp Njrpa ePNuhl;lj;jpypUe;J gphpe;J
nray;gl;lJ. xU tpjptpyf;fhFk;.
rhjidfs;
gjpdhwhz;L fhyk; eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl;l ,ul;il Ml;rpg;
ghpNrhjid gy rhjidfisg; Ghpe;jnjdyhk;. ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;g
tuyhw;wpy; ,ul;il Ml;rpf; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. xU Kf;fpa
jpUg;GKidahf mike;jJ vdf; $wyhk;. kf;fs; gpujpepjpfs; khepy
eph;thfj;jpy; Neubaha; gq;Nfw;wjhy; mth;fSf;F rl;lkd;w Kiwapy;
ey;y gapw;rpAk;> Njh;r;rpAk; fpilj;jJ rl;lkpaw;Wk; fiyapy; ,e;jpa
murpay;tthjpfSf;F ey;y mDgtk; Vw;gl;lJ. murhq;fk; nray;gLk;
Kiwiaf; ftdpf;fTk; murhq;fr; nray;Kiwfisj; jpwdha;t
nra;aTk; mth;fSf;F tha;gN ; gw;gl;lJ. Mq;fpNya ty;yhl;rpf;Fk;
kf;fspd; nghWg;ghl;rpf;FkpilNa cs;s ,iz;gGg; ghykhfg; gad;gl;lJ.
,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw. mJ khepy Rahl;rp Kiwf;F top
tFj;Jf;nfhLj;jJ. vjph;fl;rpahfg; gzpahw;wpa Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdh;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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murhq;fj;jpdh; Njr tpNuhjf; nfhs;iffisAk; eltbf;iffisAk;
mk;gyg;gLj;jpdh;. mth;fSila vjph;g;Gf;F mQ;rp fth;dUk;> mtuJ
MNyhrfh;fSk; nray;gl Ntz;ba #o;epiy Vw;gl;lJ. Kjd;Kiwahf
mjpfhuth;f;fjpdh; khw;wg;gl;l JiwfSf;Fg; nghWg;ghd mikr;rh;fspd;
fPo; gzpahw;wpdh;! mjdhy; mjpfhhpfspd; kdg;ghd;ikAk;>
mZFKiwapy; ey;y Kiwapy; khwj; njhlq;fpaJ. mikr;rh;fshy; gy
kf;fs; eytho;Tj; jpl;lq;fis nray;gLj;j Kbe;jJ nghWg;ghl;rpfs;f
,e;jpah;fs; jFjpahdth;fNs vd;gJ re;Njfj;jpw;F ,lkpd;wp
ep&gpf;fg;gl;lJ.
,ul;il Ml;rpapd; Njhy;tp
,ul;il Ml;rpahy; gy ed;ikfs; Vw;gl;lhYk; $l mg;ghpNrhjid
Njhy;tp mile;jJ. khepy eph;thfj;ij khw;wg;gl;l Jiwfs; xJf;fg;gl;l
Jiwfs; vd;W gphpj;jJ jtwhd ,aw;iff;F KuzhdJ eilKiwf;F
xt;thjJ. kf;fshy; Njhe;njlf;fg;gl;l gpujpepjpfSk; fth;duhy;
epakpf;fg;gl;NlhUk; Nrh;e;J nray;gl;lJ. vypAk; jtisAk; fhy;fisf;
fl;bf;nfhz;L fpzw;Wf;Fs; Fjpj;j fijahapw;W. fth;ziur; fhy;fisf;
fl;bf;nfhz;L fpzw;Wf;Fs; Fwpj;J fijahapw;W> fth;ziur; Rw;wpNa
,ul;il Ml;rpKiw Rod;wJ. mtuhy; Njh;T nra;ag;gl;l rl;lkd;w
cWg;gpdh;fns mikr;rh;fshapUe;jikahy; mth;fshy; Rje;jpukhfr;
nray;gl Kbatpy;iy. fth;dhpd; jait ehbNa mthfs; nray;gl
Ntz;bapUe;jJ. mikr;rh;fs; fth;zUf;F MNyhrfh;fs; Nghd;Nw
,Ue;jdh;. rl;lkd;wk;> fth;dh; Mfpa ,uz;L v[khdh;fSf;Fk;
mikr;rh;fs; fl;Lg;glNtz;bajhapw;W. mth;fs; ,U jiyf;nfhs;sp
vWk;G Nghyhapdh; mth;fshy; ,uz;L Fjpiufspd; kPJk; xNu rkaj;jpy;
rthhpnra;a Kbatpy;iy! ahtw;Wf;Fk; Nkyhf mikr;rh;fSf;F epjp
mjpfhuk; vJTkpy;iy. Mdhy; mth;fsJ nghWg;gpypUe;J Jiwfs;
khw;whe;jha; kdg;ghd;ikAlNdNa ftdpf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jpa tptfhuk;
nrayhpd; Neubf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd;fPo; nray;gl;l mfpy ,e;jpa nghJg;gzp
mjpfhhp (I.C.S) mikr;rh;fSf;F mlq;fp elf;f Ntz;ba
mtrpakpy;yhky; Nghapw;W.
ehL gQ;rhg; gLnfhiyiaf; fz;bj;Jk;> ,q;fpyhe;J JUf;fpf;Fr;
nra;j JNuhfj;jpw;Fk; vjpuhfg; Nghuhbf; nfhz;bUe;j Ntisapy; ,ul;il
Ml;rpKiw nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. kf;fSf;F mJ nghpa vkh w;wj;ijNa
mspj;jJ. Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdh; ,ul;il Ml;rpKiwia Njhw;fbg;gnjdr;
#Siuj;Jr; nray;gl;ldh;. khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fisf;
fhq;fpu]; Jtf;fj;jpypUe;Nj vjph;j;J te;jJ. rl;lkd;wj; Njh;jy;fspYk;
mJ fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy. ,q;fpyhe;jpy; Ml;rpf;F te;j fd;rh;Ntbt;
fl;rpapdh; ,ul;il Ml;rp rYifiaf;$l ePbf;f tpUk;gtpy;iy! mjd;
nray; Ntfj;ijf; Fiwj;Jtpl;ldh;. njlh;eJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l fpyhgj;>
xj;Jioahik> rl;l kWg;G ,af;fq;fs; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiwia
nraypof;fr; nra;Jtpl;ld. 1937y; khepy Rahl;rpia Vw;gLj;jpaJjhd;
,ul;il Ml;rpapd; rtg; ngl;bapd; mbf;fg;gl;l MzpahFk;. ,ul;il
Ml;rp ghpNrhjid gLNjhy;tp mile;jJ. ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;l
tPuh;fs; GJg;gyj;Jld; jq;fsJ fpsh;r;rpiaj; njhlh;e;jdh;.
1) ,ul;il Ml;rpKiwiag; gw;wp tpthp?

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


114
nusyl; rl;lk;
Kjy; cyfg;Nghh; Kbe;jTlNdNa ,e;jpaj; jPtputhjpfisAk;>
gq;fug; Gul;rpf;fhuh;fisAk; mlf;Fk; Nehf;fj;Jld; KbatpUe;j ,e;jpag;
ghJfhg;Gr; rl;l (Defence of India Act) j;Jf;F gjpy; Gjpa rl;lj;ij
nfhz;Ltu ,e;jpa muR Kad;wJ. rpl;dp nusyl; (Sydney Rawltt) vd;w
Mq;fpNya ePjpgjpiaj; jiytuhff; nfhz;l xU FOit mikj;J
,e;jpahtpy; murtpNuhj eltbf;iffs; gw;wp Muha;e;J mwpf;if
rkh;gg; pf;FkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. mf;FO rkh;gpj;j mwpf;if (1918
Vg;.15) apy; $wg;gl;l rpghhpRfspd; mbg;gilapy; ,U kNrhjhf;fs;
jahhpf;fg;gl;ld. mit nusyl; kNrhjhf;fs; (Rowlatt)
vd;wiof;fg;gl;ld. mk;kNrhjhf;fspd;gb>
1. murhq;fk; Nrhjid Miz (Warrant) VTkd;wp vtiuAk; ifJ
nra;ayhk;.
2. „mghafukhd Ml;fs;‟ vd;w fhuzj;ijf; $wp vt;tpj
tprhuizAkpd;wpf; fhytiuapd;wp fhtypy; itf;fyhk;.
3. muR tpNuhjf; Fw;wq;fspy; <Lgl;lhh;fs; vd fUjg;gLNthiuf;
Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy; fhtypy; ,Uf;FkhW fl;lhag; gLj;jg;glyhk;.
4. eLth;fspd; (Juries) Jizapd;wpNa %d;W cah; ePjpkd;w
ePjpgjpfs; muRj; JNuhf tof;Ffis tprhhpf;fyhk; mth;fSila
jPh;g;Ng ,WjpahdJ.
,e;j „fUg;G kNrhjhf;fis‟ (Black Bills) ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fs;
fLikahff; fz;bj;jdh;. mk;Nrhjhf;fs; kj;jpar; rl;lkd;wj;jpy;
tpthjpffg;gl;lNghJ murhq;fr; rhh;gw;w cWg;gpdh;fshd v];vd.ghdh;[p>
tp.v];.rPdpthre rh];jphp> nl[; gfJ}h; rhg;&> tp.N[.gl;Nly;> uhkRthkp
ma;aq;fhh; MfpNahh; nusyl; kNrhjhf;fs; epiwNtw;wg;;gl;lhy; ehl;by;
Ntz;lhj tpisTfs; Vwgt;Lk; vd;W murhq;fj;ij vr;rhpj;jhh;fs;. gy
Ch;fspy; fz;ldf; $l;lq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld. me;j kNrhjhf;fSf;
nfjpuhfg; gyUk; rPw;wq; nfhz;ldh;. Gjpjhf cUthd mr;rPw;wk; Gjpa
jiytiuj; je;jJ vd;fpwhh; ngh;rpnty; ];gpah; (Percival Spear) vd;w
tuyhw;W mwpQh;. mg;gjpa jiytuhd fhe;jp nusyl; kNrhjhf;fs;
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;glhtpby; rj;jpahf;fpuj;ijj; Jtf;Ftijj; jtpu
jd;ff NtW topapy;iynad;W murhq;fj;Jf;F ,Wjp vr;rhpf;if
tpLj;jhh;. me;j vr;rhpf;ifiaAk; kPwp murhq;fk; Fog;gthj Gul;rpf;
Fw;wr; rl;lj;ij (Anarchical and Revolutionary Crime Act) epiwNtw;wpaJ
mJNt nusyl; rl;lk; vd;W ngah; ngw;wJ.
rhj;tpfg; Nghuhl;lk;
nusyl; rl;lk; kdpj chpikf;Fk; ePjpf;Fk; ciyitf;Fk; rl;lk;
vdf;fUjpdhh;. fhe;jp> mr;rl;lk; rTf;iff; nfhz;L murhq;fj;Jf;F
Mfhj vtiuAk; vg;gbAk; mbf;fyhk; vd;gij ed;Fzh;ej ; fhe;jp me;jr;
rhj;jhd; rl;l (Satanic Act) j;ij KOKr;Rld; vjph;f;fj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;.
1919 khh;r; khjk; gk;ghapy; re;jpahf;fpuf rig (Sathyagraha Sabha)
Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. rj;jpahfpufr; rgjk; (Satyagraha Pledge) vLj;Jf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. rj;jpahf;fpufr; rigapd; fpisfs; ehl;bd; gy
gFjpfspYk; Jtf;fg;gl;ld. 1919 khh;r; 30Mk; Njjpia rj;jpahf;fpuf
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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ehshf (Satyagraha Day) ehnlq;Fk; mDrhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W fhe;jp
kf;fisf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. Mdhy; mth;f nrd;id nrd;wNghJ
(khh;r; 17) rp.uhrNfhghyhr;rhhpahh;> v];.f];J}hpuq;f ma;aq;fhh;>
rp.tp[auhfthr;rhhpah; MfpNahuJ Myhridapd;gb rj;jpahf;fpuf ehis
Vg;uy; 6f;Fj; js;spitj;J tpl;lhh; fhe;jp!
rj;jpahf;fpuf jpdk; js;sp itf;fg;gl;l nra;jp mwpahj by;yp
kf;fs; 1919 khh;r; 30 md;W g+uz mh;j;jhy; mDrhpj;jdh;. nly;yp
nghJtho;f;if md;W epd;W Nghapw;W. Mdhy; Mh;gg ; hl;lf;fhuh;fSf;Fk;
NghyPrhUf;FkpilNa Vw;gl;l Nkhjypy; gyh; ,we;jdh;. NkYk; gyh;
fhaKw;wdh;. 1919 Vg;uy; 6 Mz;L Njjp fhe;jpapd; FuYf;F nrtpkLj;j
ehL mikjpahf mfpkpr;ir topepd;W rj;jpahfpuf ehisg; gf;jp
rpuj;ijNahL nfhz;lhbaJ. Chptyq;fs;> Mh;gg ; hl.;lq;fs; filailg;G>
cz;zhtpujk; nghJf;$l;lq;fs; gpuhh;j;jidfs; Mfpa midj;Jk;
vt;tpj mrk;ghtpjkpd;wp eilngw;wd.
Mdhy; murhq;fj;jpd; tpNtfkw;w Nghh;f;fhy; td;Kiwe ntbj;jJ.
Rthkp rpuj;jhde;jhpd; mtru miog;gpd;Nghpy; fhe;jp nly;ypf;Fg;
Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;whh; (1919 Vg;uy; 7) mth; kJuh (Mathuura) it
mile;jNghJ Nkw;nfhz;L nry;yf;$lhnjdj; jLf;fg;gl;lhh;. jilia
kPwpg; gazk; nra;j fhe;jpiag; gQ;rhgpd; vy;iyapypUe;j ghy;thy;
(Palwal) ve;w rpw;W}hpd; Gif tz;b epiyaj;jpy; ifJnra;J gk;gha;f;Ff;
nfhz;L nrd;Wtpl;ldh;. mfkjhghj;> gk;gha;> by;yp> mkph;jru]; Mfpa
,lq;fs; td;Kiwf; Nfe;jpuq;fshapd. MfpNyah;fSk; murhq;f
mjpfhhpfSk; jhf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;> nfhy;yg;gl;lhh;fs;> nghJr; nrhj;Jf;fs;
mopf;fg;gl;ld. NghyP]; cj;juTfSk; jilfSk; kPwg;gl;ld. Jg;ghf;fpr;
#Lfs; elj;jd. ,uhZtr; rl;lk; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. mfpkpr;ir
MAjj;ijfr; rhpahfg; gad;gLj;jf;$ba gapw;rpiaAk; gf;Ftj;ijAk;
kf;fs; ,d;Dk; rhpahfg; ngwtpy;iy vd;gij mwpe;jhh; fhe;jp> ,khyaj;
jtW (Himalayan Miscalculation) nra;Jtpl;ljhff; fUjpdhh; fhe;jp>
nusyl; rj;jpahf;fpufj;ij Jtf;fpath; fhe;jp> fhq;fpu]; my;y> mtNu
epWj;jpdhh;.
[hypad; thyhghf; gLnfhiy
fhe;jp nusyl; rj;jpahf;fpufj;ij epWj;jpdhh;. Mdhy; murhq;fk;
jd; mlf;FKiwia epWj;jtpy;iy. lhf;lh; rj;aghYk; (Dr.Satyapal)
mkph;jurpd; kf;fs; nry;thf;Fkpf;f fhq;fpu]; jiyth;fs;. Kidth;
Nfk;gphpl;[; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; gl;lk; ngw;w K]yPkl; tof;fwpQh;>
gpd;dth; ,e;J kUj;Jth; fofj;jpy; gl;lk; ngw;w K];yPk; tof;fwpQh;>
gpd;dth; ,e;J kUj;Jth; ,t;tpUtiuAk; Jizf;fkp\dh; jdJ
gq;fshTf;f tur;nrhy;yp ifJ nra;J juk;rhyh vd;w kiyefUf;Ff;
nfhz;L nrd;Wtpl;lhh;! gQ;rhgpd; nyg;bdz;l; fh;dyhapUe;j ikf;Nfy;
xl;tpah; (Micheal O dwyer) mt;tpUtiuAk; ehLflj;j cj;jutpl;lhh;!
Kd;dNuNa nusyl; rl;lj;jhYk;> fhe;jp ifJ nra;ag;gl;ljhYk;
rpdq;nfhz;bUe;j gQ;rhgpah; jq;fsJ mgpkhdj; jiyth;fs;
,Uf;fkplk;$lj; njhpahJ kiwj;J itf;fg;gl;ljhy; rPw;wk; nfhz;ldh;.
rPwp vOe;jdh;. Jizf;fkp\dh; gq;fshit nehf;fpg; Gwg;gl;ldh;.
mth;fis xU Giftz;bg; ghyj;jUNf jLj;J epWj;jg;gl;lNghJ
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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td;Kiw epfor;rpfs; Vw;gl;ld;. ,Ugj;ije;J Mh;gg ; hl;lf;fhuh;fs; Rl;Lf;
nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. gjpYf;f uhgpd;rd; vd;w ruf;Ffplq;F fhtyh; mbj;J f;
nfhy;yg;gl;lhh;. kpd;rhuf; fk;gpfSk; je;jpf; fk;gpfSk;
mWj;njwpag;gl;ld. Giftz;bg; ghyk; ngah;f;fg;gl;lJ. tq;fpfSk;>
tq;fp mjpfhhpfSk; jhf;fg;gl;ldh;. nry;tp nkh;nry;uh n\h;Tl; vd;w
rkag; gug;G Copah; Nkhrkhfj; jhf;fg;gl;lhh;. gy nghJf; fl;blq;fs;
nfhSj;jg;gl;ld. my;yJ fiukl;lkhf;fg;gl;ld. mkph;jru]; td;Kiw
Mh;gg
; hl;l ikakhapw;W.
murhq;f mlf;FKiwf;Fg; gypahNdhUf;F ,uq;fy; $l;lk;
NghLtjw;F Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;lJ. 1919 Vg;uy; 13 md;W [hypad;
thyhghf; (Jallian Wallah Begh) fpy; $l;lk; eilngWk; vd;W
mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. md;Wjhd; rpf;fpah;fSf;Fg; Gdpjkhd igrhfp jpdk;
(Baisaki Day) jq;fs; Nfhtpypy; topglg; gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd gf;jh;fs;
te;jpUe;jhh;fs;. „ghf;‟ vd;why; Njhl;lk; vd;W nghUs; mq;F Njhl;lk;
vJTk ,y;iy. [hypad; thyhghf; vd;gJ neba fth;fshy; #og;gl;L>
xNu FWfpa EiothapiyAila ePz;l rJu ikjhdk;. mjpy; Rkhh;
20>000 Ngh; $b ,ue;jdh;. mwptpj;jg;gb ,uq;fy; $l;lk; rhpahf khiy
4.30 kzpf;Fj; Jtq;fpw;W. mq;F $bapUe;NjhUf;Fg; gphpNr\ah; n[duy;
nu[pdhy;L lah; Reginal Dyer) md;W fhiy gpwg;gpj;j $l;lk; jil
cj;juT gw;wp vJTk; njhpahJ. jdJ Mizia kPwp $btpl;ldNu vd;W
NfhgKw;W lah; giltPuh;fSld; [hypad; thyhghf; nrd;W Kd;dwptpg;G
VJkpd;wp> Njhl;lhf;fs; jPUk; tiuf; $l;lj;jpdiug; ghh;j;Jr; RLkhW
cj;jutpl;lhh;. mt;thNw gj;J epkplq;fs; epWj;jhky; $l;ldh; 1650 Rw;Wr;
Rl;ljhy; 1500 mg;ghtp kf;fs; khz;ldh;. ftdpf;fg;glhikahy; fhak;gl;l
NkYk; gyUk; kbe;jdh;. ,uq;fy; $l;lj;Jf;Fr; nrd;Nwhh; ,we;Jgl;l
Nfhuf;fhl;rp mJ.
,uhZtr; rl;l eltbf;iffs;
nte;j Gz;zpy; Nty; gha;r;rpaJ Nghy; [hypad;thyhghf;
gLnfhiy Nghjhnjd;W> mkph;jrurpYk;> yh$hpYk; ,uhZtr; rl;lk;
gpwg;gpf;g;gl;lJ. (Vg;uy; 15). mkph;jury; kf;fs; Mq;fpNya mjpfhhpfisg;
ghh;f;Fk; Nghnjy;yhk;> ifJ}f;fp tzf;fk; nra;AkhW
fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;. kWg;Nghh; firabf;F cs;shapdh;. gif
tz;bapy; gazk; nra;a kf;fs; mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy> khzth;fs;
a+dpad; [hf; nfhbf;f tzf;fk; nra;AkhW tw;GWj;jg;gl;ldh;.
,e;Jf;fSk; K];yPk;fSld; N[hbahf Nrh;eJ tpyq;fplg;gl;ldh;. lahpd;
Ch;e;J nry;Yk; cj;juT (Crawling Order) nfhLikapd; rpfukhf
,Ue;jJ. nry;tp n\h;Tl; jhf;fg;gl;l tPjpay; nry;Nthh; midtUk;
jiuapy; gLj;j khh;ghy; Ch;e;J nry;YkhW cj;jutplg;gl;ldh;
mt;tPjpapy; rTf;fbr; rJf;fk; (Wipping Square) xd;W fl;lg;gl;L mjpy;
Fw;wthspfs; epWj;jp itf;fg;gl;Lf; firab nfhLf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. nry;tp
n\h;Tl;ilj; jhf;fpajhr; re;Njfg;gl;l MW ,isQh;fs; mr;rJf;fj;Jf;F
nfhz;Ltug;gl;L MSf;F 30 firabfs; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. yh$h; f#h;>
F[;ud;thyh> N\Fg+uh Mfpa ,lq;fspy; ,uhZtr; rl;l eltbf;iffs;
muf;fj;jdkhf mky; nra;ag;gl;ld. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf. yh$hpy; ,uhZtr;
rl;lk; gw;wpa Rtnuhl;bfis tPl;Lr; Rth;fspy; xl;LtNjhL kl;Lkd;wp
mtw;iwg; ghJfhf;Fk; nghWg;igAk; tPl;Lf;Fr; nrhe;jf;fhuh;fs; Vw;FkhW
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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fl;lhag;gl;Lj;jg;gl;ldh;! f#hpy; kf;fs; Fdpe;J new;wpahy; jiuiaj;
njhLkhW jz;bf;fg;gl;ldh;! F[;ud; thyhtpy; gs;spfs; Mfha
tpkhdjjpypUe;J jhf;fg;gl;ldh;. fUq;ff;$wpd; ,uhZtr; rl;lj;jpd;
Jiznfhz;L gQ;rhg; kf;fs; khf;lfshf elj;jg;gl;ld.
`z;lh; tprhuizf;FO
gQ;rhg; gLnfhiy ehl;by; gjl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ fz;ldf;
Fuy;fs; fpsk;gpd. gQ;rhgpy; eilngw;w gaq;fuj;ijg; gw;wp KOtpguq;fs;
njhpatpy;iy. khstpah Nghd;Nwhh; kj;jpar; rl;lkd;wj;jpy; ,Jgw;wpa
Nfs;tpf; fizfisj; njhLj;jdh;. gLnfhiy eilngw;w #o;epiyapy;
mfpy ,e;jpaf; fhq;fpu]; fkpl;b gQ;rhg; gLnfhiygw;wp cldbahf
tprhuiz elj;j Ntz;Lnkdf; NfhhpaJ. mJkl;Lky;y > Nkhjpyhy; Neu>
rp.Mh;.jh]; g];Yy; `f;> mg;gh]; jpahg;[p> fhe;jp> Nf.re;jhdk; MfpNahh;
nfhz;l xU tprhuizf; FOitAk; epakpj;jJ me;j fhq;frpu];
tprhuizf;FO gQ;rhg; gLnfhiy gw;wpa gy jpLf;fplf;$ba
jfty;fisj; je;jJ. mNjhL nusyl; rl;lk; tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. itrpuha; ikf;Nfy; xl;tpah;> jsgjp lah; Nghd;Nwhh; gjtp
tpyf Ntz;Lk;; rk;ge;jg;gl;l js mjpfhhpfs; tprhhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;
Nghd;w NahridfisAk; mf;FO njhptpj;jJ.
vjph;g;g cUthtijf; fz;l gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; xU XOq;fpd;ik
tprhizf; FOit (Disorders Enquiry Committee) epakpj;jJ ePjpgjp
`z;lh; gpuG (Lord Hunter) mjd; jiyth;> ,uhZtr; rl;lj;jpdfPo;
gQ;rhg; murhq;fk; Nkw;nfhz;l eltbf;iffs;gw;wp tprhhpg;gNj
mf;FOtpd; Nehf;fk;. 1919 etk;gh; khjk; gQ;rhGf;F te;j
mt;tprhuizf;FO> yh$hpy; tprhuiziaj;Jtf;fp 1920 Nk khj
,Wjpapy; mjd; mwpf;ifiar; rkh;g;gpj;jJ. FOtpypUe;j
Mq;fNyah;fSf;Fk;> ,e;jpah;fSf;FkpilNa fUj;J NtWghLfs;
,Ue;jikahy; mwpf;if ngUk;ghd;ikapdh; mwpf;if (Majority Report)
rpWghd;ikapdh; mwpf;if (Minority Report) vd;W ,U gFjpfshf
vOjg;gl;lJ.
ngUk;ghd;ikapdh; mwpf;if vr;rhpf;ifapd;wp Rl;ljw;fhfTk;
Njhl;lhf;fs; jPUkl;Lk; Rl;ljw;fhfTk> jsgjp nu[pdhy;L laiuf;
fz;bj;jJ. lahpd; rkNahrpjr; nray; gq;rhigf; fhg;ghw;wpaJ> kw;nwhU
1857 fpsh;r;rpiag; Nghd;w nfhe;jspg;g Vw;glhjthW jLj;jJ vd;w
thjj;ij epuhfhpj;jJ. mNj Nghd;W kw;wg; gFjpfSf;Fk; ghlkhf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhfj;jhd; gQ;rhg; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ
vd;w fUj;ijAk; me;j mwpf;if Vw;f kWj;jJ. rpWghd;ikapdh;
mwpf;if gQ;rhg; gLnfhiyia 1914y; gpuhd;rpYk;> ngy;[paj;jpYk;
eilngw;w nfhLikfNshL xg;gpl;Lf; fhl;baJ. [hypad;thyh ghf;Ff;F
ntspNa epWj;jg;gl;bUe;J ,U ,uhZt thfdq;fSk; cs;Ns nfhz;L
tug;gl;bUe;jhy; jhdpaq;fpj; Jg;ghf;fpfSk; cgNahfg;gl;bUf;Fk; vdf;
$wpahikf;fhTk;> fhaKw;Nwiuf; ftdpahJtpl;likf;fhfTk; jsgjp
laiu ,uf;fkw;w muf;fd; vd;W me;j mwpf;if th;zpj;jJ. ,U
mwpf;iffSNk Kfhe;jpukpd;wpr; Rl;lijAk;> ,uhZtr;
rl;leltbf;iffisAk;> gpw jz;lidfisAk; fz;bj;jd. `z;lh;
mwpf;if vl;tpd; khz;NlFtpd; gQ;rhg; epfor;rpiag; gw;wpa ePz;l
Fwpg;igAk; nfhz;bUe;jJ. mf;Fwpg;gpd; Ch;e;Jnry;Yk; cj;juT ehfhpf
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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murhq;fj;jpd; newpKiwia kPwpa nray; vd;W ,e;jpa tptfhur;
nrayhsh; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhh;.
`z;lh; tprhuizf;FO mwpf;ifiag; ghprpypj;J ,e;jpa murhq;fk;
gQ;rhgpy; eilngw;w gy epfo;r;rpfs; jtph;f;fg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd;W
fUjpaJ. Fwpg;ghf gQ;rhgpy; rptpy; eph;thfk; iftplg;gl;lJ. rhpay;y
vd;Wk;> lah; Vg;uy; 13 md;W gpwg;gpj;J nghJf;$;lj; jil cj;juit
kf;fis vr;rhpj;j;jpUf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W murhq;fk; epidj;jJ mNj rkak;
ey;y Nehf;fj;NjhLjhd; lah; nray;gl;lhh;. vd;w fUj;ijAk; njhptpj;jJ.
gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; gpuGf;fs; mit gphpl;b\; Ml;rpia
,e;jpahtpy; ghJfhj;jikf;fhf laiug; ghuhl;baJ! ,e;jpa tptfhur;
nrayhpd; fz;ldj;Jf;fhshd jsgjp lah; gjtp tpyfpdhh; (1920 khh;r;
27) mtUf;f tPuDf;Fhpa khpahijAld; MfpNyah; topaDg;G tpoh
elj;jpdh;. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J INuhg;gpa khjh;fs; laUf;F &.20>000
nfhz;l gz Kbg;igAk; tPuthiisAk; ghprhf; nfhLj;jdh;.
nusyl; rl;lk;
lhf;lh; fpl;RY rj;aghiyr; rpiwaypl;lJ> [hypad; thyhghf;
gLnfhiy> ,uhZtr;rl;l eltbf;iffs;> mkph;jru]; jiyth;fisj;
jz;bj;jJ> `z;lh; FOtpd; xU rhh;ghd tprhuiz> fhq;fpu];
tprhizf;F Nrhjidfis cjhrPdg;gLj;jpaJ. gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wk;
laiug; ghuhl;baJ Mfpait fhe;jpaplk; khngUk; kdkhw;wj;ij
Vw;gLj;jpd tpisT? xj;Jioahik ,af;fk;.

