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THE HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE

INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH

KATERINE RAQUEL PUMA MAMANI

PAOLA PARRA CAMPO

MOQUEGUA – PERU
2019
DEDICATORY
The present work is dedicated to the
Honorable teacher Paola Parra, who
taught us with much dedication,
helping to lose the fear of speaking
another language and to my beloved
parents who were supporting me.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCCION.............................................................................................................1
DEVELOMENT ………………………………………………………………………...2
INTRODUCTION
Knowing about the history of chocolate is to understand where come from and how it was
discovered. How they eat it before and compare with now. The chocolate is a fruit very
delicious, healthy with many back grands. That was considered a present of the gods ¿why?
Because it caused an invigorating effect.
According to the history of chocolate by history.com Editors
DEVELOPMENT

WHERE CACAO IS GROWN


Chocolate is made from the fruit of cocoa trees, which are native to Central and South America.
(History.com Editors, 2017)
Chocolate is a fruit of cacao that is cultivated in a tropical belt that crosses the Equator-between
10 and 20 degrees from north to south, in the area called "Cacao belt". The tree can be very high-
up to 12 meters. It starts to produce after about 5 years, but it takes 10 years to achieve maximum
performance. Its fruit, called a pod or a bossy, can take a color that goes from brown. (Verna, 2013,
p.111)

THE ORIGINS OF CHOCOLATE


Chocolate originated a long time ago that goes back to the Mayan people who were according to
history the first to cultivate the cocoa plant in the year 400 DC. The Cocoa Plant is currently a
product of crosses and selections from 3500. (verna, 2013)
The Olmecs were the first to cultivate the cocoa plant and they passed their knowledge to the
Central American Maya who not only consumed the chocolate but they venerated it, the chocolate
did not eat it drank in celebrations and to finish deals Important. (History.com Editors, 2017)

EUROPEAN EXPLORERS DISCOVER


There are three versions as chocolate came to Spain according to history:
There are conflicting reports about when chocolate arrived in Europe, although it’s agreed it first
arrived in Spain. One story says Christopher Columbus discovered cacao beans after intercepting
a trade ship on a journey to America and brought the beans back to Spain with him in 1502.
(History.com Editors, 2017)
Another tale states Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes was introduced to chocolate by the Aztecs
of Montezuma’s court. After returning to Spain, cacao beans in tow, he supposedly kept his
chocolate knowledge a well-guarded secret. (History.com Editors, 2017)
A third story claims that friars who presented Guatemalan Mayans to Philip II of Spain in 1544
also brought cacao beans along as a gift. (History.com Editors, 2017)
No matter how chocolate got to Spain, by the late 1500s it was a much-loved indulgence by the
Spanish court, and Spain began importing chocolate in 1585. As other European countries such as
Italy and France visited parts of Central America, they also learned about cacao and brought
chocolate back to their perspective countries. (History.com Editors, 2017)
CHOCOLATE COMES TO THE AMERICAN COLONIES
Chocolate came to the American colonies from Florida on a Spanish boat in 1641. It was believed
that the first house of chocolate was American and opened in Boston in the year 1682. In 1773,
the cocoa beans were very important in the American colonies. During the war chocolate was
provided to the military as portions and sometimes given to the soldiers as payment. (verna, 2013)
Table 1: Early chronology of the chocolate drink

Font: The history and science of chocolate, Roberto Verna

CHOCOLATE AS HEALTH FOOD


Energy and nutritional content of chocolate:
The composition of the various chocolate varieties are summarized in Table 3, while the energy
and micronutrients are briefly accounted below: Pure chocolate = 2080 kilojoules (kJ) or 495
kilocalories (kcal)/100 gm Milk chocolate = 2160 kilojoules (kJ) or 515 kilocalories (kcal)/100 gm
White chocolate = 2260 kilojoules (kJ) or 540 kilocalories (kcal)/100 gm. (verna, 2013)
Flavonoids. These are antioxidants that act against aging (not present in white chocolate).
Cocoa butter. Confers exceptional nutritional properties for skin. Purifies??, soothes and
moisturizes even the driest chapped skin.
Magnesium. Stimulates the growth of skin cells. Invigorates and improves mood.
Caffeine. Stimulant and tones skin.
Theobromine. Stimulates heart muscle and nervous system. Higher concentration in dark
chocolate. This micronutrient has the greatest impact on health, but the concentration varies with
the variety of chocolate.
Table 2: Nutritional values per 100 grams of different chocolates

Font: The history and science of chocolate, Roberto VERNA

VARIETIES OF CHOCOLATE
Fondant. This is the most expensive chocolate. With the intense and persistent aroma of cocoa
and looking bright and shiny, it melts in your mouth leaving a pleasant bitter after taste. Should be
smooth to the touch - silky, never grainy. The percentage of cocoa is one of the main characteristics
determining its quality. The best ones contain at least 70% cocoa. (verna, 2013)
Gianduja. Brown in colour, this is born from the union of hazelnuts, cocoa and sugar. Sometimes,
milk, almonds or walnuts are added. Gianduja was first made in Turin in the mid-19th century.
(verna, 2013)
Milky. Contains not less than 20-25% cocoa, in addition to cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder and
lecithin. A good milk chocolate should have a shiny appearance. The scent must be intense and
persistent. It has first the smell of vanilla and milk and finally the cocoa must prevail. A good milk
chocolate is crisp, but dissolves quickly in the mouth to a slightly mushy paste. Finally, the taste
should be sweet with a slight bitter note from the cocoa. (verna, 2013)
White. This contains cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder and vanilla. It tastes sweet and nice and
can also be used to prepare other edibles like mousse, cream and desserts (Fig. 9). Besides edible
products, the chocolate can be used for other applications, such as cosmetics, due to the properties
of cocoa butter. (verna, 2013)
THE CHOCOLATE INDUSTRY
In this, the conching process deserves special mention. Conching is mixing cocoa with various
ingredients, such as milk, vanilla and extra cocoa butter for a very long time (12 to 48 hours) at a
controlled temperature to maintain the liquid texture. After this, the chocolate is kept melted in
tanks at 45 - 50°C. (verna, 2013)

Trable 3: Evolution of the chocolate industry


Font: The history and science of chocolate, Roberto VERNA
CONCLUSIONS

Chocolate is a delicious fruit of cocoa from the mayan culture, previously considered a drink of
the gods was taken from central America to Europe, used in the war for the invigorating effect it
had on soldiers with many good properties for our health, with a very interesting history and
consumed to the present time in different presentations and combinations.
VOCABULARY
Flavonoids: are polyphenolic secondary metabolites commonly with a ketone group and usually
yellow pigments where their name comes from (from Latin flavus, "yellow").
Caffeine: is an alkaloid of the group of Xanthines, solid crystalline, white and bitter-tasting, which
acts as a psychoactive, slightly dissociative and stimulating drug by its non-selective antagonistic
action of adenosine receptors.
The theobromine: known in yesteryear as Xanteosa, is a bitter-tasting alkaloid from the cocoa tree.
A cocoa bean: is the fermented and dried seed of the Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids
and cocoa butter are extracted. The grains are the basis of the chocolate, like also different
Mesoaméricanas meals like the mole sauce and the Tejar.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

History.com Editors. (2017). history of chocolate. history, 1.

verna, r. (2013). The history and science of chocolate. italy.