1) nusyl; rl;lk; Vd; ,Ul;Lr; rl;lk; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ?

fpyhgj; ,af;fk;> 1919-1922


,e;jpa ,uhZtk; vd;gJ kfhj;kh fhe;jpapd; ,uhZtk;jhd;>
,e;jpag; NghyP]; vd;gJ kfhj;kh fhe;jpapd; NghyP];jhd;.xt;nthU
kdpjDk; fhe;jp> kjk;> ehL Mfpadtw;wpd; gf;fk; ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W
cWjpahff; $WfpNwd;.
-KfkJ myp.
fpyhgj; gpur;rid
‘fyPgh’ vd;w nrhy;ypd; mbg;gilapy; te;jNj „fpyhgj;’.fyPgh
vd;gth; jPh;f;fjhprp KfkJtpd; (Prophet Mohammad) topj;Njhd;wy; Mthh;.
mth; K];yPk; cyfj; jiytuhff; fUjg;gl;lhh;. ,e;jpa K];yPk;fSk;
fyPghitj; jq;fsJ rkaj; jiytuhfNt Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;. Mdhy;
Kjy; cyfg;Nghhpy; JUf;fp Ry;jhdhd fyPgh n[h;kdpf;F Mjuthf
K];yPk;fSf;Fj; JUf;fp Ry;jhid Mjhpg;gjh my;yJ gphpl;lDf;F
mjhtJ fpyhgj;ij Mjhpg;gnjd KbT nra;jdh;. Nghh; Kaw;rpfspy;
[hh;[; (Lloyd George) JUf;fp mDjhgj;Jld; ftdpf;fg;gLnkd;Wk;> rpwpa
Mrpah (Asia Minor) tpy; JUf;fpf;Fr; nrhe;jkhf cs;s
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Gdpjj;jyq;fSf;F vjpuhf vJTk; nra;ag;gl khl;lhnjdTk;> JUf;fpag;
NguuR ghJfhf;fg;gLnkd;Wk; cWjp $wpdhh; (1916 [dthp 5).me;j
cWjpia ek;gp ,e;jpa K];yPk;fs; Nghh; Kaw;rpfspy; ,q;fpyhe;Jf;F
KO MjuitAk; ey;fpdh;. Mdhy; Nghhpd; Kbtpy;
NerehLfSf;nfjpuhfg; Nghhpl;l ika ehLfNshL JUf;fpAk;
Njhy;tpAw;wjhy; mjd; jiytuhd Ry;jhdpd; mjpfhuq;fs;
gwpf;fg;gl;lNjhL JUf;fpg; NguuRk; Jz;lhlg;gl;lJ! ,ij ek;gpf;ifj;
JNuhfkhf> nra;ed;wp nfhd;w ,q;fpyhe;Jf;nfjpuhfg; Nghuhlj;
jPh;khdpj;jdh;.
fpyhgj; fpsh;r;rp
Nehf;fk;
fpyhgj; fpsh;r;rpapd; Nehf;fq;fs; ,uz;L:
1. Kjy; cyfg;Nghh; Jtf;fg;gl;lNghJ ,Ue;j epiyapy; JUf;fpag;
Nguurpd; vy;iyfs; ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;;
2. JUf;fp Ry;jhdpd; Ml;rp mjpfhuKk; rkaj; jiyikAk;
Kd;gpUe;jthNw cWjp nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,t;tpU
Nehf;fq;fisAk; epiwNtw;Wk; nghUl;L ,e;jpa K];yPk;fs; fpyhgj;
,af;fj;ijj; Jtf;fpdh;.
mikg;G
mg;tpaf;fj;ij top elj;Jtjw;nfd mfpy ,e;jpa fpyhgj;J FO
(All India khilafat Committee), [khj; my;cyhkh , `pe;j; (Jamat, al-
ulama-e-Hind) Mfpa ,U mikg;G ; fisAk; Vw;gLj;jpdh;. KfkJ
nrhl;lhsp (Mahammad Chottani)iaj; jiytuhff; nfhz;l fpyhgj; FO
gk;ghapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ (1919 khh;r; 20).mjd; fpisfs; ,e;jpah
KOtJk; Jtf;fg;gl;ld. fpyghj; gpur;rid gw;wp K];yPk;fspilNa
gpur;rhuk; nra;tJk; K];yPk;fspd; czh;r;rpfSf;Fr; nray;tbtk;
nfhLg;gJk; fpyhgj; FOtpd; nghWg;ghFk;. K];yPk; cyhkhf;fspilNa
,izg;ig Vw;gLj;JtJ> ,];yhkpa rl;lg;gb jiyikia cUthf;FtJ
K];yPk;fsy;yhjhNuhL njhlh;G nfhs;tJ> ,e;jpahtpYs;s
K];yPk;fsy;yhjhNuhL njhlh;G nfhs;tJ> ,e;jpahtpYs;s
K];yPk;fsy;yhjhNuhL el;Gwit tsh;j;jy; Mfpait [khj;jpd;
flikfshFk;. RUq;ff;$wpd; fpyhgj; FOTk;> [khj;Jk; fpyhgj;
,af;fj;jpd; murpay;> rkaf; fuq;fshf gad;gl;ld.
fpyhgj; khehL
Kjy; fpyhgj; khehL 1919 nrg;lk;gh; 21 Mk; ehs; yf;Ndhtpy;
eilngw;wJ. mjpy; ,e;jpahtpd; gy gFjpfspYkpUe;Jk; te;j 400
gpujpepjpfs; fye;J nfhz;ldh;. myp rNfhjuh;fSk; - KfkJ myp>
\Tf;fj; myp – nksyhdh mGy;fyhk; Mrhj;Jk; mk;khhl;by; Kf;fpag;
gq;Nfw;wdh;. fpyhgj; ,af;j;ijf; fhe;jp KOkdJld; Mjhpj;jhh;. ,e;J
K];yPk; xw;Wikapd; mbg;igapy;jhd; ,e;jpa Rauh[;aj;ij mila
KbAk;> mila Ntz;Lk; vd;W cWjpahf ek;gpa mth; mj;jifa
xw;Wikia Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd mhpa tha;g;ghf fpyhgj; ,af;fj;ijf;f
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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fUjpdhh;. mf;Nlhgh; 17Mk; ehisf; fpyhgj; jpdkhf (khilafat Day) ehL
KOtJk; nfhz;lhlg;gl Ntz;Lbkd;W fpyhgj; khehl;by;
jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ. mjd;gpd; myp rNfhjuh;fSk; fhe;jpAk; gpur;rhu
gpuahzj;ij Nkw;nfhz;L fpyhgj; jpdj;ij mDrhpg;gjw;F MjuT
jpul;bdh;.
fpyhgj; jpdk;
fpyhgj; khehl;by; KbT nra;jthW mf;Nlhgh; 17Mk; ehsd;W ehL
KOtjpYk; fpyhgj; jpdk; mikjpahf ahh;kPJk; vt;tpjf; fhl;lhaKkpd;wp
cz;zhNehd;gpUe;J gpuhh;j;jidf; $l;lj;NjhL jf;f Kd;Ndw;ghl;Lld;
mh;j;jhy; nra;J nfhz;lhlg;gly; Ntz;Lnkd lhf;lh; md;rhhp
(Dr.Ansari) ,ejpa K];yPk;fSf;F Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhh;.
mNjNghd;W Ntz;Lnfhs;is ,e;JfSf;F fhe;jp tpLj;jhh;. Fpyhgj;
jpdj;jd;W g+uz mhpj;jhy; mDrhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd `];uj; nkh`hdp
(Hasrat Hohani) Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;.
jiyth;fs; tpLj;j Ntz;LNfhspd;gb fpyhgj; jpdk; rpwg;ghff;
nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. gk;gha; K];yPk;fs; elj;jpa rpwg;G topghl;by; fhle;jp
fye;J nfhz;lhh;. fpyhgj; jiyth;fNshL Nrh;e;J nghJf;$l;lj;jpy;
Ngrpdhh;. yf;Ndh cld;ghl;bd; (1916) Kf;fpaj;Jtk; gw;wp kf;fSf;F
epidT+l;lg; ngw;wJ. nrd;idf; flw;fiuapy; eilngw;w $l;lj;jpy;
20>000f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ,e;Jf;fSk; K];yPk;fSk; fye;J nfhz;ldh;.
fy;fj;jhtpYk; K];yPk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf ,Ue;j gpw gFjpfspYk;
fpyhgj; nghJf; $l;lq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld. by;ypapy; 50>000f;F Nkw;gl;Nlhh;
fye;Jnfhz;l $l;lj;jpy; lhf;lh; md;rhhp> kg;b Rghaj;Jy;yh> Mrg;myp>
Rthkp rpuj;jhde;jh MfpNahh; ciuahw;wpdhh;. rpe;Jtpy; jyj;jiyth;fs;
fpuhkq;fspy; ,q;fpyhe;jpw;nfjpuhd fz;ldf; $l;lq;fis elj;jpdh;.
vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; K];yPk;fNs ngUk;ghd;ikahff; fye;Jnfhz;lhYk;
$l fpyhgj; jpdk; KOntw;wp ngw;wJ vd;Nw $w Ntz;Lk;.
fpyhgj; J}Jf;FO
by;ypapy; $ba ,uz;lhtJ fpyhgj; khehL (et.23>24) fpyhgj;
,af;fj;jpw;fdh nray;j;jpl;lj;ijj; jPh;khdpj;jJ. mjd;gb brk;gh; khjk
murhq;fk; elj;jtpUe;j ntw;wp tpohf; nfhz;lhl;lj;ijg;
Gwf;fzpg;gnjd;Wk;> murhq;fj;Jld; xj;Jiog;gjpy;iynad;Wk; tpNjrpg;
nghUs;fisg; Gwf;fzpg;gnjd;Wk; KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. khehl;bd;
,uz;lhk; ehs; $l;lj; jiytuhff; fhe;jp xU kdjhfj;
Njh;en; jLf;fg;gl;lhh;. Rthkp rpuj;jhde;jh> khstpah> NeU Nghd;NwhUk;
mf;$l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;lhdh;. fpyhgj; ,af;fj;Jf;F ,e;Jf;fspd;
KOMjuTz;L vdf; fhe;jp Ngrpdhh;. brk;gh; khjk; fhq;fpu];> K];yPk;
yPf;> fpyhgj; FO Mfpa %d;W mikg;GfSk; fpyhgj; ,af;fj;Jf;Fj;
jq;fsJ xUkpj;j Mjuitj; njhptpg;gjw;fhf $bd ,q;fpyhe;J>
mnkhpf;fh> fhd;];lhd;bNehgps; Mfpa ehLfSf;Ff; fpyhgj; J}Jf;
FOf;fis mDg;Gtnjd;Wk; gj;J ,yl;rk; &gha; fpyhgj; epjp
jpul;Ltnjd;Wk;> fpyhgj; mikg;ig tphpTg;gLj;Jtnjd;Wk; fpyhgj; FO
KbT nra;jJ.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


121
fpyhgj; FO Nkw;nfhz;l Kbtpd;gb myp rNfhjuh;fSk; gpwUk;
,q;fpyhe;J nrd;wdh; (1920 gpg;) mq;F khz;NlFtpd; Jizr; nrayhuhd
vr;.vy;.gp\Uld; mj;J}Jf; FO fpyhgj; gpur;rid gw;wp tpthjpj;jJ
(khh;r; 2) J}Jf;FOtpdh; gpujkh; yhapl; [hh;d[Ak; re;jpj;Jg; Ngrpdh;
(khh;r; 17) gpd;dh; J}Jf;FO ghhP]; nrd;wJ. mq;f mikjp khehl;Lf;F
(Peace Conference)te;jpUe;j gpujpepjpfsplk; fpyhgj; gw;wpj; J}Jf;FOtpdh;
vLj;Jf; $wpdh;. mjpfhhpfSld; tpthjpj;jdh;. nghJf; $l;lq;fspy;
Ngrpdh;. gpwF NuhkhGhpf;f(Rome)r; nrd;W Nghg; ghz;ltiur; re;jpj;J
ciuahbdhh;. ,t;tsTf;Fk; gpwF ntspahd nrt;u]; cld;gbf;if
(Treaty of Sevres) Ak; (1920 Nk) mijj; JUf;fp Vw;Wf; nfhz;lJ
(Mf];L 20) fpyhgj; J}j;Jf;FOTf;Fg; Nghpbahf ,Ue;jJ. mth;fs;
ntWq;ifNahL Ch; jpUk;gpdh;.
fpyhgj; ,af;fk;
fpyhgj; J}Jf;FO ,q;fpyhe;jpYk; INuhg;gpa ehLfspYk;
Rw;Wg;gazk; Nkw;nfhz;bUe;j rkaj;jpy; ,e;jpahtpy; fpyhgj; ,af;fk;
jpf;Fj; njhpahJ nrd;W nfhz;bUe;J. rkaj;jpy; ,e;jpahtpy; fpyhgj;
,af;fk; jpf;Fj; njhpahJ nrd;W nfhz;bUe;jJ. fpyhgj; khehL
gk;ghapy; $b (1920 gpg;uth;)fpyhgj; mwpf;if (Khilafat Manifesto) iaAk;
fpyhgj; FOf;fhd murpay; mikg;ig (Constitutionfor the Khilafat
Committee) Ak; ntspapl;lJ. tq;fhs khepy fpyhgj; FO fy;fj;jhtpy;
$b (gpg;.28>29) khh;r; 19Mk; ehisf; fpyhgj; jpdkhff; nfhz;lhLtnjd
mwptpj;jJ. fhe;jp jdJ mfpk;irj; jj;Jtj;ijAk; xj;Jioahikj;
jpl;lj;ijAk; cs;slf;fpa mwpf;ifia (Gandhhiji‟s
Manifesto) ntspapl;lhh; (khh;r 10)> (khh;r; 10)> khh;r; 19 md;W
,e;jpahtpd; nghpa efuq;fspnay;yhk; fpyhgj; jpdk; mDrhpf;fg;gl;lJ.
nghJf;$l;lq;fs;> rpwg;G topghLfs;> NtiyepWj;jq;fs; Mfpait md;W
elj;jg;gl;ld. kPul;by; eilngw;w If;fpa khfhz fpyhgj;
FOf;$l;lj;jpy; fhe;jp xU Kf;fpa mwptpg;ig ntspapl;lhh;. mjhtJ
,e;Jf;fSk; K];yPk;fSk; by;ypapy;Rb xU ehd;F mk;r xj;Jioahikj;
jpl;lj;ij KbT nra;jpUg;gjhf mwptpj;jhh;. fTutg; gl;lq;fisj;
Jwj;jy;> murhq;fg; gzpapypUe;J tpyfy;> NghyP]; ,uhZtg; gzpapUe;J
tpyfy;> thpnfhlhik MfpaitNa me;j ehd;fk;r xj;Jioahikj;
jpl;lkhFk;.
gQ;rhg; gLnfhiy gw;wpa `hz;lh; FO mwpf;if ntspahdJk;
fhe;jp mij cLk;Gg;gphpahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L mNjhL fpyhgj;
gpur;ridAk; Nrh;j;Jf;nfhz;L jdJ xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ij (Non-
Cooperation Movement) tYg;gLj;jj; Jtq;fpdhh;. K];yPk;fspd; fpyhgj;
Nfhhpf;iffSf;F fhe;jp fhl;ba mDjhgj;jpw;F ,e;Jf;fspilNa Nghjpa
Mjutpd;ikahy;jhd; mth; Mq;fpNya murhq;fj;Jf; nfjpuhd
xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ijj; jdpNa Jtf;fpdhh; vd;W n[apy; kPdhy;l;
(Gail Minault) vd;w fpyhgj; ,af;f Muha;r;rpahsh; fUfpwhh;. fpyhgj;
FO Vw;ghL nra;j gk;gha;f; $l;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhzLNgrpa fhe;jp
mfpk;ir topay; xj;Jioahikj; jpl;lj;ij Nkw;nfhs;s Nt;zba
,d;wpaikahik gw;wp czh;r;rpNahL Ngrpdhh;. mfpy ,e;jpa fpyhgj;
FO epakpj;j “xj;Jioahikf; FO” xU mwpf;ifia ntspapl;lJ.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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([Pd;2). mjpy; Mf];L Kjy; Njjpad;W xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ijf;
Jtf;Ftjw;fhd nray;jpl;lj;ij mwptpj;jJ. fy;fj;jhtpy; $ba
fhq;fpu]; rpwg;Gf;$l;lk; (nrg; 4-6) fhe;jp nfhz;L te;j xj;Jioahikj;
jPh;khdj;ij mq;fPfhpj;jJ. mjd;gpd; K];yPk; Jtf;fpa fpyhgj;
,af;fKk;> fhe;jp Jtf;fpa xj;Jioahik ,af;fKk; xd;whf ,ize;J
Mq;fpNya Ml;rpf;nfjpuhd nghJg; Nghuhl;lkhapw;W. mg;nghJg;
Nghuhl;lk; fhe;jpapd; jiyikapy; eilngw;wJ. fpyhgj; FOTkl;l>
fhq;fpu]; fhe;jp fhl;ba topapy; nray;gl;ld.
fpyhgj; ,af;fj;jpd; Njhy;tp
fhe;jpapd; xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;NjhL fpyhgj; ,af;fKk;
Ntfkhf tsh;e;jJ. Mdhy; nrshpnrsuh rk;gj;ijaLj;J fhe;jp jdJ
xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ijj; jpBnud epWj;jpaTld; (1922 gpg;uthp 12)
fpyhgj; ,af;fk; tYtpoe;jJ. tYtoe;j epiyapYk; mt;tpaf;fk;
njhlh;ejJ. MapDk; JUf;fpa Ml;rpia K];jgh fkhy; ghl;rh
ifgw;wpaTld; JUf;fpa Ry;jhdpd; Kbahl;rpf;F KbT fl;lg;gl;lJ.
JUf;fp Fbaurhapw;W. fpyhgj; gjtp ePf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;epfo;r;rpfs; fpyhgj;
,af;fj;jpd; mbg;giliaNa jfh;j;njwpe;Jtpl;ld. fpyhgj; ,af;fk;
Njhy;tpAw;wJ. fpyhgj; jiyth;fs; Nrpa K];yPk;fs; vd;Wk;> fpyhgj;
K];yPk;fs; vd;Wk; ,U gFjpapduhfg; gphpe;jdh;. lhf;lh; md;rhhp>
mGy;fyhk; Mrhj;> `fpk; m[;ky;fhd; ah$g;`hrd; Nghd;w Njrpa
K];yPk;fs; fhq;fpuRld; ,ize;jdh;. myp rNfhjh;fSk; gpwUk; Njrpa
,af;fj;jpypUe;J xJq;fp kiwe;jdh;.

1) fpyhgj; ,af;fk; Vd; njhlq;fg;gl;lJ?

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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myF - IV
xj;Jioahik ,af;fk;> 1920-22
xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; kf;fis Gjpa ek;gpf;ifNahL Gjpa
vjph;ghh;g;NghL Rje;jpuj;Jf;ffhfg; NghuhLk; Mw;wiyg; ngWtjw;fhd
Gdpj Jtf;fkhFk;.
-Mh;.rp. k#k;jhh;
xj;Jioahikj; jPh;khdk;
1918 khh;r; khjj;jpNyNa gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;Jf;nfjpuhd ,e;jpa
K];yPk;fspd; kdf;frg;gpy; ,e;jpa Ruh[;aj;Jf;fhd jpwTNfhiyf;
fz;lhh; fhe;jp vd;W n[apy; kpdhy;l; (Gail Minault) Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;.
,e;J-K];yPk; xw;Wikia cWjp nra;J nfhz;L Mq;fpNyNa Ml;rpNahL
Nkhj Ntz;lhk; vd;w vz;zj;jpy;jhd; fhe;jp fpyhgj; ,af;fj;ijj;
jPtpukhf Mjhpj;jhh;. mjw;F gpujpgydhf K];yPk;fs; fhe;jp ,af;fj;ijj;
jPtpukhf Mjhpj;jhh;. mjw;F gpujpgydhf K];yPk;fs; fhe;jp Jtf;fpa
nusl; rj;jpahffpufj;Jf;F Mjutspj;jdh;. 1920 khh;r; 10Mk; ehs;
fpyhgj; khehL gpg;dg;wWtjw;fhd nray;jpl;lk; gw;wpa mwpf;ifia
(Gandhiji’s Manigfesto) ntspapl;lhh; fhe;jp. me;;j mwpifapy;jhd; fhe;jp
Kjd;Kjyhfj; jdJ xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; gw;wpa jpl;lj;ij tphpthff;
$wpajhf gp.gl;lhgp rPj;jhuhikah fUJfpwhh;. fhe;jpapd; mwpf;ifapd;
mbg;gilapy;jhd; fpyhgj; khehl epakpj;j FO xj;Jioahikj;
jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wpa jdj mwpf;ifiar; rkh;gg ; pj;jJ (1920 [Pd; 2).me;j
mwpf;ifapy; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jgb xj;Jioahikj; jpl;lk; Mf];L Kjy;
Njjpad;W nray;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. me;j Kf;fpaj; jpl;lj;ijg;gw;wp
KbntLf;f yhyh y[gjpuha; jiyikapy; rpwg;G fhq;fpu];
fy;fj;jhtpy; $baJ (nrg;.4-9). mf;$l;lj;jpy; xj;Jioahik
,af;fj;jijg; gw;wpa jPh;khdj;ijj; fhe;jp Kd;nkhopa lhf;lh; fpl;RY
topnkhopa Nkhjpyhy; NeUTk;> myp rNfhjuh;fSk; Mjhpj;jdh;.
rp.Mh;.jh];> gp.rp.ghy;> vk;.vk;.khstpah Nghd;Nwhh; mj;jPh;khdj;ijj;
fLikahf vjph;j;jdh;. vdpDk; xj;Jioahikj; jPh;khdk; 1855f;F 873
vd;w tp;j;jpahrj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. rpwg;G fhq;fpu]py;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;l mj;jPh;khdj;ij ehfGhp fhq;fu]; (1920 brk;gh;)
mq;fPfhpj;jJ. ehfGhpapy; $ba fhq;fpurpy; jhd; fhq;fhpu];d;
murpayikg;G jpUj;jg;gl;L mjd; Fwpf;Nfhs; njspthf;fg;gl;L kf;fs;
mikg;ghf khw;wg;gl;lJ. ehfGhp fhq;fpurpy;jhd; murpay; tpLjiyf;fhd
mfpy ,e;jpa xj;Jioahik ,af;fjpd; jd;dpfuw;w jiytuhf fhe;jp
mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
,af;fj; jpl;lk;
1920 khh;r; 10Mk; ehs; ntspaplg;gl;l fhe;jpapd; mwpf;ifapd;
mbg;gilapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJjhd; ehfGhp fhq;fpurpy; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;l xj;Jioahikj; jPh;khdk;.mj;jPhk
; hdk; ,uz;L mk;r
xj;Jioahikj; jpl;lj;ij mq;fPfhpj;jJ; xd;W vjph;kiw (Negative)j;
jpl;lk;; kw;wJ cld;ghl;L (Positive)j; jpl;lk;. rl;lkd;w> ePjpkd;w fy;tp
epiya> NghyP];> ,uhZtg; Gwf;fzpg;G> tpNjrpg; nghUs; tpyf;fk;> thp
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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nfhlhik Mfpait vjph;kiwj; jpl;lj;jpy; mlq;Fk;. RNjrp> fjh; E}w;wy;>
nea;jiy Cf;Ftpj;jy;> jPz;lhik ePf;fk; %yk; rKjhar; rkj;Jtk;>
,e;J-K];yPk; xw;Wik Mfpait cld;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpy; mlq;Fk;.
rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;G
,e;jpar; rl;lkd;wq;fis fsq;fg;gl;l mikg;Gfshff; fUjpdhh;
fhe;jp. mit murpay; J}a;ikiaf; nfLg;gjhff; fUjpdhh; mth;. vdNt
rl;lkd;wq;fisg; Gwf;fzpf;f Ntz;Lkha;f; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. 1920
etk;ghpy; elf;ftpUe;j rl;lkd;wj; Njh;jiynahl;b xj;Jioahik
,af;fk; Jtf;fg;gl;ljhy; mNkl;rfh;fs; Nghl;bapl Ntz;lhk; vd;Wk;>
Nghl;bapLk; Ntl;ghsh;fSf;F thf;fspf;f Ntz;lhk; vd;Wk; Nghl;b
gpur;rhuk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. fhq;fpu]; fpyhgj; jiyth;fs; rl;lkd;w
gpur;rhuk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. fhq;fpu]; fpyhgj; jiyth;fs; rl;lkd;w
Gwf;fzpg;Gf;F Mjuthf R+whtspr; Rw;Wg; gazq;fis Nkw;nfhz;ldh;.
gQ;rhg;> gk;gha;> gPfhh;> If;fpa khfhzk;> kj;jpa khfhzk; Mfpatw;wpy;
rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;G ey;y gaidj; je;jJ. rpy ,lq;fspy;
thf;Fg;ngl;bfs; fhypahfNt ,Ue;jd. ,j;Njh;jypy; fhq;fpu];
fl;Lghl;il kPwp kpjthjpfSk;> ypguy; fl;rpapdUk; Nghl;bapl;ldh;. xU
rpy ,lq;fisj; jtpu rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;G KO ntw;wpiaj; je;jjhff;
$wpAs;sshh;. N[.gp.fpUgshdp.
ePjpkd;wg Gwf;fzpg;G
ePjpkd;wq;fis gphpl;b\; Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpd; vr;rq;fshfTk;>
rPh;Nfl;bd; rJg;G epyq;fshfTk; fUjpdhh; fhe;jp. ePjpkd;wq;fis
Gwf;fzpj;J> kf;fspd; tof;Ffisg; gQ;rhaj;J kd;wq;fspd;%yk;
jPh;j;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Mq;fpNya Mjpf;fj;ijj; jhq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;
J}z;fspy; xd;W tPo;e;JtpLk; vd;W vz;zpdhh; mth;. mjd;gb
E}w;Wf;fzf;ffhd tof;fwpQh;fs; jq;fsJ njhopiyj; Jwe;jdh;.
jkpo;ehl;by; tf;fPy; njhopiy tpl;lth;fs; jhd; xj;Jioahik
,af;fj;jpy; jPtpug; gq;F nfhz;ljhff; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;.
v];.Nfhghyfp\;zd;. Gfo;ngw;w gpugy tof;fwpQh;fshfj; jpfo;e;j yhyh
y[gjpuha;> rp.uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhp> b.gpufhrk; Nghd;Nwhh; mjpf tUtha;
juf;$ba tf;fPy; njhopiytpl;L ePjpkd;wq;fisg; Gwf;fzpj;jdh;. tf;fPy;
Ntiyia tpl;ljhy; Jd;GWNthUf;F cjt Nrj; [k;dhyhy; g[hj; epjp
Nrh;j;Jf; nfhLj;jhh;. gy tof;Ffs; gQ;rhaj;J ePjpkd;wq;fspy; jPh;j;Jf;
nfhs;sg;gl;ld. Murhq;fj;jpd; Kj;jpiu tUtha; (Income from Stamps)
fzprkhff; Fiwe;jJ.
fy;tpf;$lg; Gwf;fzpg;G
murhq;ff; fy;tpf; $lq;fspy; fy;tp fw;gJ ghtk; vdf; fUjpdhh;
fhe;jp. Mq;fpyf; fy;tp eQ;R fye;j ghy; Nghd;wJ vd;W th;zpj;jhh;
mth;. fhe;jpapd; fl;lisf;fpzq;f mypfhh; vk;.v.x.fy;Y}hp tpl;L
ntspNawpdh;. Gy murhq;fg gs;spfs; %bf;fple;jd. fhrp ,e;J
gy;fiyf; fofk; khzth;fspd; Ntiy epWj;jj;jhy; nraypoe;jJ.
tq;fhsj;jpy; midj;J murhq;ff; fy;tpf; $lq;fSk; %lg;gLtjw;F
rp.Mh;.jh];> mGy; fyhk; Mrhj; Nghd;Nwhh;fspd; gpur;rhuk;
fhuzkhapUe;jJ. ehd;F khjq;fSf;Fs; mypfhh; Njrpa K];yPk;
gy;fiyf; fofk;> F[uhj; tpj;ahgPj;> gP`hh; tpj;ahgPj;> fhrp tpj;ahgPj;>
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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tq;fhs Njrpag; gy;fiyf; fofk;> jpyfh; kfhuh\;buh tpj;ahgPj; kw;Wk;
E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd Njrpag;gs;spfSk; ehnlq;Fk; Jtq;ffg;gl;ld.
tpNjrpj; Jzpg; Gwf;fzpg;G
ntspehl;Lj; Jzpiaj; njhl;lhNy jPl;Lg;gl;L tpL;k; vdf;
fUjpath; fhe;jp. ,e;jpaj; Jzpj; njhopy; erpe;J Nghdjw;Fj; fhuzNk
Nkiyehl;Lj; Jzp ,wf;FkjpNaahFk;. vdNt tpNjrpj; Jzpiaf;
nfhSj;Jtjd; %yk; vjph;g;gigf; $Wtjw;fhd ehSk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;lJ.
gk;ghapy; eilngw;w nrhf;fg; gidapy; (Bonfie) fhe;jpAk; fye;J
nfhz;lhh;. myfhghj;jpy; [tfh;yhy; NeUtpd; J}z;Ljyhy; me;epaj;
Jzpia thq;Ftjpy;iynadj; Jzp tpahghhpfs; rgjnkLj;jdh;. tpNjjp
Jzpg; Gwf;fzpg;ig ntw;wpfukhfr; nray;gLtij cWjp nra;tjw;nfd
„tpahghhp kz;ly‟ vDk; mikg;G Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. tq;fhsj;jpYk;>
If;fpa khfhzj;jpYk; tpNjrpj; Jzp tpw;gid nra;Ak; filfisf;
fhq;fpu];fhuh;fSk;> fpyhgj; njhz;lh;fSk; kwpay; nra;jdh;. jkpo;ehl;by;
gy ,lq;fspy; Jzp tpahghhpfNs me;epaj; Jzp vjph;g;G
Mh;gg; hl;lf;fhuh;fSf;F Mjuthf ,Ue;jdh;.
NghyP]; ,uhZtg; Gwf;fzpg;G
Gwf;fzpg;Gg; Nghuhl;lj;jpNyNy kpfTk; jPtpukhdnjdf; fUjg;gl;lJ.
NghyP];> ,uhZtg; gzpg; Gwf;fzpg;NgahFk;. xj;Jioahikj; jpl;lj;jpy;
,Jgw;wpf; njspthff; $wg;gltpy;iyahapDk; fhe;jp chpa Neuj;jpy;
tpsf;fKk; nray; jpl;lKk; jUthh; vd vjph;ghh;f;ggl;lJ. fhe;jpAk;
fhq;fpuRk; ,Jgw;wpj; jaq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j NghJ fpyhgj; K];yPk;fs;
jPtpukhfr; nray;gl;ldh;. mth;fs; NghyP];> ,uhZtg; gzpj; Jwg;gpy;
Fwpahf ,Ue;jdh;. ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpGhptNjh my;yJ gl;lhsj;Jf;F
Msr; Nrh;f;f cjtp nra;tNjh ,];yhkpa ek;gpf;iff;Fk;> rl;lj;jpw;Fk;
tpNuhjkhdnjd;W 1921 [{iy khjk; mfpy ,e;jpa fpyhgj; FO
mwptpj;jJ. ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpGhpAk; K];yPk;fs; ,];]hkpa rl;lq;fis
kPwpath;fshth; vd rkaf; fl;lisAk; (Fatwa) gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.
,Jgw;wpa K];yPk; ,uhZt tPuh;fspilNa gpur;rhuk; nra;Ak;nghUl;L
mypfhh; gy;fiyf; fof khzth;fs; gQ;rhGf;Fk; vy;iyg;Gwg;
gFjpfSf;Fk; mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,J rk;ke;jkhf myp rNfhjuh;fs;
ifJ nra;ag;gl;lNghJ mth;fis Mjhpj;j fhe;jp „ve;j ,e;jpaDk;
,uhZtj;jpYk; muRj; JiwapYk; gzpahw;WtJ ghtk;‟ vd;W $wpdhh;.
NghyP]; gilapypUe;J Fwpg;ghf If;fpa kfhzk;> tq;fhsk;> gk;kghapy;
epWj;jg;gl;bUe;j NghyP]; gilapypUe;J gy K];yPk;fs; gjtp tpyfpdh;.
RNjrp eph;khzj; jpl;lk;
,ijr; nra;af;$lhnjdf; fl;lisapl;l fhe;jp ,tw;iwr; nra;a
Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; typAWj;jj; jtwtpy;iy. xj;Jioahik
,af;fj;jpd;NghJ RNjrp eph;khzj; jpl;lk; Njrk; KOtJk;
gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. tq;fg; gphptpidia vjph;j;J Jtf;fg;gl;;l RNjrp
,af;fj;jijg; gpd;gw;wp fhe;jp ,e;eph;khzj; jpl;lj;ijg; nghUshjhu ey
eltbf;ifahf kl;Lk; nfhs;shky; rkaf; flikahfTk; fUjpdhh;.
uhl;ilapy; fjh; E}y; E}w;wYk;> fjh; nerTk; kf;fspilNa gug;gg;gl;ld.
fjh;E}y; E}w;gJk;> fjuhil mzptJk; ehl;Lg; gw;Wkpf;f Njrpag;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Nghuhl;l tPuhpd; rpd;dkhapw;W. murpay;; njhz;lh;fs;> tptrhapfs;>
njhopyhsh;fs;> khzth;fs; Mfpa midtUk; fjh; E}y;
E}w;fTk;>fjuhil mzpaTk; Kw;gl;ldh;. fpuhkf; Fbirf; ifj;njhopy;fs;
Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;ld. xU Nfhb &gha;f;F Nky; Nrh;e;j jpyfh; epjp> fjh;
mgptpUj;jpf;Fk;> uhl;il tpepNahfj;Jf;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
fjhpaf;fj;jpy; ehw;gJ ,yl;rk; njhz;lh;fSf;FNky; Nrh;e;jdh;.
,yl;rf;fzf;fhd uhl;ilfs; tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;ld. RNjrpg;
nghUs;fistpw;gid nra;tjw;fhf „RNjrpf; filfs;‟ jpwf;fg;gl;ld.
fhe;jpapd; ,Wjp vr;rhpf;if
Nty;]; ,sturhpd; Rw;Wg;gad; ntw;wpapy; ehl;lk; nfhz;l
itrpuha; hPbq; gpuG (Lord Reading) rkhjhd Kaw;rpia Nkw;nfhz;lhh;.
Nf.vd.Fd;];U> [k;dhjh];> Jthuf jh];> nl[; gfJ}h;> md;dpngrd;l;>
khstpah Nghd;Nwhh; mk;Kaw;rpapy; <Lgl;ldh; myp rNfhjuh;fis
tpLtpf;fhj tiu ve;j rkurg;Ngr;rpYk; fye;Jnfhs;s fhe;jp
jahuhapy;iy. rp.rq;fud; ehahpd; Kaw;rpapy; Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;l
midj;Jf; fl;rp $l;lKk; ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy. thpnfhlh ,af;fj;ij
Jtf;FtJ gw;wp fhe;jp jPtpukhfj; jpl;lkpl;L te;jhh;. mg;NghJ
Me;jpuhtpy; nfhz;l ntq;flg;igah thpnfhlh ,af;fj;ijj;
Jtq;fptpl;lhh;. mjdhy; td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfSk; mij njhlh;e;J mlf;F
KiwAk; epfo;e;jd. fhe;jp $wpa xuhz;Lf;Fs; Rauh[;aj;ijg;
ngw;Wtplyhk; vd;w Mh;tj;jpy; kf;fs; fpsh;r;rp nra;a kpFe;j
Mh;tj;Jld; ,Ue;jdh;. kf;fspd; kdepiyiag; Ghpe;J nfhz;l fhe;jp
itrpuha; hPbq; gpuGTf;F vOjpa fbjj;jpy; ,Wjp vr;rhpf;if tpLj;jhh;
(1922 gpg;uthp1) itrpuha;f;F mf;fbjk; fpilj;j VO ehl;fSf;Fs;
Xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpy; <Lgl;L ifJ nra;ag;gl;Nlhh; midtUk;
tpLtpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. fpyhgj; gQ;rhg; mePjpfSf;nfjpuhf
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; eltbf;iffSf;F ,ilA+W nra;af; $lhnjd;Wk;
murhq;fk; ,tw;Wf;Fr; rk;kjpf;fhtpby; gh;Njhypapy; rl;lkWg;G
,af;fj;ijj; Jtq;fg; NghtjhfTk; vr;rhpj;jpUe;jhh;. fhe;jpapd;
vr;rhpf;iff;F itrpuha; nrtp rha;f;ftpy;iy. vdNt fhe;jp rl;lkWg;g
,af;fj;ijj; njhlq;fj; jahuhdhh;. Mdhy; nrshp nrsuhtpy; ele;j
epfo;r;rp mjw;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itj;jJ.
nrshp nrsuh epfo;r;rp
If;fp khfhzj;jpy; Nfhuf;g+hpypUe;J ,Ugj;ije;J fpNyh kPl;lh;
J}j;jpYs;s fpuhkNk nrshpnrsuh. mq;F tpNjrpg; nghUs; Gwf;fzpg;G
eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy; xU NghyP]f ; huh; njhz;lh;fs; rpyiuj;
jhf;fptpl;lhh;. mijaLj;J 500 njhz;lh;fSk; fpuhkj;jhh; Gil#O fhty;
epiyaj;Jf;Fr; nrd;W mjpfhhpia re;jpj;J KiwaPl;ldh;. rkurNkw;gl;L
mf;$l;lj;jpdh; jpUk;gp te;J nfhz;bUf;ifapy; gpd;dhy; ngUq;$f;Fuy;
vOe;jJ. mikjpahfj; jpUk;gpf; nfhz;bUe;j kf;fisg; NghyPrhh;
Nkhrkhfj; jhf;fpf; fhag;gLj;jpajhff; $wg;gl;lJ. NfhgKw;w $l;lj;jpdh;
fy;tPr;rpy; <Lgl;ldh; NghyP]; Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;by; ,wq;fpaJ. Njhl;lhf;fs;
jPh;ej
; Jk; NghyP]hiug; gpbj;Jf; fhty; epiyaj;Jf;Fs; js;spj; jP
itj;J tpl;ldh;. 12 NghyPrhNuhL fhty;epiyak; jPffpiuahapw;W! Nty;];
,sturhpd; gk;gha; tUifapd;NghJ td;Kiwf; fyfq;fs; Vw;gl;l ehd;F

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


127
khjq;fSf;Fs; nrshpnrsuhtpy; ntbj;j td;Kiw epfo;r;rp fhe;jpiaf;
fyf;fKwr; nra;jJ.
Nghuhl;lk; epWj;jg;gl;lJ
xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; fl;Lf;flq;fhky; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jJ
mfpk;irg; Nghuhl;lk; td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfSf;F fhuzkha; ,Uf;ff;$lhJ
vdf; fUjpdhh; fhe;jp mfpk;irg; Nghuhl;lj;Jf;Fhpa KOg;gapw;rpiaAk;
kf;fs; ngwtpy;iy. Nghuhl;lj; jiyth;fs; gyUk; rpiwf;Fs; ,Ue;jdh;.
td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfisf; fhuzkhff; nfhz;L murhq;fk; mlf;F
Kiwiaj; jPtpug;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpapy; <Lgl;lJ kf;fspd; clYf;Fk;
capUf;Fk; Vw;glf;$ba ,og;ig vz;zpg;ghh;j;j fhe;jp rpwif;F
ntswpNaapUe;j fhq;fpu]; njra;w;FO cW@g;gpdh;fNshL fye;JNgrp
xj;Jioahikg; Nghuhl;lj;ij epWj;jp tpl;lhh; (1922 gpg;12) kf;fspilNa
nry;thf;F ngWtijg; nghpjhff; fUjhJ> rka re;jh;g;gj;Jf;Nfw;g
ele;Jnfhz;L Gfo; ngWtijj; jtph;j;J> nfhs;ifNa nghpnjdj;
JzpTld; nray;gl;l fhe;jpiag; Nghd;w kdpjiu tuyhw;wpy; fhz;gJ
kpfTk; mhpJ vdf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh; tpy; ^uz;l; (Will Durant)
xj;Jioahikg; Nghuhl;lj;ijf; iftpl;L RNjrp eph;khdj; jpl;lj;ij
Nkw;nfhs;sr; nrhd;d fhe;jpia murhq;fk; ifJ nra;jj (khh;r; 10).
tprhuizapd; NghJ gk;gha;> nrd;id> nrshpnrsuh kw;Wk; gpw
,lq;fspy; Vw;gl;l td;Kiwr; nray;fSf;F KOg;nghWg;igAk; Vw;Wf;
nfhz;lhh; fhe;jp. fhe;jpapd; tpNuhjp$l mtuJ cah;e;j
,yl;rpaq;fisAk;> newpjtwhj xOf;f eltbf;ifiaAk; ghuhl;Lth;
vdf; $wpa ePjpgjp Gsk;gyP ;L (Broomfield) fhe;jpf;F Mwhz;Lfs; rpiw
jz;lid tpjpj;jhh;. vdpDk; cly; eyf;Fiw Ntw;gl;ljhy; fhe;jp 1924
gpg;uthp khjk; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;lhh;.

1) xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpd; Nghf;if tpthp?


2) xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; Vd; Njhy;tp mile;jJ?

Rauh[;af; fl;rp 1923-1926


rl;lkd;w EioT
td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfis mLj;J xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; fhe;jpahy;
epWj;jg;gl;lJ fhe;jpAk; gpw jiyth;fSk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L
rpiwj;jz;lid tpjpf;fgl;ldh;. Njrpa ,af;fk; jpBnud epWj;jg;gl;ljhy;
kf;fs; Vkhw;wkile;jdh;. ,Wjpapy; rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;G gw;wpa
fhe;jpathjpfspd; KbNa epiyj;jJ. xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpd; xU
rpwg;G mk;rkhd rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;igj; njhlh;tnjd KbT
nra;ag;gl;lJ. vdNt rl;lkd;w EioTf;fhf thjhba rpj;juQ;rd;jh];
jdJ fhq;fpu]; jiyikg; gjtpapypUe;J tpyfpg; GJf;fl;rpiaj;
Jtf;fpdhh;. #uj; gpsTf;Fg; gpwF fhq;fpu]; ,uz;lhtJ jilt ahf
,U$whfg; gphpe;jJ. gjpjhf mikf;fg;gl;l mikg;Ng Rauh[;f;
fl;rpahFk;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


128
khw;wk; tpUk;gpNahhp
fhq;fpurpd; nfhs;ifahd rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;gpy; khw;wk; Ntz;Lk;
vd;W Nfhhpath;fs; khw;wk; tpUk;gpNahh; (Pro-Changer)
vd;wiof;fg;gl;ldh;. rpj;juQrd;jh];> Nkhjpyhy; NeU> `fpk;
m];ky;fhd;> tpj;jy;gha; N[.gNly; MfpNahh; khw;wk; tpUk;gpa Kd;dzpj;
jiyth;fshth;. rl;lkd;wq;fisf; ifg;gw;wp mtw;iw ,aq;ftpl;lhy;
nra;J> murhq;fj;ijr; nray;glhJ Klf;FtNj khw;wk; tpUk;gpNahhpd;
tpiothFk;.
khw;wk; tpUk;ghNjhh;
rl;lkd;wg; Gwf;fzpg;gpy; vt;tpj khw;wj;ijAk; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;shjth;fs; khw;wk; tpUk;ghNjhh; (No Changers) vd;wiof;fg;gl;ldh;.
vk;.V.md;rhhp> ,.Nf.nuq;fRthkp ma;aq;fhh;> rp.uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhp MfpNahh;
khw;wk; tpUk;ghj Kd;dzpj; jiyth;fshth;.
Rauh[;af; fl;rp
Njhw;wk;
xj;Jioahik ,af;fk; jpBnud tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;ljd;
tpisNt Rauh[;af; fl;rpahFk; mt;tpaf;fk; tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;lNghJ
mypg;g+h; rpiwapypUe;J rpj;juQ;rd; jh];> Nkhjpyhy; NeU Nghd;Nwhh;
xj;Jioahik epWj;jg;gl;ljhy; Vw;gl;l #dpaj;ij epug;Gtjw;fhfr;
rl;lkd;w EioT gw;wp re;jpf;fyhapdh;. xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;ij
rl;lkd;wj;jpw;Fs;spUe;J nfhz;Nl elj;jpdhNyd;d vd;W mth;fs;
vz;zpdh;. 1922 [Piy khjk; rpiwapypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;l rp.Mh;.jh];
rl;lkd;wq;fisf; ifg;gw;WtJ gw;wpa jdJ vz;zj;ij ntspapl;lhh;.
mt;tpuz;L brk;gh; khjk; fahypy; $ba fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpy; jdJ
jiyik ciuapy; jh]; mJgw;wp jdJ jPh;khdkhd Kbit
ntspapl;lhh;.
Nehf;fk;
1. vy;yhtpj rl;lg+h;tkhd rhj;tPf topfs; %ykhfTk; ,e;jpa kf;fs;
Rauh[;aj;ijg; ngwy;
2. kj;jpa> khepy rl;lkd;wq;fspy; murhq;fj;jpd; rhh;gpy; nfhz;L
tug;gl;Lk; midj;J rl;lKaw;rpfisAk; Kwpabj;jy;.
3. cs;shl;rp Rahl;rp guty;Kiw: eph;thfk; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfSf;F
murhq;f mjpfhhpfs; fl;Lg;ghl;bUe;jy; Mfpatw;Wf;fhfg;
ghLgLjy;.
4. nghJkf;fspd; eyDf;fhfg; ghLgLtjd; %yk; murhq;f mjpfhuk;
ghjpf;fhky; jq;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;sy;
5. rkjh;kf; nfhs;iff;Fk; Rje;jpuj; jdpkdpj czh;r;rpf;FkpilNa
cs;s ,ilntspiaf; Fiwj;jy;.
6. ,e;jpahtpd; ,ay;ghd Rakhpaijia typAWj;jp ehl;bd;
ngUikia epiyehl;ly;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


129
Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdhpd; rhjidfs;
Njh;jy; mwpf;if
1923 mf;Nlhgh; 14 Mk; ehs; Rauh[;af; fl;rp jdJ Njh;jy;
mwpf;if (Election Manifesto) ia ntspapl;lJ. mt;twpf;ifapy;
Rauh[;af; fl;rp fhq;fpu]; mq;fkhfNt nray;gLk; vd;gJ
njspthf;fg;gl;lJ. gphpl;b\; murhq;fj;jpd; Ruz;ly; nfhs;ifAk;
khz;NlF nrk;];Nghh;L rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; vd;w ngauhy; nghWg;ghl;rp
toq;fg;gl;lJ. Nghypj;jdkhdJ vd;gijAk; mt;twpf;if
mk;gyg;gLj;jpaJ.
Rauh[;af; fl;rpapd; rhpT
%d;whtJ fhy rl;lkd;w EioT Kaw;rpf;Fg;gpd; Rauh[;ak;
fl;rpapd;h; xa;eJ
; Ngha;tpl;ldh;. mtruKk;> Mj;jpuKk;> mDgtkpd;ikAk;
mth;fis rl;lkd;w EioT Kaw;rpapy; jPtpukhf <Lglr; nra;jd Mdhy;
mDgtk; mth;fis mlq;fr; nra;jJ rl;lkd;wq;fspy; mbf;fb mth;fs;
ntspelg;Gr; nra;jij mf;fl;rpf;fhuh;fNs gyh; Fiw $wpdh;.
kj;jpa khfhz rl;lkd;w Rauh[;af; fl;rpj; jiytuhd v];.gp.jk;Ng
fth;dhpd; Ml;rpf; FO cWg;gpduhdhh;. tp.N[.gNly; kj;jpa rl;l
kd;wj;jpd; rghehafuhf ,Uf;f xg;Gf;nfhz;lhh;. ,uhZtj;ij ,e;jpa
kakhf;FtJ gw;wpa ghprPypg;gjw;fhf epakpf;fg;gl;l ];fPd; FO (Skeen
Committee) tpd; cWg;gpduhf ,Uf;f Nkhjpyhy; NeU rk;kjpj;jhh;.
Rauh[;af; fl;rpapdhpilNa ,Ue;j fUj;JNtWghL ehfGhpapy; $ba
mf;fl;rpapd; nraw;FO $l;lj;jpy; (1925 et) fUj;JNkhjypy; Kbe;jJ.

1) Rauh[; fl;rpiag; gw;wp tpthp?


2) Rauh[;a fl;rp Vd; Njhy;tp mile;jJ?

irkd; FO 1927-1929
fhq;fpu]; jiytuhf Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;lbUe;j v];.rPdpthr
Ia;aq;fhiur; (1926) rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ijj; Jtf;FkhW
v];.rj;jpah%h;j;jp Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. jpUg;jpfukhd jPh;T fhzhjtiu
murhq;fg; gjtp vijAk; Vw;gjpy;iy vd;W nfsfhj;jp fhq;fpu]; (1926)
jd; Kbit kPz;Lk; typAWj;jpaJ Rauh[;af; fl;rpdh; ,ul;il
Ml;rpf;nfjpuhfr; rl;l kd;wj;Jf;Fs; Xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpy;
<Lgl;bUe;jdh;. me;jf; #o;epiyapy; irkd;FO (Simon Commission)
mikf;fg;gl;l nra;jp mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.
irkd;FO mikf;fg;gly;
,e;jpahtpy; cUthfp te;j murpay; #o;epiyiaf; ftdpj;j
gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;wk; ,e;jpah;fsJ tpUg;gj;ij xusthtJ g+h;j;jp
nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpaJ. ,q;fpyhe;jpy; tpiuthfg; gutp te;j

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


130
jptpukhf njhopyhsh; ,af;fj;jpdh; ,e;jpahTf;F nlhkpdpad; me;j];J
mspf;f ntz;bajd; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jp te;jdh;.
,j;jifa #o;epiyfspd; fl;lhaj;jhy; 1919 ,e;jpa murhq;fr;
rl;lg;gb gj;jhz;L Kbtpy; mikf;fg;gl Ntz;ba ,e;j uhay; fkp\d;
1927 etk;gh; 26 Mk; NjjpNa mikf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ.
,f;FOtpd; jiytuhf gphpl;b\; tpguy; fl;rpiar; Nrh;e;j rh; [hd;
irkd; (Sir John Simon) epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;. mf;FOtpy; NkYk; VO
cWg;gpdh;fs; ,lk; ngw;wdh;. mth;fs; midtUk; Mq;fpNyah;fNs! 1919
rl;lg;gb cUthf;fg;gl;l murpay; mikg;G vt;thW nray;gLfpd;w
njd;gijAk;> ,ul;il Ml;rpapd; epiwFiwfisg;gw;wp mwptJk; kf;fs;
gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l epWtdq;fs; vt;thW ,aq;Ffpd;wd vd;gijg;
gw;wp njhptpg;gJk;> me;epWtdq;fSf;F NkYk; nghWg;ghl;rpia toq;FtJ
tpUk;gj;jf;fjh vd;gijg; gw;wpg; ghpe;Jiu nra;tJk; ,f;FOtpd;
Nehf;fq;fshFk;.
irkd; FO Gwf;fzpg;G
irkd; FOtpy; ,e;jpah; vtUf;Fk; ,lk; nfhLf;fhjJ ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fSf;F tUj;jj;ijAk;> Vkhw;wj;ijAk; Nfhgj;ijAk;
cz;lhf;fpw;W. gphpl;b\; gpuGf;fs; mitapd; cWg;gpduhd ,e;jpah; fpd;qh
gpuG (Lord Sinha) $l ,f;FOtpy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy.
1927 brk;gh; khjk; nrd;idapy; $ba fhq;fpu]; KOtJk;
Mq;fpNyah;fisf; nfhz;Nl mikf;fg;gl;l irkd; FOitf; fLikahff;
fz;bj;jJ.
nrd;id fhq;fpu]; jhd; irkd; fkp\d; Gwf;fzpg;gJ jPh;khdk;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. irkd; fkp\dpd; tUifapd;NghJ kf;fs; mijg;
Gwf;fdpf;f Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; mg;Gwf;fzpg;Gf;Fr; rhjfkhf kf;fspd;
Mjuitg; jpul;l Ntz;Lnkd;Wk;> mf;FONthL ahUk; xj;Jiof;fyhfhJ
vd;Wk; mj;jPhk
; hdk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ.
yh$hpy; yhyh y[gjpuhapd; jiyikapy; khngUk; Mh;gg ; hl;lk;
ele;jNghj vt;tpj Kfhe;jpuKK; ,d;wp yhyh NghyP]; mjpfhhp rhz;lh;];
(Saundars) vd;gtuhy; nfh^ukhfj; jhf;fg;gl;lhh;. mJNt mtuJ
kuzj;Jf;Ff; fhuzkhapw;W (1928 et.17) yf;Ndhtpd; [t`h;yhy;
NeUTk; gpw njhz;lh;fSk; NghyP];rhuhy; jhf;fg;gl;ldh;. ghl;dhtpy;
gyj;j Mh;gg; hl;lk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.. nrd;id> by;yp> yh$h; yf;Ndh>
ghl;dh Mfpa ,lq;fspy; Vw;gl;l td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfs; jtpug; gpw
,lq;fspy; irkd; FO mikjpahfNt nrd;W te;jJ. 1929 khh;r; 31 Mk;
ehs; gk;ghia tpl;L Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;wJ irkd;FO.
irkd; FO mwpf;if
1. ,ul;il Ml;rpf;F gjpy; (Dyarchy) khepy Rahl;rp (Provincial
Autonomy) nfhz;Ltug;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2. khepy eph;thfj;jpy; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfshd mikr;rh;fSf;F NkYk;
mjpf mjpfhuq;fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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3. khepyr; rl;l kd;wq;fs; tphpTgLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
4. khepyr; rl;l kd;wj;jpy; murhq;f rhh;Gila epakd cWg;gpdh;fs;
,Uf;ff;$lhJ.
5. K];yPk;fSf;Fr; rpwg;ghd Nghjpa tFg;Gthhpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
6. cah;ePjp kd;wq;fs; kj;jp murpd; fl;Lghl;bd;fPo; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
7. kj;jpapy; gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa gFjpfSk; kd;dh; khepyg; gFjpfSk;
xd;whf ,ize;j $l;lhl;rp (Federation) Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;.
8. Gj;jhz;LfSf;nfhU Kiw murpay; mikg;Gr; rl;lj;ijg; gh;rPyid
nra;Ak; rl;lf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fg; gjpy; NjitahdNghJ ghprPyid
nra;tjw;Fhpa tifapy; Gjpa rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
9. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J gh;khitj; jdpehlhfg; gphpj;Jtpl Ntz;Lk;.
10. tlNkw;F vy;iy khepyj;jpy; rl;lkd;wk; mikf;fg;gl Ntz;baJ
mtrpak;.

1) irkd; FO Vd; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;lJ?


2) irkd; FOtpd; mwpf;ifia tpthp?

NeU mwpf;if
irkd; FO epakpf;fg;gl;lijg;gw;wp gphpl;b\; gpuGf;fs; rigapy;
Ngrpa ,ejpa tptfhur; nrayhsuhd gPh;fd; n`l;gpuG ,e;jpah;fs;
midtUk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sj;jf;fnjhU murpay; rl;lj;ij cUthf;fpj;
jUkhW fle;j %d;whz;Lfspy; ,UKiw ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fisf;
Nfl;Lf; nfhz;ljhfTk; mth;fis kPz;Lk; xUKiw Nfl;Lf;
nfhs;tjhfTk; mwptpj;jhh;. mij ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSf;f tplg;gl;l
rthyhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;ljd; tpisNtr NeU mwpf;ifahFk;. 1928 Nk 19
Mk; ehd; gk;ghapy; $ba %d;whtJ midj;Jf; fl;rp khehl;by; ,e;jpa
murpay; rl;lj;ij vOJk; nghWg;ig Nkhjpyhy; NeUtpd; jiyikapd;fPo;
mikf;fg;gl;l FOtplk; xg;gilj;jJ. ,e;j mwpf;ifNa NeU mwpf;if
(Nehru Report) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
rpwg;G mk;rq;fs; :
NeUmwpf;ifapy; fhzg;gl;l rpwg;G mk;rq;fshdtd
1. nlhkpdpad; me;j];J cldbahd Fwpf;NfhshfTk;> G+uz Rauh[;a
,Wjp ,yl;rpakhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. ,e;jpahtpd; midj;Jg; gFjpfSk; ,ize;j $l;lhl;rp murhq;f
Kiw (Federation) mikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
3. jdpahd tFg;Gthhpj; Njh;jy; njhFjp Kiw epuhfhpf;fg;gl;lJ.
mjw;Fg;gjpy; ,l xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl;l $l;lj; njhFjp Kiw
(Joint Electorate) ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;lJ.
4. rpe;J jdp khepykhf cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tlNkw;F vy;iy
khfhzk;> gpw khepyq;fSf;Fr; rkkhff; fUjg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

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132
5. gj;njhd;gJ mbg;gil chpikfs; (Fundamental Rights)
mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
6. kj;jpa rl;lkd;wk; ,U mitfis (Bicameral) nfhz;ljhapUf;f
Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJjhd; kf;fSf;Fk; khepyfl;Fk; Nghjpa mstpy;
gpujpepj;Jtk; fpilf;Fk;.
7. gphpl;b\; murh; itrpuha;> gpujk ke;jphp kw;Wk; MW mikr;rh;fs;
%ykhf jdJ mjpfhuq;fisr; nrYj;Jthh;. mth;fs; midtUk;
murpay;> rl;lk; kw;Wk; ghuhSkd;w rl;lq;fSf;F fl;Lg;ghl;Nl
nray;gl Ntz;Lk;.
8. ,e;jpa cr;r ePjpkd;wNk (Supreme Court) ,Wjp Nky; KiwaPl;L
kd;wkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
9. kd;dh; khepyq;fs; midj;Jk; ghuhSkd;w mjpfhu
vy;iyf;Fl;gl;Nl ,aq;f Ntz;Lk;. xU kd;dh; khepyj;Jf;Fk;
ghuhSkd;w KbTf;FkpilNa rpf;fy; Vw;ghLkhapd; mij cr;r
ePjpkd;wNk jPh;j;J itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
10. ,e;jpahtpd; ghJfhg;ig xU ghJfhg;Gf; FO (Defence Committee)
ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.

1) NeU mwpf;ifapd; rpwg;G mk;rq;fs; ahit?


[pd;dhtpd; 14 mk;rj; jpl;lq;fs;
NeU mwpf;ifg;gw;wp K];yPk;fSf;fpilNa cs;s fUj;J
NtWghLfisj; jPh;f;Fk; nghUl;L [pd;dh xU K];yPk; midj;Jf;
fl;rpfs; khehl;il nly;ypapy; $l;bdhh; (1928 br.31) K];yPk;fspd; gy
gphptpdhpd; fUj;Jf;fis mwpe;J mjd; mbg;gilapy; xU jpl;lj;ij
tFj;Jf; nfhLf;fkhW mk;khehl;by; [pd;dh Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhh;.
mjd;gb cUthdJjhd; [pd;dhtpd; 14 mk;rj; jpl;lkhFk;. mj;jpl;lj;jpy;
fhzg;gl;l 14 mk;rq;fshtd.
1. ,e;jpahTf;F $llhl;rp Ntz;Lk;: vQ;rpa mjpfhuq;fs;
khepyq;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2. khepy Rahl;rp vy;yh khepyq;fSf;Fk; xNu khjphpahf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. vt;tpj NtWghLk; 4lhJ.
3. xt;nthU khepyj;jpYk; rpWghd;ikapdh;! rl;lkd;wj;jpYk; cs;shl;rp
kd;wq;fspYk; Nghjpa mstpy; gpujpepj;Jtk; ngw Ntz;Lk;.
4. kj;jpar; rl;l kd;wj;jpy; %d;wpy; xU gFjp ,lq;fs;
K];yPk;fSf;f xJf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
5. vy;yh tFg;ghUf;Fk; jdpj;njhFjpfspd; mbg;gilapy; gpujpepj;Jtk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
6. vy;iyfs; gphpf;fg;gLk;nghOJ gQ;rhg;> tq;fhsk;> tlNkw;F vy;iy
khfhzk; Mfpatw;wpy; K];yPk;fspd; ngUk;ghd;ik ghjpf;fg;glhky;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
7. mbg;gil chpikfs; midj;Jr; rKjhaq;fSf;Fk; nghJthf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
8. xU kNrhjhNth my;yJ jPh;khdNkh epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lkhdhy;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l rKjha cWg;gpdh;fspd; ehd;fpy; %d;W gFjpapdhpd;
rk;kjj;ijg; ngw Ntz;Lk;.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
133
9. rpe;J> gk;gha; uh[jhdpapypUe;J gphpf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
10. rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;L tug;gLk;NghJ gYrp];jhdk;> tlNkw;F
vy;iy khfhzk; Mfpatw;Wf;fpilNa vt;tpj NtWghLk;
fhl;lf;$lhJ vy;iy khfhzk; Mfpatw;Wf;fpilNa vt;tpj
NtWghLk; fhl;lf;$lhJ.
11. muRg; gzpfs; midj;jpYk; K];yPk;fSf;Fg; Nghjpa ,lq;fs;
xJf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
12. K];yPk; gz;ghL> rkak;> fy;tp Nghd;wtw;Wf;F murhq;f
cjtpaspj;J> Nghjpa ghJfhg;G nfhLj;J mtw;iwg; Nghw;wp
tsh;f;f Ntz;Lk;.
13. kj;jpa khepy mikr;ruitfspy; Fiwe;jJ %d;wpy; xU gFjp
,lq;fshtJ K];yPk;fSf;Ff; fpilf;FkhW ghh;j;Jf;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
14. ,e;jpaf; $l;lhl;rpapd; cWg;Gf;fspd; rk;kjkpd;wp ve;j mtrpak;
rl;l khw;wj;ijAk; Nkw;nfhs;sf; $lhJ.

1) [pd;dhtpd; 14 mk;rk; jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wp tpthp?


rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk;
xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dh; rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ij (Civil
Disobedience Movement) Jtf;Ftjw;fhd #o;epiy cUthapw;W. yh$h;
fhq;fpurpy; jPh;khdpj;jgb 1930 [dthp 26Mk; ehs; ehnlq;fpYk; Rje;jpu
jpdkhff; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. mjdhy; Cf;fk;ngw;w fhe;jpjdJ 11 mk;rf;
Nfhhpf;ifia ntspapl;lhh;. murhq;fj;jpd; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;ifapy;
khw;wj;ij Ntz;ba fhe;jpapd; mf;Nfhhpf;iff;f itrpuha; ,h;tpd; gpuG
nrtpkLf;fhikahy; ,Wjptiu Nghuhl (fight to the finish) KbT nra;jhh;.
cg;Gr; rj;jpahf;fpufk;
fhq;fpu]; nraw;FO rgh;kjp Mrpukj;jpy; $baJ (1930 gpg;uthp 14-
16)n mf;$l;lj;jpy; rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ijj; jiyikNaw;W
elj;Jtjw;fhd KO mjpfhuKk; fhe;jpf;F nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fhe;jp xg;Gr;
rl;lj;ij (Salt Tax) kPwpr; rl;l kWg;G ,af;fj;ij elj;jg; Nghtjhf
mwptpj;jhh;.
jz;b ahj;jpiu
1930 khh;r; 12 Mk; ehs; 78 Njh;en ; jLf;fg;gl;l Mrpukr; rPlh;fSld;
rgh;kjpapypUe;J 385 fpNyh kPl;lh; njhiytpypUe;J jz;bf;Fg;
ghjahj;jpiuahfg; Gwg;gl;lhh; fhe;jp.
fhe;jp fle;J nrd;w fpuhkq;fspnay;yhk; mtUf;F cw;rhf
tuNtw;gspf;fg;gl;lJ. ehSf;Fehs; fhe;jpapd; gpd;dhy; nrd;w $l;lk;
ngUfpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. fpuhk mjpfhhpfs; Ntiyiatpl;L tpyfpg;
Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lglyhapdh;. 24 ehl;fs; eilg; gazj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dh;
Vg;uy; 5 Mk; ehs; fhiy fhe;jp jz;b flw;fiuia mile;jhh;. mLj;j
ehs; fhiy gpuhh;j;jidf;Fg; gpwF cg;ig ms;sp cg;Gr; rl;lj;ijkPwp
rj;jpahfpufj;ijj; Jtf;fpdhh;.

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134
tq;fhsj;jpYk;> F[uhj;jpYk; thpnfhlh ,af;fk; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ.
Nkhjpyhy; NeUTk;> [t`h;yhy; NeUTk; tPjpfspy; cg;g tpw;Wr;
rl;lj;ij kPwpdh;.
jkpo;ehl;by; rp.uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhpAk; E}W njhz;lh;fSk;
jpUr;rpapypUe;J Ntjhuz;aj;Jf;Fg; ghjahj;jpiuahfr; nrd;W ,uz;L
ehs; Kfhkpl;L cg;G thpr; rl;lj;ij kPwpdh; (1930 Vg;uy; 13-28) ,th;fs;
Ntjhuzak; Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;ifapy; b.gpufhrKk;
Nf.ehNf];tuuhTk; nkhPdh flw;fiuapy; cg;Gf; fha;r;rpdh;
rp.uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhp ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhh;.
mh;j;jhy;
cg;Gr; rj;jpahf;fufk; cg;Grg;gw;w fpsh;r;rpahfp tpLk; vd;w
vjph;ghh;j;j murhq;fk; Nghuhl;lk; jPtpukile;jijf; fz;L fytukile;jJ
mlf;FKiwapy; Nghuhl;lj;ij xLf;f Kw;gl;lJ. 1930 Nk 4Mk; ehs;
es;sputpy; fhe;jp ifJ nra;ag;gl;L GdhtpYs;s Vuthlh
rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;lhh;. fhe;jp ifJ nra;ag;gl;lij mwpe;j kf;fs;
Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jPtpukhf <Lglyhapdh;. gk;ghapy; KO mh;j;jhy;
mDrhpf;fg;gl;lJ.
1) rl;l kWg;G ,af;fj;ijg; gw;wp tpthp?
2) jkpo;ehl;by; eilngw;w rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ijg; gw;wp tpthp?

tl;lNki[ khehLfs;
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk;
epiyikapd; jPuj;ij czh;e;j itrpuha; ,h;tpd; gpuT fhe;jpAk;
gpw fhq;fpu]; nraw;FO cWg;gpdh;fSk; tpLjiy nra;ag;gLth; vd;W
mwptpj;jhh;. 1931 [Pd; 25> mt;twpg;gpd;gb fhe;jpAk; gpw fhq;fpu];
jiyth;fSk; tpLtpf;fg;gl;ldh;. fhq;fpu]; kPJ tpjpfg;gl;bUe;j jil
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l Kf;fpa tpjpshtd:
1. murpay; rl;l rPjpUj;jq;fs; gw;wp vy;iyfs; njstpfh
tiuaWf;fg;gLk;.
2. tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fhq;fpu]; fye;J nfhs;tjw;fhd Kaw;rpfs;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
3. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
4. RNjrpj; njhopw;rhiyfis Cf;Ftpf;f murhq;fk; xg;Gf;nfhz;ljhy;
tpNjrpg; nghUs; Gwf;fzpg;g iftplg;gLk;.
5. fs;Sf;fil kwpay; mikjpahf eilngWk;
6. NghyP]; mj;JkPwy; gw;wpa tprhuiz typAWj;jg;gl khl;lhJ.
7. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk;gw;wp murhq;fk; gpwg;gpj;J Mizfs; midj;jk;
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.
8. Fw;wr;rl;lj; jpUj;jk; rl;lk; iftplg;gLk;
9. murpay; tof;Ffs; thg]; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;

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135
10. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; rk;ge;khff; ifJ nra;ag;gl;Nlhh; midtUk;
tpLjiy nra;ag;gLth;.
11. mguhjj; njhif t#ypf;fg;gl khl;lhJ.
12. Mh;gg
; hl;lf;fhuh;fis jz;bg;gjw;fhf nfhz;Ltug;gl;l NghyPrhh;
tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gLth;.
13. ifg;gw;wg;gl;l efUk; nrhj;Jf;fSk; jpUg;gpaspf;fg;gLk;.
14. gpw efuhl;rp nrhj;Jf;fSk; jpUk;g toq;fg;gLk;.
15. gjtpiaj; Jwe;Njhh; kPz;Lk; Ntiyapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.
16. cg;G thpr;rl;lk; tpsf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl khl;lhJ. Mdhy;
flNyhug;gFjp kf;fs; tPl;Lj; Njitf;fhd cg;ig cw;gj;jp nra;J
nfhs;syhk;.
17. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ijj; fhq;fpu]; filgpbf;fj; jtwpdhy; nghJ
kf;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd eltbf;ifia murhq;fk;
vLf;fyhk;.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk; gu];gu ek;gpf;ifapd; kPJ nra;J
nfhs;sg;gl;l rkhjhd cld;ghlhFk;. Kjd;Kiwahf Mq;fpNya
murhq;fk; fhq;fpuirj; jd;fF rkkhf kjpj;j> mjd; gpujpepjpahd
fhe;jpAld; nra;J nfhz;l rkur cld;gbf;ifahFk;.
,e;jpa murpay; rl;l tsh;r;rp tuyhw;wpy; ,t;nthg;ge;jk; xU
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f iky; fy;yhFk;. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpisthf murhq;f
mlf;FKiw jw;fhypfkhf epd;wJ. rl;lkWg;G ,af;fk; tpyf;fpf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. fhq;fpu]; NghuhLtjw;fhd GJg;gyk; ngw;wJ. fhq;fpurpd;
Vfg;gpujpepjpahf fhe;jp ,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J
nfhz;lhh;.
fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;Jf;Fg; gutyhd tuNtw;G ,Ue;;jNghjpYk;
[t`h;yhy; NeU> Rgh]; re;jpuNgh]; Nghd;wth;fs; ,t;Tld;ghl;lhy;
,e;jpahtpd; kPJ ,q;fpyhe;Jf;fpUe;j fl;Lg;ghL vt;tifapYk;
Fiwatpy;iy vd;W Fiw $wpdh;.
fuhr;rpapy; $ba fhq;fpu]; 1931 khh;r;r fhe;jp ,h;tp xg;ge;jj;ij
mq;fPfhpj;jJ> mJkl;Lky;y fhe;jpiaj; jdJ Vfg;gpujpepjpahf
,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J nfhs;s mDg;gp itj;jJ
fhq;fpu];
,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[ khehL 1931
,uz;lhtJ tl;l Nki[ khehL 1931 nrg;lk;gh; 7 ypUe;J brk;gh; 7
tiu eilngw;wJ. khehL Jtq;fp Ie;J ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF nrg; 12
fhe;jp fye;J nfhz;lhh;. nkhj;jk; 107 gpujpepjpfs; mk;khehl;by;
gq;Nfw;wdh;. gphpl;b\; gpukh; jiyikNaw;whh; ,e;jpahtpy; tUq;fhy
murpay; rl;l mikg;Gk; rpWghd;ikapdhpd; tFg;Gthhp gpujpepjpj;JtKk;
gpujhdkhf tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJ.
mk;Ngj;fhUk;> [Pd;dhTk; jdpj;njhFjpj; jpl;lj;ij Mjhpj;jdh;.
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSf;fpilNa ,Jgw;wpa fuj;Jld;ghL ,d;ikahy;
rpWthd;ikaduf;F mspf;f Ntz;ba ghJfhg;Gfs; gw;wp gphpl;b\;
murhq;Nk KbT nra;Ak; vd;W mwptpj;jhh; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kh;nlhdhy;L
mjd; tpisNt tFg;G jPh;T (Communal Award) MFk; jdJ kfj;jhd
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Kaw;rpapy; Njhy;tpfz;l fhe;jp Njhy;tpia Vw;Wf;nfhz;L
ntWq;ifNahL ,e;jpah jpUk;gpdhh;.
kPz;Lk; Nghuhl;lk;
,h;tpd; gpuGTf;Fg; gpd; itrpuhahf te;j tpypq;ld; gpuG (Lord
Willington 1931-36) fhe;jp - ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jj;ijf; iftpl;lhh;
mlf;FKiwiaf; ifahz;lhh;. If;fp khfhzj;jpy; thpnfhlhf
fpsh;r;rpapy; <Lgl;l NeU. n\h;thdp> GUN\hj;jk;jh];> jhz;ld;
Nghd;Nwhh; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;. tq;fhsj;jpy; Rgh\; re;jpuNgh];
jiyikapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l murhq;f vjph;g;G eltbf;iffs;
fLikahf mlf;fg;gl;ld. tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpy; fhd;mg;Jy;
fghh;fhd; fkp\dh; elj;jpa jh;ghhpy; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gjw;fhf
ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhh;! mij vjph;j;J Mh;gg ; hl;lk; nra;j mtuJ
njhz;lh;fs; kpUfj;jdkhfj; jh;f;fg;gl;ldh;. <tpuf;fkpd;wpr; Rlg;gl;ldh;.
,itahTk; fhe;jp yz;ldpy; tl;lNki[ khehl;by; fye;J
nfhz;bUe;jNghJ epfoe;jitahFk;.
fhe;jp ,e;jpah jpUk;gpaTld; (1931 brk;gh; 28) ,e;jpahtpy; ele;j
mj;JkPwy;fs; gw;wp mwpe;jhh;.
fhe;jp rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ij kPz;Lk; Jtf;fj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;. 1932
[dthp 3Mk; ehs; Nghuhl;lk; jpUk;gTk; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. murhq;fk; ehd;F
neUf;fbr; rl;lq;fisg; gpwg;gpj;Jg; Nghuhl;lj;ij mlf;fj; Jzpe;jJ.
Nghuhl;lk; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;l kWehNs ([d 4) fhe;jp ifJ nra;ag;gl;L
vuthlh rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;lhh;.
tFg;Gthhpj; jPh;T
,e;jpahtpy; rl;lkWg;g ,af;fk; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy;
gphpl;b\; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kf;nlhdhy;L jdJ tFg;Gthhpj; jPh;it
(Communal Award) 1932 Mf];L 17 Mk; ehs; mwptpj;jhh;. ,uz;lhtJ
tl;lNki[ khehl;by; tFg;Gthhpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; gw;wp ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fs; xUKbTf;F tuKbahikahy; gphpl;b\; gpujkh; jd;dpirahf
,j;jPh;it toq;fpdhh;. mt;tFg;Gthhpj; jPht
; pd;gb.
1. K];yPkfs;> ,e;jpahtpYs;s INuhg;gpah;> rPf;fpah;fs; MfpNahUf;Fj;
jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gLk;.
2. jdpj;njhFjpfs; ,lk;ngwhj gpw jFjpAila thf;fhsh;fs; nghJj;
njhFjpapy; thf;fspg;gh;.
3. gk;ghapy; gytif cWg;gpdh; njhFjpfs; (Plural Member
Constituencies) rpytw;wpy; kuhj;jpah;fSf;nfd VO ,lq;fs;
xJf;fg;gLk;.
4. jhoj;jg;gl;NlhUf;fhd (Depressed Classes)
jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gLk;.
5. Mq;fpNyh - ,e;jpah;fs; jq;fsJ tFg;GthhpahfNt thf;fspg;gh;.
6. th;j;jfk;> njhopy;> Njhl;lj;njhopy; Mfpatw;Wf;Fg; gpujpNafg;
gpujpepjpj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gLk;.

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gphpl;b\; gpujkh; uhk;Nr kf;nlhdhy;L toq;fpa tFg;Gj; jPh;T ,e;jpa
rKjhaq;fSf;fpilNa GFj;jg;gl;l ntWg;Gj; jPht ; hFk;.
g+dh cld;ghL
nkf;nlhdhy;bd; tFg;Gj; jPh;T ,e;jpah;fis mjph;r;rpf;Fs;shfpaJ
vuthlh rpiwapypUe;j fhe;jp jdJ capiug; gzak; itj;jhtJ
tFg;Gj; jPh;it vjph;g;gnjd;W KbT nra;jhh;.;
,e;Jf;fsplkpUe;J epue;jukhfg; gphpf;Fk; Nehf;fj;NjhL
jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;Fj; jdpj;njhFjpfs; xJf;fg;gl;ld. ,J jtph;f;fg;gl
Ntz;ba jpzpg;G vdf; fUjpa fhe;jp mjw;nfjpuhfr; rhFk;tiu
cz;zhtpuj;ij (fast Unto Death) j; Jtf;fpdhh;.
khstpahtpd; Kaw;rpfs; gpujhd ,e;Jj; jiyth;fs; G+dhtpy;
$bdh;. khstpah> rhg;&> uhN[e;jpu gpurhj;> mk;hpj;yh]; jf;fhh;>
uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhp> gph;yh> ty;ygha; gl;Nly;> rNuh[pdp ehAL> Fd;];&
mk;Ngj;fhh;> vk;.rp.uh[h Nghd;Nwhh;. tphpthf tpthjpj;j gpd;dh; xU
cld;ghLf;F te;jdh;. me;j cld;ghNl g+dh cld;ghL (Poona Pact)
vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
g+dh cld;ghl;bd; gb
1. jho;j;jg;gl;l kf;fSf;nfd jdpj;njhFjpay; ,Uf;fhJ.
2. gpw ,e;Jf;fisg; NghyNt nghJj; njhFjpfspy; thf;fspg;gh;!
3. nghJ njhFjpfspy; jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;nfd Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy;
xJf;fg;gLk;.
4. xt;nthU xJf;fg;gl;l ,lj;Jf;Fk; jho;j;jg;gl;Nlhh; ehd;F
Ntl;ghsh;fis jq;fSf;Fs;spUe;J Njh;en ; jLg;gh;.
5. jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;f mspf;fg;gLk; Ntl;ghsh; Njh;T gw;wpa njhlf;fj;
Njh;jy;fs; (Primary Election) Ie;jhz;LfSf;F ePbf;Fk;.
6. jho;j;jg;gl;NlhUf;F cs;shl;rp kd;wq;fspYk;> nghJg;gzpfspYk;
Nghjpa ,lq;fs; mspf;fg;gLk;.
%d;whtJ tl;lNki[ khehL 1992
,e;jpa jiyth;fs; tFg;Gthjr; rpf;fiyj; jPh;gg ; jpYk; gytPdg;
gl;Lg;Nghd rl;lkWg;G ,af;fj;ij elj;JtjpYk; <Lgl;bUe;jNghJ
%d;whtJ tl;lNki[ khehL $l;lg;gl;lJ. mJ 1932 etk;gh; 12 ypUe;J
brk;gh; 24 tiu eilngw;wJ. mk;khehl;bw;f 46 njhpe;njLf;fg;gl;l
gphpl;b\; murhq;f tpRthrpfs; kl;LNk gpuepjpfshf miof;fg;gl;bUe;jdh;.
fhq;fpu]; ,jpy; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy. ,uz;lhtJ tl;lNki[
khehl;by; NghJ mikf;fg;gl;l Jizf;FOf;fspd; mwpf;iffs; gw;wpNa
tpthjk; eilngw;wJ. Fwpg;ghf ghJfhg;G tpjpfs; $l;lhl;rpapy; kd;dh;
khepyq;fs; ,izf;fg;gLtjw;fhd epge;jidfs; vQ;rpAs;s
mjpfhuq;fis vt;thW gfph;ej ; spg;gJ Mfpa gpur;ridfs; tphpthf
tpthjpf;fg;gl;ld. %d;W tl;l Nki[ khehLfSk; tPz; Kaw;rpfs; vd
$w KbahJ ,e;jpaf; $l;lhl;rp $l;lhl;rpr; rl;lkd;wk; ePjpkd;wk;> kd;dh;
khepyq;fs; ,iztJ Nghd;w gy murpay; rl;lg; gpur;ridfs; gw;wpa
KbTfs; vLf;fg;gl;ld ,k;KbTfisnay;yhk; cs;slf;fpa nts;is
mwpf;if (White Paper) jahhpf;fg;gl;L 1933 khh;r; khjk; gphpl;b\;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rkh;gg
; pf;fg;gl;lJ. me;j nts;is mwpf;ifapd;
mbg;gilapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ jhd; 1935 ,e;jpa murhq;fr; rl;lkhFk;.

1) tl;l Nki[ khehLfisg; gw;wp xU fl;Liu tiuf?


2) fhe;jp ,h;tpd; xg;ge;jk; gw;wp xU Fwpg;G vOJf?

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


139
myF - V
,uz;lhtJ cyfg;NghUk; ,e;jpahTk;
1939 nrg;glk;gh; Kjy; Njjp ,l;yh; Nghyepjpd;kPJ gilnaLj;jNghJ
,uz;lhtJ cyfg;Nghh; Jtq;fpaJ. ,uz;L ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd;dh;
,q;fpyhe;J n[h;kdpapd;kPJ Nghh; njhLj;jJ. itrpuha; ypd;ypj;Nfh gpuG
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fsif; fye;jhNyhrpf;fhkNyNa ,e;jpahTk; Nghhpy;
<Lgl;Ls;sjhf xU rhh;ghf mwptpj;jhh;. fhq;fpu]; nraw;FO itrpuhapd;
xUjiyg;gl;r mwptpg;ig td;ikahff; fz;bj;J (nrg;.14) mNjhL
gphpl;ld; Nghhpy; <Lgl;ljw;fhd Nehf;fq;fisAk; njspTgLj;j
Ntz;Lnkdf; NfhhpaJ. ,y;iynadpy; ,e;jpah; gphpl;ldpd; Nghh;
Kaw;rpfSf;F xj;Jiof;f khl;lhh;fs; vd;W nraw;FO mwptpj;jJ.
nraw;FOtpd; jPh;khdj;ij th;jhtpy; $ba mfpy ,e;jpa fhq;fpu];
fkpl;b (mf;.9-10) cWjp nra;jJ.
itrpuha; gy;NtW murpay; mikg;Gfisr; Nrh;e;j 52 gpuepjpfisf;
fye;jhNyhrpj;j gpd;dh; xU nts;is mwpf;ifia (White Paper)
ntspapl;lhh; (mf;.17) mjd;gb>
1. ,e;jpah gpw nlhkpdpad;fSf;fpilNa chpa ,lj;ijg;
ngWtjw;Nfw;g gphpl;b\; NguuRf;Fs; gphpl;lDf;Fk;
,e;jpahTf;FkpilNaahd gpizg;igg; gyg;gLj;JtNj muRf;
nfhs;ifahFk;;;
2. Nghh; Kbe;j gpd;dh; ,e;jpahtpd; murpay; mikg;G Kiwia
KOikahf gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; kWghprPyid nra;Ak;;
3. cldbahf ,e;jpahTf;F mjpf msTf;F mjpfhu khw;wk;
nra;tnjd;gJ ,ayhJ;
4. midj;J murpay; mikg;Gfs; toq;Fk; MNyhridfSf;Fk;
cjtpfSf;Fk; chpa kjpg;gspf;fg;gLk;;
5. Nghh;f; fhyj;jpy; itrpuha;f;F cjtpahf ,Uf;f xU
„MNyhridf;FO” epakpf;fg;gLk;.

fhq;fpu]; gjtp tpyfy;


itrpuha; nts;is mwpf;if mwptpg;G fhq;fpuRf;Fj;
jpUg;jpaspf;ftpy;iy.
clNd fhq;fpu]; Ml;rp nra;j khepyq;fspnyy;yhk; fth;dhpd;
MNyhrfh; muR (Advisers Regime) Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mq;nfy;yhk;
fth;dhpd; mlf;FKiw Ml;rp jq;F jilapd;wp nray;glj; Jtq;fpaJ.
fhq;fpurpd; ,og;G K];ypk; yPf;Ff;F ,yhgk;! gphpl;ldpd; Nghh;
Kaw;r;rpf;F mJ KOMjuit mspf;f Kd;te;jJ. fhq;fpu];
mikr;rh;fs; gjtp tpyfpaijf; nfhz;lhlg;gLk; nghUl;L 1939 brk;gh;
22Mk; ehis „,ul;rpg;G jpd‟ (Day of Deliverance) khff;; nfhz;lhl
Ntz;Lnkd K];yPk;fisf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh; KfkJ myp [pd;dh!

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


140
‘Mf];L mwptpg;G’
1940 kj;jpapy; ,q;fpyhe;J kpfTk; ,f;fl;lhd epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ.
Nghhpy; gphpl;ld; njhlh;e;J Njhy;tpfisr; re;jpj;jthW ,Ue;jJ.
,e;jpah;fspd; Mjuitg; ngWk; nghUl;L 1940 Mf];L 8 Mk; ehs;
murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;if gw;wp mwptpj;jhh; itrpuha; ypd;ypj;Nfh. mJNt
Mf];L mwptpg;G (August offer) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ. mt;twpg;gpd;gb>
1. ,e;jpahTf;F nlhkpdpad; jFjpia toq;FtNj gphpl;b\;
murhq;fj;jpd; gpujhd Nehf;fkhFk;;
2. ,e;jpah;fNs mth;fs; murpay; mikg;G Kiwia tFj;Jf;
nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;gLth;;
3. Nghh; Kbe;j clNdNa mj;jifa murpay; mikg;G Kiwia
tFj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Nfd Vw;ghL nra;ag;gLk;;
4. Gjpa murpay; mikg;G gphpl;b\; fhkd; nty;j;jpd; gFjpiafr;
nray;gLk;;;
5. murpay; mikg;G khw;wk; nra;Ak;NghJ rpWghd;ikapdhpd;
fUj;Jf;fSf;F KOftdk; nrYj;jg;gLk;;
6. ,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfSf;F ,lkspf;Fk; tifapy; itrpuhapd;
Ml;rpf;FO tphpT gLj;jg;gLk;;
7. ,e;jpag; gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l xU „MNyhridf;FO‟
mikf;fg;gLk;;

1) Mf];L mwptpg;G vd;why; vd;d?

jdpegh; rj;jpahfpufk;
itrpuha; ypd;ypj;Nfh gpuGtpd; Mf];L mwptpg;Gk; fhq;fpu];
jiyth;fSf;F ek;gpf;ifiaj; jutpy;iy. kw;nwhU Nghuhl;lj;ijf;
Jtf;FkhW fhq;fpu]; fhe;jpiaf; nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ. Nghh;f;fhy
neUf;fbia kdjpy; nfhz;L ,af;fj;Jf;F gjpyhfj; jdpegh;
rj;jpahf;fpufj;ij (Individual Satyagraha) j; Jtf;Ftnjdj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;
fhe;jp.
1940 mf;Nlhgh; 17Mk; ehs; tpNdhghNt thh;j;jhTf;F mUNfAs;s
ngsdhh; (Paunar) fpuhkj;jpy; Nghh; vjph;g;G gpur;rhuk; nra;J
rj;jpahf;fpufj;ijj; Jtf;fpdhh;.
mLj;j jdpegh; rj;jpahf;fpufp [t`h;yhy; NeU. mth; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L
(mf;.31) ehd;fhz;Lfs; rpiw jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ.
1941Mk; Mz;L ,Wjptiu eilngw;w ,e;j rj;jpahf;fpufj;jpy;
fye;J nfhz;l 30>000 Ngh; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


141
,e;jpahpd; rk;kjk; ngwhky; ,e;jpahitg; Nghhpy; <LgLj;jpaijf;
fz;bg;gjw;fhff; fhe;jp Jtf;fpa milahsg; Nghuhl;lNk mJ.
Nghh; Kaw;rpapy; fhq;fpu]; gq;Nfw;f Kd;te;jjhy; Mq;fpNya muR
,e;jpah;fSf;F cldbahf rpy murpay; rYiffs; toq;f jPh;khdpj;jJ.
mjd; tpisNt fphpg;]; J}Jf;FO mikf;fg;gl;ljhFk;.
fphpg;rpd; J}J FOtpd; mwpf;if
rh; ];lhNghh;L fphpg;]; (Sir Stafford Cripps)
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FO 1942 khh;r; 23 Mk; Njjp ,e;jpahTf;F te;jJ
,q;fpyhe;jpypUe;J fphpg;]; nfhz;L te;j mikr;ruitapd; nfhs;if
tpsf;fq;fs; MFk;.
fphpg;]; nfhz;Lte;j gphpl;b\; mikr;ruitapy; ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;G
gw;wpa Vw;ghLfshtd.
Gjpa murpay; mikg;Gr;rl;lk; gpd;tUk; epge;jidfSf;Fl;gl;L
nray;gLj;jg;gLk;.
,ilf;fhyj;jpy; ghJfhg;Gj;Jiw gphpl;b\; murh;fj;jplNk ,Uf;Fk;.
vdNt mth;fs; nfhz;Lte;j gphpl;b\; mikr;ruitj; jpl;lj;ijAk;
epuhfhpj;jdh;. 1942 Vg;uy; 12 Mk; Mz;Lk; fphpg;]; Vkhw;wj;Jld;
,e;jpahit tPl;Lr; nrd;whh;.
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOtpd; Njhy;tp
fphpg;]; J}Jf;FO Njhy;tpailtjw;Fg; gy fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jd.
fphpg;]; jpl;lj;ij „tpiue;J %o;fp nfhz;bUf;Fk; tq;fpapd; ngahpy;
gpd;Njjpapl;L toq;fg;gl fhNrhiy‟ vd;W th;zpj;jhh; fhe;jp.
1. gphpl;b]; gpujkh; rh;r;rpy; fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOit ,e;jpahTf;F
mDg;gpajw;Ff; fhuzk; ,e;jpa murpay; gpur;ridf;Fj; jPh;T fhz
Ntz;Lnkk;gjy;y> khwhf> rh;t Njr fUj;Jf;F kjpg;gpg;gjw;fhfTk;>
Nghh;f;fhy neUf;fbiar; rkhspg;gjw;fhfTNk fphpg;ir mDg;gpdhh;.
2. fphpg;]; jdJ ntw;wpapYk; jpwikapYk; msTf;F kPwpa ek;gpf;if
itj;jpUe;jhh;. ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fis vspjpy; rk;kjpf;f
itj;Jtply hk; vd;W ek;gpdhh;.
3. fphpg;]; J}Jf;FO mDg;gg;gl;ljd; cz;ikahd Nehf;fk;
filrptiuj; njspT gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.
4. fphpg;]; Vw;ghLfs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W Kuz;gl;bUe;jd. mit fyg;g
mikr;ruitapd; nfhs;if khWghLfisg; gpujpgypj;jd.
5. ,ejpa murpay; mikg;G gw;wp khw;wq;fs; Nghh; Kbe;j gpwFjhd;
nra;ag;gLk; vd;w KbT Cf;fkspf;ff; $bajhf ,yi i ; y.
6. mnkhpf;f [dhjpgjp &];nty;l; ,e;jpahit Mjhpj;jJ xg;Gf;fhf;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lNjad;wp cz;ikahdjd;W
7. fphpg;]; ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fisj; jdpj;jdpNa re;jpj;Jg;
NgrpdhNuad;wp mth;fsidtNuhLk; nghJg; gpur;ridfis mth;
tpthjpf;ftpy;iy.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


142
8. rh;r;rpy;> Vnkhp> ypd;ypj;Nfh Mfpa %tUk; Jtf;fj;jpypUe;Nj
,e;jpa murpy; gpur;rid jPh;tjpNyh my;yJ fphpg;]; J}Jf;FO
ntw;wpailtjpNyh Mh;tk; fhl;ltpy;iy.
9. fphpg;]; te;jhh;> ghh;j;jhh;> Mdhy; Mf;fpukpf;ftpy;iy vd;W
vOjpAs;shh;. b.tp.jkq;fh; (D.V.Tahmankar).

1942y; kf;fspd; vOr;rp


mfpy ,e;jpa fhq;fpu]; fkpl;bf; $l;lk; gk;ghapy; 1942 Mf;];L 8
,uT 10 kzpf;F KbTw;WJ. kWehs; mjpfhiyapy; fhe;jpAk; gpw
fhq;fpu]; jiyth;fSk; ifJ nra;ag;l;ldh;! xU thuj;Jf;Fs; ehL
KOtJKs;s fhq;fpu]; gpuKfh;fs; midth;fisAk; murhq;fk; ifJ
nra;Jtpl;lJ.
fhq;fpurplkpUe;J epjpaidj;Jk; ifg;gw;wg;gl;lJ fhq;fpu];
ntspaPLfs; midj;Jk; epWj;jg;gl;ld. filfs;> xl;ly;fs; Mfpait
%lg;gLtJ. jilnra;ag;gl;lJ. fhq;fpu]; Jtf;fpa ,af;fj;ijg; gw;wpa
nra;jpfis ntspaplf; $lhnjd gj;jphpf;iffs; jilnra;ag;gl;ld.
jiyth;fspd; jf;f jpl;lkpd;wp Nghjpa Kd;Ndw;ghL nra;ahky;
kf;fs; jd;dpirahff; fpsh;r;rpapy; <Lglyhapdh;. fhq;fpu]; Copah;fs;
nghJf;$l;lq;fisf; $l;b murhq;fj;jpd; nraiyf; fz;bj;jhh;fs;.
tpahghhpfs; filailg;Gr; nra;jhh;fs;. njhopyhsh;fs; NtiyepWj;j;jpy;
<Lgl;ldh;. khzht;fs; fy;tpf$lq;fisg; Gwf;fzpj;jdh;. tptrhapfs;
thpnfhlh fpsh;r;rpiaj; Jtf;fpdhh;fs; gy murhq;f Copah;fs;
gjtpfisj; Jwe;jhh;fs;. Ch;tyq;fs; Mh;gg ; hl;lq;fs;. mh;j;jhy;fs;
elj;jg;gl;ld.
murhq;fk; mlf;FKiwAk; <tpuf;fkpd;wp mjpfhpj;jNghJ kf;fs;
td;Kiwr; nray;fspy; <Lglyhapdh;. ,e;jpah KOtJk; td;Kiw
fl;ltpo;j;J tplg;gl;lJ fs; ghidfs;> gPg;gha;fs; cilf;fg;gl;ld.
njd;id> gidkuq;fis ntl;b rha;j;jdh;. Giftz;bg; ghijfs;
ngah;f;fg;gl;ld. je;jp nlypNghd; fk;gpfs; ntl;lg;gl;ld. ghyq;fs;
ngah;f;fg;gl;ld. Fsq;fSk; fk;kha;fSk; cilf;fg;gl;ld. jghy;
ngl;bfSf;Fs; fe;jfk; Nghlg;gl;lJ. gphplb]; Nguurpd; rpiyfs;>
tisTfs;> epidT rpd;dq;fs; fk;kha;fSk; cilf;fg;gl;ld. fpuhk
mjpfhhpfs;> Mrphpah;fs; MfpNahh; Ntiyia tpLk;gb
eph;ge;jpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. NghyPrhh; gad;gLj;jpa thfdq;fs;
nfhSj;jg;gl;ld.
jkpoehl;bYk; td;Kiw epfo;r;rpfSf;Fg; gQ;rkpy;iy.
,uhZtj;jpdUf;Fr; rPUilj; Jzpiaj; jahhpj;Jf; nfhLj;J gf;fpq;fhk;
fh;dhbf; kpy; Ntiy epWj;jj;jhy; %lg;gl;lJ. nrd;id Nghh;l; bu];L>
nrd;id khefuhl;rp> kpd;rhu buhk;fs; nraypoe;jd. nghJf;fl;blq;fs;
jhf;fg;gl;ld. tlMw;fhL khtl;lj;jpy; Mh;gg ; hllf;fhuh;fs; njhiyNgrp
je;jpf;fk;gpfis mWj;Jtpl;ldh;. xU ruf;F uapy; tz;bia
ftpoo;j;Jtpl;ldh;.
njd;dhw;fhL khtl;lj;jpy; khzth;fs; td;Kiwr; nray;fspy;
jPtpukhf <Lgl;ldh;. NfhaKj;J}Uf;fUNf cs;s #Y}h; tpkhd epiyak;
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
143
mopf;fg;gl;lJ. Giftz;bfs; ftpo;f;fg;gl;ld. fs;Sf;filfs;
nfhSj;jg;gl;ld. njd; khtl;lq;fspy; td;Kiw tpRt&gnkLj;J.
uh[ghisak;> fhiuf;Fb NjtNfhl;il jpUthlhid g+yhq;Fwpr;rp Mfpa
,lq;fspy; ele;j Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;by; gyh; khz;ldh;.
,af;fj;jpd; tpo;rrp
1942 Mf];L Gul;rpahy; nts;isad; ntspNawtpy;iy
ntspNaw;wg;glTkpy;iy. Mdhy; mJ td;Kiwf; fpsh;r;rpahapw;W. ,uz;L
khjq;fs; eilngw;w mf;fpsh;r;rpia murhq;fk; <tpuf;fkpd;wp mlf;fp
xLf;fptpl;lJ mjd; tpo;r;rpf;fhd fhuzq;fs; ahit?
1. gk;gha; fhq;fpu]; $l;lk; Kbe;j khWehNs jiytfh; midtUk;
ifJ nra;ag;gl;L tpl;ldh;.
2. Nghuhl;lf;fhuh;fSf;f njspthd jpl;lk; vJTk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy.
jpl;lkpy;yhj fpsh;r;rp Rf;fhd; ,y;yhj glF Nghyhapw;W
3. ikaf; fl;Lg;ghL ,y;yhjjhy; xt;nthU khepyKk; mij
jd;Nghf;fpy; Nghuhl;lj;ij elj;jpaJ
4. Nghuhl;lf;fhuh;fspilNa nra;jpg; Nghf;Ftuj;J njhlh;gpy;yhJ
Nghapw;W fpuhkq;fSf;Fk; efuq;fSf;Fk; ,ufrpakhfr; nra;jpfis
mDg;g Kbatpy;iy.
5. nts;isaNd ntspNaW ,af;fk; fhq;fpu]; ,af;fkhfNt
fUjg;gl;lJ. Njrpa ,af;fkhff; fUjg;gltpy;iy. mt;tpaf;fk;
gphpl;b\; ,e;jpah> K];yPk; ,e;jpah> ghfp];jhd; jpl;lk;
Mfpatw;Wf;nfjpuhfj; Jtf;fg;g ; l;ljhfTk;> gphpl;b\; uh[plkpUe;J
,e;J uh[;aj;Jf;F mjpfhuk; khw;wg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;gNj fhq;fpurpd;
Fwpf;Nfhs; vd;Wk; fUjpa [pd;dh K];yPk;fisg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy;
fye;Jnfhs;s Ntz;lhnkdf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;.
6. murhq;f Copah;fSk; NghyPRk; ,uhZtj;jpdUk; murhq;fj;Jf;f
tpRthrkhfNt ,Ue;jdh;.
7. murhq;fk; Muk;gj;jpypUe;Nj jahh;epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ. Nghuhl;lj;ij
KisapNyNa fps;sptpl Ntz;Lnkd;w cWjpNahL midj;J
Vw;ghLfisAk; nra;jpUe;jJ. fpsh;r;rpia xLf;f eph;thf ,ae;jpuk;>
Nghyp];> ,uhZtk; midj;ijAk; KLf;fptpl;lJ.
1) 1942-y; eilngw;w kf;fspd; vOr;rpia tpthp?
2) 1942-y; eilngw;w Gul;rp Vd; tPo;r;rpaile;jJ?
Rgh]; re;jpuNgh];
Rgh\; re;jpuNgh]; 1897 [dthp 28k; ehs; xhprhtpYs;s fl;lhf;fpy;
gpwe;jhh;. ,tuJ je;ij [hdfpehj; Ngh]; gpugy tof;FiuQuhf
,Ue;jth;.
Nghuhl;lj;jpy; gq;Nfw;G
Rgh\; re;jpuNgh]; fhe;jpapd; jiyikapd; fPo; Jtf;fg;gl;l
xj;Jioahik ,af;fj;jpy; Nrh;e;jhh; (1921). fhe;jp xj;Jiopahik
,af;fj;ijj; jd;dpr;irahf tpyf;fpf; nfhz;lNghJ (1922 gpg;uthp 12)
Ngh]; mr;nraiyf; fLikahff; fz;bj;jhh;. mg;NghJ mtUf;F taJ
25!

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


144
ghh;th;L gpshf; fl;rp
fhq;fpu]; jiyth;
Rgh\; re;jpuNgh]; fhq;fpu\; Nrh\yp];L fl;rpapd; Fwpf;Nfhis
milAk; Kaw;rpy; jPtpukhf <Lgl;lhh;.
Ngh]; 1938k; Mz;L fhq;fpu]; jiytuhf xU kdjhfj;
Njh;en
; jLf;fg;gl;lhh;.
gjtp tpyfy;
%j;j fhq;fpu]; jiyth;fs; Ngh]; fhq;fpurpd; nfhs;iff;F
vjpuhfr; nray;gLfpwhh; vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;bdh;. Ngh]; fhq;fpu];
jiyikg; nghWg;gpypUe;J tpyfpf; nfhz;lhh;.
ghh;th;L gpshf; fl;rp
mtUk; mtuJ Mjuthsh;fSk; fhq;fpuRf;Fs;NsNa „ghh;th;L
gpshf; (Forward Block) vd;w fl;rpiaj; Jtf;fpdh; (1939 Nk)
fl;rpapd; tsh;r;rp
fhq;fpuirtpl;L tpyfpa Rgh\;Ngh]; ghh;th;L gpshf; fl;rpia
tsh;gg
; jpy; ftdk; nrYj;jpdhh;.
murhq;f mlf;FKiw
1941 [dthp 26k; ehs; Rgh\; Ngh]; khWNtlj;jpy; tP;l;Lf; fhtypy;
,Ue;J ntspNawp ng\hth; fhg+y;> kh];Nfh topahf n[h;kdpapd;
jiyefh; ngh;ypd; nrd;wile;jhh;. (1941 khh;r 28).
n[h;kdpapy; Ngh];
mth; “mrhj; `pe; thndhyp” (Azad Hind Radio) %yk; ehs;NjhWk;
jd; jpl;lq;fisj; njhlh;e;J ,e;jpahTf;F xypgug;gpdhh;. 1941 Nk 29k;
ehs; Ngh]; n[h;kdpapd; mjpgh; ,l;yiu re;jpj;Jg; Ngrpdhh;. Rgh\;
Ngh]; ,e;jpag; Nghh;f;ifjpfisf; nfhz;l “mrhj; `pe; ngs];” (Azad
Hind Fauz) my;yJ ,e;jpag; giladpg; gphpit (Indian Legion)
Vw;gLj;jpdhh;.
uh\;gpfhhp Ngh];
uh\;gp`hhp Ngh]; ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtk; (Indian National Army)
Njhd;Wtjw;Ff; fhuzfh;j;jhthf ,Ue;jth; ,th; Nlhf;fpNahtpy; tho;e;j
,e;jpah;fis xd;W$l;b „,e;jpa Rje;jpu fof‟j;ij (Indian Independence
League) j; Jtf;fpdhh;. ,tuJ jiyikapy; eilngw;w ,e;jpa Rje;jpu
fofj;jpd; `hq;fhq; khehl;by; Nkhfd; rpq;ifj; jsgjpahff; nfhz;L
,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtj;ij cUthfFtnjd;W jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ.
fhg;ld; Nkhfd; rpq; gphpl;b\; ,uhZtj;jpy; mjpfhhpahf ,Ue;J>
[g;ghdpahplk; ruz;ile;jth;. ,th; `hq;fhq; khehl;Lj; jPh;khdpj;jpd;gb
[g;ghd; trkpUe;j 40>000 ,e;jpag; Nghh;f; ifjpfisf; nfhz;L ,e;jpa
Njrpa ,uhZtj;ij rpq;fg;G+h;> gNuh; g+q;fhtpy; (Farrer Park) mikj;jhh;.
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rp.Mh;.ghh;Kyh
[Pd;dh eilKiwr; rhj;jpakw;w Nghf;ifg; gpd;gw;Wtjhf
uh[Nfhghyr;rhhp Fiw$wp te;jhh;. uh[hjp jdJ jpl;lj;ijf; fhejpf;F
vOjpf; fhl;bajfhTk;> mijf; fhe;jp Vw;Wf; nfhz;ljhfTk;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shh;. uh[Nkhfd; fhe;jp> ,JNt uh[h[p jpl;lk; my;yJ rp.Mh;.
#j;jpuk; (C.R.Formula) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ)
uh[h[p jpl;lj;jpd;gb
1. Nghh;f; fhyj;jpy; fhq;fpu]; ,ilf;fhy Njrpa muir mikg;gjw;f
ngUk;ghd;ikf;fTk; xj;Jiof;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. Nghh; Kbe;jTld; ,e;jpahtpd; tlNkw;F> tlfpof;fpy; K];yPk;
ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf cs;s gFjpfisg; gphpf;fTk;> mtw;wpd;
vy;iyfis tiuaWf;fTk; xU fkp\d; epakpf;fg;gLk;.
3. mf;fkp\dpd; ghpe;Jiug;gb vy;iyfs; eph;zapf;fg;gl;l gFjpfspy;
kf;fspd; rk;kjj;NjhL Njrg;gphptpidf; Nfhhpf;if gw;wp
KbntLf;fg;gLk;.
4. thf;nfLg;Gf;F Kd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l fl;rpfs; jq;fSila epiyia
vLj;Jr; nrhy;y chpik cz;L.
5. gphptpid Vw;gl;lhy; ghJfhg;G> Nghf;Ftuj;J> th;j;jfk; Nghd;wit
gw;wp muRfs; cld;ghL nra;J nfhs;syhk;.
6. gphpl;lhd; ,e;jpaUf;F mjpfhu khw;wk nra;jhy; kl;LNk Nkw;$wpa
jpl;lq;fs; eilKiwf;F tUk;.
7. ,e;j epge;jidfSf;Fg;gl;L K];yPk; yPf; ,ejpahtpd; g+uz
tpLjiyf; Nfhhpf;ifia Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.
1944 Vg;uy; khjk; [pd;dhitr; re;jpj;J mthplk; mJgw;wp
tpthjpj;jhh;. Nfl;l clNdNa [pd;dh uh[h[p jpl;lj;ij epuhfhpj;J
tpl;lhh;.
1) uh[h[papd; jpl;lj;ij tpthp?
Ntty; jpl;lk;
Njrha; ypahfj; cld;ghLk; Njhy;tpAw;wij mLj;J itrpuha;
Ntty; gpuG ,yz;ld; nrd;W ,e;jpa tptfhur; nrayUlDk; ,e;jpa
murpay; epiyg;gw;wpg; Ngr;R thh;jij elj;jpdhh;.
gphpl;b\; murpd; rhh;gpy; xU mwptpg;ig ntspapl;lhh;. mt;twptpg;Ng
Ntty; jpl;lk; (Wavel Plan) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ. mj;jpl;lj;jpd;gb.
1. xUq;fike;j murpay; fUj;Jg;gb Gjpa Ml;rpf; FOit (Executive
Council) mikf;f itrpuha; ,e;jpaf; jiyth;fSf;F miog;G
tpLg;ghh;.
2. mikaypUf;Fk; Ml;rpf; FOtpy; ,e;jpahtpd; Kf;fpa tFg;gpdh;
,lk; ngWth;.
3. mjpy; rhjp ,e;Jf;fSf;Fk; K];yPk;fSf;F rk vz;zpf;ifapy;
,lq;fs; xJf;fg;gLk;.
4. mf;FOtpy; itrpuha;> jiyik jsgjp Mfpa ,Utiuj; jtpu gpw
midj;J cWg;gpdh;fSk; ,ejpag; gpujpepjpfNsahth;.
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5. ntsp tptfhuj; Jiw ,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;fs; trk; xg;gilf;fg;gLk;.
6. ,e;j Ml;rpf;FONt ,ilf;fhy murhq;fkhf nray;gLk;.
7. itrpuha; jdJ ntl;ljpfhuj;ijg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;ba mtrpak;
Vw;gl;lhy; ,e;jpa eyidf; fUjpNa mijg; gpuNahfpg;ghh;.
8. midj;J khepyq;fspYk; fyg;g mikr;ruitfNs gjtp Vw;Fk;.
9. ,e;jpah;fs; jdpNa jq;fSf;nfd xU murpay; mikg;Gr; rl;l
kd;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;.

1) Ntty; jpl;lk; vd;why; vd;d?

rpk;yh khehL
itrpuha; Ntty; gpuG jdJ thndhyp mwptpg;gpy; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jgb
,e;jpa murpay; jiyth;fisf; nfhz;l xU khehl;il 1945 [Pd; 25
Mk; Njjp rpk;yhtpy; cs;s itrpuha; khspifapy; $l;bdhh;.
mk;khehl;bw;Ff; fhe;jp cs;spl;l 21 Kf;fpa murpay; jiyth;fs;
miof;fg;gl;bUe;jdh;. Ntty; jpl;lj;ij tpthjpg;gNj rpk;yh khehl;bd;
Nehf;fkhFk;. rpWghd;ikapdh; gpujpepj;Jtk;> Nghh; Kaw;rpf;F MjuT>
Nghh; KbAk; tiu Gjpa Ml;rpf; FO ePbj;jy; Nghd;w jpl;lq;fs; gw;wp
fUj;njhw;Wik Vw;gl;lJ. Mdhy; Gjpa Ml;rpf;FOit mikg;gJ gw;wp
mbg;gilahd fUj;J NtWghLfs; Njhd;wpd. Ntty; jpl;lj;jpd;
fhzg;gl;l „rhjp ,e;Jf;fs;‟ vd;w nrhw;nwhliuf; fhe;jp gykhf vhpj;jhh;.
mNjNghd;W fhq;fpuRf;Fk; K];yPk; yPf;Ff;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s rktpfpjk;
(Parity) ,e;Jf;fSf;Fk; K];yPk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNaahd rktpfpj MfhJ
vd;W thjpl;lhh;. mij [pd;dh Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. [pd;dh rpy
epge;jidfis tpjpj;jhh;.
1. Gjpa Ml;rpf;FOTf;F fhq;fpu]; ,e;J cWg;gpdh;fis kl;LNk
epakpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. K];yPk; cWg;gpdh;fis K];yPk; yPf; kl;LNk epakpf;Fk;
3. yPf; epakpFk; Ie;J K];yPk; cWg;gpdhfiAk; mg;gbNa
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;w cj;jputhjk;ij Kd;$l;bNa nfhLf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
Mq;fpNyNa mjpfhu th;f;fj;jpd; Raeyg;Ngh;F NttYf;F gpw cah;
mjpfhhpfspd; Mjutpd;ik [Pd;dhtpd; gpbthjk; Mfpait rpk;yh khehL
Njhy;tpAw;wjw;fhd fhuzq;fshFk;.
ml;ypapd; mwptpg;G
NeUtpd; jiyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;l ,ilf;fhy murhq;fk; K];yPk;
yPf;fpd; gpbthjg; Nghf;fhy; nray;gl Kbatpy;iy. yPf;fpd;
xj;Jiog;gpy;yhky; ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;G rl;lkd;wk; mjd; gzpiaf;
nra;a ,aytpy;iy. ,df;fythuq;fs; ehlby; mikjpapd;ikiaAk;
Fog;gj;ijAk; mjpfhpf;fr; nra;jd. itrpuha; Nttyhy; murpay; Njf;f
epiyiag; Nghf;f Kbatpy;iy. me;j Neuj;jpy; gphpl;]; gpujkh;

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ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j mwptpg;igr; nra;jhh;
(1947 gpg;. 20) mt;twptpg;gpd;gb.
1. 1948 [Pd; Kjy; Njjpf;Fs; gphpl;b]; murhq;fk; ,e;jpahTf;F
mjpfhu khw;wk; nra;JtpLk;
2. ahUf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;gJ vd;gij gphpl;b];
murhq;fk; KbT nra;Ak;.
3. Ntty;gpuGTf;F gjpy; nksd;l;Ngl;ld; gpuG (Lord Mountbatten)
,e;jpa itrpuhahf epakpf;fg;gLthh;. Gjpa itrpuha; ,e;jpah;
iff;F mjpfhuj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;ghh;. ml;ypapd; ,e;j cWjpahd
mwptpg;g ,e;jpahtpd; ey;y tuNtw;igg; ngw;wJ.

1) rpk;yh khehL Vd; eilngw;wJ?


2) ml;ypapd; mwptpg;ig gw;wp xU rpW Fwpg;G tiuf?

mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FO
1945 Mf;];L 15 Mk; Njjp [g;ghd; ruzile;jNjhL ,uz;lhtJ
cyfg;Nghh; KbTf;F te;jJ. gpd;dh; gphpl;ldpy; eilngw;w nghJj;
Njh;jypy; njhopw;fl;rp (Labour Party) ntw;wp ngw;W fpnsnkd;l; Ml;yp
(Clament Attlee) gpujkuhdhh;. Gjpa murhq;fk; 1946 Jtf;fj;jpy;
,e;jpahtpy; kj;jpa khepyr; rl;l kd;wq;fSf;fhd nghJj; Njh;jy;fs;
elj;jg;gLk; vd mwptpj;jJ.
gphpl;b\; ghuhSkd;w J}Jf;FO (British Parliamentary Delegation)
,e;jpahTf;F te;J ,e;jpa murpay; epiyikia kjpg;gL P nra;J
nrd;wJ. me;j kjpg;gl P ;bd; mbg;gilapy; mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FO
(Cabinet Mission) it ,e;jpahTf;fDg;g gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; KbT
nra;jJ.
J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lk; 1946 Nk 16
ehlhSkd;wf; FO
,q;fpyhe;jpy; Gjpjhf ml;ypapd; jiyikapy; Ml;rpf;f te;j
njhopw;fl;rp (1945 [Piy 10) fhq;fpu]; ez;gh;fsplk; mjpfhuj;ij
xg;gilg;gjpy; cWjpahf ,Ue;jJ me;j mbg;gilapy;jhd; nghJj;Njh;jy;
mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. ml;yp murhq;fk; mNj Kbtpy; ,Ue;jjhy;
mikr;ruit J}Jf;FO (Cabinet Mission) it mDg;g KbT nra;jJ.
,e;jpa tptfhuj;Jiwr; nrayh; nghjpf; yhud;]; gpuG> th;j;jf
mikr;rh; rd; ];lhNghh;L fphpg;]; flw;gil mikr;rh; V.tp mnyf;rhz;lh;
MfpNahh; mlq;fpa mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FO 1946 khh;r; 23k; Njjp
,e;jpahTf;F te;jJ. ,e;jpah;fSf;F mjpfhuj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;gijj;
Jhpjg;gLtjw;fhd jpl;lj;ijf; nfhLg;gNj ,j;J}Jf;FOtpd; Nehf;fkhFk;.
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSld; tphpthf tpthjpj;j gpd; gphptpidthjj;ij
epuhfhpj;jdh;. xd;Wgl;l ,e;jpahTf;Fs; ghfp];jhd; Nfhhpf;ifia vt;thW
eilKiwg;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ gw;wp Nahrpj;J mth;fsJ jpl;lj;ij
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ntspapl;ldh;. (1946 Nk 16). ,e;j murpay; mikg;Gj; jPh;Nt
„mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOj; jpl;lk;‟ vd;w miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
,e;jpa a+dpad;
1. gphpl;b\; ,e;jpa khepyq;fisAk;> kd;dh; khepyq;fisAk;
cs;shlf;fpaNj ,e;jpa a+dpad; MFk;. 2.kj;jpa murhq;fk; ntspAwT
tptfhuq;fs; ehl;Lg;ghJfhg;G> nra;jpj; njhlh;G Mfpa %d;W Jiwfisg;
gw;wp mjpfhuj;ij kl;LNk nfhz;bUf;Fk;. 3. kj;jpa murhq;fj;Jf;Ff;
nfhLf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fs; jtpu vQ;rpa mjpfhuq;fs; (Residuary Power)
khepyq;fSf;F toq;fg;Lk;. 4. ,e;jpa a+dpadpd; Ml;rpj;JiwAk;>
rl;lkd;wKk; gphpl;b\; ,e;jpah kw;Wk; kd;dh; khepyq;fspd;
gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;> 5. khepyq;fs; 3 njhFg;Gfshfg;
gphpf;fg;gLk;.
murpaiyg;Gr; rl;lkd;wk;
1.murpayikg;Gr; rl;l kd;wk; 389 cWg;gpdh;fisf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;
2.xt;nthU khfhzj;Jf;Fk; 10 ,yl;rk; NgUf;F xU gpujpepjp vd;w
kf;fs; vz;zpf;iff;Nfw;w tpfpjhr;rhu mbg;gilapy; ,lq;fs;
xJf;fg;gLk;. 3. xt;nthU khfhz rl;lkd;wj;Jf;Fk; xt;nthU tFg;ghUk;
,e;Jf;fs;> K];yPk;fs;> rPf;fpah; Nghd;Nwhh; jq;fSf;F xJf;fg;gl;Ls;s
,lq;fSf;fhd gpujpepjpfisj; Njh;en ; jLf;f Ntz;Lk;. 4.kj;jpa khfhzj;
Njh;jy;fs; Kbe;jgpd; murpayikg;Gr; rl;lkd;wk; nly;ypapy; xNu
mikg;ghff;Rb mjpy; jiytiuj; Njh;en ; jLf;Fk;.
,ilf;fhy murhq;fk;
Gjpa murpaiyg;Gr; rl;lk; tiuag;gLk;tiu ,ilf;fhy murhq;fk;
ehl;L eph;thfj;ijf; ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;. Aj;j mikr;rh; nghWg;G
cl;gl midj;J mjpfhuq;fSk; kf;fs; MjuT ngw;w ,e;jpaj;
jiyth;fsplk; xg;gilf;fg;gLk;.
xg;ge;jk;
mjpfhug; ghpkhw;Wj;Jf;Fg;gpd; ,e;jpahtpd; kPJ ,Ue;j gphpl;b\;
Nkyhjpf;fk; Kw;wpYk; tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sg;glhikahy; ,e;jpah
fhkd;nty;j; mikg;gpypUe;J tpyfpf;nfhs;shJ vd;W mikr;ruitj;
J}Jf;FO ek;gpf;if njhptpj;jJ.
jpl;lj;jpd; ed;ik jPikfs;
mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;Ftpd; jpl;lk;> fphpg;]; J}Jf;FOj; jpl;lj;ij
tplr; rpwe;jJ vd;gjpy; re;Njfkpy;iy. ,j;jpl;lj;jpy; Fiwfs; ,y;yhky;
,y;iy cjhuzkhf ,j;jpl;lj;ij Vw;Wff;nfhz;lhy; xl;Lnkhj;khf
Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; my;yJ mij mg;gbNa iftp Ntz;Lk; vd;W
$wg;gl;lJ. $l;lhl;rpapy; NrUtJk; NruhjJk; kd;dh; khepyqfspd;
tpUg;gj;Jf;F tplg;gl;lJ.

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kjpg;gL
P
mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lj;ij Kjypy; K];yPk; yPf;Fk;
(1946 [Pd; 6) gpd;dh; fhq;fpuRk; ([Pd; 25) Vw;Wf; nfhz;ld. vdpDk;
,j;jpl;lk; Kuz;ghLfspd; Kbr;rhff; fhl;rpaspj;jJ.

1) mikr;ruit J}Jf;FOtpd; jpl;lj;ij tpthp?

,ilf;fhy muR
Kjypy; ,ilf;fhy murhq;fj;ij mikf;f kWj;j fhq;fpu];
gpd;dh; mt;tphrhq;fj;jpy; Nrur; rk;kjpj;jJ! 1946 Mf];L 12 Mk; Njjp
,ilf;fhy murhq;fj;ij mikf;Fk;gb itrpuha; Ntty;gpuG [t`h;yhy;
NeUitf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. mt;tiog;ig NeU Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhh;.
Mdhy; [pd;dh kWj;Jtpl;lhh;.
Neub eltbf;if ehs;
,ilf;fhy murhq;fj;jpy; Nru kWj;n [pd;dh 1946 Mf];L 16 Mk;
Njjpia Neub eltbf;if ehshf (Direct Action Day) mDrhpf;f
Ntz;Lnkd;W Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. me;ehis Jf;fjpd (Black Day) khff;
fUjg;gl Ntz;Lnkd Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhh;. Mq;fpNya Ml;rpf;nfjpuhf
Neub eltbf;if vijAk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. khwhf ,e;Jf;fs; kPJ
Gdpjg;Nghh; (Jehad) nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ! fy;fj;jhtpy; gpuk;khz;lkhd
Ch;tyj;ij elj;jpaJ K];yPk; yPf;. VJkwpah ,e;J Mz;fSk;
ngz;fSk; Foe;ijfSk; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. mth;fSila nrhj;Jf;fs;
#iwahlg;gl;ld. tPLfs; nfhSj;jg;gl;ld. ngz;fs; fw;gopf;fg;gl;ldh;.
Murhq;fk; ghJfhg;Gj; juhikahy; ,e;Jf;fs; jpUg;gpj; jhf;fpdh;.
Fy;fj;jh uj;jf; fswpahapw;W.
gpfhhpypUe;J K];yPk; rpWghd;ikapdiu ,e;Jf;fs; gopf;Fk;g; gop
thq;fpdh;. ,df; fytuj;jpd; vjpnuhyp If;fpa khfhzj;jpYk gk;ghapYk;
mfkjhghj;jpYk; $l Nfl;lJ. Neub eltbf;if ehs; Nkhrkhd
,df;fytu ehshf Kbe;jJ. gpfhh; epfo;r;rfisf; fhuzk;fhl;b [pd;dh
jdJ ghfp];jhd; Nfhhpf;ifia cuf;f vOg;gpdhh;.
,ilf;fhy murhq;fk;
1946 nrg;lk;gh; 2 Mk; ehs; ,ilf;fhy murhq;fk; (Interim
Government) It`h;yhy; NeUtpd; jiyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
%d;W K];yPk;fs; cl;gl 12 Ngh; ,ilf;fh murpy; ,lk; ngw;wdh;.
K];yPk; yPf; ,ilf;fhy murpd; ,lk;ngw [pd;dh rk;kjk; njhptpj;jhh;.
,ilf;fhy mur mikf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mJ xOq;fhf nray;gl
Kbatpy;iy. ,yhf;fhf;fisg; gphpg;gjpNyNa fhq;fpuRf;Fk yPFf;Fk;
cury;fs; Njhd;wyhapd. muR K];yPk; gphpT (Muslim Block) fhq;fpu];
gphpT (Congress Block) vd ,U$Wfshfg; gphpe;J jdpj;jdpj;
jiyikapd;fPo; nray;gg
; l;lJ.
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ml;ypapd; mwptpg;G
NeUtpd; jiyikapy; mikf;fg;gl;l ,ilf;fhy murhq;fk; K];yPk;
yPf;fpd; gpbthjg; Nghf;fhy; nray;gl Kbatpy;iy. yPf;fpd;
xj;Jiog;gpy;yhky; ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;G rl;lkd;wk; mjd; gzpiaf;
nra;a ,aytpy;iy. ,df;fythuq;fs; ehlby; mikjpapd;ikiaAk;
Fog;gj;ijAk; mjpfhpf;fr; nra;jd. itrpuha; Nttyhy; murpay; Njf;f
epiyiag; Nghf;f Kbatpy;iy. me;j Neuj;jpy; gphpl;]; gpujkh;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j mwptpg;igr; nra;jhh;
(1947 gpg;. 20) mt;twptpg;gpd;gb.
1. 1948 [Pd; Kjy; Njjpf;Fs; gphpl;b]; murhq;fk; ,e;jpahTf;F
mjpfhu khw;wk; nra;JtpLk;
2. ahUf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;gJ vd;gij gphpl;b];
murhq;fk; KbT nra;Ak;.
3. Ntty;gpuGTf;F gjpy; nksd;l;Ngl;ld; gpuG (Lord Mountbatten)
,e;jpa itrpuhahf epakpf;fg;gLthh;. Gjpa itrpuha; ,e;jpah;
iff;F mjpfhuj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;ghh;. ml;ypapd; ,e;j cWjpahd
mwptpg;g ,e;jpahtpd; ey;y tuNtw;igg; ngw;wJ.
nksd;l;Ngl;ld; jpl;lk;
ml;ypapd; mwptpg;igj; njhlh;e;J nksd;l;Ngl;ld; gpuT 1947 khh;r;
22 Mk; Njjp ,e;jpahTf;F te;jhh;. itrpuhahfg; gjtpNaw;w clNdNa
mth; fhe;jp> [pd;dh> NeU> Mrhj;> gNly; kw;Wk; Kf;fpa jiyth;fis
re;jpj;Jg; Ngrpdhh;.
ghfp];jhd; Nfhhpf;ifapypUe;J rpwpJk; tpl;Lf;nfhLf;fj; jahuhapy;iy
vd;whh; [pd;dh. ehl;Lg; gphptpid Njitahd jPik vd;gij xj;Jf;
nfhz;lhh; NeU.
,e;jpaj; jiyth;fNshL Ngrpa gpd;dh; ehl;ilg; gphptpid
nra;ahky; ,e;jpa murpay; Njf;f epiyiaj; jPf;ff KbahJ vd;w
njspthd KbTf;f te;jhh; nksd;l;Ngl;ld; ml;ypapd; mwpf;ifia xl;b
xU jpl;lj;ij jahhpj;jhh;. mj;jpl;lj;ij ghh;j;j NeU rPw;wk; nfhz;lhh;.
mij mq;NfNa epuhfhpj;jhh;. mjd; gpd;dh; itrpuha; jd;Dld;
rPh;jpUj;jf; fkp\duha; (Reforms Commissioner) ,Ue;j tp.gp.Nkddpd;
JizAld; jdJ jpl;lj;ijj; jahhpj;jhh;. mJNt nksd;l;Ngl;ld; jpl;lk;
(Mountbatten Plan) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
nksl;Ngl;ld; jpl;lk; ehl;Lg; gphptpidia mbg;gilahf nfhz;lJ.
mj;jpl;lj;jpd; rpwg;Gf; $Wfshtd.
1. ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;G rl;lkd;wj;jpd; Ntiy ,ilA+wpd;wp
gFjpfSf;Fg; nghUe;jhJ.
2. Gjpjhf vOjg;gLk; murpay; rl;lk; mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj
gFjpfSf;Fg; nghUe;jhJ.
3. eilKiwapy; ,Uf;fk; murpay;p mikg;G rl;lkd;wj;ij
Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj gFjpfspd; gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;l jdpkd;wj;jpd;
%yk; mg;gFjpfspd; tpUg;gk; mwpag;gLk;.

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151
4. gQ;rhg; tq;fhs rl;l kd;wq;fs; ngUk;ghd;ik K];yPk;fisf;
nfhz;l khtl;lq;fspd; gpujpepjpfSf;Fk; gpwUf;Fnkd ,U
gFjpfshg; gphpf;fg;gLk;.
5. rpe;J rl;lkd;wk; ahh; gf;fk; ,Uf;Fk; Ntz;Lnkd;gij mJNt
jPh;khdpj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
6. tlNkw;F vy;iy khfhzj;jpy; ,g;gpur;rid kf;fs; thf;nfLg;gpd;
%yk; jPh;khdpf;fg;gLk;.
7. gYrp];jhd; kf;fSila fUj;ij mwpajw;fhd Kiwia itrpuha;
KbT nra;thh;.
8. gQ;rhg; tq;fhsk;> rpy;n`l; Mfpa gFjpfspy; Njh;jy;fs; elj;jp
murpay; mikg;G rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gLth;.
9. kd;dh; khepyq;fisg; nghWj;j tiu mikr;ruitj; J}Jf;FOj;
jpl;lj;jpy; (1946 Nk 12) fz;Ls;s tpjpfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLk;.
10. ,e;jpahit ,uz;lhfg; gphptpid nra;tjhy; Vw;glf;$ba eph;thf
tpisTfis rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhhpfSld; tpthjpj;Jj; jPh;j;jf;
nfhs;syhk;.
,e;jpa tpLjiy
,e;jpag; gphptpid gw;wp KbthdJk; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; Jhpjkhfr;
nray;gl;lJ. gphptpidj; jpl;lj;Jf;F tbtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
tpLjiy kNrhjh (Indian Independence Bill) jahhpf;fg;gl;L> gphpl;b\;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L ([Piy 4) ,e;jpa tpLjiy
rl;lkhf (Indian Independence Act) epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. ([Piy 18)
mr;rl;lj;jpd;gb ,e;jpah> ghfp];jhd; Mfpa ,U nlhkpdpad;fs; 1947
Mf];L 15 Mk; ehspypUe;J Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld. Mf];L 14-15 es;sputpy;
gphpl;b\; Ml;rp ,e;jpahtpy; KbTf;F te;jJ. GJ nly;ypapy; $ba
,e;jpa mikg;g rl;lkd;wj;jpy; jiyth;fspd; $l;lk; epuk;gp tope;jJ
rghehafh; jiyf;F NkypUe;j fbfhuk; gd;dpnuz;L Kiw mbj;J
xa;ej ; J es;sputpd; eprg;j;Jf;fpilNa NeUtpd; Fuy; xypj;jJ.
,e;jpahtpd;; filrp itrpuhAk;> Kjy; fth;dh; n[duYkhd nksd;l;
Ngl;ld; gpuG „,e;jpah tpLjiy milfpwJ‟ vd;W murpay; mikg;G
rl;lkd;wk; nra;j gpufldj;jpy; ifnahg;gkpl;lhh;. mtNu „a+dpad; [hf;
nfhb gwe;J te;j nfhbkuj;jpy; mNrhfr; rf;fuk; nghwpj;j Rje;jpu
,e;jpa %th;z Njrpaf; nfhbia Vw;wpg; gwf;ftl;lhh;. murpay; mikg;Gr;
rl;lkd;wk; Rje;jpu ,e;jpahtpd; ghuSkd;wkhapw;W. me;j es;sputpYk;
ghuhSkd;wf; fl;blj;Jf;F ntspNa kf;fs; nts;sk;Nghy; $bapUe;jdh;.
,uhZt mzptFg;GfSf;fpilNa Kjy; ghujg; gpujkh; [t`h;yhy;
NeUTk; mtUila rf mikr;rh;fSk; kf;fspd; kfpo;r;rp
Muthuj;Jf;fpilNa mzptFj;Jr; nrd;wJ fz;nfhs;shf; fhl;rpahFk;.
,e;jpa tpLjiy
,e;jpag; gphptpid gw;wp KbthdJk; gphpl;b\; murhq;fk; Jhpjkhfr;
nray;gl;lJ. gphptpidj; jpl;lj;Jf;F tbtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa
tpLjiy kNrhjh (Indian Independence Bill) jahhpf;fg;gl;L> gphpl;b\;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L ([Piy 4) ,e;jpa tpLjiy
rl;lkhf (Indian Independence Act) epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. ([Piy 18)
mr;rl;lj;jpd;gb ,e;jpah> ghfp];jhd; Mfpa ,U nlhkpdpad;fs; 1947
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Mf];L 15 Mk; ehspypUe;J Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld. Mf];L 14-15 es;sputpy;
gphpl;b\; Ml;rp ,e;jpahtpy; KbTf;F te;jJ. GJ nly;ypapy; $ba
,e;jpa mikg;g rl;lkd;wj;jpy; jiyth;fspd; $l;lk; epuk;gp tope;jJ
rghehafh; jiyf;F NkypUe;j fbfhuk; gd;dpnuz;L Kiw mbj;J
xa;ej ; J es;sputpd; eprg;j;Jf;fpilNa NeUtpd; Fuy; xypj;jJ.
,e;jpahtpd;; filrp itrpuhAk;> Kjy; fth;dh; n[duYkhd nksd;l;
Ngl;ld; gpuG „,e;jpah tpLjiy milfpwJ‟ vd;W murpay; mikg;G
rl;lkd;wk; nra;j gpufldj;jpy; ifnahg;gkpl;lhh;. mtNu „a+dpad; [hf;
nfhb gwe;J te;j nfhbkuj;jpy; mNrhfr; rf;fuk; nghwpj;j Rje;jpu
,e;jpa %th;z Njrpaf; nfhbia Vw;wpg; gwf;ftl;lhh;. murpay; mikg;Gr;
rl;lkd;wk; Rje;jpu ,e;jpahtpd; ghuSkd;wkhapw;W. me;j es;sputpYk;
ghuhSkd;wf; fl;blj;Jf;F ntspNa kf;fs; nts;sk;Nghy; $bapUe;jdh;.
,uhZt mzptFg;GfSf;fpilNa Kjy; ghujg; gpujkh; [t`h;yhy;
NeUTk; mtUila rf mikr;rh;fSk; kf;fspd; kfpo;r;rp
Muthuj;Jf;fpilNa mzptFj;Jr; nrd;wJ fz;nfhs;shf; fhl;rpahFk;.

,e;jpa tpLjiy ngw ,Ue;j fhuzq;fs;


1. ,e;jpa Rje;jug; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; NtfKk; jhf;fKk; ,e;jpahtpy;
Mq;fpNyauJ Ml;rpia KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jJ. njd;dpe;jpaf;
fpsh;r;rp (1800-1801)> NtY}h;f; fpsh;r;rn(1806) fk;gdp Ml;rpf;nfjpuhd
cl;Gwf; fpsh;r;rpfs; (1806-1857) Mfpait me;epa
Mjpf;fj;Jf;nfjpuhfj; Jtf;fg;gl;l Muk;g vjph;g;GfshFk;. 1857
ngUk; Gul;rp fk;ngdp Ml;rpf;f ,Wjp vr;rhpf;ifahf mike;jJ.
2. gphpl;ld; jdJ ,uhZt typikahy; ,e;jpahit mlf;fp Mz;L
te;jJ. Mdhy; ,uz;lhtJ cyfg;Nghhpd; NghJ mjd; ,uhZt
typikkhia mfd;wJ.
3. nly;yp nrq;Nfhlilapy; eilngw;w Nejh[papd; ,e;jpa
Njrpag;lgil jsgjpfs; gw;wpa tof;f ,e;jpa kf;fspilNa
mrhjhuzkhd Mh;tj;ijAk; vOr;rpiaAk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ.
4. ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; gphpl;ld; nghpa nghUshjhu
neUf;fbf;Fs;shapw;W.
5. gphpl;b\; gpujkuhtjw;F Kd;gpUe;Nj ml;yp ,e;jpahtpd; ez;guhf
,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhlj; jiyth;fspd; mDjhgpahf ,Ue;J
te;jhh;.
6. rh;tNjr #o;epiyfSk; ,e;jpahTf;Fr; rhjfkhf ,Ue;jd.
cyfg;Nghhpd; NghJ ,q;fpyhe;Jld; ,ize;jpUe;j u\pah
NghUf;Fg;gpd; Vfhgj;jpak;> Kjyhspj;Jtk;> fhydp Mjpf;fk;
Mfpatw;Wf;F vjpuhfg; gpur;rhuk; nra;aj; Jtq;fpaJ.
Nfhghy fpU\;z NfhfNy
ekJ ehl;bd; Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhfg; Nghuhba Kd;Ndhbfspy;
Kf;fpakhdth; NfhghyfpU\;z NfhfNy Mthh;. 1865-y; kfhuh\;bu
khepyj;jpy; xU gpuhkzf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;. 1884-y; jd;Dila
gl;lg;gbg;ig Kbj;j gpwF jha; ehl;bd; Nritf;fhfj; jd;id
mh;gg
; zpj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;.

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1905-k; Mz;L NfhfNy fhrpapy; eilngw;w fhq;fpu]; khehl;by;
jiyikg; nghWg;Ngw;whh;. tpLjiy ,af;fj;jpy; ,tuJ fUj;Jf;fs;
kpjthjf; fUj;Jf;fshFk;.
1905-y; „,e;jpa njhz;lh; rq;fj;ijj; (Servants of India Society)
Jtf;fpdhh;. fhe;jp ,e;jpah tu NfhfNyNa %yf;fhuzk; Mthh;. fhe;jp
NfhfNyia jdJ murpay; FUthf Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhh;.
NfhfNy ,e;jpa Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; kpjthjf; fUj;Jilath;.
jd;Dila Ngr;rhw;wy; %yk; ,e;jpa ,isQh;fspilNa Nrit
czh;itAk;> Njrg;gw;iwAk; Cl;bdhh;. vdNt gyhj;fhu
eltbf;ifAk;>jPtputhjg; Nghf;ifAk; tpyf;fpdhh;.
rpwe;j Njr gf;jUk;> rpwe;j fy;tpahsUk;> ,e;jpa njhz;lh; fofj;jpd;
];jhgfUk;> Mf;fg;G+h;tkhd murpay; jiytUk;> mz;zy; fhe;jpapd;
murpay; MrhDkhd NfhfNy 1915 gpg;uthp 15k; Njjp kuzkile;jhh;.
ghyfq;fhju jpyfh;
Balagangadar Tilak, 1856-1920
“,e;jpa Njrpa vor;rpapd; je;ij” vd;W Nghw;wg;gLk; Nyhfkhdpa
ghyfq;fhjhu jpyfh; ehl;bd; Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhfg; Nghuhba
ngUe;jiyth;fSs; xUth;. kfhuh\;buh khepyj;jpYs;s uj;dfphp
khtl;lj;jpy; fpry; vd;w fpuhkj;jpy; 1856 [Piy 23-k; ehs; me;jzf;
FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;.
Mq;fpNyaiu vjph;j;Jg; Nghuhl ,e;jpah;fSf;F Mq;fpyf;
fy;tpNjit vdf; fUjpdhh;. fzpjk;>tpQ;Qhdk;> nghUshjhuk; Nghd;w
Jiwfspy; ,e;jpah;fs; ey;y Gyik ngw Ntz;Lnkd;W tpUk;gpdhh;.
vdNt jdJ ez;gh;fSld; Nrh;e;J „epA ,q;fpyp]; ];$y;‟ vd;w Mq;fpyg;
gs;spia 1880-y; Gdhtpy; njhlq;fpdhh;.
ehL KOtjpYKs;s kf;fSf;F jkJ jha;ehlhd ,e;jpahtpd; kPJ
gw;W tu Ntz;Lk; vd;W jpyfh; tpUk;gpdhh;. vdNt kf;fs; gbg;gjw;F
kuhl;ba nkhopapy; “Nfrhp” vd;w gj;jphpf;;ifiaAk;> Mq;fpyj;jpy;
„kuhl;lh‟ vd;w gj;jphpf;ifAk; 1881-y; Muk;gpj;jhh;. ,itfspd; thapyhf
kf;fSf;F vOr;rpA+l;b te;jhh;.
jpyfh; itjPfj;jpy; jPtpukhd ek;gpf;ifAilath;. ghuj;jpd;
gz;ghl;ilg; Nghw;wpg; ghJf;fhf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w Mh;tk; nfhz;lth;.
mjw;fhf mth; NgrpAk;>vOjpAk;> ghLgl;Lk; te;jhh;. Jh;fh G+[h> uhk;
yPyh>fzgjp tpoh> rpth[p tpoh Nghd;w tpohf;fis elj;jpdhh;.
kfhuh\;buh khepyj;jpy; tpehafh; rJh;;j;jpia mtuth; tPLfspy;
nfhz;lhLthh;;fs;. jpyfh; mijg; gyUk; xw;WikAld; $b mtuth;
njUf;fspy; nfhz;lhl Vw;ghL nra;jhh;. rpth[p rpwe;j tPuh;. Nguurh;
xsuq;frPg;igNa vjph;j;J ntw;wp fz;lth;.
Mq;fpy Ml;rpapd; vz;zq;fs;. nray;ghLfs; kPJ jpyfUf;F
ek;gpf;if fpilahJ. „typikapd; %yk; ,e;jpahitg; gpbj;j
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.
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Mq;fpNyah;fis typikapd; %yNk ,e;jpahtpypUe;J tpul;l KbAk;‟
vd;W ek;gpdhh;.
jpyfhpd; jiyikapyhd jPtputhjpfs; ehl;L tpLjiyia>
jd;dhl;rpiaf; Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. kwpay;> RNjrp
,af;fk;>rhj;tPf kWg;G Mfpa Kiwfis Mjhpj;jdh;. ,jd; tpisthf
1907-y; ,e;jpa Njrpa fhq;fpu]; kpjthjpfs;> jPtputhjpfs; vd;W ,uz;L
gphpthfg; gphpe;J. jpyfh; ehL KOtjpYk; Rw;Wg;gazk; Nkw;nfhz;lhh;.
„jd;dhl;rpiag; ngWtjw;fhfTk; ehl;il tpLtpg;gjw;fhfTk; vj;jifa
Nghuhl;lj; jpw;Fk;> jpahfj;jpw;Fk; kf;fs; jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;‟ vd;W
Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. „Rje;jpuk; ekJ gpw;gGhpik; mij ehk; mile;Nj
jPUNthk;.
tpLjiy jhd; nrhh;f;fk;> mbik tho;T eQ;R vd;W Koq;fpdhh;.
jpyfhpd; jPtputhj eltbf;iffisf; fz;L mQ;rpa muR 1908-y;
jpyfiuf; ifJ nra;J MW tUl rpiwj; jz;lid mspj;jJ.
gh;khtpy; khz;lNy rpiwapy; jdp miwapy; rikj;J jdpahf cz;L
mtjpg;gl;lhh;.
1916-y; jd;dhl;rp ,af;fj;ij Muk;gpj;jhh;.
mjd; gpd; jpyfh; 1920 nrg;lk;gh; 30-y; ,wf;Fk; tiu mtNu
fhq;fpurpd; jdpg;ngUk; jiytuhf tpsq;fpdhh;.
yhyh y[gjpuha;
Lala Lajpat Raj, 1865-1928
‘gQ;rhgpd; rpq;fk;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLk; yhyh y[gjpuha; uQ;rpj;
rpq;fpw;Fg; gpwF gQ;rhg; cUthf;fpa khngUk; jiyth; Mthh;. ,th; 1865-
y; gQ;rhgpYs;s Y}jpahdh khtl;lj;jpy; [f;uhd; (Jagraon) vd;Dkplj;jpy;
gpwe;;jhh;.
Njrg;gw;wpd; fhuzkhf> tf;fPy; njhopiy cjwptpl Rje;jpug;
Nghhpy; <Lgl;lhh;. mjw;fhfg; ngUk; Jd;gq;fisj; jhq;fpf; nfhz;lhh;.
jpyfiug; NghyNt y[gjpuhAk;> Mq;fpNya murhq;fj;jpd; kPJ
ek;gpf;;if ,oe;jhh;. murpayikg;Gf;Fl;gl;l Nghuhl;lq;fSk;>
tpz;zg;gq;fSk;> Ntz;LNfhs;fSk; gadw;wit vd;whh;. jPtpukhd Neub
eltbf;iffshy; khj;jpuNk Mq;fpNyaiu tpul;l KbAk; vd;whh;.
1905-y; tq;fhsg; gphptpidia vjph;j;Jg; Nghuhbdhh;.
murpaypy; y[gjpuha; „Rauh[;ak;> RNjrp ,af;fk;>Njrpaf; fy;tp>
md;dpag;nghUl;fs; Gwf;fzpg;G Mfpa nfhs;iffSf;F MjuT
njhptpj;jhh;. mnkhpf;fh> [g;ghd; Nghd;w ehLfSf;Fr; nrd;W ,e;jpah
Rje;jpuk; mila Ntz;bajd; mtrpaj;ij vLj;Jiuj;jhh;.
,q;fpyhe;jpy; ,Ue;j NghJ y[gjpuha; “Young India” , “England’s
debt to India” vd;w ,uz;L Gj;jfq;fis vOjpdhh;. 1919-y; ,e;jpah
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jpUk;gpa NghJ> [hypad; thyhghfpy; eilngw;wpUe;j gLnfhiyiaf;
Nfs;tpg;gl;L mjph;r;rpaile;jhh;.
y[gjpuhapd; ,yf;fpag; gzpfs;
y[gjpuha; jdJ fUj;Jf;fis kf;fSf;F njhptpg;g; jw;fhf
„gQ;rhgp‟> te;Nj khjuk;‟ The People’ Mfpa %d;W gj;jphpf;iffis
Muk;gpj;jhh;.
1928 mf;Nlhgh; 30-k; Njjp irkd; fkp\Df;F vjpuhf yh$hpy; xU
nghpa vjph;g;G Ch;tyj;ij elj;jpdhh;. mg;NghJ Mq;fpyg; Nghyp];
mjpfhhp rhz;lh;]; Nkw;nfhz;l jbab gpuaNahfj;jpy; y[gjpuha; gyj;j
fhakile;jhh;. 1928 brk;gh; 17-y; yhyh y[gjpuha; kuzkile;jhh;
md;dpngrd;l;
Annie Besant, 1847-1933
,sikg; gUtk;
1847-k; Mz;L mf;Nlhgh; khjk; Kjy; Njjp ,q;fpyhe;jpYs;s
yz;ld; khefuj;jpy; gpwe;jhh;. md;dpngrd;l; ,tuJ ,aw;ngah; MdpTl;
vd;gjhFk;.
1885-y; md;dpngrd;l; „Nggpad; nrhirl;bapy;‟ Nrh;e;J xU rpwe;j
Ngr;rhsuhfj; jpfo;e;jhh;. 1887-y; „vl;L kzp Neuk; Ntiy‟ vd;w
fpsh;r;rpapy; jd;id <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;lhh;.
gpshtl;];fp mk;ikahh; vOjpa „ufrpaf; Nfhl;ghL‟ vd;w Gj;jfj;ijg;
gbj;jJk; gy fhykhfj; jhd; mwpa tpUk;gpa cz;ikfs; mth; kdjpy;
gspr;nrd gpufhrpj;jd . gpshthl;;]f
; p mk;ikahiur; re;jpj;j gpd; mtuJ
rPluhdhh;. 1883-y; ,e;jpahTf;F te;j md;dpngrd;l; ,e;jpahitNa
jd;Dila ehlhff; fUjp te;jhh;. ,e;jpa rKjha Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fk;
fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;Fk; jdJ rf;jp KOtijAk; nryT nra;jhh;.
gpuk;k Qhd cyfpy; gpufhrpj;J tpsq;fpdhh;. gpuk;kQhd rq;fj;ijj;
Njhw;wtpj;j fh;dy; My;fhl; 1907-y; ,we;j gpd; mjd; jiytuhf
md;dpngrd;l; epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
1913-y; ,e;jpa murpaypy; Fjpj;jhh;. ,e;jpahtpd; murpay; epiy
cauhky; rKjhaj; JiuapYk;> fy;tpj;JiwapYk; mjpf Kd;Ndw;wk;
mila KbahJ vd;gij czh;e;jhh;. 1914-y; „fhkd; tPy;‟ vd;w tuh
,jioAk;> rpy khjq;fSf;Fg; gpwF „epA+ ,e;jpah‟ vd;w jpdrhpiaAk;
ntspapl;lhh;. ,e;jpa murpay; Rje;;jpuj;jpw;F rhjkhf jd; mhpa
fUj;jf;fisf; fl;Liufshf ntspapl;lhh;. jpyfhpd; jiyikapy;
nray;gl;l jPtputhj fhq;fpuirAk;>NfhfNy jiyikapy; nray;gl;l
kpjthj fhq;fpuirAk; xd;whf ,izj;j ngUik ,tUf;Nf cz;L. 1915>
nrg;lk;gh; 25-y; jd;dhl;rp miltjw;fhf „N`hk;&y; ,af;fj;ij‟
Muk;gpj;jhh;. “gphpl;b\; Nguurpy; ,ize;j jd;dhl;rpia rl;lg;G+h;tkhd

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topfspy; ngWtJk;> mij mila kf;fs; fUj;ij cUthf;fpj;
jpul;LtJNk” mjd; Fwpf;Nfhshf mike;jd;.

Prepared By
Dr. J. BARNABAS JACOB
Assistant Professor of History
St. John’s College, Tirunelveli – 627 002.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, Tirunelveli.


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